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Data or information can be stored in two ways, analog and digital. For a computer to use the data,
it must be in discrete digital form.Similar to data, signals can also be in analog and digital form. To
transmit data digitally, it needs to be first converted to digital form.

Digital-to-Digital Conversion
This section explains how to convert digital data into digital signals. It can be done in two ways, line
coding and block coding. For all communications, line coding is necessary whereas block coding is

Line Coding
The process for converting digital data into digital signal is said to be Line Coding. Digital data is
found in binary format.It is represented stored internally as series of 1s and 0s.

Digital signal is denoted by discreet signal, which represents digital data.There are three types of
line coding schemes available:

Uni-polar Encoding
Unipolar encoding schemes use single voltage level to represent data. In this case, to represent
binary 1, high voltage is transmitted and to represent 0, no voltage is transmitted. It is also called
Unipolar-Non-return-to-zero, because there is no rest condition i.e. it either represents 1 or 0.

Polar Encoding
Polar encoding scheme uses multiple voltage levels to represent binary values. Polar encodings is
available in four types:
Polar Non-Return to Zero PolarNRZ
It uses two different voltage levels to represent binary values. Generally, positive voltage
represents 1 and negative value represents 0. It is also NRZ because there is no rest
NRZ scheme has two variants: NRZ-L and NRZ-I.

NRZ-L changes voltage level at when a different bit is encountered whereas NRZ-I changes
voltage when a 1 is encountered.

Return to Zero RZ
Problem with NRZ is that the receiver cannot conclude when a bit ended and when the next
bit is started, in case when sender and receivers clock are not synchronized.

RZ uses three voltage levels, positive voltage to represent 1, negative voltage to represent 0
and zero voltage for none. Signals change during bits not between bits.

This encoding scheme is a combination of RZ and NRZ-L. Bit time is divided into two halves. It
transits in the middle of the bit and changes phase when a different bit is encountered.

Differential Manchester
This encoding scheme is a combination of RZ and NRZ-I. It also transit at the middle of the bit
but changes phase only when 1 is encountered.

Bipolar Encoding
Bipolar encoding uses three voltage levels, positive, negative and zero. Zero voltage represents
binary 0 and bit 1 is represented by altering positive and negative voltages.

Block Coding
To ensure accuracy of the received data frame redundant bits are used. For example, in evenparity, one parity bit is added to make the count of 1s in the frame even. This way the original
number of bits is increased. It is called Block Coding.
Block coding is represented by slash notation, mB/nB.Means, m-bit block is substituted with n-bit
block where n > m. Block coding involves three steps:

After block coding is done, it is line coded for transmission.

Analog-to-Digital Conversion
Microphones create analog voice and camera creates analog videos, which are treated is analog
data. To transmit this analog data over digital signals, we need analog to digital conversion.
Analog data is a continuous stream of data in the wave form whereas digital data is discrete. To
convert analog wave into digital data, we use Pulse Code Modulation PCM.
PCM is one of the most commonly used method to convert analog data into digital form. It involves
three steps:


The analog signal is sampled every T interval. Most important factor in sampling is the rate at
which analog signal is sampled. According to Nyquist Theorem, the sampling rate must be at least
two times of the highest frequency of the signal.


Sampling yields discrete form of continuous analog signal. Every discrete pattern shows the
amplitude of the analog signal at that instance. The quantization is done between the maximum
amplitude value and the minimum amplitude value. Quantization is approximation of the
instantaneous analog value.


In encoding, each approximated value is then converted into binary format.

Transmission Modes
The transmission mode decides how data is transmitted between two computers.The binary data
in the form of 1s and 0s can be sent in two different modes: Parallel and Serial.

Parallel Transmission

The binary bits are organized in-to groups of fixed length. Both sender and receiver are connected
in parallel with the equal number of data lines. Both computers distinguish between high order and
low order data lines. The sender sends all the bits at once on all lines.Because the data lines are
equal to the number of bits in a group or data frame, a complete group of bits dataframe is sent in
one go. Advantage of Parallel transmission is high speed and disadvantage is the cost of wires, as
it is equal to the number of bits sent in parallel.

Serial Transmission
In serial transmission, bits are sent one after another in a queue manner. Serial transmission
requires only one communication channel.

Serial transmission can be either asynchronous or synchronous.

Asynchronous Serial Transmission

It is named so because thereis no importance of timing. Data-bits have specific pattern and they
help receiver recognize the start and end data bits.For example, a 0 is prefixed on every data byte
and one or more 1s are added at the end.
Two continuous data-frames bytes may have a gap between them.

Synchronous Serial Transmission

Timing in synchronous transmission has importance as there is no mechanism followed to
recognize start and end data bits.There is no pattern or prefix/suffix method. Data bits are sent in
burst mode without maintaining gap between bytes 8 bits. Single burst of data bits may contain a
number of bytes. Therefore, timing becomes very important.
It is up to the receiver to recognize and separate bits into bytes.The advantage of synchronous
transmission is high speed, and it has no overhead of extra header and footer bits as in
asynchronous transmission.
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