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Direct methods of blood pressure measurements

Blood pressure is the most often measured and the most intensively studied parameter
in medical & physiological practice. There are 2 methods for measuring blood pressure
Direct method are used when highest degree accuracy, dynamic response and
continuous monitoring is required. A catherer/needle type is inserted in vein/artery.
a) Catheres with extra incorporated extravascular sensor
b) Catherer with intravascular sensor
C type= catherer tip probo (sensor=mounted in the probe)
A fluid=filled catherer type- on external transducer-converts pressure to electrical
2. Electronic sphygmenanometer (sphygmos-Greek)
3. Korotkov sound
Pulse- depends upon the operator recognizing the occurance and disappearance of
Korotkov sounds with variations in cuff pressure.
Pcuff>Psyst not sounds
Pcuff=Psyst 1 k sound
Pcuff >Psyst- x sound
Pcuff=Pdiast the last ks
Pcuff<Pdiast- not sounds
If the cuff pressure-allowed to fall just below the diastolic pressure value, the flow
becomes normal and uninterruptable
Problem=to determine the exact instant At which the artery just opens and when it is
fully opened.
Frequency bands-discriminant -> Krotkov sound at systole&diastole from sounds
immediately must be de defined for a high degree of readability in automatic electronic
blood pressure instruments.
Putting a cuff around the upped part of the patients arm and applying a microphone
over brachial artery.
4. One cuff oscillometric method operates on the principle that as an occluding cuff
deflates from a level above the systolic pressure, the artery walls vibrate or oscillate as
the blood flows through the artery => sensed in the transducer system. The pressure in
the cuff decrease => oscillations = present until cuff fully deflated and blood flow
returns to normal. The oscillometric method = based on oscillometric pulses pressure
5. Nervous cell: cell body and dendrites function and electrical equivalent
Nervous cell = analysis of the system stability shows N-shapes curve of the membrane
conductivity versus electrochemical potential.
The main function of the cell body of a neuron is to integrate synaptic information and
transmit this information to other cells via the axon.
The primary function of dendrites is to gather electrochemical information from other
neurons and keep the process going from one neuron to the next.
6. Nervous cell: axon and axon endings function and electrical equivalent circuit
The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles and

7. Conditions for magnetic measurements

Measuring the intensity of the magnetic field is possible only in nonferomagnetic

When necessary magnetic measurements:

- Severely injured patients
- Therapy equipment and electrosurgical devices that uses high frequency
8. Search coil coil magnetometer
The search coil is a sensor which measures the variation of the magnetic flux. The
search-coil can measure magnetic field from mHz up to hundreds of MHz. It is associated to a
conditioning electronic to make a search coil magnetometer (also known as induction magnetometer).
15. Recording electrodes: electrode potential
16. Recording electrodes: impedance of the electrode electrolyte interface
17. Surface electrodes: equivalent circuit and construction types
To measure and record potentials, current in the human body, interface = necessary => recording el.
The current should be very small => transducing ionic current ----transducer--electronic current.
Electrode potential : the current has: electrons moving opposite to electrode current, positive ions (catiens),
neg. (anions).

18. Metallic microelectrodes thin metallic threads, electrochemial sharpened at the end which is inserted in
the ?
The covering with an insulating material is performed using a microscope.
(plastic or glassy) impedance through electrochemical of surface.
Glassy between metallic electrode 1 and cellular fluid is interpressed an electrobyte choosen to ensure?
A very small and stable passing without modifying electrobyte properties (=always stable)

Made out of glass electrode = thin metallic thread immersed in electrobyte

20. Design conditions for patients safety

- keep measurement instrumentation away from el & magn sources
- perform measurements instrumentation in shielded rooms
- shielding connections between electrodes&amplifier
- use twisted wires

21. Biosignals amplifiers:noise and common mode rejection


22. Biosignals amplifiers: total common mode rejection

23. Biosignals amplifiers: differential input impedance
24. Biosignals amplifiers:common mode input impedance
25. Biosignals amplifiers:instrumentation amplifier
26. Biosignals amplifiers: dc coupling to bioelectrical source
Noise=unwanted signals with above (>) 0.1 Hz equivalent noise R,
Johnson noise dont give an indication of signal resolution.