Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

FOMIIntro

Page 1 of 5

The quotations herein contained were found on a European forum which has been off line for about a
year. It is safe to presume that the forum was censored by a national government, probably that of
Sweden. The forum's url was: www.fomi.nu
Link to the forum thread. Google's Translation utility was used to translate most of the Swedish to
English.
The fourth section: Fiqh is the most interesting because the poster had access to information not
commonly available. The rulings of Islamic legal scholars are ample proof of the true nature of Moe's
Murder Cult. The compiler can verify that the Al-Shafi'i, Al-Ghazali, Hedaya & Umdat al-Salik are
accurate.
Posted: Mon Apr 30, 2007 18:22

Message

Post subject: Offensiv jihad

PostPosted: Sat September 08, 2007 21:48 Post subject: Muhammad Taqi Partovi Samzevari
summarize the Future of the Islamic Movement (1986) Islam's view on war.

Quote:
Our own Prophet [...] was a General, a Statesman, an administrator, an economist, a lawyer and a firstclass manager all in one. [...] In the Qur'an's historic vision Allah's support and the revolutionary
struggle of the people must come together, so that Satanic rulers re brought down and put Thursday
death. A people that is not prepared to kill and to die in order to create a just society can not expect any
support from Allah. The Almighty has promised us that the day will come when the whole of mankind
will live united under the banner of Islam, when the sign of the Crescent, the symbol of Muhammad,
will be the Supreme everywhere. [...] But that day must be hastened through our Jihad, through our
Readiness to offer our lives and to shed the unclean blood of those who do not see the light brought
from the Heavens by Muhammad in his mi'raj ( "Nocturnal voyages Thursday the 'court' of Allah ").
[...] It is Allah who plaster the gun in our hand. But we can not expect Him Thursday pull the trigger as
well simply because we re faint-hearted.
The offensive jihad is still taught in Islam can be seen from the following pages.
http://www.islam-qa.com/index.php?re ... amp;ln=eng

Quote:
Fourthly:
Physical jihad against the kaafirs becomes Obligatory in four cases, which re:
1 - When the Muslim is presented in a jihad situation.
2 - When the enemy has come and attacked a Muslim country
3 - When the ruler mobilizer the people, they must respond.
4 - When a person is needed and no one else can do the task except him.
http://www.islam.tc/ask-imam/view.php?q=12128

Quote:
You should understand that we as Muslims firmly believe that the person who does not believe in
Allah as he is required to, is a disbeliever who would be doomed to Hell eternally. Thus one of the
primary responsibilities of the Muslim ruler is to spread Islam throughout the world, thus saving people
6

FOMIIntro

Page 2 of 5

from eternal damnation.

Thus what is meant by the passage in Tafsir Uthmani, is that if a country does not allow the
propagation of Islam to its inhabitants in a suitable manner or creates hindrances to this, then the
Muslim ruler would be justifying in waging Jihad against this country , so that the message of Islam
can reach its inhabitants, thus saving them from the Fire of Jahannum. If the Kuffaar allow us to spread
Islam peacefully, then We would not wage Jihad against them.
and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

Islam Question and Answer - www.islam-qa.com, Question No. 26125

Quote:
The difference between jihad and qitaal, and the types of jihad for the sake of Allaah
Quote:
Question:
What is the difference between "Jihad" and "Qitaal"?.
Quote:
Answer:
Praise be to Allaah.

The word jihad is more general than the word qitaal (fighting). Jihaad may be with the tongue (by
speaking out), or with Weapons (which is qitaal or fighting) or with money. Each of these categories
includes numerous Subcategories.

Jihad with the tongue includes jihad against the kaafirs, as well as jihad against the hypocrites, jihad
against the people of bid'ah (innovation), and jihad against the people of misguidance and whims and
desires.
Qitaal may only be done with Weapons; it includes fighting the kaafirs, fighting the wrongdoers and
fighting the Khawaarij.
The greatest kind of fighting is fighting those who disbelieve, for Allaah has commanded us to fight
them. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

Quote:
"Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allaah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which
has been forbidden by Allaah and His Messenger (Muhammad), (4) and those who ACKNOWLEDGE
not the religion of truth (ie Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they
pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued "[al-Tawbah 9:29]
Quote:
"O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who re close to you, and let them find harshness
in you "
[al-Tawbah 9:123]
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/009.qmt.html#009.129

