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# MATHEMATICS

Higher 1 (2017)
(Syllabus 8864)
CONTENTS
Page
2

AIMS
ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES (AO)

LIST OF FORMULAE

## SCHEME OF EXAMINATION PAPER

CONTENT OUTLINE

MATHEMATICAL NOTATION

MOE & UCLES 2015

## 8864 H1 MATHEMATICS (2017)

AIMS
The syllabus provides a foundation in mathematics for students who intend to enrol in university courses
such as business, economics and social sciences. It covers Functions and Graphs, Calculus and Statistics.
The main focus of the syllabus will be the understanding and application of basic concepts and techniques of
statistics. This will equip students with the skills to analyse and interpret data, and to make informed
decisions.
The general aims of the syllabus are to enable students to:

acquire the necessary mathematical concepts and skills for everyday life, and for continuous learning in
mathematics and related disciplines

develop the necessary process skills for the acquisition and application of mathematical concepts and
skills

develop the mathematical thinking and problem solving skills and apply these skills to formulate and
solve problems

recognise and use connections among mathematical ideas, and between mathematics and other
disciplines

## develop positive attitudes towards mathematics

make effective use of a variety of mathematical tools (including information and communication
technology tools) in the learning and application of mathematics

## produce imaginative and creative work arising from mathematical ideas

develop the abilities to reason logically, to communicate mathematically, and to learn cooperatively and
independently.

## ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES (AO)

There are three levels of assessment objectives for the examination.
The assessment will test candidates abilities to:
AO1 understand and apply mathematical concepts and skills in a variety of contexts, including the
manipulation of mathematical expressions and use of graphic calculators
AO2 reason and communicate mathematically through writing mathematical explanation, arguments and
proofs, and inferences
AO3 solve unfamiliar problems; translate common realistic contexts into mathematics; interpret and
evaluate mathematical results, and use the results to make predictions or comment on the context.

## USE OF GRAPHIC CALCULATORS (GC)

The use of GC, without computer algebra system, will be expected. The examination paper will be set with
the assumption that candidates will have access to a GC. As a general rule, unsupported answers obtained
from a GC are allowed unless the question specifically states otherwise. Where unsupported answers from
GC are not allowed, candidates are required to present the mathematical steps using mathematical notations
and not calculator commands. For questions where graphs are used to find a solution, candidates should
However, if there is written evidence of using GC correctly, method marks may be awarded.
Students should be aware that there are limitations inherent in GC. For example, answers obtained by
tracing along a graph to find roots of an equation may not produce the required accuracy.

LIST OF FORMULAE
Candidates will be provided in the examination with a list of formulae (MF15).

## INTEGRATIONS AND APPLICATIONS

Notwithstanding the presentation of the topics in the syllabus, it is envisaged that some examination
questions may integrate ideas from more than one topic, and that topics may be tested in the contexts of
solving problems and in applications of mathematics.

## SCHEME OF EXAMINATION PAPER

For the examination in H1 Mathematics, there will be one 3-hour paper marked out of 95 as follows:
Section A (Pure Mathematics 35 marks) will consist of about 5 questions of different lengths and marks
based on the Pure Mathematics section of the syllabus.
Section B (Statistics 60 marks) will consist of 68 questions of different lengths and marks based on the
Statistics section of the syllabus.
Candidates will be expected to answer all questions.

## 8864 H1 MATHEMATICS (2017)

CONTENT OUTLINE
Knowledge of the content of the O Level Mathematics syllabus is assumed in the syllabus below and will not
be tested directly, but it may be required indirectly in response to questions on other topics.

Topic/Sub-topics

Content

PURE MATHEMATICS
1
1.1

## Functions and graphs

Exponential and
logarithmic functions
and Graphing
techniques

Include:

concept of function

## functions ex and ln x and their graphs

laws of logarithms

equivalence of y = ex and x = ln y

## characteristics of graphs such as symmetry, intersections with the

axes, turning points and asymptotes
Exclude:

1.2

Equations and
inequalities

Include:

substitution

negative)

calculator

Topic/Sub-topics
2
2.1

Content

Calculus
Differentiation

Include:

## derivative of f(x) as the gradient of the tangent to the graph of

y = f(x) at a point
dy

dx

## derivatives of xn for any rational n, ex, ln x, together with constant

multiples, sums and differences

of inflexion)

## finding the numerical value of a derivative at a given point using

a graphic calculator

Exclude:

dy
1

use of
=
d
x
dx
dy

2.2

Integration

Include:

## integration as the reverse of differentiation

integration of xn, for any rational n, and ex, together with constant
multiples, sums and differences

## finding the area of a region bounded by a curve and lines parallel

to the coordinate axes, between a curve and a line, or between
two curves

calculator
Exclude:

Topic/Sub-topics

Content

STATISTICS
3

Probability

3.1

Probability

Include:

## use of tables of outcomes, Venn diagrams, and tree diagrams to

calculate probabilities

## calculation of conditional probabilities in simple cases

use of
P ( A ) = 1 P ( A )
P(A B ) = P(A) + P(B ) P(A B )

