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CONTENTS

Chapter TITLE PAGE

1. Existence of GOD 3
2. Creation of the universe 8
3. Jagat Gurus 16
4. Common Questions 17
5. Parmatma-Atma-Jiva-Body 19.
6 Liberation 21
7. Meditation 22
8. Spirituality & Peace 24
9. Love-Lust-God 25
10. Prayer 26
11. Geeta Summary 27
12. Veda/Upanishads 28
13. Mind 31
14. Short Notes
-- Guru 34
-- Jiva 34
-- Karmas 34
-- Mahavakyas
35
-- OM 35
-- Sankhaya 35
-- Sama/Dama 35
-- Subtlety 36
-- Sixteen (16) kalas 36
-- Ten re-incarnations 36
-- Vasanas 37
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PREFACE

I know my parents. I may not know who were my grandparents but I might know their
names at least. If the enquiry is extended further, a stage is reached where I cannot find
out the origin of my ancestral line of descend. The same is true with every one of us.
Mind, therefore, gets confused and we stop further enquiry, when we know that the
answer will not adversely affect us in any way in our life.

The curiosity to find answers to questions like, does God exist, who is God, who am ‘I’,
what is the purpose of my life, existed forever. In the past, the men of wisdom had given
answers to such like questions, as per their intellectual capabilities. With the continuous
development in the intellectual level of the human beings, some of the answers have lost
their relevance today and some are modified, either in their perception or interpretation.

The views expressed are so many that in the absence of systematic arrangement of them,
a common man is thoroughly confused. The confusion increases further when every one
sticks to his own inherited believes which are sometimes super-imposed by his own
experiences.

No body has the time and ability to go through & understand the voluminous Holy
Scriptures, most of which might have been written in a language which he does not
understand.

The concept of God is very simple to understand. We, knowingly or unknowingly, made
it too complicated. This book is an attempt to understand, in a simple way, an un-
understandable. You know GOD if you know that HE is unknowable.

An attempt has been made to put the things, as they exist today, without any bias, what so
ever. To derive maximum benefit out of this book, the reader is advised to put aside, for a
moment, their own faiths & believes, so that they can analyze the views expressed here
independently & to evaluate them rationally without any bias.

Separate chapters have been added to understand the meanings of some of the terms, like
meditation, spirituality & liberation used in Hindu mythology. Separate chapters are
provided to have an overview of Vedas, Upanishads & Geeta etc. To add to the
knowledge of the readers, a chapter is added to include short notes on the common terms
like, Guru, Om, mind, mahavakyas and prayer.

The views expressed in this book are purely personal. Any positive opinions sent by the
readers will be welcomed and may be incorporated in the next addition with due
acknowledgement.
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EXISTANCE OF GOD

Does GOD exist?


If He does, where does He live?
What is His name & how does He look like?
Who created this universe?
What was the purpose of this creation?
What is the aim of our life?
Can we have permanent peace of mind?

It is one of the oldest pursuits of the man to find answers to such questions. This quest
exists in the minds of human beings only and not in any other living organism. It is
because the mind & intellect in a man is more developed than in other forms of lives.
Although some of the other forms of lives may have some of their specific faculty better
developed than that of human beings. For example, a lion has more physical strength and
a dog can listen to sounds, which a man can’t.

The knowledge, to find answers to such questions, can be acquired either by inferences
based on laboratory experiments or by verbal testimony of wise people based on their
experiences & perceptions. Another scientific method of investigation is that if a fact
can’t be tested under laboratory conditions, and if a theory or postulate can explain all the
observed aspects of a fact, then the theory is deemed to be correct in respect of that fact
or event. This method had been adopted by our rishis who had studied and observed
various aspects of GOD and universe.

The existence of GOD can be known only by correct methods of contemplation and not
under laboratory conditions due limitations of the means available to us.

In the pursuit to find answers to such questions, the scientists have developed many
branches of science. Similarly, the philosophers and prophets have given thought
provoking doctrines and unique concepts. But none of these theories, doctrines or
concepts led us to any well-defined conclusion. Some of the doctrines & concepts do take
us to a level from where it is not difficult to perceive or realize the possible answers to
them, with a reasonable degree of certainty. Here we must also remember that according
to the “Principal of uncertainty”, a certainty of ‘1’ is never possible.

Unfortunately, in spite of the best efforts, there is no meeting point between different
schools of thought on the question, whether the GOD exist or not. On the contrary, there
are two divergent categories of people i.e. theists and atheists. The atheists do not believe
in the existence of any supernatural entity like GOD. At best they believe that the Nature
and its laws govern the activities of the universe. The theists, on the other hand, believes
and have faith in the existence of some supernatural, most powerful, intelligent and active
entity behind the working of the entire cosmos. Some of these faiths have even given
their own definite name and form to such an entity. The GOD is formless according to
some and have a definite form according to the others. The GOD is, therefore, formless
according to some and have a definite form according to the others. For example: -
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Jainism does not believe in the existence of GOD. They believe in existence of a limited
number of atmas.
Buddhism does not believe in the existence of either GOD or atma. They follow the path
of dharma.
Christianity, Islam & Juroso believe in the existence of GOD in one form or the other.
Vedic literature believes in an ultimate Reality but within it, it has different views on its
name, form and its relation with the universe.

A common man has no time to put his own efforts to find answers to such questions. He
is too preoccupied to earn his basic requirements of food and shelter. This does not mean
that his curiosity to find answers is in anyway subsided. It is only a question of priorities.
Whenever he finds some time to contemplate and makes an attempt, he soon gives up its
further pursuit, finding no immediate clear answers.
A man gets further discouraged, when he finds himself surrounded by religious
establishments, which have rigid faith in their own believes. They refuse to permit their
followers to look beyond the boundaries of their own faith. This attitude has sown seeds
of intolerance and hatred. The result is that instead of finding ‘Unity in diversity’, we see
‘diversity in Unity’. The religion instead of creating bonds of love, erected walls of
hatred amongst different sections of society. This, in turn, creates sorrows and pains
instead of peace and bliss.

Who am I? Am I this physical body by itself! If this body itself is ‘I’ then this ‘I’ must
know everything about at least self i.e. this body. On the contrary, the body does not
know how its own internal structure was designed or given a particular shape, how it
functions and who guides the biological changes inside it. It does not know the purpose
for which it came into existence (birth). It has no control to decide when & how will it
cease to exist (death). Even during its period of existence (life) it can’t predict any of its
functions. In short, ‘this body” (i.e. ‘I’?) does not know much about this body (Itself), till
it acquires some knowledge, at a later stage, by way of studying the works of others on
biosciences. Therefore, ‘I’ just can’t be this body as stand-alone i.e. by-itself.

There should, therefore, be no doubt that ‘I’ am something other than this body and some
mysterious power is functioning behind all the processes of birth, growth & death of it.
The mating of the parents is just one small step in the long & complicated chain of
process. Therefore, still to insist that I am this body alone and nothing else, is merely
running away to face the facts and, knowingly or unknowingly, amounts to avoid making
efforts to investigate & find true answer to, “Who am I?”

The concept of GOD is simple to understand, provided we are sincere in our approach. It
is very complicated otherwise. We have volumes of literature to satisfy both types of
people.

A saint tries to understand the ultimate truth through the spiritual methods whereas a
scientist attempts the same thing through material research and development. The aim of
both, knowingly or unknowingly, is the same i.e. to understand the ultimate truth. This
curiosity of investigation when it functions through physical world is called scientific
method and when it works through spiritual concepts is called spirituality.
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An enlightened thinker believes in the existence of some external agency, which controls
the systematic and harmonious working of a large number of complicated systems found
within the universe. Take a look at one such system, which is very close to us i.e. our
own body. It is a complex system. Yet it works so effortlessly that we are not even aware
of its working. This effortless working continues even during our sleep, when we are not
aware of even the presence of it. The more you know about the working of human body,
the more is the faith in the existence of a mysterious power behind its working.

The intricate working of our body system and the precisions with which our numerous
cosmic system move can’t be merely due to a cosmic accident or a big-bang. The creation
of such systems could have been possible only as a result of some willful action by a
super intelligent super-power. It may further be added that if such a creation was by an
intelligent entity then it can’t be without a pre-determined well thought of purpose.

GOD & NATURE

Atheists say that the nature governs all the activities. What is then nature? Is it not like
replacing an unknown name (GOD) with another unknown one (Nature)?

This unknown entity, whatever is its nature, but it cannot be an inert one due to the very
nature of the functions it performs. It has to be associated with, both super power as well
as super intelligence. The laws of nature are merely a set of universal laws or programs
generated by such entity. These programs, when put in action seem to work
automatically. Only a super intelligent entity can generate such programs & make them
work so precisely and automatically. The spiritual leaders call this inevitable super entity,
a motive force behind all the activities as GOD i.e. the Generator, Organizer and
Destroyer of the universe.

Almost all the religions believe in the existence of one and only one such entity. They
call it by different name according to their own language and other local factors,. All
the names point towards one and only one entity, which is responsible for the
systematic working of the whole universe, including its large number of complicated
systems or its sub-systems of animate and inanimate kingdom. The laws of nature
are thus designed and put into action merely to put the working of entire cosmos on
automatic mode of working.

GOD is only ONE (without a second)

When we find similarities in a particular product of daily use like cars, we know that the
manufacturer of that make of product must also be same. A manufacturer may be
producing more models of cars. But the cars of a particular model will have similar
features irrespective of whether they are manufactured in India or Japan. This remains
true even when we find some peripheral variations, so long as the basic features are same.
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This logic if extended to the human race, indicates that there must be ONE and only ONE
creator of all varieties of the animate or inanimate objects of the universe. A man may be
born in New Delhi or New York, he has the same internal and external configuration of
his body. The relative location of its limbs like nose, ears & eyes, on the body also
remain the same. Some variations due to differences in colour & sexes are the peripheral
variations and designed with a purpose. The other varieties of animate and inanimate
kingdom are His willful additional models. Each such model again has similarities within
themselves.

