Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19


Management Functions & Behavior

Assignment A

How can the field of OB contribute to the effective functioning of organizations and the
well being of the individual?
OB is related to the individual behaviors in organizations, apart from group behaviors
and behaviors in organizations. An organization is as good as its working group. An
organization needs to grow continuously therefore, there is a need to keep its persons
rising through following procedures they are:
1. Continuous Learning The continuous learning in individuals works substantially in
the growth of the individuals. There are many ways of learning that helps individuals to
grow. Learning can be termed as any permanent change in behavior or behavior
potential that results from experience. There is need to promote functional behavior
among individuals for effective functioning of organizations, and discourages behavior
that is unfavorable to the organisations. There are different methods of learning and
various means through which learning can be converted into desirable behavior in the
2. Creating Right Perception: There is need to create right perception among
individuals. Perception can be termed as process through which we select, organize
and interpret inputs that are supplied to us by our sensory receptors. There are five
senses in humans (eyes through sight, ears through audition, nose through smell,
mouth or tongue through taste, and skin through touch) and these senses continuously
gathers information from the surroundings. It is the perception that gives meaning to the
various set of informations that are gathered through these senses. The study of OB
helps in creating right perception that is prime requirement for the efficiently working
with people.
3. Building Positive Attitudes and Values: The building of positive attitude and values
plays significant role in the growth of individuals. Attitude can be defined as long-lasting
evaluation that represents an individual like or dislike for an item, group, or issues.
Positive attitudes form an important element in building effective relationships. Values
are the fundamental ideas that a definite form of way of survival is individual or social
and is preferable to an opposite or adverse form of performing the work. Values are the
base of attitudes and behaviour, therefore it is important to discover values in OB.
4. Having Personality and Emotions Compatible at Work Place: Personality is persons
unique and relatively constant model of behaviour, thoughts, and feelings. There is
requirement in organisations to generate a right grouping of person and job, in order to
utilize full potential of an individual. According to the provisions of the work, qualities can
be also developed. Emotions are reactions which are the outcome of subjective
cognitive states, physiological reactions, and expressive behaviors. Cognition is the
mental behavior related to the thought, knowledge, and memory. Proper understanding
of emotions helps an individual for self-development.
5. Maintaining Stress-free Individuals and Environment: Stress is a self-motivated

condition in which an individual is to deal with an opportunity, constraint, or demand
related to what he or she needs and for which the result is supposed to be both doubtful
and significant. With rising competition and survival, and quality becoming higher and
difficult to match, stress is the administrative anxiety of modern era.
6. Keeping Individuals and Teams Motivated and providing Job Satisfaction: Motivation
can be explained as the most important indescribable source of the organization.
Motivation is an indirect in-house procedure that activates, guides, and maintains
behavior over time. Job satisfaction is a universal approach towards ones job. It also
depends on the segregation between the amount of rewards workers receive and the
amount they believe they should be given.
Organisations as well as individuals do not exist in isolation. There is constant
fluctuation of environmental impact on organisation that helps in stimulating behaviour
pattern within the organisation. It is important for organisation to muster flexibility for its
long-term existence. The boundaries of organisations are becoming more transparent
rather more fragile. Organisations are required to focus on many emerging issues so as
to integrate it well with the environmental changes. Some of these are as follows:
Continuous improvement of people and process.
Integrating human factor with grand objectives of the organisation.
More emphasis on quality of products, services, and process.
Restructuring to suit requirements of service organisations, task force teams, as well
as, in case of rightsizing and acquisition and merger.
Managing diversity.
Product innovation.
Managing creativity and innovations.
Cross-cultural management.
Managing multinationals.

How are leadership theory and styles related to employee motivation? Explain with
suitable examples.
Leadership style influence level of motivation. However, throughout a lifetime, mans
motivation is influenced by changing ambitions and/or leadership style he works under
or socializes with. Command-and-control leadership drains off ambition while worker
responsibility increases ambition.

Leadership Style versus Motivation
Leadership Style

Motivation Type

Motivation is
Based on:

Self motivated
Worker with
decision making

Team motivated

Personality Type


Leader of ideas or



Thrives on change

Goal motivated
Mixed styles

High level of



Social status

Personality type and efficiency

depends on leader's skill and/or the
work environment he's created.