P(A B ) =

4
4.1

P(A B )
P(B )

## Binomial and normal distributions

Binomial distribution

Include:

integer n
n

r

## concept of binomial distribution B(n, p) and use of B(n, p) as a

probability model

proof)

## solving problems involving binomial variables

Exclude calculation of mean and variance for other probability
distributions

4.2

Normal distribution

Include:

## concept of a normal distribution and its mean and variance; use

of N(,2) as a probability model

P(X , x1)

Var(aX + b)

## solving problems involving the use of E(aX + bY) and

Var(aX + bY), where X and Y are independent

Exclude:

functions

Topic/Sub-topics
5

Content

5.1

Sampling

Include:

## use of the Central Limit Theorem to treat sample means as

having normal distribution when the sample size is sufficiently
large

## calculation of unbiased estimates of the population mean and

variance from a sample

## solving problems involving the sampling distribution

5.2

Hypothesis testing

Include:

## concepts of null and alternative hypotheses, test statistic, level of

significance and p-value

## tests for a population mean based on:

a sample from a normal population of known variance
a large sample from any population

## 1-tail and 2-tail tests

Exclude testing the difference between two population means

6
6.1

## Correlation and Regression

Correlation coefficient
and linear regression

Include:

regression

## calculation and interpretation of the product moment correlation

coefficient and of the equation of the least squares regression
line

## concepts of interpolation and extrapolation

Exclude:

derivation of formulae

hypothesis tests

## use of a square, reciprocal or logarithmic transformation to

achieve linearity

## 8864 H1 MATHEMATICS (2017)

MATHEMATICAL NOTATION
The list which follows summarises the notation used in Cambridges Mathematics examinations. Although
primarily directed towards A Level, the list also applies, where relevant, to examinations at all other levels.
1. Set Notation

is an element of

is not an element of

{x1, x2, }

{x: }

n(A)

universal set


+

## the set of positive integers, {1, 2, 3, }

the set of rational numbers

+
0

+
0

`=

## the set of complex numbers

is a subset of

is a proper subset of

is not a subset of

union

intersection

[a, b]

[a, b)

(a, b]

(a, b)

## 8864 H1 MATHEMATICS (2017)

2. Miscellaneous Symbols
=

is equal to

is not equal to

is identical to or is congruent to

is approximately equal to

is proportional to

<

is less than

Y;

>

is greater than

[;

## is greater than or equal to; is not less than

infinity

3. Operations
a+b

a plus b

ab

a minus b

a b, ab, a.b

a multiplied by b

a b,
a:b

a
b

, a/b

a divided by b
the ratio of a to b

a
i =1

a1 + a2 + ... + an
the positive square root of the real number a

n!

n

r

## the binomial coefficient

n!
, for n, r + U {0}, 0 Y r Y n
r! (n r )!

n(n 1)...(n r + 1)
, for n , r +U {0}
r!

4. Functions
f

function f

f(x)

f: A B

f: x y

g o f, gf

## the composite function of f and g which is defined by

(g o f)(x) or gf(x) = g(f(x))

lim f(x)

## the limit of f(x) as x tends to a

x ; x

an increment of x

x a

dy
dx
dn y
dx n

## the derivative of y with respect to x

the nth derivative of y with respect to x

ydx
ydx

x& , &x& ,

e
x

## base of natural logarithms

e , exp x

exponential function of x

log a x

## logarithm to the base a of x

ln x

natural logarithm of x

lg x

logarithm of x to base 10

sin, cos, tan,
cosec, sec, cot

## sin1, cos1, tan1

cosec1, sec1, cot1

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## 8864 H1 MATHEMATICS (2017)

7. Complex Numbers
i

square root of 1

a complex number,

z = x + iy
= r(cos + i sin ), r  0+
+

= rei, r  0
Re z

Im z

arg z

z*

8. Matrices
M

a matrix M

det M

## the determinant of the square matrix M

9. Vectors
a

the vector a

AB

the vector represented in magnitude and direction by the directed line segment AB

i, j, k

a
AB

## a unit vector in the direction of the vector a

the magnitude of a
the magnitude of AB

a.b

aPb

A, B, C, etc.

events

AB

AB

P(A)

A'

P(A | B)

X, Y, R, etc.

random variables

x, y, r, etc.

x1 , x 2 ,

observations

f1 , f 2 ,

11

## 8864 H1 MATHEMATICS (2017)

p(x)

the value of the probability function P(X = x) of the discrete random variable X

p1 , p 2

f(x), g(x)

## probabilities of the values x1 , x 2 , of the discrete random variable X

the value of the probability density function of the continuous random variable X

E(X)

the value of the (cumulative) distribution function P(X x) of the random variable
X
expectation of the random variable X

E[g(X)]

expectation of g(X)

Var(X)

B(n, p)

Po()

F(x), G(x)

N(, )

## normal distribution, mean and variance 2

population mean

population variance

## population standard deviation

sample mean
unbiased estimate of population variance from a sample,

s2

s2 =

1
2
( x x )
n 1

## probability density function of the standardised normal variable with distribution

N (0, 1)
corresponding cumulative distribution function

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