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CHAPTER

AUDIT OF INVENTORIES
AND COST OF GOODS SOLD
AUDIT PROGRAM FOR INVENTORIES
Audit Objectives
To determine that:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Inventories included in the balance sheet physically exist.


Inventories represent items held for sale or use in the normal course of business.
Inventory quantities include all products, materials, and supplies owned by the company (on
hand, in transit, or stored at outside locations).
The entity has legal title or similar rights of ownership to the inventories.
Inventories are properly stated at cost (except when market is lower)
Inventories are properly described and classified in the financial statements and disclosures
are adequate.

Audit Procedures
1.

Observe physical inventory counts.


a.
Test shipping and receiving cutoff procedures.
b.
Account for all inventory tags and count sheets used in recording the physical inventory
count.
c.
Test the clerical accuracy of inventory listings.
d.
Trace test counts recorded during the physical inventory observation to the inventory
listing.
e.
Reconcile physical counts to perpetual records and general ledger balances and investigate
significant variations.
f.
Test inventory transactions between a preliminary physical inventory date and the
balance sheet date.

2.

Obtain confirmation of inventories at locations outside the entity.

3.

Review perpetual inventory records, production records, and purchasing records for indications of
current activities.

4.

Analytically review the relationship of inventory balances to recent purchasing, production, and
sales activities, and to anticipated sales volume.

5.

Examine paid vendors' invoices, consignment agreement, and contracts.

6.

Review direct labor rates.

7.

Test the computation of standard overhead rates.

8.

Examine analysis of purchasing and manufacturing standard cost variances.

9.

Examine inventory turnover analysis.

10.

Review industry experience and trends.

11.

Tour the plant. Inquire of production and sales personnel concerning possible excess or
obsolete inventory items.

12.

Examine sales after year-end and open purchase order commitments.

13.

Obtain confirmation of inventories pledge under loan agreements.

14.

Review drafts of the financial statements.

15.

Compare the disclosures made in the financial statements to the requirements of generally
accepted accounting principles.

CHAPTER

3
PROBLEMS

PROBLEM NO. 1
PASSAGE OF TITLE
Gobel Company reviewed its inventories and found the following items:

In the shipping room was a product costing $13,400 when the physical count was taken. Because
it was marked "Hold for shipping instructions", it was not included in the count. The customer order
was dated December 15, but the product was shipped and the customer billed on January 4, 2010.

On December 27, 2009, merchandise costing $11,648 was received and recorded. The invoice
accompanying the merchandise was marked "on consignment."

The company received merchandise costing $4,625 on January 2, 2010. The invoice which was
recorded on January 3, 2010 showed shipment was made under FOB shipping point on December
31, 2009. The merchandise was not included in the inventory because it was not on hand when
the physical count was taken.

A product, fabricated to order for a particular customer was completed and in the shipping room
on December 31. Although it was shipped on January 5, 2010, the customer was billed on
December 31, 2009 and it was excluded from the inventory.

Merchandise costing $16,666 was received on January 5, 2010, and the related purchase invoice
was recorded January 6. The shipment of this merchandise was made on December 31, 2009,
FOB destination.

A product costing $150,000 was sold on an installment basis on December 10, 2009. It was
delivered to the customer on that date. The product was included in inventory because the
company still holds legal title. The company's experience suggests that full payment on
installment sales is reasonably assured.

An item costing $65,000 was sold and delivered to the customer on December 29, 2009. The
goods were included in the inventory because the sale was with a repurchase agreement that
require Gpbel Company to buyback the inventory on January 15, 2010.

REQUIRED:

Indicate which of the above items are to be included in the inventory balance at
December 31, 2009. State your reason for the treatment you suggest.

Solution:
1. Included - Merchandise, except "special orders" should be included in the
inventory until shipped.
2. Excluded - Gobel Company does not possess legal title because the merchandise
was received on a consignment basis.
3. Included - Because the purchase was made under FOB shipping point term, the
merchandise should be included in the inventory on the shipping date.
4. Excluded - A product that is manufactured for a particular customer (special order)
is considered sold upon its completion.
5. Excluded - The merchandise was purchased under FOB destination term and was

not received until January 5, 2009.