Peer motivated

To be like others

Status quo

Reward motivated Materialism



Resist change

Technology is bringing a change in leadership styles. The command-and-control leadership

methods of the last century are extremely inefficient in the fast changing technology
world. Motivating environments are needed on the front-line with people who assume
responsibility and exercise leadership. To attract and keep this type of person, the work
environment must inspire and exploit employee capabilities.
Company's Distinctive Personality - This is the future... Strong company personalities attract
and repel certain types of individuals. This is a result of company's policies, practices, or
priorities. Company personality is built and maintained by combining motivation, opportunity,
and creating a desire to learn. The result, a super motivated environment.
Motivation Management - Leaders must have coaching skills, not control skills. Motivated
people have goals and seek ways to achieve them. Efficiency is the result of motivated
Continuous Learning Opportunity - Motivation is associated with the desire to learn. There
needs to be growth opportunity, without it, motivation dies.
The Self-Motivating Work Force - Employees assuming responsibility for their tasks. An
environment where workers trust management and management trust workers.
The Self-Educating Work Force - With fast changing technology, the only way to acquire new
skills that stays ahead of the competition is through self-education and team-education.
Knowledge must be acquired as it comes into the marketplace from its source. Educational

institutions offer advance technology courses only when there is a demand for it. By that time,
much of its competitive value is gone.
Narrow Knowledge Gap - Most businesses operate with a wide knowledge gap between
worker and management. All through history this has been the policy, it is job security for
leadership. Today, efficiency requires workers to assume responsibility and this requires the
narrowing of the knowledge gap. This is achieved by empowering workers.
Southwest Airlines is an excellent example of social invention that helps people discover their
true capabilities. The social environment combines humor with responsibility. Employees work
in teams without outside supervision. At job interviews, the prospective employee must show a
sense of humor along with other self-development attitudes. Only those that match the ridged
personnel profile are hired. The result is a highly motivated, efficiency work environment that
attracts customers. The facts speak for themselves. (As of 1995)
Founded in 1971 as a low-cost regional air carrier.
An early leader of worker responsibility.
The company limits emphasis on the formal organizational structure. Decision-making is by
worker/management committees. Leadership meetings are taped and shared with employees.
The company has been profitable every year since 1972, including 1991, when it was the only
major airline in the black.
Has 176 planes and one of the most modern in the industry.
Flies more passengers per employee, 2,318 versus 848 for the industry.
Has the fewest number of employees per aircraft, 79 versus131 for the industry.
Has the fewest number of customer complaints in the industry.
90% of its employees are union members. Plane turn around time at the gate is 15 to 20
minutes compared to one hour for other major carriers.
Each plane flys 10 flights per day, twice the industry average.
The company has never had a major accident.
Many of the companys employees are now millionaires.
Southwest Airlines is growing and other airlines have noticed. They are trying to implement
worker responsibility programs of their own. The choice is, move decision-making
responsibility to the front-line or go out of business. The days of command-and-control
leadership are over.

Discuss in detail the contribution of Taylor to the development of Management thought.


Management is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with
and through other people. Management functions:

Fredrick Taylor and Theory of Management

Through Taylor's view of management systems, factories are managed through scientific
methods instead of the use of the "rule of thumb" so widely used in the late nineteenth century,
when Frederick Taylor devised his system of management and published the book "Scientific
Management". The main elements of the Scientific Management as described by Taylor are;
Time studies Functional or specialized supervision Standardization of tools and implements.
Standardization of work methods separate planning function management, by use of the
exception principle. The use of slide-rules, similar time-saving devices, and instruction cards
for workmen. Task allocation and large bonus for successful performance, and the use of the
'differential rate' systems for classifying products and implements a routing system, a modern
costing system, etc. etc. Taylor called these elements merely the elements or details of the
mechanisms of management" He saw them as extensions of the four principles of
management; the scientific selection of the workman, intimate and friendly cooperation
between the management and the men, the scientific education and development of the
workman, and the development of a true science.
Taylor was against the risks managers make in attempting to make change in the way the
organization operated. He believed in the importance of management commitment and the
need for to gradually implement and educate. Taylor described that a really big problem with
change consists of the mental attitude and habits of all those involved in management, as well
as the workers. Taylor thought that there was one and only one method of work that maximized
efficiency. This one best method and implementation can only be discovered or developed
through scientific study and analysis. This involves the gradual substitution of science for 'rule
of thumb' throughout the mechanical arts." "Scientific management...
Frederic Taylor's 4 principles of management:
Develop a science for each element of an individual's work
Scientifically select, train and develop the worker
Heartily cooperate with the workers
Divide work & responsibility equally between managers & workers
Improve production efficiency through work studies, tools, economic incentives
4. Do you think when managers make decisions they follow the decision making steps as
has been conceptualized in the rational decision making model? Which steps are likely

to be overlooked or given inadequate attention? What can be the possible
consequences of overlooking any of the steps?
A.4 Rational decision-making model, as it is called in organizational behavior is a
process for making logically sound decisions.This multi-step model and aims to be logical
and follow the orderly path from problem identification through solution.
However, there are a lot of assumptions, requirements without which the rational decision
model is a failure. Therefore, they all have to be considered. The model assumes that we
have or should or can obtain adequate information, both in terms of quality, quantity and
accuracy. This applies to the situation as well as the alternative technical situations. It
further assumes that you have or should or can obtain substantive knowledge of the cause
and effect relationships relevant to the evaluation of the alternatives. In other words, it
assumes that you have a thorough knowledge of all the alternatives and the consequences
of the alternatives chosen. It further assumes that you can rank the alternatives and choose
the best of it. The following are the limitations for the Rational Decision Making Model:

It requires a great deal of time.

It requires great deal of information
It assumes rational, measurable criteria are available and agreed upon.
It assumes accurate, stable and complete knowledge of all the alternatives,
preferences, goals and consequences.
It assumes a rational, reasonable, non political world.

The rational decision making model contains a number of assumptions.

Problem clarity: The problem is clear and unambiguous.The decision maker is assumed
to have complete information regarding situation.
Known options: It is assumed the decision maker can identify all the relevant criteria
and can list all the viable alternatives. Furthermore, the decision maker is aware of all
possible consequences of each alternative.
Clear preferences: Rationality assumes that the criteria and alternatives can be ranked
and weighted to reflect their importance.
Constant preferences: It's assumed that the specific decision criteria are constant and
that the weights assigned to them are stable over time.
No time or cost constraints: The rational decision maker can obtain full information
about criteria and alternatives because it's assumed that there are no time or cost
Maximum payoff:The rational decision maker will choose the alternative that yields the
highest perceived value.

5. Participation is an excellent method for identifying differences and resolving conflicts.

Do you agree or disagree. Discuss with suitable examples.
A.5 Conflict is a positive element of all groups. Without it, people would not be challenged to
think beyond their everyday, routine boundaries. When a variety of people with different

perspectives, values, experiences, education, lifestyles and interests come together,
differences abound. That diversity can enrich the discussion, the ideas and the project goals if
the conflict and tensions that emerge are resolved and the group uses the learning to improve
its work. Conflict can be pretty much inevitable when you work with others. People have
different viewpoints and under the right set of circumstances, those differences escalate to
conflict. How you handle that conflict determines whether it works to the team's advantage or
contributes to its demise.
You can choose to ignore it, complain about it, blame someone for it, or try to deal with it
through hints and suggestions; or you can be direct, clarify what is going on, and attempt to
reach a resolution through common techniques like negotiation or compromise. It's clear that
conflict has to be dealt with, but the question is how: It has to be dealt with constructively and
with a plan, otherwise it's too easy to get pulled into the argument and create an even larger
Understanding and appreciating the various viewpoints involved in conflict are key factors in its
resolution. These are key skills for all team members to develop. The important thing is to
maintain a healthy balance of constructive difference of opinion, and avoid negative conflict
that's destructive and disruptive.
Getting to, and maintaining, that balance requires well-developed team skills, particularly the
ability to resolve conflict when it does happens, and the ability to keep it healthy and avoid
conflict in the day-to-day course of team working. Let's look at conflict resolution first, then at
preventing it.
Resolving Conflict
When a team oversteps the mark of healthy difference of opinion, resolving conflict requires
respect and patience. The human experience of conflict involves our emotions, perceptions,
and actions; we experience it on all three levels, and we need to address all three levels to
resolve it. We must replace the negative experiences with positive one.
Participation definitely allows us to see that points which we were not even thinking about, it
throws light on new angles which definitely makes us to think more then what were doing
before looking at it, with more light of knowledge defiantly heat of difference can be curb to a
large extent, there is a difference between debating and arguing the former brings light of
knowledge the later brings heat of discontent so its better to the put the points fwd and hear
from others there point of view then infer upon