The belief, that there must be only one creator is further strengthened, when we know
that the modern means of transportations were not available in the ancient days. It was,
therefore, not possible for a single genetic module of any living being, to have migrated
to different parts of the world. The origin of life, therefore, could not have initiated from
a single point on earth or elsewhere, as is generally believed. The same creator must have
put the different ‘seeds’ of creation, at multi-points in the universe.

We, also find that the finer attributes of life, like love, hate, sex, greed, ego, anger &
hunger are present, in varying degrees, in all including animals, insects & even plants.
Therefore, there is a strong possibility that their source is also one and the same.

If we think a little deeper, we shall realize that the Super-entity, which is not an inert
matter, is trying to express itself through matter consisting of varieties of animate &
inanimate objects. This spiritual essence, when in action, is indicated by the word ‘GOD’.

Vedic rishis, Christ, Mohammad and Nanak, to take a few names, all had expressed a
common view that the whole multiplicity of objects in the universe came out of a Unity.
These men of wisdom lived in different times and at different places. Their languages
were also different. The modern means of transport & communications were also not
available at that time. Therefore, there was no possibility of the exchange of their views
covering very long distances and spanning over long periods. Still many similarities in
their thoughts, as a result of independent contemplation, could have been possible only if
there was a common Truth trying to express Itself through different men (instruments).
This common truth is GOD.

As stated earlier, no doubt most of the theists feels that GOD is one. But the irony of the
thing is that still they fight over the name of God. The people of different faiths have
given their own names to GOD and each one of them claims its name as the real name of
GOD. What a fallacy in the words and deeds? Fortunately, now there is a reversal of this
trend among the educated masses.

WHY CAN.T SEE GOD?

The reason for not being able to ‘see’ the GOD with our eyes is due to the limitations of
our tools of acquiring knowledge. For example, our eyes cannot see light beyond
infrared and ultraviolet radiation ranges. It does not mean that nothing exist beyond
the visible spectrum. Other means are available which help us to explore further.
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Similarly, our sense of sound perception has limitations. A bat is gifted with the power to
listen to sound frequencies even beyond the human audible range. There are many other
animals and birds who have some other sensory power which is more developed than that
of a human being.

We ‘see’ water in a mirage, which actually does not exist. We see different colours,
which have no existence of their own. The different colours are merely perception of the
different electromagnetic radiations as a result of different responses to them by the cons
& rods of the retina of eye.

It is, therefore, not difficult to conclude that what we perceive with our sense organs may
be incomplete, incorrect or even deceptive.

Thus, if we are not able to see or feel His presence, it is due to the limitations of our
instruments of perception, and not due to nonexistence of Him. In the Sikh religion, it is
stated that Koi na jane tumra antt (no one can know limits of His existence). By
improving upon our instruments of perception i.e. body, mind and intellect, we can
achieve our purpose to some extent. Our ancient rishis have given us methods to do that.
According to them, He can be “visualized (realized)” by using the microscope/telescope
of atma, after cleaning the dust on its lenses i.e. purifying atma of its sins and vices
gathered by it over the past.

GOD therefore exists. GOD is ONE and only ONE without a second by whatever name
and form you realize or visualize.
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CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE

The scientists have made efforts to find out how & when the universe was created. They
have not paid much attention to investigate as to who created it and why was it
created. The Hindu philosophers and Rishis, on the other hand, have addressed to all
the four aspects i.e. who, why, how, and when was the universe created. But the
difficulty is that the subject is so complicated and prophets so self centered that they
champion their own philosophy and don’t agree on to one concept to reach a
common conclusion. They have different and sometimes divergent views, supported
by their own logic.

The different views, according to the Hindu mythology, on the creation of universe can
be broadly divided into two schools of thought, namely dualistic and non-dualistic.

(1) DUALISTIC VIEW

According to dualistic view, the GOD and universe are two different entities. This view
has further variations depending upon assumed relationship between GOD and the
universe. Some of the views are: -

(a) GOD and universe are two independent ever-existing entities.


(b) GOD and universe are two separate entities but universe is dependent upon or
controlled by GOD.
(c) GOD Himself had created the universe, as a separate entity, by His own super-
natural powers
(d) The universe is the manifestation of GOD into different forms and, therefore,
actual transformation had taken place.
(e) The universe is an integral part of GOD and has grown out of it. Ultimately it
merges back into it.

For a rational mind, it is not difficult to believe in the existence of a mysterious super-
power, in one form or the other. The answers to why & how did He create the universe,
are difficult and controversial. The Creationist Theory (Dualistic View) states that any
one or more of the following may be the reasons for the creation of the universe: -

(a) Projection of the glory of GOD’s own supernatural powers.


(b) A mere will of GOD to break the monotony of SELF-pure existence of ONE
without a SECOND.
(c) His svabhava i.e. a natural urge within to create, is His inherent quality.
(d) For the purpose of GOD’s enjoyment.
(e) Merely a play (lila) of GOD. A lila is spontaneous and, therefore, has no reason
for it.
(f) Created for some pre-determined purpose behind it.
{Note: -- The purpose of any creation can be best known only to its creator. But
it can’t be any one mentioned at (a), (b) or (d) above, because He is said to be
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all blissful and complete in Himself. He does not require any additional source
of enjoyment or desire to display His powers}.
(g) Look at time as real & declare time as the cause for the whole manifestation.
[Note: - The GOD is said to be all-powerful. This means that no activity can ever
take place without His wish or permission. The history shows that the main change
that has taken place in the universe over the past centuries is the material progress
through the developments in the fields of science & technology. This change could
not have taken place if it was against His wish. Does it not mean that the purpose of
the creation was to create a material world and thereafter, continuously fine-tune and
refine it by way of adding more varieties to His original creation, with the help of the
instruments of animate & inanimate objects available within the system? This
property of self-correction & self-development by a system is not new to us. It is
present in the functioning of our own body.]

The process and sequence of creation of universe, differs from scripture to scripture. In
some cases, it appears to be controversial or even contradictory to each other. To add to
the confusion, even in a given scripture, there may be some seemingly self-contradictory
statements regarding creation. But there is a subtle uniformity in most of them. They all
accept that before creation there was only one infinite Perfection or Unity, out of which
emerged the multiplicity.

According to causation chain of creation of the finite world, the Creator (total Mind)
desired, reflected, thought or meditated. This desire of GOD (Paripurna, all full) was out
of self-ignorance, a transitory phase into which any one can go temporarily at any point
of time. Here we must remember that self-ignorance (maya) is due to absence of
knowledge of Self and is not the presence of any negative quality. This apparent
aberration of self-ignorance is because He cannot express Himself into any modification
and exhibit His own glories without a desire propelling behind it.

The Creator thought about how best He should express Himself in His own illimitable
vitality. He contemplated upon as to what should be that factor at whose departure the
body will come down and with whose contact the body shall maintain itself, singing its
own songs of pains & joys.

It is a ego-center that maintains body. The physical structure of body is planned, prepared
and maintained for Ego to sing its songs on the beats of past & present experiences. The
Ego is nothing but a simulated self-forgetfulness of the Reality of its own eternal nature
in its deliberate identification as non-atma (non-Self). Ego is thus like the reflection of
Self. The whole world seems to have been so created, that it is self-maintainable, self-
progressive, self-destructive and self-regenerateable.

It is said that the human race originated from a single first couple. The entire expansion
of the population from a single couple located at an isolated place, with meager means of
transportation available in the ancient times, to travel through difficult terrains of seas &
mountains, is not possible. Moreover, if the whole of the human race were produced out
of a single couple lineally & laterally, then there should have been many common
features in the language & social habits amongst the people of different parts of the
world. This is not so. In most of the cases, there are large diversities in them. Therefore,
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GOD must have created not just one pair, as a ‘seed’, at one particular location, but
varieties of such seeds (including those of animals & plants) were put at many locations
including perhaps, on some other planets also. The original pattern of creation was
further modified with the passage of time, as a part of a continuous process of refinement.

Some of the specific theories of dualistic view, which deal with the creation of the
universe, in brief, are as follows: -

(a) Vaisnova theory: - Originally only Vasudeva or Narayan (GOD) existed. He is


pervading the universe. He pressed into service His own latent maya, time, karma
and svabhava. Maya assumed the form of three gunas i.e. satva, rajas & tamas.

From tamas were born five elements i.e. ether-air-fire-water-earth, in that order.
From rajsic were born five organs of perception (ears, eyes, nose, tongue & skin)
& action (mouth, hands, feet, genitals & excretory organs).
From satvic were born mind and five senses of perception (hear, sight, smell, taste
& touch).

Narayana created Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, the creator, preserver and destroyer
respectively of the universe. Brahma created four sons i.e. kumaras (Sanaka,
Sananda, Sanatna and Sanat). They refused progeny. Therefore, Brahma created
Rudra (Shiva), the lord of all Gods. Shiva created power and devastating off
springs. Brahma stopped him. Brahma begot ten more sons through inherent
powers. They were Marica, Atri, Angrira, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrigu, Vasista,
Daksa and Narada. First man Manu was named Svayambhuva (self-generatable)
and his wife was Satyarupa (true beauty). This increased population. Neither
Brahma nor Shiva knows His true nature. {Note: - The apparently imaginary
narrations & names stated above have an esoteric meaning behind them}.

(b) Madhvacharya Theory: - Madhvacharya, who lived in thirteenth century was the
founder of dualistic school of Vedanta. His doctrine recognizes GOD, individual
souls and the world as separate entities. He recognized two orders of Reality i.e.
independent (GOD) and dependent (individual souls & world). GOD created the
other two. He said that world and individual souls are not false appearances. They
are the act of creation by GOD as a result of divine sportive play (lila). Therefore,
five fold differences exist between (1) GOD & soul (2) GOD & matter (3) soul &
soul (4) soul & matter (5) matter & matter.