Quote:
Jihaad against the kuffaar with Weapons is of two types: jihad talab (offensive jihad) and jihad DAF
'(defensive jihad).
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/00 ... ml#009.123

FOMIIntro

Page 3 of 5

Jihad means talab Attac king the kuffaar in their own country until they become Muslim or pay the
jizyah with willing submission and feel themselves subdued. The Prophet (peace and blessings of
Allaah's ask upon him) said: "I have been commanded Thursday fight the people until they bear
witness that there is no good but Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and establish
regular prayer, and pay zakaah. If they do that, then they have protected their blood and their wealth
from me, except in cases decreed by Islamic law, and their Reckoning with be with Allaah. "Narrated
by al-Bukhaari, 25; Muslim, 20.
The purpose of this kind of jihad is not to fight the kuffaar and take their wealth, rather jihad is
prescribed for a great purpose which is discussed in question no. 34637.

Quote:
The second type is jihad al-DAF '(defensive jihad). If the enemy attacks a Muslim country or Fights a
Muslim country, then jihad is Obligatory in that case. If the people of that country re able to undertake
this bond, then all well and good, and the others should support them, both financially and spiritually
(by making du'aa 'for them). If the people in that country re not able to undertake this obligation by
themselves, then those who re nearby must support them, each according to his ability, whether by
giving money, speaking out, or going and fighting. And Allaah knows best.
See also questions no. 20214 and 34830.

Quote:
The responses re handled by Sheikh Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid, using only authentic, scholarly
sources based on the Quran and sunnah, and other reliable contemporary scholarly opinions.
References re provided where appropriate in the responses. All requests re held with confidence, and
replies re available personally and / or publicly (posted to this site)
Further reading:
http://www.answering-islam.de/Main/S ... dverse.htm
http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/ ... jihad.html
http://islam-watch.org/CommunityServ ... /3171.aspx
http://www.meforum.org/article/1754
Compiled by: Reinhard
Sources:

The quotes taken from Bostom and Ye'or, unless otherwise stated.
-Andrew Bostom, ed. The Legacy of Jihad. Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims (Amherst,
NY 2005)
-Bat Ye'or. Islam and Dhimmitude. Where Civilizations Collider (Madison, N.J. 2002)
Qur'an, 9:29
Hadith Sahih Bukhari (Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24)
Hadith Sahih Muslim (Book 19, Number 4294)
Qur'an, 9:123
-Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani (922-996 AD), La risala, p. 65, quoted in The Decline of Eastern
Christianity Under Islam (Cranston, NJ, 1996, p. 295).
-Abu 'l Hasan Al-Mawardi (972-1058 AD) The Laws of Islamic Governance [al-Ahkam as-

FOMIIntro

Page 4 of 5

Sultaniyyah], (London, 1996, p. 60)


-Ibn Taymiya (1263-1328 AD), quoted in Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam
(Princeton, NJ., 1996, p. 49)
-Shaikh Burhan Uddin Ali of Marghinan (1135-1196 AD), Hiddayah vol. 2, p. 140, quoted in A
Dictionary of Islam, p. 243-248
-Ibn Khaldun, The Muqudimmah. An Introduction to History, transl. Franz Rosenthal (New York, NY,
1958, vol. 1, p. 473; sidref. Lacking to other quote)
-Averroes, Bidayat al-mudjtahid, transl. Peters (Leiden, 1977, p. 9-25)
Muhammad Taqi Partovi Samzevari summarize the Future of the Islamic Movement (1986)
Ibn Sad, Kitab al-Tabaqat
Quote:

Two faiths will not live together in the land of the Arabs. (s. 283-87, 292-94)

al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi


Quote:

[Ur Muhammeds farvlpredikan.] to fight all men until they say There is no god but
Allah. (vol. 3, s. 1113)

The large and the small jihad


Modern apologists of Islam, sometimes talking about a major and a minor jihad. The greater jihad
(jihad akbar) is said to be the more significant of the two, and aims to fight against bad sides of the
individual's character. The smaller jihad (jihad ashgar) will then be armed struggle, which is presented
as subordinate to the important, peaceful jihad. This view has been given, but very little support in the
Koran and haditherna. When jihad is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, so this takes place in an estimated
95% of cases in a context of war. The breakdown of jihad akbar ashgar and go in the first place back to
a Hadith, which is reproduced in two relatively obscure Hadith collections.
Quote:

The Prophet, at the time he returned from a battle said: We have all just returned to the
best of places, and you have returned from Jihad Asghar (the lesser Jihad) to strive in Jihad
Akbar (the greater Jihad). The companions asked: What is Jihad Akbar Rasulullaah? He
answered: The Jihad of someone against his desires.
[Tarik al Baghadadi 13/493]
Hadithen out with almost the same wording of the imam Bahiqai. In both cases seen hadithen as da'if,
weak. Bahiqai says hadithens isnad (its chain of narrators) contains unreliable narrator, and he says
only what he has heard from them. al Baghadadis isnad contains narrators deemed unreliable and are
known to have made up stories on their own. Especially narrator Khalaf bin Muhammad bin Ismail alKhiyam is ill considered. Several authorities have throughout history, dismissed hadithen. First, it
received numerous Koran verses, which required armed jihad (eg 4:95-6) and strong (sahih) hadither.

FOMIIntro

Page 5 of 5

Ibn Taymiyyah has commented hadithen:


Quote:

There is a Hadith related by a group of people which states that the Prophet (s.a.w) said
after the battle of Tabuk: We have returned from Jihad Asghar [lesser] to Jihad
Akbar [greater]. This hadith has no source, nobody whomsoever in the field of Islamic
Knowledge has narrated it. Jihad against the disbelievers is the most noble of actions, and
moreover it is the most important action for the sake of mankind.
[Al Furqan bains Auliyair Rahman wa Auliyaisy Shaitaan, matter 44-45.]

Other hadithexperter and authorities who have rejected hadithen on the "big jihad" because of its weak
says chain is Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishaburi, Abu Ya'la al Khalili,
Ibnu Abi Zur'ah, Al -Khateeb al-Baghdadi, Ibn Hajar, Abu Hatim, Ibn Ma'een, Ad-Daraqutni m.fl.
Hudna
Islamic jurisprudence does not allow the peace treaties concluded with non-Muslim nations. The only
thing that is allowed is hudna, temporary cease-fire and may be terminated when the Muslims are in
general. The model is Muhammad crimes against the peace agreement with the mecca of the alHudabiyya.
Abu Yusuf, d. 798, hanafi. Kitab al-kharaj, vers. Edmond Fagnan, Le livre de limpt foncier (Paris
1921).
Quote:
The imams representative is not allowed to agree to peace with the enemy when he has
superiority of forces over him [] It is therefoer for the imam to make peace with the
polytheists when it is advantageous to Islam and to the religion, and when by so doing he
hopes by gentleness to lead them to convert. (s. 294)

Nawawi, d. 1278, shafii. Minhadj.


Quote:

3:288-9 An armistice is only allowed when some advantage to Muslims ensues [] On the
other hand, it is perfectly lawful for the sovereign, when he agrees to an armistice, to
reserve the right to recommence hostilities when it seems good to him.

FOMIKoran

Page 1 of 1

2.Offensiv Jihad in the Koran


Offensive jihad imposed in several verses in the Koran. Perhaps the most important is the following
verse in the ninth suran, which also contains the famous "sword verse" (9:5), which calls for war against
the infidels, which according to the doctrine of nashk (U.S. abrogation, en. Suspension) cancels all
previously concluded peace treaties with the infidels.
http://www.meforum.org/article/1754
Quote:

9:29 Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah
nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and
follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low.
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/00 ... ml#009.029

Ibn Kathir (1301-1373 AD) commenting on the verse in its classic tafsir (Koran-EXEGESIS), which
still counts as one of the most popular tafsir collections.
Quote:

This honorable Ayah [Koranvers] was revealed with the order to fight the People of the
Book, after the pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah's religion in large numbers,
and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims' control. Allah commanded His
Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of
Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad
announcing his intent and destination. [] Muslims are not allowed to honor the people of
Dhimmah or elevate them above Muslims, for they are miserable, disgraced and humiliated.

