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Revision sheet
For 2nd prep

Complete the following


1-The most important attempts to classify elements are
Mendeleev,moseley and modern periodic table
2- Mendeleev arranged the elements ascendigly according to atomic
weight,while moseley classify the element according to atomic
number
3-The Newzeland scientist Rutherford discovered that the nucleus of
the atom contains Protons of positive charge
4- Moseley discovered after studying x- rays, the periodic properties
of elements are related to their atomic number and not to their
atomic weight
5- In moseley periodic table each element increase by one from the
perceding one in the same period
6-The modern periodic table consists of 7 horizontal periods and 18
vertical groups.
8-The danish scientist Bohr had discovered the main energy
levelwhich reach to 7 in the heaviest atom
9- In the modern periodic table, the elements arranged according to
atomic number and the way of filling energy sublevels
10- Elements of S-block are located on the Left side of the Periodic
table and they are arranged into 2 groups which are 1A and 2A
11- Elements of P-block are located on the right side of the periodic
table and they are arranged in 6 groups
12- Groups of d-block take letter Bexcept group 8which consists of
3vertical column.
13- D-block elements located on the middle of the periodic tablle and
begin to appear from period 4 and they contain transition group
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Modern school elshrouk

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14- In the modern periodic table, element of S-block are located on


the left right side, while elements of group P-block are located in the
right side and d-block in the middle of the table.
15- The number of electrons in the outer most energy level in the
Element 13X lies in period 3and group 3A in the modern periodic table
16- The new number of zero group is 18,while 5A is 15
17- The atomic number of an element located in group 1A and period
3 is 11
18- Atomic radius is used tomeasure the atomic size of an atom and
the measuring unite is picometer
19- By increasing the atomic number within a period, the atomic size
decreasebecause the attraction force between positive nucleus and
outer most electrons increases,while in the group it increases
20-The atomic size of Magnesium (Mg 12) atom is larger than that of
beryllium (Be 4) atom
21-ElectronegativityIs the ability of the atom in covalent molecule to
attract the electrons of the bond towards itself.
22-By increasing the atomic number the value of electronegativity
increase in period and decrease in the group
23- By increasing the atomic size in the group, the electronegativity
decrease and this is inverse relation ship
24- Flourine element has the highest electronegativity which equal 4
25- Cesium element has the largest atomic size
26- water and ammonia are exampels of polar covelant compounds
27- Methane and hydrogen sulphide are exampels of non polar
covelant compound
28- Elements are classified into 4 groups Metal,non metal ,metalloid
and inert gases
29- During the chemical reaction, metal atom tends to lose electrons
and changes into positive ion
30- During the chemical reaction, non metal atom tends to gain
electrons and changes into negative ion
31- By increasing the atomic number within group , the metallic
property increase, while by increasing the atomic number in group
the nonmetallic property decrease
32- Boron and silicon are exampels of metalloids
33- The strongest non metal is flourine which found in group 7A while
the strongest metal is cesium which found in group 1A
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Modern school elshrouk

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34- Active metals react with diluted hydrochloric acid giving salt of
acid and hydrogen gas evolve
35- Carbon and sulphur are examples of non metals which do not
react with diluted acids
36- Metal oxides are called basic oxides, while non metal oxides are
called acidic oxides.
37- Basic oxides dissolve in water giving alkaline solution which turn
litmus paper into blue
38- Acidic oxides dissolve in water giving acidic solution which turn
litmus paper into red
39- The elements of group 1A are called alkali metal and they are
located in S-block and their valencies is monovalent
40- The elements of group 2A are called alkaline earth metal and
they are located on the S-block and their valencies is divalent
41- The elements of group 7A are called halogens and they are
monovalent in valency as they gain one electron during chemical
reaction
42- The most active Metal in group 1A is cesium because it has the
largest atomic size
43- Lithium float on the surface of water ,while rubidium sink in water
as it has density higher than water
44- Most alkali metal has low density
45- Halogens are not exist in elementary state as they are very active
elements so they exist in the form of diatomic molecule
46- flourine and chlorine exist in gaseous state while bromine exist in
liquid state and iodine exist in solid state
47- Silion is used in eletronic device while,liquified nitrogen used in
preservation of corenea of eye as it has very low boiling point
which reaches to -196 C
48- Co60is used in food preservation as it emitts gamma rays which kill
microbial cells
49- liquid sodium is used in nuclear reactors
50- The bond between oxygen and hydrogen in water molecule is
single covelant bond while, the bond among water molecules is
hydrogen bond
51- The angle between the water molecule is 104.5
52- The high boiling point of water is due to the presence of hydrogen
bond
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Modern school elshrouk