There are three types of souls namely:- (i) nitya, eternally free (ii) mukta, like Gods
& yogis (iii) bandha, which are bound by desires. Bandha souls are liberated
through devotion (bhakti) and by the grace of GOD. Liberation means the
realization of the soul’s inmate bliss.

HE is Saguna (determinate) and possesses six infinite excellent qualities, namely:


HE is (i) all-pervading & world essence (ii) independent (iii) eternal reality (sat)
(iv) active (chit) (v) ever blissful (anand) and (vi) pure. HE is different from jiva,
which is impure due to contamination with vasanas.
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According to him, purusha (Vishnu) is independent and prakriti (Lakshmi) is


dependent on Vishnu. According to Tantra, purusha (Shiva) and prakriti (shakti)
are not different in causal unmanifested form and only apparently different in the
manifested form.

(c) Ramanujam Views: - According to Ramanujam also, the world and souls are as
real as GOD. They are neither created nor destroyed. He believed in the theory
that effect pre-exists in its material cause. The creation, therefore, means
manifestation of the effect which is already implicitly contained into its material
cause. The destruction means the reverse of it. This is like transformation of clay
into pots or gold into ornaments and the reverse of it. Likewise, world &
individual souls are real transformation of Brahman.

Like in Sankhya, he believed in prakriti, but unlike Sankhya, he believed in its


dependence on GOD. GOD, from within controls prakriti, like soul controls the
body. He said that dependent things could also be real. Matter & soul are His
attributes or modes. He also said that matter and soul are different from each other
and also different from GOD, the controller, though they are not external to Him.
They are co-eternal with Him. GOD neither creates them nor destroys them.

Creation means subtle matter (prakriti) evolves into gross matter and
immaterialised souls become housed in gross bodies according to unfulfilled
desires or karmas. Creation enables the souls to reap the fruits of their past deeds.
This process is said to be beginning-less, so that there ever remains the possibility
of past deeds. The law of karma, therefore, necessitates creation and is the self-
determined will of GOD. The charge of cruelty or partiality is thus ruled out.

The Madhya’s and Ramanujam doctrines, both agree that both the souls & world
are real and dependent upon GOD. They also agree that five fold differences exist
between GOD, soul & matter. They differ on the point that according to Madhva,
GOD created (separate entity) the souls and world, whereas they are the
manifestation (integral entity) of GOD Himself according to Ramanujam.

(d) Nirvedanada View: - Hinduism holds that universe (Brahman) has no beginning
in time. It appears in one complete cycle of three steps i.e. appear, remain and
disappear (srsti, sthiti & praliya). This cycle repeats itself. At individual level it is
similar to the states of awakening, dream and deep sleep.

The first-born jiva of a cycle is endowed with infinite powers of knowledge, will
and action. He is BRAHMA. The entire universe is created in a planned manner at
His will. He creates it out of Himself. Being jiva, Brahma has body of cosmic
mind & GOD Himself is the spirit within. There are three concentric chambers or
sheaths (kosas) of His body as follows: -

Vijnanmaya kosa, which consist of intellect, five senses of knowledge and has
power of knowledge.
Manomaya kosa. Which consist of mind & five senses of perception and has
power of will.
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Pranmaya kosa. Which consists of five pranas & five senses of action and has
power of action.
The five elementary bhutas (tanmuntras) are akasa, vayu, agni, jal, and prithvi.
They were produced in that order. The second been produced out of the first one
and so on. They are different from what we ordinarily mean by ether, air, fire,
water and earth. {Note: - If the rishis thought that the two categories of names are
different from each other, then they could have named them differently!}

These tanmantras emerged out of avyakta. The avyakta has three traits depending
upon its components i.e.
(i) Satva: - It is the principle in nature & illuminates things i.e. reveals them
to our conscious.
(ii) Rajas: - It brings changes and is dynamic in nature.
(iii) Tamas: -It is the element of ignorance and inertia.

All the butas bear the stamp of these three traits in varying degree. Illuminating portion
of them all combine to compose intellect & mind. The dynamic portion of them
separately forms five subtle senses of action and they jointly form five pranas. The three
kosas composing Brahma’s body are built up this way by illuminating and dynamic
portions of tanmantras. This subtle body is called shukshama sharira. Avyakta—
panchbuta—three kosas (brahma) body i.e. shukshma sharira (having three traits) is
eternal ENERGY.

GOD is the only Reality and avyakta (prakriti) is His shakti. He existed alone by Himself
with His mysterious powers. There was no nature, space, causation, name or form. There
was no void also. It was pure Existence (ENERGY), one without a second. That one
(ENERGY) then manifested numerously to project this world of multiplicity of animate
& inanimate objects. This view is in agreement with the modern scientific theory that
nothing can ever be created. It is the energy, which is converted into matter & vice-versa.
HE is, therefore, both efficient and material cause of the universe.

(e) Sankhya, Nyaya, Vaiseska, Carvaka, Budha & Jaina schools have different other
theories about creation.

We can thus see that He is the base (substratum) of the whole universe. It is immaterial
whether universe is manifestation of or created by Him. Either way, it finally merges
back into Him. It is like that the plants grow on the surface of earth. They merge back
into it after their usefulness.

Each element of His creation has a definite role assigned to it to play. The objects of the
creation can be classified into the following four categories: -

(a) Solids: They have only body i.e. form or shape.


(c) Plants: They have a body and limited activity i.e. limited mind.

(d) Animal kingdom: They have body, mind and limited intellect.
(e) Human beings: They have body, mind and more developed intellect.
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The purpose of creating a man, with enhanced BMI (body, mind & intellect), is not just
to realize the presence of his creator. It is for to act as per His orders to accomplish a
GOD’s purpose for which he was created & placed in a particular slot of time, place &
social environment in the universe.

It is the duty (dharma) of the man to faithfully receive and cheerfully obey His
commands. (hukam rajai chalna, Nanak likhia nal- Granth Sahib).The presence of His
commands is realized only when they are received & being acted upon. They cannot be
predicted. (Hukmi hovan akar, hukam na keha jai- Granth Sahib). All the physical
bodies, animate or inanimate, are His instruments designed to do specific jobs and
perform specific rolls. Each object in the universe, acts as per His directions only
(hukame ander sub koi, bahar hukam na koi- Granth Sahib).

Madhava’s phillosphical doctrine is called Shudhadvaita,


Ramanujam’s doctrine is called Visistadvaita and
Shankara’s doctrine is called Nirvisesadvaita.

(2) NON-DUALIALISTIC VIEW

The majority of the Hindu schools of thought accept, more or less, the Vedantic
viewpoint i.e. non-dualistic view. Non-dualistics believe in ever existence of only one
Reality. They don’t consider the universe as a separate entity. They consider it as a dream
of ultimate Reality or a delusory projection of mind. To understand the concept of non-
dualism, we must first understand the concept of maya.

(a) MAYA: - Maya has no entity of its own. It is merely ignorance i.e. absence of
knowledge at any point of time. Maya expressed in an individual is the individual mind.
The infinite functioning through total mind or maya is called Ishvra.

Reality has two definite expressions i.e. knowledge (vidya) & ignorance (avidya). These
two expressions are two states of Reality. The second state (expression) is nothing but
just the absence of the first state of knowledge at any point of time. These are like;
the‘0’and ‘1’ states of binary system. ‘0’ state has no entity of its own. It only represents
an absence of ‘1’ state. Maya has significance only due to the existence of GOD. GOD &
maya are thus the two opposite sides of the same coin. When one is seen, the other is not.
The maya is also said to be “ardhangni” (other half) of GOD.

Therefore, only for understanding purposes, knowledge and maya are presumed to be two
separate entities, as the two inherent powers of Reality. Of these two, ignorance (maya)
manifests in two subjective mischiefs. Firstly, it veils the real (avarna) and secondly, in
place of the real, to fill its place, it projects a show of apparent (vikshepa).

When veiling power clouds the intellect, the mind (maya) starts projecting its
imaginations in place of real. When mind does not allow to detect a post or a rope
(veiling), it simultaneously projects on it a ghost or a snake respectively, to be
misunderstood as real. This false situation appears true till the truth of reality of pole and
rope is revealed. This phenomenon of imposition of unreal over real is called Sri
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Sankara’s theory of Superimposition (vivartavada). This relative reality of the world of


forms remains and appears as real till the time the reality is revealed. The real object and
unreal projection always share some common properties of each other i.e. a cow can’t be
projected over the rope. This is called Mutual Superimposition.

Therefore, no effort is required to remove ignorance (maya). We acquire knowledge and


maya vanishes of its own. It is like that no effort is required to physically throw the
darkness out of a room. Light a candle in the room and the darkness vanishes.

(b) NON-DUALISTIC VIEW: - According to dualistic view, the GOD either created
(Madhvacharya view) or manifested (Ramanujam view) into the multiple objects of the
world. On the other hand, Advaita (non-dualistic) school of Vedanta holds that there is no
actual transformation. He is changeless and He remains so throughout eternity. Nothing
new can ever be created. The change of form, name, nature and condition is all that we
call creation. This is similar to the ‘Law of Conservation of Energy’. For any creation we
require three things i.e. material, equipment & intelligence, as the pre-requisites. They
were not available to begin with. Therefore, the Reality and world were never created.

Early Vedanta (represented by Mandukya Karikas & Yoga Vasista): - It says that the
world of objects recognized by us is nothing but a mental projection i.e. play or an act of
maya or ignorance.

Modern Vedanta (represented by Sri Sankaracharya): - It allows a relative reality to the


world of objects as are seen by us.

There is no fundamental difference between these two theories.