FOMIHadith

Page 1 of 3

3.Offensiv Jihad in strong Hadither


The same message is given in the two highest reputable Hadith collections, and Hadith Sahih Bukhari
Hadith Sahih Muslim. These collections are one of Islam's foundation, along with the Koran and siran
(Muhammed's biography). They are the most prestigious Hadith collections, and considered sahih,
credibility, which means that haditherna in them is seen as historically true and trusted by the majority
of all Muslims. It should be added to the highest degree of sahih is the hadither with similar meaning as
contained in both Bukhari and Muslim. Hadither as the following, which deals with the three options the
infidels must face, is so strong and highly regarded as hadither at all can be.
Hadith Sahih Bukhari (Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24)
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamen ... 01.002.024

Quote:

Allah's Apostle said: I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they
testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allahs
Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform
that, then they save their lives an property from me except for Islamic laws and then their
reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.
Hadith Sahih Muslim (Book 19, Number 4294)
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamen ... l#019.4294

Quote:

[Muhammed] would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against
those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break
your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet
your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to
any one of these, you also accept it and withold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite
them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting
against them. [] If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree
to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek
Allah's help and fight them.
Several other verses in the Koran dictates armed, offensive struggles, such as 9:123, presented here with
excerpts from Maariful Tafsir and Ibn Kathirs tafsir.
Koran [9:123]

http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/00 ... ml#009.123

Quote:

O ye who believe! Fight the disbelievers who gird you about, and let them find firmness in
you: and know that God is with those who fear Him. (9:123)
5.4 MAARIFUL TAFSIR ON 9:123 Page 503

FOMIHadith

Page 2 of 3

Previous verses carried inducement to Jihad. The first verse from the present ones (123)
which opens with the words:
(O those who believe, fight those disbelievers who are near you) gives details, for
disbelievers are spread out all over the world and any confrontation with them has to have
some sort of functional sequence. The verse says that Jihad should first be waged against
those of the disbelievers who were near. "Being near" could be taken in terms of the place,
that is, the disbelievers who live closer to home base should be fought against first. And it
could also be understood in terms of relationship, that is, those who are near in kinship,
parentage and other social bonds should be given precedence. This is because Islamic Jihad
is essentially carried out in their interest and for their well being, therefore, when it comes to
care and concern, kinsfolk have precedence - similar to the command given to the Holy
Prophet (And warn your near relatives against the punishment of Allah - 26:214). He carried
out the command by assembling people from his family and conveyed to them the Word of
Allah as revealed to him. The circle then became larger.

Keeping the same principle of near and far, confronted first, as compared to other, were
disbelievers who lived in the vicinity of Madinah, such as
Banu Qurayzah, Banu Nadir, and the people of Khaibar. After that came the fight against the
rest within the Arabian Peninsula. And after things were settled there came the last command
to fight the disbelievers of Byzantium that resulted in the expedition of Tabuk.
5.5 IBN KATHIR ON 9:123
The Order for Jihad against the Disbelievers, the Closest, then the Farthest Areas

Allah commands the believers to fight the disbelievers, the closest in area to the Islamic
state, then the farthest. This is why the Messenger of Allah
started fighting the idolators in the Arabian Peninsula. When he finished with them and
Allah gave him control over Makkah, Al-Madinah, At-Ta'if, Yemen, Yamamah, Hajr,
Khaybar, Hadramawt and other Arab provinces, and the various Arab tribes entered Islam in
large crowds, he then started fighting the People of the Scriptures.
He began preparations to fight the Romans who were the closest in area to the Arabian
Peninsula, and as such, had the most right to be called to Islam, especially since they were
from the People of the Scriptures. The Prophet marched until he reached Tabuk and went
back because of the extreme hardship, little rain and little supplies. This battle occurred on
the ninth year after his Hijrah. In the tenth year, the Messenger of Allah was busy with the
Farewell Hajj. The Messenger died eighty-one days after he returned from that Hajj, Allah
chose him for what He had prepared for him [in Paradise].

After his death, his executor, friend, and Khalifah, Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be
pleased with him, became the leader. At that time, the religion came under attack and would
have been defeated, if it had not been for the fact that Allah gave the religion firmness
through Abu Bakr, who established its basis and made its foundations firm. He brought those
who strayed from the religion back to it, and made those who reverted from Islam return. He
took the Zakah from the evil people who did not want to pay it, and explained the truth to
those who were unaware of it. On behalf of the Prophet , Abu Bakr delivered what he was
entrusted with. Then, he started preparing the Islamic armies to fight the Roman cross
worshippers, and the Persian fire worshippers. By the blessing of his mission, Allah opened
the lands for him and brought down Caesar and Kisra and those who obeyed them among the
servants.