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53- when the temperature of water decrease than 4C its density


decrease while its volume increase due to the formation of
hexagonal shape crystals with large spaces between them
54- The high latent heat of vaporization water make it able to resist
the change of from state to another so it is used in putting off fire while
the high specific heat of water make our body temperature stable
without any change
55- Water is ionized into positive hydrogen ion and negative
hydroxide ion
56- During the electrolysis of water by Hofmanns voltameter
hydrogen gas evolve at the cathode while, oxygen gas evolve at the
anode
57-The electrolysis of acidified water gives hydrogen gas at ratio of
2:1
57-Mixing animals waste and human waste with water is bilogical
pollution ,while discharging factories residues is chemical pollution
58- Increasing the concentration of lead in water causing damage for
human brain while increasing mercury causes blindness and
increase of arsenic leads to liver cancer
59- We must not store water in plastic bottles as it reacts with
chlorine causing cancer
60-2Mg + O2

61- Mgo + H2o

2Mgo
Mg(oH)2

62- Mg + 2Hcl

dil

Mgcl2 + H2

63- Cu + Hcl

dil

No reaction

64- C + O2

Co2

65- Co2 + H2o

H2co3

66- 2Na + H2o

2 NaoH + H2

67- 2K + 2H2o

2KoH + H2

68- 2K + Br2

2KBr
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69- 2Na + Cl2


70- 2NaBr + Cl2
71- Br2 + 2KI
72- Cl2 + KBr
73- 2H2o

Date:....................................

2NaCl
2 NaCl + Br2
2KBr + I2
KCl + Br2
Electrolysis

H2 + O2

74- H2o

Ionization

+ oH

:What is meant by
1- Electronegativity:Is the ability of an atom in acovelant
molecule to attract the electrons of the chemical bond towards it self
2- Chemical activity series: it is aseries of metals which
arranged in an descending order according to their chemical activity

3- Metalloids :they are elements which have the properties of


both metals and non-metals
4- Basic oxides : they are metals oxide some of them dissolve in
water giving alkaline solution
5- Acidic oxides : they are non-metal oxide that dissolve in water
giving acidic solution

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6- Amphoteric oxides : They are metal oxide which reacts with


bases as acid and react with acids as bases forming salt and water
7- Polar covelant compounds: they are covelant cmpounds in
which the difference in electonegativity between their elements is
relatively high
8- Non Polar Covelant Compounds : they are covelant
cmpounds in which the difference in electonegativity between their
elements is relatively low
9- Hydrogen bond : weak electrostatic attraction force arises
between the covelant molecules
10- Ionization : it is the process of converting the molecules of
some covelant compounds into ions
11- Water pollution : the addition of any substances to the water
which causes continous gradual changes in water properties affecting
the health of living organisms

:Give reasons for


1- Mendeleev left gaps (empty cells) in his periodic
table.
For the new elements that will be discovered in the future
2- Element of the same groups have similar
properties.
B. They have the same no. of electrons in their outermost shell
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Modern school elshrouk

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3- The atomic size decreases in periods by


increasing the atomic number.
Due to the increase in the attraction force between the positively
charged nucleus and the electrons in the outermost shell

4- The atomic size increases in group by increasing


the atomic number.
Due to the increase in the no. Of energy levels

5- Water molecule is from the polar molecules.