Universe is not a real projection but an apparent one i.e. illusionary. This is like the
illusion of a snake over a real rope. The illusionary names and forms are thrown out by
His mysterious power known as avyakta, prakriti or maya (avidya). Out of the two
mischiefs (veiling & projection) of maya, the later projects the infinite forms of universe
(because the reality is veiled). The varieties of projections are first initial or unfulfilled
desires and then added to it are the tendencies or impressions left by our actions (karmas)
of the past.

Therefore, the universe has only a relative existence and not an absolute one. It exists
only so long as we are under the spell of avidya. These projections melt away when the
reality is revealed. This is like that the objects and events of a dream vanish altogether on
awakening. During dream every thing appears so real that we actually appear to feel the
pains & sorrows of our dream. So is the appearance of this world, from the standpoint of
Brahman, which is our true nature. This illusionary projection is due to Ishvara, the
conditioned Brahma and not by Brahman in the knowledge state.

Unfolding of the mysteries of the universe is beyond our reach. By the very relation to
the nature of the subject, it is bound to remain so, forever. This is because the Absolute is
beyond the apprehension of the limited powers of our equipment of learning including
mind and intellect. We are created with limited potentials and for limited GOD purpose
or for enjoyment by Ego. A created system always has lesser intellectual capabilities as
15

compared to those of its creator. We, therefore, can never have the capacity to fully
understand our creator. We can, at best, only realize Him and His mysterious energy
through contemplation and not by any material scientific investigations, the result of
which may sometimes, be illusionary or even misleading.

The eternal EXISTANCE of one without a second can never be denied. The creation (real
or illusionary) of the universe by Him is also a certainty. These truths will remain
forever. We must, therefore, have one unshakable faith that there is one and only one
supreme power behind the entire real, illusionary, projected, transitory or even relatively
real universe.

The answers to other enquiries i.e. why & how the universe was created is a
transcendental and in spite of whatever has been stated so far, they could never been
answered completely by any scientist, sastra, sage or acharya. So, do not rack your mind
on these aspects. You can never get a solution for this problem. Swami Vivekananda
said that we need not bother about the ‘why’ or ‘how’ of it. We can never know it. Guru
Nanak also said ‘nobody knows about your limits’ (koi na jane, tumra antt).

The Brahman or the ultimate Reality is the pure Being, unknown and unknowable, due to
the limitations of our senses of perception.

Furthermore, the riddle of knowing the unconditioned Brahma & universe can never be
solved, because Being (knowledge) and universe (ignorance), like light and darkness
cannot coexist. When one is present, the other is absent. Therefore, one cannot study the
other in its absence. Thus, knowledge cannot know the nature of ignorance because when
the knowledge is present, the ignorance is absent. We can, therefore, just have a
perception of maya (ignorance) and Self.

All the doctrines stated so for are merely logic-supported theories, evolved by our rishis
as a result of their most sincere desire and concerted efforts to understand Him & the
universe. Different doctrines were formulated to explain different aspects of mysteries, in
such a way so that men of different intellectual levels placed in a particular social
environment of that time, can understand Him, in easy steps.

The philosophy of non-dualism promotes the harmony among people. It creates feeling of
oneness in the world. Otherwise, there comes a feeling of superiority in one religion over
the other. This attitude was responsible for many fights among different sections of
society. We must, therefore, even based on merits should adopt the concept of Unity for
our own benefit and to achieve peace of mind, peace in society and ultimately for the
good of the whole humanity.

Nature of GOD & universe: - GOD is Energy Eternal. GOD, Parmatma, Utimate Truth
or Reality, Existence, Absolute, pure Consciousness etc. are all synonymous terms.

The scientists have proved beyond doubt that energy can be converted into matter and
vice-versa. Every matter as a systematic encapsulated quanta of energy. The infinite ever-
existing Energy (GOD) manifested Itself into various forms of inanimate and animate
16

objects including plants. The conversion of energy into objects and back into energy is a
continuous process. Energy Itself is the material source, equipment (instrument) and the
intelligent cause behind these cyclic changes, which we call birth & death, growth &
decay or creation & destruction.

In the unmanifested form there is no difference between GOD, human beings, animals
plants or any other object. They all are one eternal energy. The differences are observed
only in their manifested forms.

JAGAT GURUS

There were four JAGAT GURUS universally accepted in Hindu culture. They were as
follows, in that order: -

1. Shankracharya: (2500 years ago). (Non-dualistic view)


2. Nimbakacharya:
3. Ramanujacharya: (Dualistic View)
4. Madhvacharya: (Thirteenth Century) (Dualistic View)
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COMMON QUESTIONS

Q: - If He Himself, is the designer and architect of the working of the whole universe,
then why we find distortions like sorrows and pain in it?

A: - The apparent aberrations are due to unwilling or non-implementation of His orders


faithfully. This resistance or hesitation in obeying His orders is due to defects that creep
up into the instruments (objects) of universe, during the process of their implementation.
These defects are due to past karmas. When we forget Brahma due to maya i.e. disobey
His commands, we meet sorrows & vice-versa.
The presence of limited sorrows also serves a useful purpose. We can’t have a better
appreciation of the joys if they alone were present, due to the monotony that would have
set-in. We can’t exploit full potential of joys, if we have no experience of sorrows. We
can enjoy joys only if we know, what a sorrow is. Both, joys & sorrows, therefore, have
to co-exist in an appropriate ratio.

Pains & sorrows also work as a motive force to push the universe to work automatically.
Every one has pains & sorrows of life. He, therefore, works to get rid of them and to get
more and more happiness. Pains & sorrows are, therefore, the continuous driving force
behind us to keep us doing action in the hope to get more comforts & happiness. Thus,
the activities in the universe keep on going non-stop and self-propelled.

In fact, GOD created a unique and beautiful universe working in perfect harmony. The
apparent disorders are the byproducts thrown out by living kingdom (human beings,
animals & plants) while performing their cycle of duties.

The joys & sorrows, saint & sinner, kind & beggar, philosopher & idiot, pious-man &
villain, war & peace, cruelty & charity, bloodshed & compassion etc all may be relative
realities or by-products but they do add to the varieties His divine play (lila). The thorns
have a role to play in its coexistence with a rose.

Q: - It is said that I am one of the instruments created by Him to perform job for Him.
HE is all-powerful and created a wonderful universe by Himself. What is now that job
which He could not do by Himself and wanted me, as a instrument?

A: - It is still He only who is working through ‘I’, which is none else but He only. It is
only His method of working. Spider’s net is not different from spider. Net has come out
of the spider and is swallowed back into it after the purpose of it is accomplished.

Q: - If universe is the dream of Brahman, then only He, the dreamer should suffer and
not me in this world, a dream?

A: - The answer lies in the doubt itself. It is this Me, the real ‘I’ i.e. the Brahman, who
suffers due to sorrows during the phase of his ignorance.
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Q: - The dreams of two different persons are usually different. Even two dreams of the
same person are different. Then how is it that all of us apparently see the same objects to
work in the same way every day and not differently?

A: - The answer is again present in the doubt itself. It is one and the same who is seeing
the multiplicity through the multiple objects in His present dream.

Q: - If we perceive the world so clearly, should it must not be real?

A: - We must remember that the human perceptions, due to the limitations of our sense
organs, are often false. For example, appearance of a stationary earth & moving sun,
formation of mirage, non- perception of blades of a moving fan and inability to detect
infrared & ultraviolet light, to quote a few.

Q: - Why the unreal objects appear so real to me, the atma? What is the source of mis-
conceptions?

A: - It cannot be mind, because mind is nothing but a matter, which is inert, insentient or
lifeless. Nor it can be atma, which is a derivative from Self and is, therefore, knowledge.
The knowledge cannot have any delusion. Sankracharya gives the answer. He said that an
iron piece, which in reality not fire, appears to be so when in contact with fire. It is the
Ego (conditioned atma), which perceives the misconceptions and not the (pure) atma.

Today we see body, mind, intellect, ego and their consequent projections of sorrows &
joys. We feel that only these projections exist and the Reality does not. When the pure
CONSIOUSNESS is apprehended in Self, all the projections of body, mind, intellect
(BMI) and the world of objects, emotions & thoughts (OET) disappear. The Reality,
which is a non-dual, alone, exists. At this stage, no distinction such as GOD, world or
individual can ever arise. This is the realization from the standpoint of Brahman.
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PARMATMA-ATMA-JIVA-GROSS BODY

ATMA: -The Pureself individual, a derivative of Parmatma (EXISTANCE) is atma. At


this stage, we do not go into the details of how atma became a derivative of Parmatma. It
should satisfy the curiosity to some extent, if we take the analogy of sea. We know that
due to the inherent potential of sea, waves are produced; they strike against each other
resulting in the formation of froth & large splashes of water. These waves, droplets and
froth appear to be different from sea, only so long as they exist. This process continues
endlessly. If we limit our vision only at the waves & droplets and forget the presence of
sea, then they all appear to have their own individual entity separate from sea till they
merge back. But the appearance of waves, froth & droplets is short lived. There is no
difference in the composition of water in the sea and its derivatives i.e. waves, froth or
drops. The water, which gets detached from the sea by evaporation & other means and
remains separated for longer period, also has the same composition till it merges back
into the sea, after completing its cycle of separation i.e. ‘independent’ existence.

The properties of water in the sea and an individual drop are the same but the potential of
a drop is not the same as that of sea, as a whole. Here lies the basic difference between an
individual atma and the cosmic Parmatma.

JIVA (CHIT): - The deluded atma is called jiva (chit). The delusion is because atma is
temporarily unaware of its true -self due to ignorance (maya). Being unaware 0f the true
nature it gets attached to desires (vasanas, tendencies). During this temporary phase,
atma functions by changing over through three aspects i.e. mind (mana), intellect (budhi)
and ego (ahankara). For understanding purposes, atma the pure-self functioning through
mind, intellect & ego is called jiva or chit. Chit is, therefore, CONSCIOUSNESS playing
upon these functions making Me conscious at all the times of my indecision i.e. doubt of
mind, decision of my intellect or sense of ‘I-ness’.