FOMIHadith

Page 3 of 3

Abu Bakr spent their treasures in the cause of Allah, just as the Messenger of Allah had
foretold would happen. This mission continued after Abu Bakr at the hands of he whom Abu
Bakr chose to be his successor, Al-Faruq, the Martyr of the Mihrab, Abu Hafs, `Umar bin
Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him. With `Umar, Allah humiliated the disbelievers,
suppressed the tyrants and hypocrites, and opened the eastern and western parts of the world.
The treasures of various countries were brought to `Umar from near and far provinces, and
he divided them according to the legitimate and accepted method. `Umar then died as a
martyr after he lived a praise worthy life. Then, the Companions among the Muhajirin and
Ansar agreed to chose after `Umar, `Uthman bin `Affan, Leader of the faithful and Martyr of
the House, may Allah be pleased with him. During `Uthman's reign, Islam wore its widest
garment and Allah's unequivocal proof was established in various parts of the world over the
necks of the servants. Islam appeared in the eastern and western parts of the world and
Allah's Word was elevated and His religion apparent. The pure religion reached its deepest
aims against Allah's enemies, and whenever Muslims overcame an Ummah, they moved to
the next one, and then the next one, crushing the tyrannical evil doers. They did this in
reverence to Allah's statement,
(O you who believe! (O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to
you,)

FOMIFiqh

Page 1 of 13

4.Offensiv Jihad in Islamic law schools (Fiqh)


All of the four lagskolorna Sunni-lagskolorna, and sufier and Shia, subscribes to these three options. The
texts cited in the following are influential texts from various famous representatives of lagskolorna.
Abu Yusuf, d. 798, Hanafi. Kitab al-kharaj, transl. Edmond Fagnan, Le livre de l'impt foncier (Paris
1921).
Quote:

Arab territory differs from non-Arab territory in that one fights Arabs only to oblige them to
embrace Islam without making them pay the poll tax: nothing but their conversion is
acceptable, and their land, if it is left to them, is tithe land. [] The Arabs who possess
Revealed Scriptures [Jews and Christians] are treated as non-Arabs and are allowed to pay
the poll-tax. []
al-Shaybani, d. 803 / 5, Hanafi. Siyar, transl. Majid Khadduri, The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's
Siyar (Baltimore 1966), p. 76-7, 87, 95-6, 100-1.
Quote:

Fight in the name of God and in the path of God [i.e. truth]. Combat [only] those who
disbelieve in God. Whenever you meet your polytheistic enemies, invite them [first] to adopt
Islam. If they do so, accept it, and let them alone. [] If they refuse [to accept Islam], then
call upon them to pay the jizya; if they do, accept it and leave them alone. If you besiege the
inhabitants of a fortress or a town and they try to get you to let them surrender on the basis
of Gods judgment, do not do so, since you do not know what Gods judgment is, but make
them surrender to your judgment and then decide their case according to your own views.
al-Shafi'i, d. 820, founder of shafi'i school. al-Imam Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shaf'i's al-Risala fi us ul alfiqh, transl. Majid Khadduri, al-Imam Muhammad ibn Idris al-shaf'i's al-risala fi us ul al-fiqh: Treatises
on the Foundations of Islamic jurisprudence (Cambridge 1997), p. 82-7.
Quote:
These communications (9:112, 9:36, 9:5, 9:29, 9:38-9, 9:41) mean that the jihad, and rising
up in arms in particular, is obligatory for all able-bodied [believers], exempting no one, just
as prayer, pilgrimage and [payment of] alms are performed [] They may also mean that
the duty of [jihad] is a collective (kifaya) duty different from that of prayer: Those who
perform it in the war against the polytheists will fulfil the duty and receive the
supererogatory merit, thereby preventing those who stayed behind from falling into error.
[]
If all men failed to perform the duty so that no able-bodied man went forth to battle, all I am
afraid, would fall into error.

FOMIFiqh

Page 2 of 13

Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani, d. 996, maliki. Cit. ur Leon Bercher, La risala ou epitre sur les elements du
dogme de la loi dIslam (Algiers 1945).
Quote:
Jihad is a precept of Divine institution. We Malikis maintain that it is preferable not to begin
hostilities with the enemy before having invited the latter to embrace the religion of Allah
except where the enemy attacks first. They have the alternative of either converting to Islam
or paying the poll tax, short of which war will be declared against them.