B. The difference in electronegativity between its elements is relatively
high
6- Methane and hydrogen sulphide are considered as
non polar covalent compounds
B. The difference in electronegativity between their elements is
relatively low
7- Cesium (Cs) is the most metallic element in group
(1A)
B. It has the largest atomic size
8- Flourine has the most non metallic property
B.it has the highest electronegativity
9- Metal oxides are known as basic oxides
B.they dissolve in water giving alkaline solution
10- Non metal oxides are known as acidic oxides
B.they dissolve in water giving acidic solution
11- Although iron oxide is from basic oxides it doesnt
form alkali
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Modern school elshrouk

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B.it doesnt dissolve in water

12- We can use dilute HCl to differentiate between


copper and Magnesium.
B.Magnesium reacts with diluted HCl giving salt of acid and hydrogen
gas evolves
Mg + 2Hcl
dil
Mgcl2 + H2
While Copper does not react with it
Cu + Hcl
dil
No reaction
13- Solution of magnesium oxide in water turns the
violet litmus solution into blue
B. magnesium oxide dissolve in water giving magnesium hydroxide
( alkaline solution ) which turn litmus solution into blue
Mgo + H2o
Mg(oH)2
14- Sodium and potassium are kept under the
surface of kerosene or paraffin oil
To prevent their reaction with moist air as they are very active metals

15- Elements of group 7A are called halogens


B. They forming salts
16- Sodium fires are not put off with water
B. Sodium reacts instantly with water and hydrogen gas evolve which
burn with pop sound
2Na + H2o
2 NaoH + H2
17- Potassium is more active than sodium
B. Potassium has larger atomic size than sodium
18- Alkali metals are monovalent elements, while
alkaline earth metals are divalent
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Modern school elshrouk

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B. During chemical reactions alkali metals tend to lose one electron


from their outer most shell, while alkaline earth metals tend to lose 2
electrons

19-Lithium floats on water surface, while cesium


sinks in water.
B. Lithium has density less than water, while cesium has density
higher than water
20- Bromine cannot replace chlorine in its salt
solutions
B. Bromine is less active than chlorine
21- Liquid sodium used in nuclear reactors
B. it is good heat conductor it transfers heat from inside the nuclear
reactor to outside the nuclear reactor
22- Silicon slides are used in making electronic device
B. it is semiconductor its conductivity of electricity depends on the
temperature
23- Liquefied nitrogen is used in preservation of cornea
of eye
B.It has very low boiling point -196 CC
24- Cobalt 60 is used in preservation of food.
B. it emits gamma rays that kill the microbial cells
25- The high boiling point of water
Due to the presence of hydrogen bond
26- Although water freezes at polar zones, the aquatic
creature can live
B. on freezing the density of water decrease and the volume increase
due to the formation of hexagonal shape crystals with large spaces
between them
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Modern school elshrouk

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27- Water is used in putting off fire


B. water has high latent heat of vaporization
29- The temperature of the human body doesnt change
by changing atmospheric temperature
B.water has high specific heat
30-- Dissolving of sugar in water although it is from
covalent Compound
B. they form hydrogen bond with water
31- Oil cannot dissolve in water
B. it cannot form hydrogen bond with water
32- Pure water has neutral effect on litmus paper.
B. it contains positive hydrogen ion( H+) which has (acidic effect)
equal to hydroxide ion (OH ) which has (alkaline effect)
33- Adding few drops of dilute sulphuric acid to water
during its electrolysis by Hofmann's voltameter
B. Pure water is bad electric conductors
34- We should not put water in a plastic bottle
B.chlorine reacts with plastic causing cancer

Write the scientific term:

1- The first real periodic table for classifying elements.


