You are on page 1of 77

Construction Planning, Equipment, and Methods

Eighth Edition PeurifoySchexnayderShapiraSchmitt

Chapter 5
Compaction and
Stabilization Equipment

1912 Case
steam roller

COMPACTION

ROLLERS

COMPACTION
The engineering properties of
most soils can be improved by
compaction.
Compaction is the
art of mechanically
densifying materials.

COMPACTION
Compaction can improved:

Load bearing capacity


Control shrinkage & swelling
Reduced permeability

COMPACTION
The three major factors
influencing soil density are:

Soil gradation

COMPACTION
The three major factors
influencing soil density are:

Moisture content

COMPACTION
The three major factors
influencing soil density are:

Compactive effort

123.5

Must
work in
the box.

COMPACTION
The amount of water present in a soil
mass affects the compaction operations
and achievable soil density.

Disking to dry the soil.

COMPACTION
The most common
methods of
reducing soil
moisture are by
using the
scarifying teeth on
a grader or by
disking.

COMPACTION
May have to add water.

ADDING WATER
Normally, it is good practice to
adjust water content to

OMC + 2%
But this depends on wind,
temperature, and soil type.

The OMC is ______?


The Maximum dry density is ______?

OMC is 15%

Maximum dry density 120

COMPACTION
Lift. A layer of soil placed
on top of soil previously
placed in an embankment.
The term can be used in
reference to material as
spread or as compacted.

COMPACTION

SOIL TYPES

SMALL GRAINED
#200 MESH SIEVE
NON-COHESIVE COHESIVE

COMPACTION
Effective roller capability
soil ranges.

COMPACTION
Densification is accomplished by:

Static weight (pressure)

Impact (sharp blow)

COMPACTION
Densification is accomplished by:

Vibration (shaking)
Kneading (manipulation)

STATIC WEIGHT

TAMPING FOOT
COMPACTOR
Static weight & Kneading
Leveling
blade

PAD CONFIGURATION
Tamping foot

Pad foot

TAMPING FOOT
COMPACTOR
Suitable for compacting all
fined-grained soils, but
generally not suitable for use
on cohesionless
granular soils.

TAMPING FOOT
COMPACTOR
Compacts the soil from the
bottom of the lift to the top.
Lift thickness is generally
limited to 8 in. compacted
depth.

TAMPING FOOT
COMPACTOR
Does not adequately compact
the upper 2 to 3 in. of a lift.
Therefore, the last lift should
be rolled with a pneumatic or
smooth-drum roller.

TAMPING FOOT
COMPACTOR
Working in tandem

SHEEPS FOOT
ROLLER

IMPACTOR

PNEUMATIC

PNEUMATIC
Front and rear
tire paths overlap.

PNEUMATIC
All-wheels oscillation.

PNEUMATIC
COMPACTOR
Pneumatic-tired (rubber-tired)
rollers are suitable for compacting
most granular soils.
They are not effective in
compacting fine-grained clays.
They compact by static-load and
kneading action.

HEAVY PNEUMATIC
COMPACTOR
Heavy pneumatic
rollers are capable of
compacting soils to
depths up to 18 in.

HEAVY PNEUMATIC
50 Ton proof roller

VIBRATORY SOIL
COMPACTOR

Single smooth drum

SINGLE SMOOTH DRUM


VIBRATORY COMPACTOR

Imparts vibratory action


in conjunction with
ballast weight of the
drum to compact.

SINGLE SMOOTH DRUM


VIBRATORY COMPACTOR
One of the most effective means of
attaining density for cohesionless
materials.
It is a relatively light roller,
therefore maximum loose-lift depth
is 9 in.

SINGLE PADDED DRUM


VIBRATORY COMPACTOR

Padded drum

DOUBLE DRUM VIBRATORY


COMPACTOR

DOUBLE DRUM
VIBRATORY COMPACTOR

Use this roller to compact


cohesionless subgrade,
base courses, wearing
surfaces, and asphalt.

DOUBLE DRUM
VIBRATORY COMPACTOR

Because it compacts from


the top down, only
relatively shallow lifts
(less than 4 inches) can
be worked.

COMPACTOR SPEEDS
Speed (MPH)

Sheepsfoot, crawler towed


Tamping foot
First 3 passes
Walking out
Multitired pneumatic
Smooth-drum vibratory
Padded-drum vibratory

3-5
3-5
8-10
5-15
2-4
2-4

COMPACTION
EXERCISE
Scrapers will deliver to the
project 600 lcy per hr of fill
material (dry clay).
A self-propelled tamping foot
roller will be used to compact
the fill. (rolling width is 84 in.)