Assignment B

Why does communication break down? How can communication be improved?

A.1 people tend to not listen in relationships they assume there for not communicating
because they will assume the response of their partner! Then for they don't listen. With work I
can say that I see most people to busy, worried about the next guy jumping in and getting
someone else job! There for if they dont share information they look like the winner when they
do communicate that at the right time! During a presentation if the speakers dont know what
they are talking about does not use the communication of body language it can leave the view
with a lack of interest. I read some where and i have been looking for it ever sense
communication has % of these tone, words, and body language. Im not 100% on the percents
but i do know that the body language was more then the word choice not all people know this
there for they only go with what they would use for themselves not taking into consideration
that someone else may process this information differently then them.
If youre not confident that your employees are ambassadors, examining internal
communication is the beginning of turning this around.
Be clear about the message
The first step is being clear as a board or management team about your mission and vision
and the words used to communicate these ideas.
You will also want to survey your staff to get a baseline of information about communication
flow within the organization as well as the staffs knowledge of programs, services, products
etc. This type of survey should be repeated regularlyideally, yearly.
Start examining how communication flows
Even if your not prepared/able to undertake a full communications audit, you should at least
examine the present methods of communication and assess if they are meeting your
companys needs. Communication is not limited to formal tools but includes informal ones as
well. Try to evaluate all methods including the following:

Staff memos/e-mails (who writes them, how are they distributed, when is this method
Meetings (general staff meetings, small team meetings, supervisor/employee meetings)
Newsletters (are they conveying meaningful corporate messages?)
Employee feedback mechanisms (suggestion box, access to the E.D. or CEO)
Intranet site (is information easy to find and useful to employees?)
Grapevine or office gossip (how much is this method used to convey info and how
accurate is it?)

Make communication roles explicit

Its very easy as a management team member to let internal communication slip. Often, youre
so immersed in the big picture issues and have discussed them with your board and senior
staff so frequently that it creates the illusion that everybody here knows this stuff. As well, if
communication roles are not planned and clearly defined, you may assume certain information
is getting through to general staff when it is not.

Gaps can also occur when messages are lost because they are not well-suited to the medium
used to convey them. For example, attempting to explain complex or abstract ideas in written
form is often less effective then face to face meetings.
Unless you thoughtfully and consistently examine internal communication strategy, you are
more than likely not accessing your organizations best potential ambassadors and your
companys productivity may also be suffering.

What is departmentalization? Why is it required? Discuss any one form of



Departmentalization refers to the process of grouping activities into departments.

Division of labour creates specialists who need coordination. This coordination is
facilitated by grouping specialists together in departments
As March and Simon (1958) noted when tracing a first approach to departmentalization
back to Aristotle (Politics, Book IV, Chap. 15), the problem of distributing work, authority
and responsibility throughout an organization is hardly new. In modern times, Gulick and
Urwick (1937) were the first to introduce a theory of different departmentalization
strategies, which were referred to as departmentalization by purpose and
departmentalization by process.
First [organization by major process] . by bringing together in a single office a large
amount of each kind of work (technologically measured), makes it possible in the most
effective divisions of work and specialization. Second, it makes possible also the
economies of the maximum use of labor saving machinery and mass production.. There
is danger that an organization erected on the basis of purpose will fail to make use of
the most up-to-date technical devices and specialists because ... there may not be
enough work of a given technical sort to permit efficient subdivision.
Departmentalization of a personal administration