al-Mawardi, d. 1058, shafii. al-Ahkam as-Sultaniyyah, vers. Asadullah Yate, The Laws of Islamic
Governance (London 1996), s. 28, 60, 77-8, 200-1.
Quote:
[The caliph must] make jihad against those who resist Islam after having been called to it
until they submit or accept to live as a protected dhimmi-community so that Allahs rights,
may He be exalted, be made uppermost above all [other] religion. []

it is forbidden us to initiate an attack on the mushrikun while they are unawares or at night,
that is, it is forbidden to kill them, use fire against them or begin an attack before explaining
the invitation to Islam to them, informing them of the miracles of the Prophet and making
plain the proofs so as to encourage acceptance on their part; if they still refuse to accept after
this, war is waged against them and they are treated as those whom the call has reached.
al-Ghazali, d. 1111, shafii, sufi. Kitab al-Wagiz fi fiqh madhab al-imam al-Safii (Beirut 1979), s. 186,
190-1, 199-200, 202-3, vers. Michael Schub.
Quote:
One must go on jihad (i.e. warlike razzias or raids) at least once a year [] one may use a
catapult against them [non-Muslims] when they are in a fortress, even if among them are
women and children.

Sheikh Burhanuddin Ali of Marghinan, d. 1196, hanafi. The Hidayah, cit. ur T.P. Hughes, A Dictionary
of Islam (London 1895/1994), s. 244-5.
Quote:
The destruction of the sword is incurred by infidels, although they be not the first aggressors,
as appears from various passages in the traditions which are generally received to this effect.
[] When the Muslims enter the enemys country and besiege the cities or strongholds of
the infidels, it is necessary to invite them to embrace the faith, because Ibn Abbas relates of
the Prophet that he never destroyed any without previously inviting them to embrace the
faith. If, therefore, they embrace the faith, it is unnecessary to war with them, because that
which was the design of the war is then obtained without war. [] If the infidels, upon
receiving the call, neither consent to it nor agree to pay capitation tax, it is then incumbent

FOMIFiqh

Page 3 of 13

on the Muslims to call upon God for assistance, and to make war upon them []
Ibn Qudama, d. 1223, hanbali. Cit. ur. Henri Laoust, Le prcis de droit dIbn Qudama [] (Beirut
1950), s. 273-6, 281.
Quote:
Legal war (jihad) is an obligatory social duty (fard kifaya); when one group of Muslims
guarantees that it is being carried out in a satisfactory manner, the others are exempted. The
jihad becomes a strictly binding personal duty (fard ain) for all Muslims who are enlisted or
whose country has been [invaded] by the enemy. It is obligatory only for free men who have
reached puberty, are endowed with reason and capable of fighting. Jihad is the best of the
works of supererogation.

Ibn Taymiyya, d. 1328, hanbali. Al-Siyasa al-Shariyya, cit. ur Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and
Modern Islam, s. 44-54.
Quote:
Since lawful warfare is essentially jihad and since its aim is that the religion is Gods
entirely and Gods word is uppermost, therefore, according to all Muslims, those who stand
in the way of this aim must be fought. As for those who cannot offer resistance or cannot
fight, such as women, children, monks, old people, the blind, handicapped, and their likes,
they shall not be killed, unless they actually fight with words [i.e. by propaganda] and acts
[e.g. by spying or otherwise assisting in the warfare]. [] we may only fight those who fight
us when we want to make Gods religion victorious. []
This jihad is obligatory if it is carried out on our intitiative and also if it is waged as defence.
If we take the initiative, it is a collective duty, [which means that] if it is fulfilled by a
sufficient number [of Muslims], the obligation lapses for all others and the merit goes to
those who have fulfilled it [] But if the enemy wants to attack the Muslims, then repelling
him becomes a duty for all those under attack and for the others in order to help them.
So the latter [form of jihad] consists in defense of the religion, of things that are inviolable,
and of lives. Therefore it is fighting out of necessity. The former, however, is voluntary
fighting in order to propagate the religion, to make it triumph and to intimidate the enemy,
such as was the case with the expedition to Tabuk and the lik.
Ibn Taymiyya, cit. ur Henri Laoust, Le trait de droit public dIbn Taymiya (Beirut 1948)
Quote:

In ordering jihad Allah has said: Fight them until there is no persecution and religion
becomes Allahs. [2:189] (s. 21)
Allah has, in fact, repeated this obligation [to fight] and has glorified jihad in most of the
Medina suras: he has stigmatized those who neglected to do so, and treated them as
hypocrites and cowards. (s. 123)
It is impossible to count the number of times when jihad and its virtues are extolled in the
Book and the Sunna. Jihad is the best form of voluntary service that man consecrates to

FOMIFiqh

Page 4 of 13

Allah. (s. 125)