‘I-ness’ develops automatically, in presence of one’s conscious. It is like the presence of


a positive charge (north pole) automatically develops a negative charge (south pole) on
the other side of the magnet or induces an opposite charge on any nearby magnetic
object. The induced negative charge (maya) has no existence of its own. Therefore, if any
action is performed by the negative charge (maya, ‘I-ness’) then ‘I-ness’ must understand
that the action is ultimately performed by the positive charge (GOD, Truth).

INNER/OUTER EQUIPMENT: -Jiva together with mind, intellect & ego are also
called ‘Inner Equipment’. It controls the gross body. In other words, the inner equipment
works in four different ways and hence four different names i.e. chit, mind, intellect and
ego. The functions of the deluded atma through mind, intellect and ego are indecision,
decision and ahankara (‘I-ness’).

The ‘Outer Equipment’ consists of five sense organs (hear, smell, touch, taste & see) and
five organs of action (hands, legs, mouth, genitals & excretion). The functioning of the
outer equipment requires the presence of the inner equipment.
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Bhakti, Karam & Gyan margs: - The atma, therefore, appears to have been surrounded
by three translucent walls of mind, intellect and ego. When we see atma through any of
these three walls, we can see only jiva, the misty image of Pureself. Therefore, to ‘see’
the Pureself clearly, we must remove these intervening walls. It is not necessary to
remove all the three walls to ‘see’ the Pureself. Removal of any one of them will enable
us to ‘see’ Him clearly. In other words, when one wall is removed, the other two cease
to have any significance and can be considered to have also collapsed automatically. To
remove any wall, a corresponding method has been prescribed i.e.

The mind is controlled (i.e. its wall is pulled down) by devotion (bhakti),
The ego is controlled (i.e. its wall is pulled down) by right actions (karmas) and
The intellect is controlled (i.e. its wall is pulled down) by knowledge (gyan)

These three ways of removing ignorance are called bhakti marg, karam marg and gyan
marg respectively. In fact the later two methods (i.e. karam & gyan marg) ultimately lead
to the first one i.e. bhakti marg. The only difference is that a person who reaches bhakti
marg through gyan marg, has a solid foundation because such a person develops a firm
faith in God through contemplation. Destabilizing forces that he may face can’t shake his
faith. Furthermore, a knowledgeable person can impart knowledge to others also & carry
them along with him through the right logic.

A person who directly adopts the bhakti marg is likely to be shaken easily if some doubt
arises or is created in him. If such a person does not have a sound foundation then there is
every possibility of his foundation being eaten away by moth of even small evils. A blind
follower of bhakti marg can also be easily misled into fanaticism and fundamentalism.
This is dangerous. The direction of such a person will get changed, even unknowingly,
away from GOD.

Geeta describes gyan marg better than the karam marg and karam marg to be better than
bhakti marg. It is ultimately the action (karm) without attachments, which is the essence
of our life. Our detachment from the expectations of the fruits of action is not possible
without offering them to the will of GOD. Such an offer is possible only if we have pure
love (bhakti) for Him. Such an everlasting love, in turn, is possible only through
knowledge (gyan). Therefore, the path to moksha (libration) is like the flight of (action
by) a bird, which is supported equally by the two wings of bakti & gyan. Any imbalance
or absence of any one of the three will not allow any progress.
21

LIBRATION

Vedanta does not want you to renounce the world. It wants you to change your mental
attitude and give up false attachments. A householder may be a better sanyasin than a
person who lives in a forest but is full of passions. In fact the real test of sanyas is when
you are able to maintain detachment of the fruits of action while performing your duties
and staying amid pains & joys of life.

Renounce all the desires and cravings. This itself is moksha. True renunciation is the
renunciation of all passions, desires, egoism and vasnas. If you can renounce ahankara,
you have renounced everything in the world.

According to Vedantic theory, ultimately from the standpoint of dream state of Brahman,
there is no universe, no objects and, therefore, no bondage. Thus there is no need of any
liberation. This is the ultimate state of Realization and requires a very high state of
spiritual level to understand the concept.
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MEDITATION

Meditation has become fashion of the day. It is a five star business for some. The concept
of meditation is most misunderstood.

Meditation is not contemplation or concentration. It is a skill, to consciously remain in a


state of equanimity even in presence of joys & sorrows of life. It is a misconception that
the life of a pious person is free from pains & sorrows. On the other hand, a holy man
sometimes suffers much more while performing his duties. We have the examples of
Christ, Mohammad & Guru Teghbahadur before us. The only difference is that a saint
knows the technique to face them without getting disturbed.

Body-Mind relation: - When we are in an angry mood, our mind gets agitated. When
mind is agitated, the body becomes violent. A disturbed mind is not visible, whereas
a violent body is. Thus, the state of body is the index of the state of mind. In order to
calm down an agitated mind, we generally, first control the violent actions of the
person. Putting a restriction on the physical violence of the body produces a soothing
effect on the agitated mind. Therefore, the states of mind and body mutually affect
each other. In meditation, this property of mutual relationship is used, as a first step,
to initiate the process of control of mind.

STEP ONE: (body control) :- For meditation, we first sit down in a comfortable posture
at a quiet place. In Hindu scriptures, this posture is described as the one in which we sit
cross-legged on the ground with a clean cloth spread over it, keeping the backbone
straight and the body relaxed. Due to health reasons and to accommodate the people with
different social backgrounds, sitting in a chair during meditation, is allowed. The posture
should not be so comfortable that it may induce sleep during the process of meditation.

STEP TWO: (control of mind): - Mind is a flow of thoughts. The monkey like mind is
restless. It keeps on hoping from one thought to another, tirelessly at great speeds.

The mind receives and transmits a large number of thoughts, both good & bad. These
thoughts in turn cause pains & pleasures. The purpose of meditation is to minimize these
thoughts and that too of positive values. The ultimate aim is to reduce them to merge into
silence. This is dissolution of mind, maya or ignorance.

The natural function of the mind i.e. flow of thoughts if stopped abruptly, will cause
devastation like the one caused if the flow of water of a river is stopped. Mind can’t exist
without a thought, which is its real nature. We should, therefore, control the flow of
thoughts systematically, both in quantity and quality. The control of quantity of thoughts
can be achieved by concentrating the mind on to a single object of your liking. The
quality of the thoughts can be improved by selecting such object, which has high values.
The object can be the image of a God of your choice, a flower or picture of a pious
person like your Guru, father, mother or any such other person. Limit your thoughts only
to the positive values of the selected object.
23

The control of mind can also be achieved by just observing the breathing-in & breathing-
out of our breath. Don’t make any attempt to change the natural rhythm of the breath.

Don’t get disturbed if your mind runs here & there in the beginning. Bring it back, to the
same object or thought slowly & calmly without creating a mental tension. Initially, it
will be helpful if the object is placed in front of you or presumed to be at the center of the
forehead or in-between the two eyebrows. Just mentally concentrate on the object. Do not
try to ‘look’ at it. Otherwise it will create avoidable tension or pain in the eyes or head. It
should be a relaxing and soothing experience. Any expectation to see any fancy visual
image, floating or otherwise, is a misnomer.

The mind generally goes to the objects, which it likes. Therefore, one must develop a
faith and love for Him. This state of faith is the pre-requisite & should be reached
through intellect, right actions and/or devotion. The process to achieve meditation is
called contemplation (sadhna). Contemplation is not the process of thinking. The
thinking stage should be over before we have developed faith in Him. It is a method to
direct the mind to a single-point. If the single-point is the limitless Truth Itself, then it is
called ‘nirgun’ contemplation. If the single-point is one of His attributes (any name or
form) then it is called ‘sagun’ contemplation. For the beginners, it is more difficult to
contemplate on the limitless/formless. Therefore, we take the help of any one of the
attributes of the LIMITLESS, the ULTIMATE TRUTH.

With practice, this single-point thought should also vanish into silence. You should feel
that you are merely a witness (seer) of the silence or any thought that may still arise. The
ultimate goal is to give up even the duality of ‘seer’ & ‘seen’ and merge into SILENCE
(KNOWLEDGE), which alone existed forever. The final thoughtless witness state of Self
Realization is not like concentrating on a single object ‘I’, like to see a ‘mango’. When
we see a mango a thought of object mango comes to us. Now here is ‘I’ (witness or self)
with no thought and, therefore, no object.

STEP FOUR: (MEDITATION): - Meditation is a state to be achieved. It is a state of


equanimity or equilibrium of the mind to be maintained under all circumstances, good or
bad. For a common man, it may not be possible to maintain this state at all the times,
which is the ultimate goal. Therefore, our effort should be to maximize, step-by-step, this
period of equipoise. To take the things as they are and accept them as His wish, will be
helpful in this direction.

The ultimate aim of life is to live in meditation while discharging our routine duties.
While performing our duties we should keep Him in mind all the time. It is not very
difficult. This is like that the money is always in the mind of a businessman or the love of
the fiancée is always in the mind of a youth, when they are discharging their routine
functions. No special effort is required to maintain this attitude of mind. It comes
automatically; once you develop a liking for your object through devotion, right action
and/or contemplation.

Meditation and love are the two sides of the same coin of the way to reach the TOP i.e.
SELF-REALISATION. This TOP can be reached through Meditation, and then love is
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automatically achieved. TOP can also be reached through pure love, and then Meditation
is automatically achieved.

Former method is Vedic/Zen way & later method is Sufi way

SPIRITUALITY & PEACE

Spirituality is not a practice of rituals or asnas. It is also not the running away from our
duties in the world. It is neither an emotion nor a drug-induced experience. The motto of
the spiritual world is, ‘To live and let live’ whereas that of material world is ‘To kill or
get killed’.