6. Excluded - The sale is recognized even though legal title has not passed.
7. Included - This is actually a loan transaction with the inventory as collateral.

PROBLEM NO. 2
DETERMINING INVENTORY QUANTITY
The management of Plum Company has engaged you to assist in the preparation of the year-end
(December 31) financial statements. The company's year-end inventory of 43,500 units is based on a
physical count taken on December 31 under your observation. During the month of December, sales
totaled 138,630 units including 40,000 units shipped on consignment to Apple Corp. A letter received
from Apple Corp. indicates that as of December 31, it has sold 15,200 units and was still trying to sell
the remainder.
A review of the December purchase orders to various suppliers shows the following:
Purchase
Order Date

Invoice
Date

Quantity
in Units

Date
Shipped

Date
Received

12/31/09
12/05/09
12/06/09
12/18/09
12/22/03
12/27/09

1/2/10
1/2/10
1/3/10
12/20/09
1/5/10
1/7/10

4,200
3,600
7,900
8,000
4,600
3,500

1/2/10
12/17/09
1/5/10
12/29/09
1/4/10
1/5/10

1/5/10
12/22/09
1/7/10
1/2/10
1/6/10
1/7/10

Terms
FOB Destination
FOB Destination
FOB Shipping point
FOB Shipping point
FOB Destination
FOB Destination

Plum Company uses the "passing of legal title" for inventory recognition.

REQUIRED:

Compute the inventory level as of November 30.

Solution:
Inventory, December 31
Add: December sales
Consignment sales
Other sales (138,630-40,000)
TGAS
Less: December purchases
PO Date
12/05/09
12/18/09
Inventory, November 30

43,500
15,200
98,630

3,600
8,000

113,830
157,330

11,600
145,730

PROBLEM NO. 3
COMPUTING THE CORRECT ENDING INVENTORY AMOUNT
In your audit of the December 31, 2009 financial statements of Chevvy, Inc., you found the following
inventory-related transactions:
a.

Goods costing $25,000 are on consignment with a customer. These goods were not included
in the physical count on December 31, 2009.

b.

Goods costing $16,500 were delivered to Chevvy, Inc. on January 4, 2010. The invoice for
these goods was received and recorded on January 10, 2010. The invoice showed the shipment
was made on December 29, 2009, FOB shipping point.

c.

Goods costing $21,640 were shipped FOB shipping point on December 31, 2009 and were
received by the customer on January 2, 2010. Although the sale was recorded in 2009, these
goods were included in the 2009 ending inventory.

d.

Goods costing$8,645 were shipped to a customer on December 31, 2009, FOB destination.
These goods were delivered to the customer on January 5, 2010 and were not included in the
inventory. The sale was properly taken up in 2010.

e.

Goods costing $8,600 shipped by a vendor under FOB destination term, were received on
January 3, 2010, and thus were not included in the physical inventory. Because the related
invoice was received on December 31, 2009, this shipment was recorded as a purchase in 2009.

f.

Goods valued at $51,000 were received from a vendor under consignment term. These goods
were not included in the physical count.

g.

Chevvy, Inc. recorded as a 2009 sale a $64,300 shipment of goods to a customer on December
31, 2009, FOB destination. This shipment of goods costing $37,500 was received by the
customer on January 5, 2010, and was not included in the ending inventory figure.

Prior to any adjustments, Chevvy, Inc.'s ending inventory is valued at $445,346 and the reported net
income for the year is $1,648,723.

