0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

51 Aufrufe6 SeitenPower Quality
Calidad de la energía
Microgrids
Microredes
Microred

Jun 08, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Power Quality
Calidad de la energía
Microgrids
Microredes
Microred

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

51 Aufrufe

Power Quality
Calidad de la energía
Microgrids
Microredes
Microred

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Microgrid Supported by a Load-Shedding Strategy

Alireza Raghami

Mohsen Hamzeh

(PWUT)

(PWUT)

(SUT)

Tehran, Iran

Tehran, Iran

Tehran, Iran

Email: Raghami@stud.pwut.ac.ir

Email: Ameli@pwut.ac.ir

Email: M.hamzeh@ee.sharif.edu

restoration of frequency.

these two levels is demonstrated to be independent of each other.

communication infrastructure.

bandwidth

proposed control scheme is verified by using digital time-domain

simulation

studies

in

the

MATLAB/SIMULINK

communication

high

software

bandwidth

methods

environment.

the

other

communication,

they

use

droop

based

[7].

characteristics.

Extensive

I.

demonstrates

INTRODUCTION

which

capability

of

has

been

droop

done

based

recently

methods

in

use the frequency changes as the communication signal to

power.

medium voltage structures which have been developed from

system basics.

research

the

distribution

and

control, droop method, load-shedding

the

infrastructure,

frequency

so

to

be

restored,

this

paper

proposes

level and its constituent functions in section II, while section III

describes the secondary control and frequency restoration

282

w

A

via

time-domain

simulation.

Also

remarkable

notes

are

lli

II.

In this study, the droop based methods have been used for

The basics of droop method can be found in [10]. The

Pmax

Pmin

(a )

main idea that supports the use of droop control for EI-DGs is

the emulation of natural inertia of large rotating generators.

Droop based algorithms do not need high bandwidth data

possible without imposing any limitation on DGs location.

Voltage

Source

Inverter

Droop

Control

Microgrids which consist droop controlled EI-DGs use peer

t---.-- Microgrid

[11],[12].

V,I

Power Calculation

of a droop controlled EI-DG can be expressed as:

'

O

OJ

OJ

Gp (s) (P _po)

=

'

Where p and p

Figure 1. (a)

(1)

'

(b)

A sample droop characteristic (b) Schematic diagram ofan

EI-DG operating as a Voltage Source Inverter

and

OJ 0

'

OJ

is

the

OJ

'

O

is equal to p .

Gp(s)

(4)

mn l1P

(5)

mn /1P"

(5) shows that in the droop method, output power

ml

Equation

. . .

mn_I !1P,,_1

gain.

G,,(s)

(2)

III.

/';.OJ

m=

Pmax

Here

/';.OJ ax

m

is

the

maximum

(3)

allowable

frequency

generation,

characteristic

shows

the

droop

characteristic

and

schematic

voltage and output current to be measured.

In a microgrid with n generating units, if it is assumed to

mn

the

operating

Linel

Wi

...

........

As Fig. l(b) shows, the input of the droop control unit is the

m2, ... ,

OJ;

point

and

'

moves

along

the

droop

mp

(i.e.

and

1

frequency control.

Fig.

OJ

p

when

is its reference.

Wi

) , we have:

Wi

-------

I

I

--------

L-

(4)

........

........

........

....

------------------

I

1

-----------------

.... ""

...

... Line2

Linel

--------------------__

____

Pi

283

Pi

While the gradient of the line remains the same as Line1

[13].

Wi

should be done the same for all of the DGs. With the aim of

frequency restoration, the reference value

(p,

) should be

p"

is

accurate power sharing of DGs needs the new references to

follow:

r

ml = ... = m/>/ = ... = mnP:

(6)

equal to , this change is shared between all DGs and for

/).0)

Where

f..P,

= mM.

I

(7)

I'lOJi

(11)

Writing the initial condition at time t

is

Ai)'

the frequency change for the unit that can be measured with

constant (i.e.

p,

0 extracts the

results in

d 0

r

- PI = k resPI /).0)1

dt

Rewriting (11) via (12 ), we have:

M.

d 0

r

-P = kresP/).O)

dt

I

/).O)(t)= n

(8)

-L-e

=!..

(13)

Ij1 m

j

dt

The

speed

coefficient

of

kres

frequency

.

Equation

restoration

(8)

depends

implies

that

the

on

T=

the

droop

droop coefficient

Finally

in

kres

to

is as important as

Since steady state violation of the DG rated capacity is not

acceptable. The energy limitation should be enforced in the

conduct

an

accurate

frequency

d

d 0

-(/).O)) = m-P

dt

dt

I

Using

(9)

IV.