Functional departmentalization - Grouping activities by functions performed. Activities

can be grouped according to function (work being done) to pursue economies of scale
by placing employees with shared skills and knowledge into departments for example
human resources, IT, accounting, manufacturing, logistics, marketing, and engineering.
Functional departmentalization can be used in all types of organizations.
Product departmentalization - Grouping activities by product line. Tasks can also be
grouped according to a specific product or service, thus placing all activities related to
the product or the service under one manager. Each major product area in the
corporation is under the authority of a senior manager who is specialist in, and is
responsible for, everything related to the product line. LA Gear is an example of
company that uses product departmentalization. Its structure is based on its varied
product lines which include womens footwear, childrens footwear and mens footwear.
Customer departmentalization - Grouping activities on the basis of common
customers or types of customers. Jobs may be grouped according to the type of


customer served by the organization. The assumption is that customers in each

department have a common set of problems and needs that can best be met by
specialists. The sales activities in an office supply firm can be broken down into three
departments that serve retail, wholesale and government accounts.
Geographic departmentalization - Grouping activities on the basis of territory. If an
organization's customers are geographically dispersed, it can group jobs based on
geography. For example, the organization structure of Coca-Cola has reflected the
companys operation in two broad geographic areas the North American sector and
the international sector, which includes the Pacific Rim, the European Community,
Northeast Europe, Africa and Latin America groups.
Process departmentalization - Grouping activities on the basis of product or service or
customer flow. Because each process requires different skills, process
departmentalization allows homogenous activities to be categorized. For example, the
applicants might need to go through several departments namely validation, licensing
and treasury, before receiving the drivers license.

Owing to the complexity of tasks and the competitive environment in which organisations
operate, they often use a combination of the above-mentioned methods in

What do you understand by authority and power? How are they different from each
A.3 In government, authority is often used interchangeably with the term "power".
However, their meanings differ: while "power" is defined as "the ability to influence
somebody to do something that (s)he could not have done", "authority" refers to a claim
of legitimacy, the justification and right to exercise that power. For example, whilst a
mob has the power to punish a criminal, for example by lynching, people who believe in
the rule of law consider that only a court of law to has the authority to order capital
Since the emergence of the social sciences, authority has been a subject of research in
Power is a measure of an entity's ability to control the environment around itself,
including the behavior of other entities. The term authority is often used for power,
perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but
the exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings. Often, the
study of power in a society is referred to as politics.
Power and politics are among the most important concepts in the study of organization
behavior. Both power and politics are dynamic concepts and are a function of the
interaction between different elements in organizations. Power has been defined as "the
ability to influence and control anything that is of value to others." It is the ability to
influence the behavior of other people in the organization and to get them to do what
Although the terms power, authority and influence are often used synonymously, there

is a difference between them. Power is the ability to effect a change in an individual or a
group in some way. Power may or may not be legitimate. That is, power need not
correspond with a person's organizational position. Authority, on the other hand, is
legitimate. It is the power which is sanctioned by the organization and is often the
'source' of power. Influence is a much broader concept than both power and authority.
French and Raven, social psychologists, identified five sources of power - coercive,
reward, legitimate, expert and referent. Coercive power is based on fear and is the
ability to influence another person through threats or fear of punishment. Reward power
is a positive power which refers to the ability to get things done through others on the
basis of one's power to grant rewards. Legitimate power depends on organizational
position and authority. It refers to the power conferred by a person's organizational
position. Expert power is derived from a person's expertise or specialized knowledge of
a certain subject that is perceived as important to the organization. And referent power
is based on people's identification with a certain individual and their attempt to emulate
his behavior. The person who acts as a model for reference has power over the person
Dependency is the most important concept of power. The degree of dependence of the
target determines the power exercised by the agent. Dependency is a function of
importance, scarcity and non substitutability of the resources controlled by a person.
Contingency approaches to power are also gaining importance. The contingency
approach suggests that power depends on being in the 'right place' at the right time and
the influencability of the target. The overall contingency model combines the theories of
French and Raven with those of Herbert Kelman and identifies the three main
processes of power, namely, compliance, identification and internalization.
When people lose power, they try to regain it individually, or by forming a coalition with
other less powerful people. Organizational coalitions are different from political
Organizational politics is often called 'power in action.' Politics may be legitimate (within
sanctioned organizational limits) or illegitimate (exceeding sanctioned organizational
limits) in nature. The degree of politicking engaged in depends on individual as well as
organizational factors. Individual politicking is a function of the person's power motive,
personality factors and background, and current work environment. Organizational
politicking is a function of culture, goal and role clarity and the attitude of top
Considerable importance has also been given to the ethical aspects of power and
politics. It is not always easy to develop ethical standards because of the ambiguous
and subjective nature of certain actions.

