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LeanThi
nki
ng
journalhomepage: www.thi
nki
ngl
ean.com/i
jl
t

APPLICATION OF GRAY RELATIONAL ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE


ROUGHNESS AND
ROUNDNESS ERROR IN DRILLING OF AL 6061 ALLOY
Reddy Sreenivasulu* Dept of

Dr.Ch.SrinivasaRao

Mechanical Engineering,RVR&JC College of


Engineering,Guntur, Andhra Pradesh,
India. Email: reddysri1431@yahoo.co.in

Dept of Mechanical Engineering


,University college of Engineering.,
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam,
Andhra Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT

KEYWORDS

In this study, the effects of drilling parameters on surface


roughness and roundness error were investigated in drilling of
AI6061 alloy with HSS twist drills. In addition, optimal control
factors for the hole quality were determined by using Taguchi Gray relational analysis. Cutting speed, feed rate, drill diameter,
point angle and cutting fluid mixture ratio were considered as
control factors, and L18 (3*5) orthogonal array was determined for
experimental trials. Gray relational analysis was employed to
minimize the surface roughness and roundness error achieved via
experimental design. Minimum surface roughness and roundness
error were obtained with treated drills at 25.13 m/min cutting
speed and 0.3 mm/rev feed rate,10mm drill diameter, 110 degrees
point angle and 12% cutting fluid mixture ratio. Confirmation
experiments showed that Gray relational analysis precisely
optimized the drilling parameters in drilling of Al6061 alloy.

Drilling
Surface Roughness
Roundness Error
Taguchi method,
Gray relational analysis,
Al6061 Alloy

ARTICLE INFO
Received 07 June 2012
Accepted 15 June 2012
Available online 01 October 2012

1. Introduction
To provide cost effectiveness in manufacturing and especially machining operations,
there is a continuous need to reduce tooling costs. The most well-known methods used to
reduce tooling costs are various applications of more resistant tool materials, heat treatments,
cutting fluids, speed and feed rates, and the development of coated cutting tool. But also
provides significant benefits for machining conditions. The surface quality is an important
parameter to evaluate the productivity of machine tools as well as machined components.
Hence, achieving the desired surface quality is of great importance for the functional behavior
of the mechanical parts. A reasonably good surface finish is desired for improving the
tribological properties, fatigue strength, corrosion resistance and aesthetic appeal of the
product. Excessively better surface finish may involve more cost of manufacturing. The surface
roughness and roundness error are affected by several factors including cutting tool geometry,
cutting speed, feed rate, the microstructure of the work piece and the rigidity of the machine
tool. These parameters affecting the surface roughness and drilled hole qualities (roundness,
cylindricality and hole diameter) can be optimized in various ways such as Taguchi method and
________________________________
* Corresponding
Author models.
multiple
regression

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multiple regression models. Therefore, a number of Researchers have been focused on an appropriate
prediction of surface roughness and roundness error. The Taguchi method has been widely used in
engineering analysis and is a powerful tool to design a high quality system. Moreover, the Taguchi method
employs a special design of orthogonal array to investigate the effects of the entire machining parameters
through the small number of experiments. Recently, the Taguchi method has been widely employed in
several industrial fields, and research works. By applying the Taguchi technique, the time required for
experimental investigations can be significantly reduced, as it is effective in the investigation of the effects
of multiple factors on performance as well as to study the influence of individual factors to determine
which factor has more influence, which one less. Yang and Chen used the Taguchi parameter design in
order to identify optimum surface roughness performance on an aluminum material with cutting
parameters of depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate and tool diameter. It was found that tool diameter is
not a significant cutting factor affecting the surface roughness. Davim and Reis presented an approach
using the Taguchi method and ANOVA to establish a correlation between cutting speed and feed rate with
the de lamination in a composite laminate. A statistical analysis of hole quality was performed by Furness
et al. They found that feed rate and cutting speed have a relatively small effect on the measured hole
quality features. With the expectation of hole location error, the hole quality was not predictably or
significantly affected by the cutting conditions. Tsao and Hocheng performed the prediction and
evaluation of thrust force and surface roughness in drilling of composite material. The approach used
Taguchi and the artificial neural network methods. The experimental results show that the feed rate and
the drill diameter are the most significant factors affecting the thrust force, while the feed rate and spindle
speed contribute the most to the surface roughness. Zhan get al. performed a study of the Taguchi design
application to optimize surface quality in a CNC face milling operation. Taguchi design was successful in
optimizing milling parameters for surface roughness. Nalbant et al. utilized the Taguchi technique to
determine the optimal cutting parameters for surface roughness in turning of AISI 1030 steel with Ti N
coated inserts. Three cutting parameters such as insert radius, feed rate, and depth of cut, are optimized
for minimum surface roughness. Kurt et al. employed the Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting
parameters for surface finish and hole diameter accuracy in dry drilling processes. The validity of the
Taguchi approach to process optimization was well established. The objective of this study is to investigate
the effects of the drilling parameters on surface roughness and roundness error, and is to determine the
optimal drilling parameters using the Taguchi - Gray relational analysis in drilling
2. Experimental Procedure:
2.1 Material:
Al 6061 is one of the 6000 series Aluminum alloy used in the aircraft and aerospace components,
marine fittings, bicycle frames ,camera lenses ,brake components, electrical fittings and connectors, valves,
couplings etc.. . The composition of Al 6061 is 0.63% Si, o.466% Fe, 0.096% Cu, 0.179% Mn, 0.53% Mg,
0.091% Zn, 0.028% Cr,0.028% Ti and remaining aluminum. The youngs modulus is 80 G pa and hardness
98 BHN. In this study 600x50x10mm rectangular bar was used.
2.2 Schematic machining:
In this study, the experiments were carried out on a CNC vertical machining center (KENT and
ND Co. Ltd, Taiwan make) to perform different size of holes on Al6061 work piece by alter the point angle
on standard HSS drill bits of point angle 118 degrees and maintain constant Helix angle of 30 degrees.
Furthermore the cutting speed (m/min), the feed rate (mm/Rev) and Percentage of cutting fluid mixture
ratio are regulated in this experiment.
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Fig (1).Shows CNC Machining Center, Controller ,fixing of work piece in a vice