REQUIRED:
1. Determine the correct inventory amount to be reported in the financial statements of Chevvy,
Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2009.
2. Compute the adjusted net income for the year 2009.
Solution:
Per client's book
a. Goods on consignment
b. Goods purchased FOB shipping point
c. Goods sold FOB shipping point
d. Goods sold FOB destination
e. Goods purchased FOB destination
f. Goods received on consignment
g. Goods sold FOB destination
Corrected balance

(1)
Inventory
445,346
25,000
16,500
(21,640)
8,645
0
0
37,500
511,351

(2)
Net Income
1,648,723
25,000
0
(21,640)
8,645
8,600
0
(26,800)
1,642,528

PROBLEM NO. 4
INVENTORY VALUATION
Zebra Home Improvements Company installs replacement siding windows, and louvered glass doors
for family homes. In your audit of the company's financial statements for the year ended December 31,
2009, you have gathered the following data concerning inventory.
At December 31, 2009, the balance in Zebra's Raw Materials Inventory account was $502,000, and
the Allowance for Inventory Write-down had a balance of $32,600. The relevant inventory cost and
market data at December 31, 2009 are summarized in the schedule below.

Cost
Aluminum siding

$89,000

Replacement Cost
$86,000

Sales
Price
$91,500

Net Realizable value


$87,000

Normal
Profit
$6,400

Mahogany siding
Louvered glass doors
Glass windows
Total

94,000
125,000
194,000
$502,000

92,000
135,000
114,000
$427,000

93,000
129,000
205,000
$518,500

85,000
111,000
197,000
$480,000

7,440
11,610
20,500
$45,950

REQUIRED:
1. Determine the proper balance in the Allowance for Inventory Write-down at December 31, 2009.
Solution:
Cost
NRV
LCM
Aluminum siding
89,000
87,000
87,000
Mahogany siding
94,000
85,000
85,000
Louvered glass door
125,000
111,000
111,000
Glass windows
194,000
197,000
194,000
502,000
480,000
477,000
Required allowance (502,000-477,000)

25,000

2. What is the entry to recognize the change in allowance on December 31, 2009?
Entry:
Allowance for inventory write-down
Gain on inventory recovery
Required allowance
Allowance balance

7,600
7,600
25,000
32,600
(7,600)

PROBLEM NO. 5
PERPETUAL INVENTORY SYSTEM
Your client took a complete physical inventory under your observation as of December 15 and adjusted
the inventory control account (perpetual inventory method) to agree with physical inventory. You have
decided to accept the balance of the control account as of December 31, after reflecting transactions
recorded therein from December 16 to 31, in connection with your financial statement audit for the
year ended December 31.
Your examination of the sales cut-off as of December 15 and December 31 revealed the following items
not previously considered.

Cost

Sales Price

$5,650
2,430
6,870

REQUIRED:

$7,200
4,650
9,200

Shipped

Billed

Credited to
Inv. Control

12/14
12/13
1/3

12/17
12/20
12/31

12/17
12/13
12/31

What adjusting journal entries, if any, would you make for each of these items?

Solution:
Adjusting Journal Entries
December 31
1. Inventory

5,650

Inventory over and short


To reverse erroneous adjustment to

5,650

physical count at December 15


2. Sales

9,200
Accounts receivable

9,200

To reverse sale recoded 12/31 not


shipped till 1/2
3. Inventory

6,870

Cost of sales

6,870
To reverse cost of sale recorded
12/31 but not shipped till 1/2

PROBLEM NO. 6
PURCHASES CUTOFF
You are engage in an audit of the financial statements of Carnaval Company for the year ended
October 31, 2009, and have observed the physical inventory count on that date.
All merchandise received up to and including October 30, 2009 has been included in the physical
count. The following lists of invoices are for purchase of merchandise and are entered in the purchases
journal for the months of October and November 2009, respectively:
Date
Date of
Merchandise
Amount
FOB
Invoice
Received
October 2009
$7,200
4,400
9,250
3,900
2,500
10,250
9,200
13,600
34,600

Destination
Destination
Shipping point
Destination
Destination
Shipping point
Shipping point
Destination
Destination

October 19
October 20
October 20
October 25
November 4
October 25
October 25
October 21
October 29

October 21
October 22
October 30
November 3
October 29
October 30
October 30
October 30
October 30

Destination
Destination
Shipping point
Shipping point
Shipping point
Shipping point
Destination

October 29
October 30
October 27
November 2
October 23
October 23
October 27

November 4
October 31
October 30
October 30
November 3
November 3
November 3

November 2009
$2,000
4,850
6,420
7,220
12,820
14,200
15,000

No perpetual inventory records are maintained and the physical inventory count is to be used as a
basis for the financial statements.