Man, down the ages had been seeking peace and happiness. It is true even today, in spite
of the modern comforts. Money, fame, education, good-health, intelligence and physical
comforts, by themselves can’t provide peace. At best, they may be helpful. Peace, joy &
love that a man is seeking can come only with a spiritual vision and change of attitude of
mind. There is no other way. There is no age bar also.

Spirituality is to believe in the existence of ONE and ONLY ONE causal source or
substratum of each activity in the universe. It is to see GOD in every object and every
object in GOD. Such a person will have love for all. It is also called Self-Realisation.

To understand the concept of GOD or TRUTH, intellectually is not very difficult. But
mere intellectual understanding is not spirituality. The sorrows are removed i.e. its pains
are not felt only if we directly experience what we have understood by actually living
according to what we have understood.

QUALITIES OF A SPIRITUAL MAN: - In life, everyone respects values, but they


want to see them in others and not in themselves. To a spiritual man the values are more
important than the valuables.

A spiritual person develops the inner qualities of high moral values, equanimity and
composed nature. He has compassion for others. He has a pure transparent heart. He is
fearless with no malice towards any. He has ability of self-control even under adverse
conditions and can face the challenges with courage. He can even strike at the evils, if a
need arises.

RECOGINITION OF A SPIRITUAL MAN: - A spiritual person is so in all his


activities at all times. We can, therefore, recognize him only by watching his actions &
activities. All his actions have the stamp of decency, compassion, equanimity, self-
restraint, high moral values and/or integrity.
A person who is advancing towards spirituality will pay attention even to his small
weaknesses, so that he can remove them also, to reach the state of absolute purity. He
will not pay much attention to the praise that may be showered upon him. The real test of
the meditation, spirituality or equipoise state of a spiritual man is whether he is able to
maintain that state even during turbulences of day- to-day life.
25

LUST-LUST & GOD

Sex is the essential physical need of a human being. It is essential for sustaining &
expansion of living world. To become slave to sex indulgence is lust. The enjoyment out
of sex or lust is short lived. On the other hand, love is the basic nature of a human being.
It adds to the quality of life.

Generally a man love a women to have sex (lust) with her, whereas, a women permits sex
to have love from him. The approach of both has an element of selfishness but the
attitude of women is more positive.

There are three types of love. First is the love due to physical charms. It is short lived.
Such a love is lust. Second is the love due familiarities and mental attachments. It lasts
longer and is generally found among closer relations & friends. The third is divine love.
It is a permanent bliss.

Love is GOD. True love minimizes the miseries & sufferings. Love is generated when we
consider all (others) as our own (ourselves). This attitude of mind is possible only if we
trust that the GOD as one and we all are His inseparable derivatives (human beings).
These derivatives are ‘created’ to perform certain specified role according to His will.
The commands for our actions come to us from time to time. They can’t be predicted. It
is like that the presence of control commands is realized only when they are received &
being acted upon by a guided missile in flight (action) after its launch (birth).

It is a misnomer that the purpose of creation is merely to love each other or to love and
remember Him (devotion, bhakti) all the times and do nothing else. If that was so, then
there seems to be no useful purpose of creation. Therefore, the purpose of the creation
must be something else. We are merely the instruments, as a part of bigger machinery, to
achieve His aim. The commands for action by the instruments (us) are received from time
to time, even without our knowledge.

Love acts like a lubricant for of the instrument/machinery to work smoothly while
carrying out His orders. It is, therefore, essential for smooth working of the universe. On
the other hand, hate creates friction and, therefore, hindrance in obeying His directions.

To give appropriate commands so that His wishes are carried out is His business. We
have no contribution to it. But we can help in producing love (lubricant) to assist Him in
carrying out of His wishes smoothly. Although otherwise also, He has the means &
power to carry out the work as per His wishes by overpowering any such frictional
forces, but that will create avoidable miseries & sorrows for us.

In order to generate love to assist in the smooth functioning of the universe, our rishis
(teachers) have given a very powerful concept that we all belong to one Reality i.e. GOD.
When there is a sincere feeling of oneness, love is generated automatically and peace
prevails without any further effort.

Love is self-sacrifice for others. Hate is to sacrifice others for self.


26

PRAYER

It is the true glorification of the GOD and His attributes. The glorification is not to flatter
Him. It is a technique so that we can tune ourselves to the highest perfection.

In some prayers some words are mentioned to reflect our weaknesses or evils. These
words are included not because those evils may actually be present in us but are to warn
us against their likely entry into our life at any time, if we are not careful.

The prayer should be to thank Him for what He has given to us. Sometimes, we behave
like beggars while praying. We are His sons. We disgrace His status by begging. He
knows what we require, what we are entitled to & what is good for us. Here, the
difference between asking for a thing as we do from our parents & begging must be
differentiated. No prayer can be expected to be answered if it at the cost of others.

It is ironical that sometimes we employ gods, through prayers, as our advocates,


commission agents & doctors to help us and to remove our sorrows. Some thieves and
murderers even pray to Him for success before committing the crime. They try to make
GOD as a abettor of their criminal acts.

During or after the prayer, it is also a tradition to present some offerings to GOD in the
form of money or other material objects. There seems to a fallacy in this practice. If we
sincerely feel that everything belongs to Him and we are merely temporary custodians of
a part of it during our lifetime, then are we not doing, knowingly or un-knowingly, an act
of deceit by offering His things to Him? Alternatively, it means that we feel that all that
we possess belongs to us & not to anyone else, including God.

On the other hand, if the offering is given with a sincere conviction that we are temporary
custodian of His property and we are setting aside a part of it for His cause, then the
purpose of offering is served. Willingly parting a part of our belongings, in the form of
offering, is to remind us that what we possess does not belong to us.

In fact whatever we have belongs to Him. It is a gift from Him to us. What we do with
what we have is our gift to Him.

The quantity of material offering, small or big, has no relevance. The love content of the
offerings is important. Love is the one that we generate & belongs to us. Therefore, the
best offering to God is our love for Him. HE wants our love & nothing else. The unique
quality of love is that it can be generated by anyone, educated or uneducated & rich or
poor, without any expenses. It has no barriers of caste, creed or language. The love
offered should be true, pure & without any selfish motive. HE is receptive to the
language of love & responds to it positively. Love is GOD & GOD is love.
27

GEETA SUMMARY

In our smritis-literature, at many places, there are deep and lucid discussions upon the
Supreme Reality. All of them are called by the generic term Geeta. Almost all the Geetas
are found in one or the other Puranas. The names of some of the Geetas, along with the
corresponding name of its Purana, are stated below: -

Sl. No Name Purana

1. Sreemad Bhagvad Mahabharat


2. Bhikshu (Hamsa) Eleventh chapter of Bhagvad Geeta
3. Anu Geeta (Ashwamedha Parva- of Mahabharta)
4. Brahma Geeta (Some portion of above)
5. Eswara Geeta Kurma Purana
6. Vyasa Geeta Kurma Purana (after above)
7. Brahma Geeta Skanda Purana
8. Soota Geeta Skanda Purana
9. Ganesha Geeta It is Krida Kanda in the concluding portion of .
Ganesha Purana.
10. Yama Geeta It is found in three Puranas i.e. Agni, Vishnu &
Narsimha Puranas.
11. Rama Geeta Adhyatma Ramayana of Yyasa.
12. Avadhoota Geeta Not find place in any Purana.
13. Ashtavakra Geeta -do-
14. Shiva Geeta Patala Kanda of Padma Purana.
15. Utra Geeta
16 Kapila Geeta
17. Devi Geeta
18. Pandva Geeta
19. Surya Geeta

Sreemad Bhagvad Geeta was composed in 3100 BC. It is the most popular and is
sometimes referred to as Geeta itself. The 18 chapters of this Geeta can be divided into
three groups: -

I = Chapter 1 to 6: - They talk about ‘I’ (aham). Chap 6 is the culmination of the first
six chapters. Dhayana Yoga is the topic of discussion here. To understand ‘I’, we have to
meditate.

II = Chapter 7 to 12: - They talk about Brahma. It explains who is “Ishwara”. What are
HIS qualities? How can we reach HIM through bhakti.

III= Chapter 13 to 18: - It explains the relationship between the two. To develop a deep
understanding of the two, ‘tyaga’ is required. Chapter 18 summarizes the whole of
Bhagwat Geeta and exhorts you towards not inaction but giving up the doer-ship action
and sense of possession that gives rise to the bondage we feel.
28

VEDAS/UPANISHADS

The religions of every faith, consist of three sections, namely; (a) ritualistic forms &
symbols, (b) mythology and (c) philosophy. The ancient Hindu scriptures can be divided
into the following categories: -

1. SHRUTIS: They are the result of direct revelation to Rishis by GOD


HIMSELF; like Vedas/Brahmasutras/vedantas (Upanishads). Brahmasutras
explain some aspect of Vedas whereas Upanishads are the sar (end results) of
Vedas. There is no particular author of them.
2. SMRITIES: They are the result of past memories of great elevated saints,
like Geeta by Lord Krishna.
3. PRAKARAN Granthas: They explain a particular aspect of divinity; like
Tatva Viveka, Viveka Churhamani etc.