Q4. Case study: Please read the case study given below and answer questions given at the

Mr. R.K. Mishra owns a small trading company in Varanasi by the name of RKM Enterprises.
The company provided raw material to the manufacturers of silk sarees. The business
enterprise is also engaged in supply of silk sarees and other silk garments produced by local
weavers to the big stores in major cities. In addition they have substantial export orders.
The company is mainly a family based enterprise. Mr. R.K. Mishra is the Director and his son
Ritesh is looking after finance department. The son is also assisting his father in other
strategical matters. Key decisions are taken by the Director himself after occasional
discussions with Ritesh. The existing employee strength is more than 200 with 15 offices
spread across the country. During the last one decade of its existence, the business has
grown considerably. In fact, the turnover surpassed Rupees 100 million in the year 2003-04.
However, since then the business faced stiff competition from other traders. In last one year
the orders that have been received have reduced substantially.
Rohit, younger son of the Director is holding a management degree from Banaras Hindu
University. He has recently left a job with an MNC located in Mumbai and joined his fathers
business to help in solving the problems. After joining, Rohit made several changes in the
organization. A major restructuring drive was carried out. The authority to take several major
decisions was transmitted to lower levels. Organization structure was also made flatter.
Instructions were given to all managers to consult their subordinates before taking any
decisions. He was determined to see that the company was professionally managed.
The management of RKM Enterprises is not professional and is family based. Analyze
and comment.
It is true that the management of RKM Enterprises is not professional and is family
based. On all the major post in the company there are family members. They are taking
the decisions without consulting anyone in the company. Mr. Mishra is the director of
the company and his son was handling finance. When company was not generating
profit they do not consult any senior manager or staff of the company instead his
younger son came into the company after leave his job and handled the family
business. So we can say that company is not professional and all the decision is taken
by family members only. Any company who wants to grow in the market and want
achieve profit have to adopt professional approach. They have to control the family
interference in the company to achieve success in the professional front.

Analyze the changes brought in by Rohit.

The changes brought by Rohit was not very professional and lacking the
experience behind those changes. Rohit is younger and does not have enough
experience to make these types of changes. His decision of consulting subordinates
and to take decision with the help of lower staff is not very professional as there is a
chance of leaking the information or conflict between management and staff.

Assignment C
(Objective Type Questions
Tick Marks () the most appropriate answer.

Which of the following was NOT a need proposed by David McClellands Theory of

The need for power

The need for esteem
The need for affiliation
The need for achievement


Managers engage in ________ to increase their power and pursue goals that favor their
individual and group interests.
Organizational politics
Political decision making
Self satisfaction


Which of the following is NOT A motivator according to Hertzberg?

Relations with others


Cognitive Dissonance theory has been given by



The purpose of feedback in communication is



To ensure that message has been understood

To carry the message back from receiver to sender
To complete the process of communication
All of the above

Self Esteem means


Love for yourself

Respect for yourself
Trust for yourself
All the above


The Hawthorne experiment was started by:



--------------is the systematic study of the ways interaction, interdependence and

influence among persons affect their behavior and thoughts


Traits, behaviors and results.

Affective, cognitive and behavioral
Individual , organizational and social
Individual , group and organizational

Which type of leaders gives complete freedom to their employees?