REQUIRED:
1. What adjusting entries would you propose in view of the facts adduced?
Solution:
1. Adjusting Journal Entries

a. Accounts payable
Purchases
To reverse entry made for October 25 invoice.
b. Purchases
Accounts payable
To set up liability for the following October
31 invoices:
Invoice date
October 30
October 27
November 2
October 23
October 23

3,900
3,900

45,510
45,510

Amount
4,850
6,420
7,220
12,820
14,200
45,510

2. What adjustment, if any, would you suggest to the physical inventory as originally taken?
2. The physical inventory at October 31 should be increased by US$31,870.
Invoice date
October 30
October 23
October 23

Amount
4,850
12,820
14,200
31,870

PROBLEM NO. 7
CORRECTING INVENTORY ERRORS
Morning Dew's annual income for the period 2005-2009 is as follows:

Year

Net Income
(loss)

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009

$148,000
345,000
649,000
(150,000)
200,000

A review of the company's records reveals the following inventory errors:


2005
2006
2008
2009

REQUIRED:

$3,000
6,000
4,500
11,000

understatement, end of the year


overstatement, end of the year
understatement, end of the year
overstatement, end of the year

Compute the adjusted net income for each year.

Solution;
2005

2006

2007

Unadusted net income/ (loss)

148,000

345,000

649,000

2005 understatement end inv

3,000

(3,000)

2006 overstatement of end inv

(6,000)

6,000

2008
(150,000)

2009
200,000

2008 understatement end inv

4,500

(4,500)

2009 overstatement end inv

(11,000)
151,000

336,000

655,000

(145,500)

184,500

PROBLEM NO. 8
INCOME EFFECT OF INVENTORY ERRORS
The Silverado Company reported income before taxes of $843,600 for 2008 and $965,400 for 2009.
The company takes its annual physical count of inventory every December 31. Your audit revealed
the following information:
a.

The price used for 1,500 units included in the 2008 ending inventory was $109. The correct cost
was $190 per unit.

b.

Goods costing $23,600 was received from a vendor on January 5, 2009. The shipment was
made on December 26, 2008 under FOB shipping point term. The purchase was recorded in
2008, but the shipment was not included in the 2008 ending inventory.

c.

Merchandise costing $64,750 was sold to a customer on December 29, 2008. Silverado was
asked by the customer to keep the merchandise until January 3, 2009, when the customer
could come and pick it up. Although the sale was properly recorded in 2008, the merchandise
was included in the ending inventory.

d.

A supplier sold merchandise valued at $14,000 to Silverado Company. The merchandise was
shipped FOB shipping point at December 29, 2008, and was received by Soverado on December
31, 2008. The purchase was recorded in 2009 and the merchandise was not included in the
2008 ending inventory.

REQUIRED:

Compute the adjusted net income for 2008 and 2009.

Solution:
Reported income before taxes

2008

2009

843,600

965,400

121,500

(121,500)

23,600

(23,600)

(64,750)

64,750

923,950

885,050

Adjustments:
a. Transposition error (190-109=81x1,500)
b. Goods purchased FOB shipping point
c. Goods sold in 2008
d. Goods purchased FOB shipping point

PROBLEM NO. 9
CORRECTING THE PHYSICAL INVENTORY COUNT
In your audit of the Rainbow Company, you noted that a physical inventory count on December 31,
2009, showed merchandise costing $850,000 was on hand at that date. Your examination reveals the
following items are all excluded from the inventory per count.
1

Merchandise of $20,000 which was held on consignment.