Fig (2), Shows HSS twist drills and work piece with drilled holes

Fig(3) ,Shows alter the point angles on HSS twist drills made on tool & cutter grinder ,surf tester to
measure surface roughness, CMM to measure roundness error.
2.3 Experimental parameters and design:
The effects of drilling parameters on burr size have been studied by S.S Pande and H.P Relekar (1986),
Nayakamma k etal (1987), V.N.Gaitonde etal (2007), and so on. In this study, further processing
procedure for optimize the surface roughness and roundness error is investigated. Furthermore, an effect
of drilling parameters of cutting fluids under different mixture ratio was also considered. Therefore the
experiment is conducted with 5 controllable 3 level factors and two response variables 18 experimental
runs based on the orthogonal array L18 are required. Table (1) presents 5 controlled factors of the cutting
speed (i e (A m/ min)), the feed rate (i e (B mm/rev)), drill diameter in mm (C ) point angle (D(degrees))
and cutting fluid mixture ratio ( i e E (%)) with 3 levels for each factor.

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Table 1. Factors and Levels of the Experiment


Levels of

Cutting

experimental
factors

Cutting

Speed

Feed rate

Drill

Point

Fluid

(m/min.)

(mm/rev)

diameter

angle()

Mixture

Ratio (%)

E
1

15.08

0.3

118

12

25.13

0.5

10

110

18

37.70

0.6

12

100

24

Table 2. Experimental runs &Responses


Runs

Measured Responses

R1 (m)

R2 (mm)

2.39

0.053

1.16

0.073

4.50

0.082

1.25

0.066

3.36

0.058

3.72

0.092

4.15

0.017

3.45

0.036

2.29

0.074

10

3.33

0.008

11

2.25

0.109

12

1.06

0.027

13

3.26

0.019

14

3.60

0.041

15

1.56

0.032

16

3.54

0.026

17

2.45

0.094

18

4.38

0.035

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Table (2) shows the experimental runs according to the selected orthogonal table. After drilling, two
quality objectives of the work pieces are chosen, including the average surface roughness (R1) and
roundness error (R2). Typically, small values of average surface roughness and roundness error are
desirable for the drilled hole.
3. Grey relational analyses:
In grey relational analysis, black represents having no information and white represents having all
information. A grey system has a level of information between black and white. This analysis can be used
to represent the grade of correlation between two sequences so that the distance of two factors can be
measured discretely. In the case when experiments are ambiguous or when the experimental method
cannot be carried out exactly, grey analysis helps to compensate for the shortcoming in statistical
regression .Grey relation analysis is an effective means of analyzing the relationship between sequences
with less data and can analyze many factors that can overcome the disadvantages of statistical method.
3.1 Data Pre-Processing:
In grey relational analysis, when the range of the sequence is large or the standard value is
enormous, the function of factors is neglected. However, if the factors goals and directions are different,
the grey relational might produce incorrect results. Therefore, one has to pre-process the data which are
related to a group of sequences, which is called grey relational generation
Data pre-processing is a process of transferring the original sequence to a comparable sequence.
For this purpose the experimental results are normalized in the range between zero and one. The
normalization can be done form three different approaches.
If the target value of original sequence is infinite, then it has a characteristic of the larger-the
better. The original sequence can be normalized as follows.
x i0 (K) minxi0 (K)
x (k)
max x i0 (K) minxi0 (K)