Therefore, since jihad is divinely instituted, and its goal is that religion reverts in its entirety
to Allah and to make Allahs word triumph, whoever opposes the realization of this goal will
be fought, according to the unanimous opinion of Muslims.
Jews and Christians, as well as Zoroastrians (Magians), must be fought until they embrace
Islam or pay the jizya without recriminations. Jurisconsults do not agree on the question of
knowing if the jizya should be imposed on other categories of infidels; on the other hand, all
consider that it should not be required of Arabs [hence they should convert to Islam or be
killed or expelled]. (s. 130)
Ziauddin Barani, d. 1357, historiker och politisk skriftstllare i Indien. Fatawa-i Jahandari, cit. ur
Mohammad Habib, The Political Theory of the Delhi Sultanate (Allahabad 1961), s. 46-7.
Quote:

The Muslim king will not be able to establish the honour of theism (tauhid) and the
supremacy of Islam unless he strives with all his courage to overthrow infidelity and to
slaugthers its leaders (imams), who in India are the Brahmans. He should make a firm
resolve to overpower, capture, enslave and degrade the infidels. All the strength and power
of the king and of the holy warriors of Islam should be concentrated in holy campaigns and
holy wars; and they should risk themselves in the enterprise so that the true Faith may uproot
the false creeds, and then it will look as if these false creeds had never existed because they
have been deprived of all their glamour. []
The majority of religious scholars and wise men of early (Islamic) as well as later time have
been sure that if Muslim kings strive with all their might and power and the power of all
their supporters on this path, the following objects will be attained: the true Faith will gain a
proper ascendancy over the false creeds; the True Word will be honoured; the traditions of
infidelity and polytheism will be weakened; Musalmans will be favoured and honoured;
infidels and men of bad faith will be faced with destitution and disgrace; the orders of the
unlawful state and the opposed creeds will be erased; the laws of the shariat will be
enforced on the seventy-two communities; and the enemies of God and the Prophet will be
condemned, banished, repudiated, and terrorised.

al-Misri, d. 1367, shafii. Umdat al Salik (Reliance of the Traveler), 09.1.


Quote:

Jihad is a communal obligation. When enough people perform it to successfully accomplish


it, it is no longer obligatory upon others [] If none of those concerned perform jihad, and it
does not happen at all, then everyone who is aware that it is obligatory is guilty of sin, if
there was a possibility of having performed it. In the time of the Prophet (Allah bless him
and give him peace) jihad was a communal obligation after his emigration (hijra) to Medina.
As for subsequent times, there are two possible states in respect to non-Muslims.
The first is when they [i.e. Muslims] are in their own countries, in which case jihad is a
communal obligation, and this is what our author is speaking of when he says, Jihad is a
communal obligation, meaning upon the Muslims each year. The second state is when nonMuslims invade a Muslim country or near to one, in which case jihad is personally
obligatory upon the inhabitants of that country, who must repel the non-Muslims with

FOMIFiqh

Page 5 of 13

whatever can.
Molla Khosrew, d. 1480, hanafi. Kitab al-Gihad, vers. Nicola Melis, Trattato sulla guerra (Cagliari,
Italien 2002), s. 95-6.
Quote:
[] jihad is a fard al-kifaya, that is, that one must begin the fight against the enemy, even
when he [the enemy] may not have taken the initiative to fight, because the Prophet []
early on [] allowed believers to defend themselves, later, however, he ordered them to take
the initiative at certain times of the year, that is, at the end of the haram months, saying,
Kill the idolaters wherever you find them (Q9:5). He finally ordered fighting without
limitations, at all times and in all places, saying, Fight those who do not believe in God, and
in the Last Day (Q9:29); there are also other [similar] verses on the subject. This shows that
it is a fard al-kifaya.