(14)

r

kres m;

(m,) [13].

order

1

--

capacity of each unit. Coefficient

of frequency restoration

r

(/).O)J - kres m;/).O); =

(10)

not, it might end in worse failure, up to the total island cut off

Equation

[3],[14].

equation

purpose,

Consortium

for

Electric

Reliability

Technology

284

[2],[15].

three steps load-shedding algorithm. The UFLS units of the

kW and 75 kW.

According to (3), droop constants ofDGl andDG2 are set

to be 0.01

emergency situations.

respectively.

The power

/ iodes with a

TABLE!.

Stage

Frequency

Threshold (Hz)

Measure of Deferrable

Loads Shed (%)

Delay

Time (s)

49.8

IS

0.7

49.7

15

0.7

49.6

15

0.7

system has got one sensitive load and two deferrable loads

which are controlled by UFLS scheme.

Four cases would be investigated which in all of them,

sensitive load changes cause the control systems to react.

Results/or Case

A.

1)

initial amount of sensitive load is 50 kW while two deferrable

remains left out until the delay time passes by. The other two

Since

most

of

the

frequency

declines

resulting

from

50. 1 Hz.

V.

SIMULA liON

AND RESULTS

la)

system.

lFl

DG 1

PDGl

13 mH

lOF

---+

CFl

10u

50kW

Busl

25kW

'''- ----

f

.,;

, --

lOF Bus2

---+

C"

75kW

Figure

50.1

:. 50.05

),

C)

PDG2

13 mH

-----------

I

If

I

-POG1

POG2

Ib)

0.02+JO.040

DG 2

30

,

,

Deferrable load 1

, ,, - ,,,... ,

l"

70

;:l

Deferrable Load 2

25kW

50

IT

49.95

49.9

3

"'-..

Time/secl

10

11

Figure 5. Results for Case I-in presence of primary control: (a) Active

power output of DGs.

285

12

la)

la)

70

"

60 1""--

""-

40

.. _--

-_ ...

If

-_ ..

\..

30

POG1

40

POG2

30

-.--

----

POG1

Ib)

I ....I'.

I:

50

I:

Figure

II

::J

\ /V

II. 49.9

8

7

Time/sec)

g

"- 49.8

II.

10

11

49. 7

12

Figure

VI'----

II

7

8

Time/sec)

10

11

12

control and secondary control supported by the UFLS: (a) Active power

output ofDGs. (b) System frequency

Resultsfor Case 2)

B.

I: 49.9

--

49.95

50

/'

II

POG2

Ib)

50. 1

'"

Ii' 50.05

...

._-

....'\

'

IfI

\

\

() 50

o

II.

results for Case 2. The two deferrable loads are the same as

same changes.

Resultsfor Case 4)

D.

benefit has been gained in a situation that the DGs output

the

same

time,

the

secondary

control

shifts

the

power

DGs. Fig. 8 shows the simulation results for Case 4.

la)

achieved.

80

60

next two cases and the UFLS scheme ability is tested as an

-850

II.

C.

,

I

I

70

40

Resultsfor Case 3)

-----

---

""'"

POG1

30

._-

POG2

Ib)

UFLS scheme are applied together to test the condition of

N

Fig. 7 depicts the active power output of each DG and

J:

I:

II

so. 2

5- 49.8

demand of 50 kW.

II.

49.6

1\V

increasing their output powers.

Figure

I-.

50

8

Time(sec)

10

11

control and secondary control supported by the UFLS: (a) Active power

286

12

REFERENCES

the demand of sensitive load increases to a new point of 87

[1]

kW.

"Microgrids:

N.

Hatziargyriou.

an

overeview

H.

Asano,

of

ongoing

R.

Iravani

research,

and

C.

Mamay,

development

and

5, pp. 77-94,

2007.

R.

[2]

the 15% of the deferrable loads is shed in the first stage at 4.74

Lasseter,

"Smart

Coupled

Microgrids,"

2011.

[3]

Distribution:

99,pp. 1074-83,2011.

[4]

approach toward standardization," iEEE TRANSACTIONS ON industrial

Electronics, vol.

VI.

[5]

CONCLUSION

ICREPQ, Sevilla,

Microgrid

2007.

[6]

With

Multiple

Distributed

[7]

M.

Guerrero,

L.

Hang,

J.

Generation

Uceda,

"Control

SYSTEMS, vol.

[8]

theories.

paid

special

attention

to

power

[9]

A.

Engler,

"Applicability

[10]

Sons,

[11]

be

[12]

We

proposed

multi-step

[13]

[14]

[15]

to

be

strategy

27,pp. 4734-49,2012.

control

2006.

2009.

proposed

&

the

of

grids,"

ELECTRONiCS, vol.

load-shedding

performance

voltage

1, pp. 3-15,2005.

circwnstances.

low

1998.

could

in

limitation,

load-shedding

droops

underfrequency

of

the

Distributed

been discussed.

priority,

of

we

iEEE

Meanwhile

Units,"

21,pp. 916-24,2006.

loads.

287

\5,pp. 186-202,2011.

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.