(1)

*
i

If the expectancy is the smaller-the better, then the original sequence should be normalized as follows.
max x i0 (K) x i0 (K)
x (k)
max x i0 (K) minxi0 (K)

(2)

*
i

However, if there is a definite target value to be achieved, the original sequence will be normalized in the
form.

x (k) 1
*
i

| x i0 (K) x 0 |
max x i0 (K)

(3)

x i0

Or the original sequence can be simply normalized by the most basic methodology i.e., let the values of
original sequence be divided by the first value of sequence
x 0 (K)
x i* (k) i0
(4)
x i ( 1)

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Where xi* (k) is the value after the grey relational generation (data pre-processing), max x i0(k) is the
largest value of x i0(k) , min x i0(k) is the smallest value of x i0(k) and xn is the desired value.
3.2 Grey relational coefficient and grey relational grade:
Following data pre-processing, a grey relational coefficient is calculated to express the
relationship between the ideal and actual normalized experimental results. They grey relational coefficient
can be expressed as follows:

i (k)

min . max
oi (k ) . max

(5)

Where oi (k ) is the deviation sequence of the reference sequence x o* (k) and the comparability sequence

x i* (k), namely
oi (k ) = || x o* (k) - x i* (k)||
max =

min =

max
max || x

*
0

(k ) x i* (k ) ||

min
min || x (k ) x (k ) ||

*
0

*
i

is distinguishing or identification coefficient to [0,1]. =0.5 is generally used.


After obtaining the grey relational coefficient, we normally take the average of the grey relational
coefficient as the grey relational grade. The grey relational grade is defined as follows.

1 n
i (k )
n k 1

(6)

However, since in real application the effect of each factor on the system is not exactly same. Eq.(6) can be
modified as

1 n
w k . i (k )
n k 1

(7)

k 1

Where wk represents the normalized weighting value of factor k. Given same weights. Equations (6)
and (7) are equal.

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In the grey relational analysis, the grey relational grade is sued to show the relationship among the
sequences. If the two sequences are identical, then the value of grey relational grade is equal to 1. The
grey relational grade also indicates the degree of influence that the comparability sequence could exert
over the reference sequence. Therefore, if a particular comparability sequence is more important than the
other comparability sequences to the reference, then the grey relational grade for that comparability
sequence and reference sequence will be higher than other grey relational grades.
4. Analysis and discussion of Experimental results:
In the present study, average surface roughness and roundness error of drilled hole in different
parameters and experimental runs are listed in table 2.Typically, lower values of average Surface
roughness and roundness error as the target values are desirable. Therefore, the data sequences have the
smaller-the-better characteristic. The values of average surface roughness and roundness error are set to be
the reference sequence. More over the results of 18 experiments were the comparability sequences x i*(k),
i = 1 18, k= 1 3.
Table3 : Sequences after data pre processing
Comparability sequence

R1

R2

0.6153

0.6086

0.9709

0.3913

0.0000

0.2934

0.9447

0.4673

0.3313

0.5543

0.2267

0.1847

0.1067

1.0000

0.3052

0.7934

0.6424

0.3804

10

0.3401

0.2282

11

0.6540

0.0000

12

1.0000

0.8913

13

0.3604

0.9782

14

0.2616

0.7391

15

0.8546

0.8369

16

0.2790

0.9021

17

0.5959

0.1630

18

0.0348

0.8043

Table3 Lists all of the sequences following data pre processing using equation(2) .Also, the deviation
sequences oi , max(k) and min(k) for i = 1 18, k= 1 3 can be calculated asfollows.