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Modern school elshrouk

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(Mendeleev
Periodic table)
2- The partition of periodic table that contains elements having similar
proportion in vertical column.
(Group)
3- The table in which elements are arranged according to their atomic
number.
(Moseley periodic
table)
5- Elements of d-block in the modern periodic table.
(Transitional
elements)
6- Elements of group zero in the modern periodic
(Nobel
gases )
8- The measuring unit of atomic radius which is used as a measure for
the atomic size.
(Picometer)
10- An atom of metallic element which loses one electron or more
during the chemical reaction.
(Positive
ion)
11- The inert gas which has the same electronic structure of sodium
ion (Na+).
(Neon)
12- Oxides which dissolve in water producing alkaline
solution
(Basic
oxides)
13- Oxides which dissolve in water giving acidic solution
(acidic oxides)
14- The most active metal in the periodic table. (Cesium)
15-The Element which has the highest electronegativity ( Flourine)

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Modern school elshrouk

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16- Monovalent elements exist in p-block in the periodic table.


( Halogens)
17- The halogen which exists in a solid state. (Iodine)
18- The halogen which exists in a liquid state. (Bromine)
19- The kind of rays which are emitted from cobalt (60).
(Gamma)
20- The metalloid which is used in the manufacture of electronic
devices.
(Silicon)
21- It is a series in which metals are arranged in a descending order
according to their chemical activity.
(Chemical activity
series)
22- They are non metallic oxides which dissolve in water forming
acidic solutions.
(Acidic oxides)
23- It is a weak electrostatic attraction force that arises between the
molecules of polar compounds.
(Hydrogen bond)
24- It is the process of converting the molecules of some covalent
compounds into ions.
(Ionization)
25- It is addition of any substance to the water which causes
continuous gradual change in water properties affecting the health and
the life of living creatures.
(Water pollution)
26- They are the elements which have the properties of both metals
and non metals
(Metalloids)
27- Elements which have less than 4 electrons in their outer most
shell
(Metals)
28- they are metal oxides which can react with acids as base and
react with bases as acid giving salt and water (Amphoteric
oxides)
29- The positive pole of voltmeter Hofmann's
(Anode)
30- The negative pole of voltmeter Hofmann's
(Cathode)
31-The apparatus usedf to make electrolysis of water
(Hofmann's voltmeter)

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Modern school elshrouk


Name :..................................

Science section
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What happen when

1-Adding diluted HCl to apiece of magnesium


Magnesium chloride is formed and hydrogen gas evolve
Mg + 2Hcl
dil
Mgcl2 + H2
2-Adding diluted HCl to apiece of copper
No reaction

3-Dissolving magnesium oxide in water


It will dissolve in water giving magnesium hydroxide (alkaline
solution )
Mgo + H2o
Mg(oH)2
4-Adding violet litmus solution to magnesium oxide
The solution will turn into blue
5- Dissolving A burning coal in water then adding violet
litmus solution
It will turn into red due to the formation of carbonic acid
Co2 + H2o
H2co3
6- Putting acidified water in voltammeter Hofmann's
Electrolysis of water will occur where:
1-the oxygen will go to anode (positive pole) and
2-the hydrogen will go to cathode (negative pole)

Locate the position 13of


the following elements

Modern school elshrouk

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1-Na11
Period: 3
S-block

group: 1A

Block:

2-Ca20
Period: 4
S-block

group: 2A

Block:

3-Ne10
Period: 2
P-block

group: zero

Block:

Calculate the atomic no of


for
Element x which locate in period 2 group 3A -1
Atomic no 2+3 5

Element x which locate in period 3 group zero -2


Atomic no 2+8+8 18
14

Modern school elshrouk

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Element x which locate in period 4 group 2A -3


Atomic no 2+8+8+2 20
Look at the figure then answer

The name of this apparatus is Hofmann's voltmeter -1


Label the figure 1) cathode-2
Anode (2
Oxygen gas (3
Hydrogen gas (4
Acidified water (5
What happen when you brought asplint-3
Near to no. 1 and no. 2
At no.2 (anode) the oxygen gas will evolve so the burning
of the splint will increase
At no.1 (cathode) the hydrogen gas will evolve and it will
burn with pop sound
Calculate the volume of the gas evolve at no.1 if you know -4
that the volume of the gas evolve at no.2 is 20 Cm
The volume of hydrogen 2volume of oxygen
Cm 40 202

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