The sequence of their composition is: -

1. Brahma-Sutras/ Vedas (books of knowledge). They are four in number and


include Upanishads & mantras.
2. Ramayana (epic of dharma)
3. Mahabharta (epic of dharma). It has about one lakh shlokas written in 18
days. Bhagwad Geeta (divine song) is a part of Mahabharta. Geeta has about
700 shlokas written in 3100 BC.
4. Darshanas (visions): They are six in number.
5. Itihas (ancient history).
6. Puranas (legends): They are eighteen in number and they are for the
edification of a common man, who can’t go into the depth of scriptures. They
reveal Upanishad themes, the Ultimate Truth, in the form of stories using
suggestiveness of words, characters and situations They are: -

Name of Purana No. of Shlokas

i. Markandaye (smallest)
ii. Ling (Biggest)
iii. Brahama 2200
iv. Agni 16000
v. Vishnu 23000
vi. Narsimha
vii. Mak…. 14000
viii. Bhagwat 18000
ix. Varah
x. 18000
xi. Bhav… 14500
xii. Garurh 18000
xiii. Padma
29

xiv. Vayu 25000


xv. Sikand 81000
xvi. Kurma
xvii. Krinda
xviii. Ganesha

Rishi Ved Vyasa complied four Vedas, Upanishads and Mantras. He wrote Bhagwad
Geeta, which is a part of Mahabharta and also Puranas.

The Vedas are apaursheya (not created by any single auther), but are eternal & put down
as it was revealed to the rishis. The Vedas do not owe their origin to any historical person
or prophet as in the case of Buddhism, Christianity & Islam. No date or founder can be
assigned to Hinduism &, therefore, is called sanatna. This knowledge was passed on
orally from teacher to disciple from time to time.

The Vedas were compiled (not originally written) and edited, by rishi Veda Vyasa by
putting together the knowledge available by then. The Vedas were compiled into four
different subjects (volumes) and named as follows: -

1. Rig Veda: - It is the book of adulations & is the first Veda compiled about 4000
years back. It deals with history. It has 10 mandals (parts) containing 1017 sukats.
It was composed between 1800 BC and 1500 BC but was written in 15th century.
(HT/TOI dated 21.06.07)
2. Yagur Veda: - It is a book of rituals & deals with karam kand. It has two parts
i.e. Shukal & Krishan having a total of 1886 mantras divided into 40 chapters.
3. Sam Veda: - It deals with aspects of songs & music. It has 460 mantras divided
into 32 chapters.
4. Athar Veda: - It was compiled about 4000 years ago and deals with science &
medicines. It has 731 mantras divided into 20 kands (chapters).

Each Vedas, by itself all alone in its own way, leads to supreme knowledge. Each Veda
has four distinct divisions as follows: -

(i) Mantaras or samhita (karam kand): Grosser: Mantras are flashes of inspiration
received by rishis from ‘unknown’. It contains crisp words of secret potencies. This
portion contains lyrical poems of exquisite charm describing and adoring the beauty of
nature and power of phenomenal forces. It contains prayers to various deities like Indra,
Agni etc.

(ii) (a) Brahmana (Upsana kand): Subtler: It contains the ritualistic injunctions and
prescriptions for various ceremonies. Each Brahmna explains some respective mantra. It
states the rules for the employment of the various hymns of the mantra portion at the
yajnas.If there is any contradiction mantra’s contention prevails. It comprises the
apostrophes to the majesty, grandeur and beauty of nature and descriptions of yogas and
yajnas.
(b) Aranyakas: - They are at end of Brahma. It contains various methods of
meditation called “Upasnas” (contemplation on deities) and
30

(iii) Upanishads: - They are the philosophical section & are found at the end of each of
the above portions. They are also called Vedanta (end of Veda or knowledge) i.e.
fulfillment of knowledge. Upanishads disclose to us the road within. It is the combined
work of men, generations of great thinkers who lived the ideals they had discovered.

There are about 208 Upanishads unearthed so far. The scholars are still continuing
research in fixing up the authenticity and relative date of their composition. The pundits
have already accepted 108 Upanishads out of them as authentic texts.

Adi Sankara, in his commentaries of Brahma Sutras, has quoted from six Upanishads and
for another ten also, he wrote commentaries. Recent masters like Ramanuja and Madhwa
have commented upon following eleven out of them: -

1.Isavasa 2. Keno 3. Katho 4. Prashno 5. Mundhuko 6. Mandhukeo 7. Etereo 8. Tetreo


9. Chandogyo 10. Shawetashawamro and 11. Kaivalya

The first 10 are called major Upanishads. All others are called minor Upanishads. Minors
are not minor in their depth of thought. They are minor only with reference to the
knowledge that a student already gathers from 10 major Upanishads. The minor ones
explain or repeat some corner of knowledge already available in major ones. Kaivalaya is
the most popular among the minor Upanishads.

The Upanishads at best can be described as a vein attempt to define the indefinable, to
explain the unexplainable & to understand the un-understandable. They are generally
written in the form of dialogues between the teacher and the disciples.

Meaning of Upanishad: --UPA (near)—NI (down)—SHAD (sit, approach or destroy).

The word ‘shad’ in Sanskrit language has three different meanings. Therefore, three
different literal meanings are assigned to it. They are: -

1. Sit near (at) the feet of Guru (to learn)


2. Literature that helps to approach or attain the supreme wisdom.
3. Literature that destroys ignorance.

The first one is the view of the western scholars. The other two are the versions of Indian
scholars, and give deeper significance.
31

MIND

It is atma shakti. It is a mass of indriyas. It is subtle form of physical body. The body
becomes slave when you have conquered the mind. Body is gross matter. The subtlety of
mind, intellect and vasanas increases in that order. Atma is the subtlest.

Mind is a flow of thoughts. Its flow should be controlled & not stopped. Otherwise, it
will cause devastation like the one caused if the flow of river is stopped. The flow of
thoughts should be controlled between the two banks of knowledge & devotion (bhakti).
The flow should be directed towards minimizing the desires. We must learn to manage
the mind.

Mind and matter are the two aspects as subject & object of one Braham. Mind precedes
matter is the Vedantic theory. Matter precedes mind is the Scientific theory.

The individual mind is connected to the cosmic mind. Cosmic mind, Super-conscious
mind, Infinite mind, Universal mind & Hiranagarba are all synonymous terms.

Mind itself is the cause of bondage and salvation. It has two aspects i.e.

1. Imaginative, it causes bondage and


2. Discriminative, it causes salvation.

Be careful of the ways of restless monkey like mind. It tempts, exaggerates, magnifies,
infatuates, unnecessarily alarms through imaginations, fears & worries. Maintain
equanimity during presence of sorrows as well as joys. Mind will tend to go to
extremities. Remain calm midway. Extreme depressions and enjoyments kill a man.

An individual Atma when associated with desires (vasnas) is renamed as Ego.


Ego works through three instruments of body, mind and intellect to fulfill its
desires. Body is gross, mind is subtler and intellect is subtlest of the three. Out of
the three, mind is most powerful. It has the capacity of multifunctional activities
simultaneously at any given time.

When the reverse happens i.e. desires get dissociated from Ego, mostly by an
attitude of detachment and not by their fulfillment, the Ego again appears to
emerge as pure Atma.

Mind is a flow of thoughts. Its flow should be controlled & not stopped. Otherwise,
it will cause devastation like the one caused if the flow of river is stopped. The
flow of thoughts should be controlled between the two banks of knowledge &
devotion (bhakti). The flow should be directed towards minimizing the desires.
We must learn to manage the mind.

The working of mind and conclusions drawn by mind are based on and therefore
biased with past impressions. They may not, therefore, be correct about
knowledge of SELF. We have, therefore, to first clean the slate of our mind of
32

past attachments to have a correct knowledge of SELF. However, it may not


always be possible to completely calm the mind of its turbulences and past
attachments with zero degree of tolerance. The degree of accuracy of
REALISATION by a mind, therefore will depend upon its own STATE and ability
& also upon the level of cosmic knowledge available at that time

Therefore, at any point of time, we always know only RELATIVE REALITY &
NOT the ABSOLUTE REALITY. Absolute REALISATION therefore is possible
only by narrowing this gap of relativity to absolute zero level. At any other level,
we shall only be elevated SOULS and NOT realized ones. We usually call very
highly elevated souls as REALISED ONES.

Generally speaking, SELF REALISATION must be based on our own


experiences. At the same time I feel no harm will be done if, we take advantage
of the experiences of others. Of course such “acquired” knowledge must undergo
the benchmark test of our own evaluation. This approach, although not a must,
but may accelerate our own progress on the path of spirituality. Such
methodologies, for accelerated progress are adopted in all other fields of
materialism such as, science & technology. No one starts the journey of progress
ab-initio. In fact, if methods adopted are correct we may ultimately find that there
is no difference between ‘acquired’ knowledge and knowledge acquired of SELF
by self.

For this reason, the thoughts and experiences of our ancient rishis are available
in the form of large number of voluminous books. These books are the results of
very sincere efforts by rishis of yesteryears. They expressed their experiences of
their efforts on their path of SELF-REALISATION.

As stated earlier, the accuracy of these results depend upon the two factors i.e.
state of mind of the individual and the cosmic knowledge available at that point of
time. That is why we find some aberrations here and there, when we test the
experiences of rishis on the test bench with the help of cosmic knowledge
available today. It is however unfortunate that in order to justify the some of the
well known obsolete ancient thoughts, some of our spiritual leaders “loyal” to old
traditions do not want to change their mindset and try to justify them by giving
unjustifiable interpretations, in an effort to fit a square peg into round whole. This
attitude shakes the faith and discourages a modern youth to follow the path of
spirituality.

Unfortunately, there are very few spiritually inclined people who are bold enough
to give new directions to the minds on the path of SELF REALISATIONS. An
enlightened mind of a well-educated person can certainly do the needful to
revolutionalise the right thinking of spiritually inclined Souls. Now a days such
courageous people are evolving but very slowly.

Our very material existence and it working is possible only due to and
expressions by mind. Any other material existence is also the projection of mind.
Even any thought of spiritualism evolves from mind. When the mind is absolutely
33

quite and calm the projection disappear and the mind itself dissolves itself to
merge into the WHOLE.