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o1(1)= xo*(1)-x1*(1)=1.00-0.4117=0.5883
o1(2)= xo*(2)-x1*(2)=1.00-0.6020=0.3980
max=08(1)= 10(2)=1.0000
min=15(1)= 17(2)=0.0000
The distinguishing coefficient can be substituted for the grey relational coefficient in equation (5). If
all the process parameters have equal weighting, is 0.5.
Table 4: Grey Relational Coefficients and Grey Relational grades
Runs

Grey Relational Coefficients

Grey Relational Grade

R1

R2

0.5638

0.5609

0.5623

0.9450

0.4509

0.6979

0.3333

0.4143

0.3738

0.9004

0.4841

0.6922

0.4278

0.5287

0.4782

0.3926

0.3801

0.3863

0.3575

1.0000

0.6787

0.4184

0.7076

0.5630

0.5830

0.4465

0.5147

10

0.4310

0.3931

0.4120

11

0.5910

0.3333

0.4621

12

1.0000

0.8214

0.9107

13

0.4387

0.9582

0.6984

14

0.4037

0.6571

0.5304

15

0.7747

0.7540

0.7643

16

0.4095

0.8362

0.6228

17

0.5530

0.3739

0.4634

18

0.3412

0.7187

0.5299

Table 4 lists the grey relational coefficient and grade for each experiment of the L 18 orthogonal array by
applying equations (5) and (6).

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average grey relational grade

Graph for Grey Relational Grade


1
0,8
0,6

0,4
0,2
0
1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

experimental runs

Fig 4. Graph for Grey Relation Grade


According to the performed experiment design it is clearly observed from table 4 and fig (4)That the
drilling process parameter setting of experiment no.12 has the highest grey relational grade. Thus the
experiment no12 gives the best multi-performance characteristics among the 18 experiments. The
response table of Taguchi method was employed here to calculate the average grey relational grade for
each factor level. The procedure was to group the relational grades firstly by factor level for each column
in the orthogonal array and then to average them. For example the grey relational grades for factors A & B
at level 1 can be calculated as follows.
(A)1=0.5623+0.6979+0.3738+0.4120+0.4621+0.9107=0.5698
(B)1=0.5623+0.6922+0.6787+0.4120+0.6984+0.6228=0.6110
Using the same method, calculations were performed for each factor level and response table was
generated, as shown in table6.
Table 5. Average Grey Relational Grade for Factor and Levels of the Experiment
Levels
A
B
C
D

0.5698

0.6110

0.5765

0.5249

0.5973

0.5916

0.5325

0.6656

0.7084

0.5628

0.5620

0.5799

0.4813

0.4900

0.5633

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Grey relational grade graphs for drilling parameters :

a
v
e G
r R
a G
g
e

cutting speed(A)

a
v
e G
r R
a G
g
e

0,6
0,58
0,56
0,54

feed rate (B)


0,65
0,6
0,55
0,5
0,45

Drill diameter(C)

a
v
e G
r R
a G
g
e

0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
1

levels

a
v
e G
r R
a G
g
e

levels

levels

a
v
e G
r R
a G
g
e

Point angle (D)


0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0

2
levels

Cutting fluid mixture


ratio (E)
0,7
0,65

0,6
0,55
0,5
1

2
levels

Fig.(5): Graphs for levels of controllable facters and average gray relational grades
Since the grey relational grades represented the level of correlation between the reference and
comparability sequences, the larger grey relational grade means the comparability sequence exhibits a
stronger correlation with reference sequence. Therefore, the comparability sequence has a larger value of
grey relational grade for average surface roughness and roundness error. Based on this premise the study
selects the level that provides the largest average response. In table 6, A2 B1 C2 D2 E1 show the largest
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value of grey relational grade for factors A, B, C, D and E respectively. Therefore A2 B1 C2 D2 E1 is the
condition for the optimal parameter combination of the drilling of a hole to minimize average surface
roughness and roundness error. The influence of each cutting parameter can be more clearly presented by
means of the grey relational grade graph. It shows the change in the response, when the factors go for
their level 1 to level 3. The response graph for the drilling parameters is presented in fig. (5). In this
figure, the greater values average grey relational grades gives the low surface roughness and roundness
error
5. Conclusion:
The Grey relational analysis based on an orthogonal array of the Taguchi methods was a way of
optimizing the process parameters in drilling for Al6061 alloy. The analytical results summarized as
follows:
1. From the response table of the average grey relational grade, it is found that the largest
value of the GRA for the cutting speed of 25.13 m/min, the feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev, the drill
diameter 10 mm, point angle110 deg, and % cutting fluid mixture ratio12 %. It is the
recommended levels of the controllable parameters for the process of drilling as the minimization
of average surface roughness and roundness error.
2. The order of the importance of influential factors based on the Taguchi response table in
sequence is point angle, drill diameter, feed rate, % cutting fluid mixture ratio and cutting speed

References
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with multiple performance characteristics using Grey relational analysis.,J.Mater.
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