Goods costing $39,500 which was shipped FOB destination on December 31, 2009. These
goods were delivered to the customer on January 6, 2010.

Goods costing $16,800 which was shipped FOB shipping point to a customer on December 29,
2009. The customer received these goods on January 2, 2010.

Merchandise costing $76,150 shipped by a seller FOB destination on December 28, 2009,
and received by Rainbow Company on January 3, 2010.

Goods costing $16,444 shipped by a vendor FOB seller on December 31, 2009, and received by
Rainbow Company on January 4, 2010.

REQUIRED:

Compute the correct inventory amount at December 31, 2009.

Solution:
Inventory per physical count
Add:

850,000

Goods sold FOB destination

39,500

Goods purchased FOB seller

16,444

55,944
905,944

PROBLEM NO. 10
CORRECTING INVENTORY ERRORS
Baileys Company is a manufacturer of small tools. The following information was obtained from the
company's accounting records for the year ended December 31, 2009.
Inventory at December 31, 2009 (based on physical count in
Baileys' warehouse at cost on December 31, 2009
Accounts payable at December 31, 2009
Net sales (sales less sales returns)

$1,870,000
1,415,000
9,693,400

Your audit reveals the following information:


1

The physical count included tools billed to a customer FOB shipping point on December 31,
2009. These tools cost $64,000 and were billed at $78,500. They were in the shipping area
waiting to be picked up by the customer.

Goods shipped FOB shipping point by a vendor were in transit on December 31, 2009. These
goods with invoice cost of $93,400 were shipped on December 29, 2003.

Work in process inventory costing $27,000 was sent to a job contractor for further processing.

Not included in the physical count were goods returned by customers on December 31, 2009.
These goods costing $49,000 were inspected and returned to inventory on January 7, 2010.
Credit memos for$67,800 were issued to the customers at that date.

In transit to a customer on December 31, 2009, were tools costing $17,740 shipped FOB
destination on December 26, 2009. A sales invoice for $29,400 was issued on January 3, 2010
when Baileys company was notified by the customer that the tools had been received.

At exactly 5:00 pm on December 31, 2009, goods costing $31,200 were received from a vendor.
These were recorded on a receiving report dated January 2, 2010. The related invoice was
recorded on December 31, 2009, but the goods were not included in the physical count.

Included in the physical count were goods received from a vendor on December 27, 2009.
However, the related invoice for $36,000 was not recorded because the accounting department's
copy of the receiving report was lost.

A monthly freight bill for $16,000 was received on January 3, 2010. It is specifically related
to merchandise bought in December 2009, one-half of which was still in the inventory at
December 31, 2009. The freight was not included in either the inventory or in accounts
payable at December 31, 2009.

REQUIRED:

Compute for the adjusted amount of Inventory, Accounts Payable, and Net Sales

Solution:
Accounts
Unadjusted balances

Inventory

Payable

1,870,000

1,415,000

Net Sales
9,693,400

1.

(78,500)

2.

93,400

3.

27,000

4.

49,000

5.

17,740

6.

31,200

93,400
(67,800)

7.

36,000

8.
Adjusted balance

8,000

16,000

2,096,340

1,560,400

9,547,100

PROBLEM NO. 11
COMPUTING INVENTORY FIRE LOSS
On September 5, 2009, a fire damaged the warehouse of Texas Company. All inventory items and
many accounting records stored on the warehouse were destroyed. However, a portion of the
inventory could be sold for scrap. The company's backup files provide the following information:
Collection of accounts receivable, January 1-Sept. 5
Accounts receivable, January 1
Accounts receivable, September 5
Salvage value of inventory
Gross profit ratio
Inventory, January 1
Cash sales, January 1-Sept 5
Purchases, January 1 - Sept. 5

REQUIRED:

Compute the inventory loss as a result of the fire

$4,230,000
350,000
530,000
15,000
32%
750,000
445,000
2,770,000