F.W. Taylor
Henri Fayol
Peter F. Drucker

The three levels of analysis that are studied in organizational behavior are?



MBO was first suggested by?



Social psychology
Industrial psychology

Psychoanalytic theory has been propounded by?



Kurt Lewin
Elton Mayo

Autocratic leaders
Bureaucratic leaders
Participative leaders
Laissez-faire leaders

------------refers to the ability of individuals or groups to induce or influence the beliefs

or actions of other individuals or groups?



Robert Own, Charles Babbage, Henry R. Lowne , Andrew Ure and Charles Duplin
contributed to the ___________school of management thought?


Departmentation by simple numbers

Departmentation by time
Departmentation by process or equipment
Departmentation by strategic numbers

Which managerial function gives attention to influencing and motivating employees to

improve performance and achieve corporate objectives?


Encourages decision-making
Easy to have uniform policy
Greater Control
Decreases complexity of coordination

Which type of departmentation is useful only at the lowest level of organizations?



Trait theory
ERG theory
Contingency theory
Transactional theory

Which is an advantage of decentralization?




Which of the following is not a leadership theory?





The _______ refers to the delivery by one individual to another of the right to
act, to make decisions, to requisition resources and to perform other tasks in order to
fulfill job responsibilities

Centralization of power
Delegation of authority
Centralization of authority


In the process of communication, the translation of intended meanings into words and
gestures is known as?


How the task of an organization are divided and coordinated

The informal patterns of communication
The stakeholders who have an interest in the company
The physical layout of the buildings on a site

When a manager secures the agreement of a colleague to work on a project in return

for the promise of providing the colleague with some extra remuneration, what type of
power is he or she exercising?


Congnitive dissonance

The organization chart is a way of showing?




Which of the following processes shows how an individual seeks information about a
certain issue and how he interprets that information?



The establishment of a distinct area, unit of subsystem of an organization over which a



Delegation of responsibility

Expert power
Coercive power
Referent power
Reward power

Which of the following is not one of the steps identified as part of the controlling

Setting performance standards or goals

Measuring performance
Writing the reports


Which of the following refers to changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding,
motivating and satisfying?



It is vested in people not positions

Subordinates accept it
It flows across the horizontal hierarchy
It emerges from the organizational values

Which of these refers to the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern
of behavior in response to ideas, objects or people in the environment?


The quantity of the membership, the organizational structure and position of

The quantity of leader-member relationships, task structure and position power
The style of leadership, the educational level of the membership and the
organizational structure
The power of the leadership, the member relationships and the organizational

Which of the following characteristic distinguishes authority?



Facilitation and support

Explicit and implicit coercion
Manipulation and cooptation
Participation and involvement

According to Fieldlers contingency model, leadership situations can be analyzed in

terms of three elements. What are they?



When people are resisting because of adjustment problem, the _________method for
dealing with resistance to change is commonly used


Taking corrective action

Dissonance perception
Halo effect

The tendency to place the primary responsibility for ones success or failure either within
oneself or on outside forces is referred to as



The tendency to see ones own personal traits in other people is called


Continuous improvement

Standing plans are



Capital expenditure budget

Balance sheet budget
Cash budget
Revenue budget

______ is a process whereby companies find how others do something better than they
do and then try to imitate or improve on it.


Need hierarchy

A financial budget that estimates cash flows on a daily basis or weekly basis to ensure
that the company can meet its obligations is called a


Perceptual defense
The halo effect

Which of the following theories deals with employees perception of fairness?



Emotional stability
Locus of control

Plans that are developed to achieve a set of goals that are unlikely to be
repeated in the future
Plans that are used to provide guidance for tasks performed repeatedly
within the organization
Plans that define company responses to specific situations, such as emergencies
or setbacks
Most important in the organization

Which of the following is not a perceptual distortion?


Halo effect

Nonverbal communication behaviors includes


Twitching, Scratching, rolling your eyes

Secret notes passed between fellow works
Intrapersonal dialog
Sending an email response to an irate customer


Democratic leadership is also known as--(a)



A significant part of a managers job is an organization is to use the tools and

techniques developed through OB research to increase organizational