Therefore, mind your MIND. It has tremendous powerful multidimensional


potentials. Understand it properly. It is powerful enough to take you to great
heights. It is slippery enough to sink you to great depths.

There is no need of alarm but there is need of equinamous alertness. Goal is


right in front of you. Achieve it.

The following rules help in developing peace in mind: -

1.Avoid company of bad persons 2. Stay alone for sometime to think alone 3.Reduce
wants 4. Avoid arguments 5. Don’t compare yourself with others 6. Don’t lend your ears
for popular criticism & 7. Give up the anxiety of name & fame.
34

SHORT NOTES

GURU: - It is a combination of two Sanskrit language roots i.e. GU (darkness)+ RU


(remover). The Guru (teacher), therefore, stands for ‘remover of darkness or ignorance’.

In Hindu philosophy, there is always an esoteric (inner) as well as an exoteric (apparent)


meaning. Esoteric meaning is difficult to understand. Therefore, the help of a guru is
required.

A true guru will filter out the obsolete believes, which have lost relevance due change in
social environments. He explains the esoteric meanings that do not change with time.
However, care should be taken of those ‘gurus’ who try to blindly retain the validity of
obsolete exoteric meaning, which are not acceptable today in the light of new
developments in the fields of science & technology. Such ‘gurus’ create repulsion against
religion among the educated masses.

JIVA (ATMA): - Sometimes we wonder when we find no reason, in present or in resent-


past, for our sufferings. Since the cause cannot lie in future, it must be related to some
event in the far past which we do not remember now.

Every effect has a cause behind it. The fact that ‘I’ (body) suffer today (in present) at this
place, without any apparent mistake of mine in the present or immediate past, indicates
that the delayed effect of suffering is the result (punishment) of something having been
done by me sometimes in the far past, at some other place and/or in some other body.
This indicates that there is some continuity between this body and some of my past entity
(body). This continuity, in Vedic scriptures is called ‘jiva’ or conditioned atma.

Every action has its result. The result may be instantaneous or a delayed one. The amount
of delay depends upon the nature of action and the environments under which it takes
place. Generally, a delay between an action and getting its result (punishment or reward)
is inherent in any system. It is the reaction time. The delay be a of a few moments,
minutes, months, years or even a few life spans according to Hindu scriptures. A person
in Bangalore might have committed a crime in the past but he may be punished today in a
Delhi court.

KARMAS (Actions): - Every one’s every action, knowingly or un-knowingly is directed


to get peace. The permanent peace does not come by performing actions alone but
through the change in the attitude of mind. Some of the terminologies used with respect
to karma are stated below: -

1. Karma: What we do by attaching our True -self with the body.


2. Karma-phal: The ripple of joy or sorrow produced in our mind as a result of
what we achieve or do not achieve through our actions.
3. Karam-bandan: These disturbances (ripples) if they stay with us for longer period.
4. Karma-yog: The effort to bring back the mind to the state of ripplelessness.
5. Sanyas: If the mind stays in the state of equipoise in spite of disturbances
to mind. The real test is not by staying in the forests or caves but
35

by remaining stable even while living with them during .


performance of our day-to-day duties.
It is said that: -
You sow an act, you reap a habit,
You sow a habit, you reap a character,
You sow a character, you reap a destiny.

MAHAVAKYAS: - In Vedic literature, there are four divine sentences (mahavakyas),


which are of great significance in understanding the relationship between ‘I’ & ‘HIM’.
These sentences are mentioned in ‘Shukrahasya-Upanishad’ and are as follows: -

1. Pragnanam Brahma: - The power, which enables me to see, hear & smell etc., is
called ‘Pragnanam’. That very power i.e. Brahma is within me. It is ’lakshana-
vakya’ & is from Aitareya Upanishad of Rigveda. It is also called abhyasa vakya.
2. OM Aham-Brahama-asmi: - The whole of ‘Parmatma’ is Brahma. This contains
a sense of duality. It is from Brihadaranakya Upanishad of Yagurveda. It is also
called anubhava-vakya.
3. OM Tat-tvam-asi: - ‘Tvam’ i.e. silence (vacuum) & ‘asmi’ i.e. ‘jiva’, both are
one. It is from Chhandogya (Adhyatmo) Upanishad of Samveda. It is also called
updesha-vakya.
4. Ayam-atma-Brahma: - Brahma is His causal manifestation & jiva is His
manifestation for actions. If the conditions of ‘causal’ & ‘actions’ are removed,
then only ‘KNOWLEDGE’ remains. It is ‘ansadhana-vakya’ & is from
Mundukayo-Upanishad of Atharveda. It is also called Mukta vakya.

OM: - ‘OM’ is considered as the symbol of primordial vibration. In vedic literature the
sound of ‘OM’ has a divine message attached to it. The word OM consists of ‘Aa’+
‘Oo’+ ‘M’, in Sanskrit language.

According to Mandukyo-upanishad, the letter, ‘Aa’ stands for ‘origin’ (Brahma), ‘Oo’ is
‘to maintain’ (Vishnu) and ‘M’ represents the ‘end’ (Mahesh). These meanings are
associated in relation to the shape that the lips take while pronouncing the word ‘OM’.
First is ‘Aa’ i.e. opening the lips (origin), then ‘Oo’ i.e. maintaining the opened position
(to maintain) and then ‘M’ i.e. closing the lips back to original position (end), followed
by a silence. The first three states represent the ‘manifestation’, ‘existence’ & ‘end’
respectively of the universe and last state (silence) is the EXISTENCE itself.

According to Akshaya-upanishad, the three letters similarly represent ‘Akar’ (universe),


‘Ukar’ (energy) and ‘Makkar’ (pragyan).

Sankhaya: - According to Sankhaya, Prakriti is independent of Purusha (GOD).

Sama/dama: Sama is the control of senses inside (internal),


Dama is the control of organs outside (indriyas).
36

SUBTLETY: - The subtlety of a matter is measured by the number of its qualities. The
lesser the qualities, the subtler the matter is and more pervasive it will be. Accordingly,
the relative subtlety of the five basic elements of matter (panch-bhut) is as follow: -

1. Earth is grossest because it has qualities of sound, touch, form, taste & smell.
2. Water is lesser gross because it has qualities of sound, touch, form & taste.
3. Fire is subtle because it has qualities of sound, touch & form.
4. Air is subtler because it has qualities of sound & touch.
5. Space is the subtlest because it has qualities of sound only.

The body, mind, intellect, ego and at


ma pass from grossest to subtlest in that order and their pervasiveness also increases in
the same order.

Sixteen (16) Kalas: - The GOD is expressed indirectly, through His sixteen qualities (16
kalas). They are: - 1. Prana 2. Faith 3. Akasa 4. Air 5. Fire 6. Water 7. Earth 8. Five
senses (hear, smell, touch, see & taste) 9. Mind 10. Food 11. Strength 12. Thought
13. Mantra 14. Karma 15. World (as such) and 16. World, (different constituents)

Ten re-incarnations (das avtatars): - According to Hindu mythology, there are twenty
re-incarnations of God. Out of them ten are the main ones. They are: -

Sl. No Name Details Period

1. Matsya During great destructive flood-


(Fish) savior of Manu, Satyavrat & -
Earth with all its vegetation
Wealth.
(Science has now cofirmed that the first life forms evolved underwater.)

2. Kurma Lord held afloat Mundrachal mount Amphibian (land


(Tortoise) for Amrit manthan & rescue of & sea creatures
Gajendera, the royal elephant. 100m yrs ago.
(Tortoise, an amphibious creature is capable of living both on land & in water)

3. Varaha Destroyed Hiranyaksha -


(Boar)
(Boar is able to live only on land. The transition of life from underwater to land
marks this stage.)

4. Narasimha Rescued saints, gods & Prahalad


(Half man- from atrocities of Hiranyakashaya. -
Half lion)
(This reflects the transition from the animal to the human form.)

5. Vamana Wrenched the earth from bondage Homo Erectus


37

(Dwarf man) of king of demons, Bali & delivered (upright yet short
to the sons of Aditi. weaponless man)
2-5m yrs ago.
((This represents the evolution of the human form in its dwarf form.)

Tretayuga
6. Parashuram Born in Bhrigu clan for destruction Homo Sapions
of entire Haihuya dynasty. With crude metal
Weapons like axe
Ramaphithecus
(Bronze Age)
(Parsuram, wields the axe as his weapon. This represents the stage of the clearing
of forests for human settlement.)

7. Rama Killed Ravana Represents highly


Civilized man.
(7 lakh yrs ago)
(HE wields bow & arrow as his weapon, i.e. a weapon that can protect human
settlements by attacking the enemy from a distance.)

Dwaperyuga
8. Krishna Born in Yaduvansha-killed Kansa about 5000 yrs ago
& Wrote Bhagwat Geeta.
(HE represents further advance of human civilization in the stage of
domestication of the cow and the development of the dairy economy.)

9. Buddha 563 BC-483 BC

Kalyuga
10. Kalki
(Who is yet to arrive, is portrayed as riding a horse representing the stage of the
domestication of the horse.)

84 Lakhs Yonies:- The 84 lakhs of yonies (births) are as follows:-


(a) Trees/mountains/hills 20 lakhs
(b) Aquatic animals 09 lakhs
(c) Worms 11 lakhs
(d) Birds 10 lakhs
(e) Beasts 30 lakhs

VASANAS: - The vasanas are the impressions (tendencies) left by the unfulfilled desires
of the past or the new desires. They are seated in the causal body ( karna sarira) They are
latent in antakarna. They manifest in the mind lake, where they blossom out like flowers,
one by one. They come to mind of jiva to strive to possess and enjoy. Vasanas cause
action. Actions further strengthen the vasnas. This is chakra, a vicious circle.
On the advent of the knowledge of Brahma, all the vasanas are wiped out. Our real
enemies are the vasanas within, annihilate or eradicate them.