COMPACTION
EXERCISE
Test strip compaction
information indicates that 9
passes at 3 mph are required
to obtain the required density.
The fill material will be placed
in 8 inch compacted lifts.

COMPACTION
EXERCISE
Based on this information
determine the number of
rollers required to support
the scraper operation.

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 1: COMPACTION
REQUIREMENTS
Width of roller = 84 inches
Speed = 3 mph
Compacted lift thickness = 8 in.
Number of passes required = 9

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 2: PRODUCTION
CALCULATION
Equation 5.1
Compacted cubic yards per hr =

16.3 W S L eff .
No. Passes

COMPACTION EXERCISE

16.3 W S L eff .
No. Passes
Where

W is compacted width in feet

S is average roller speed in MPH


L is compacted lift thickness in inches

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 2: PRODUCTION
CALCULATION
Compacted cubic yards/hr =

84

12

3 8 16.3
9

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 2: PRODUCTION
CALCULATION

7 3 8 16.3
9
= 304 ccy/hr

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 3: EFFICIENCY
FACTOR
A 50 min working hour should
be possible.

Efficiency Factor of

0.83

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 3: EFFICIENCY
FACTOR

304 0.83 =
253 ccy/hr

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 4: COMPACTORS
REQUIRED
Until tests are run in the field we
do not know the exact conversion
for lcy to ccy.

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 4: COMPACTORS
REQUIRED
600 lcy/hr
253 ccy/hr compacted lift thickness 8 in.
Assume a loose lift thickness was 10
in. the conversion factor would be 0.8,
then 600 lcy 0.8 = 480 ccy

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 4: COMPACTORS
REQUIRED
600 lcy/hr
253 ccy/hr compacted lift thickness 8 in.
Assume a loose lift thickness was 11 in.
the conversion factor would be 0.72,
then 600 lcy 0.72 = 436 ccy

COMPACTION EXERCISE
STEP 4: COMPACTORS
REQUIRED
480 / 253 = 1.9 10 in. loose lift
436 / 253 = 1.7 11 in. loose lift

Therefore at least
2 compactors are required.

EXERCISE No. 2
Trucks will deliver 450 lcy per hr
of fill material (dry sand) for a
road project.
A self-propelled CAT CS-433E
roller will be used to compact the
fill.

EXERCISE No. 2
Using the maximum
recommended compaction
speed for this type roller it will
require 5 passes to compact a
6 in. (compacted depth) lift.
Assume a 50 min-hr efficiency.

EXERCISE No. 2
STEP 1: COMPACTION
REQUIREMENTS

Width of CAT CS-433 roller


= 66.93 in. or 5.58 ft
What type of compactor is this?

EXERCISE No. 2
STEP 1: COMPACTION
REQUIREMENTS
CAT CS-433 roller is a
smooth drum vibratory but can
add a pad foot shell.

Compacting Speed 2 - 4 mph


Use 4 mph

EXERCISE No. 2
STEP 1: COMPACTION
REQUIREMENTS
Compacted lift thickness = 6 in.
Number of passes required = 5

EXERCISE No. 2
STEP 2: PRODUCTION
CALCULATION
16.3 5.58 4 6
5

= 436 ccy

EXERCISE No. 2
STEP 3: EFFICIENCY
FACTOR

436 X 0.83 =
362 ccy/hr

EXERCISE No. 2
STEP 4: COMPACTORS
REQUIRED
450 lcy/hr
362 ccy/hr compacted lift thickness 6 in.
Assume a loose lift thickness was 8 in.
the conversion factor would be 0.75,
then 450 lcy 0.75 = 338 ccy

EXERCISE No. 2
STEP 4: COMPACTORS
REQUIRED
338 / 362 = 0.93 8 in. loose lift

Therefore only
1 compactor is required.

DYNAMIC
COMPACTION
Can achieve densification to
a depths of about 30 ft using
30 ton weights and 100 ft
drop heights.

DYNAMIC
COMPACTION
This is a
20 ton weight

from 42 feet

DYNAMIC
COMPACTION
Usually only make
contact with about
50% of the actual
ground surface
being compacted.

VIBRATORY PLATE
COMPACTOR
For
granular
soils and
asphalt.

RAMMER
Also known as
a backfill
tamper. Selfcontained hand
operated for
use in confined
spaces.

TRENCH
ROLLER

ENR July 13, 2009

For information on intelligent


compaction visit ENR website