Shykh Zeenud-Din, 1500-tal. Tuhfat-ul-Mujahideen, vers. M.J. Rowlandson (London 1933), s. 3-5,
15-21.
Quote:
Further, the Imam-Ahmud (on whom be peace!) has related on the authority of Al-Mikdad
that he heard the Prophet (for ever blessed) to exclaim: There shall not remain a dwelling in
the city, or on the plain, on which Allah shall not cause to descend the word of Islamism,
which shall dignify him [who is] already righteous, and condemn him who lives in sin, to the
salvation of the one, and the everlasting ruin of the other. For those whom Allah would exalt,
will he make of the number of true believers, whilst, those whose destruction has been
predetermined, shall seal it by rejecting this holy faith, which indeed, said I, has Allah for its
author and its end. Now be it known, that Allah most high bath willed, that the faith of
Islamism should flourish throughout the chief of the inhabited regions of the earth; in some
countries making the sword and compulsion the means of its dissemination, in others
preaching and exhortation. []
Know then, that infidels shall be regarded in two distinct points of view. And first: those
who are dwelling peaceably in their own countries, and against whom if one person only
from any party of Moslems shall go forth to war, the divine co d on this subject will have
been sufficiently observed, and the remainder of his brethren are not called upon to proceed
against them. But should no one be found thus to offer himself as the holy champion of his
party, then it becomes the duty of all to arm. Secondly: The case of infidels who shall invade
the territories of the Moslems, as is now the case in the contest in which we are engaged.
Now to attack these, becomes an act of paramount duty for every pious Mahomedan, and for
all who would support their religion, whether bond or free, male for female, of the city or of
the plain, without being dependent on or guided by the consent or refusal of master,
husband, father or creditor, or of any other person to whom he or she might in other matters
owe obedience; since to engage in this warfare is imperative on every person whether within
three days journey of the position of the infidels or beyond that distance; should the forces
of the faithful not be sufficiently strong to admit of their services being dispensed with.

FOMIFiqh

Page 6 of 13

Fadl-Ullah bin Ruzbihan Isfahani, d. 1521, shafii. Suluk ul-Muluk (vers. Muslim Conduct of State,
Lahore 1974)
Quote:
A brief account of the duties which are obligatory on the Imam and the Sultan with regard to
(their offices of) the Imamate and the Sultanate. (s. 61)
His sixth duty is to fight with those who opposed Islam. But before taking such action he
should invite them to surrender and if they refuse then fight with them until they surrender or
are obliged to compromise. (s. 62)
You must be aware, that the literal meaning of Jihad is to strive or to endeavour
according to ones ability and strength. But in the religious sense it means to strive in war
against the non-believers according to ones ability and strength. (s. 455)
You must be aware, that Jihad against the non-believers is an obligation. As regards the
Hanafite opinion it has been cited in the Hidaya that Jihad is a duty in general on all the
Muslim community. If a group of Muslims observe this duty the rest of them are exempt
from it; and if none of them observe it the whole community commits a sin for their
negligence. Whenever there is a general call for Jihad it will become a duty for all. A general
call may be put in this way; that, on account of the strength of the non-believers, an Imam
calls all the Muslims to arms so that they may drive the non-believers out of the land of
Islam. The fight against the non-believers is an obligation even if they do not commence
fighting. But the Jihad is not lawful against children, slaves, women, the blind, the crippled
and he who has not come to the battle-field.
If enemies invade one of the lands of Islam, the Jihad will become an obligation to all
Muslims for their self-defence. (s. 462)
As regards the Shafiite laws of Jihad, it has been cited in the Anwar that during the lifetime
of the Prophet, the Jihad was an obligation in general on all the Muslim community. In our
days there are two kinds of Jihad as it is an obligation on each and every Muslim and at the
same time an obligation in general on all the community.
Whenever the non-believers invade one of the lands of Islam or besiege one of our towns
with the intention of its conquest, it is the duty of the inhabitants of that town to repel the
invaders at any cost. (s. 463)
The second kind of Jihad is an obligation in general on all the Muslim community. For
example, if the non-believers who are well-established in their own country intend to fight
against the Muslims, and they refuse to check them, the whole community commits a sin.
But if some of the Muslims, whose strength is sufficient to repel the enemy, come forward,
the rest of the Muslims will be exempted from Jihad. The sufficiency is achieved by two
means. Firstly, the Imam should block the incursion of the non-believers by appointing a
group of the soldiers well enought to face the non-believers on the opposite side. Moreover,
he should build forts, dig trenches and take similar other steps. [] Secondly, the Imam
himself should lead incursions into the Dar-ul-Harb or send someone capable of carrying out
this business. The minimum number of incursions in a year is one. It is not permissible to
abandon Jihad and let a year pass without an incursion except, God forbid, for the reason of
weakness in the Muslims, the large number of the enemies and finally the lack of fodder for
the horses on the way. (s. 464-5)
It has been cited in the Hidaya that whenever the Muslims invade a Dar-ul-Harb and besiege
a town or fort they should first of all invite the besieged to embrace Islam. If they accept
Islam the Muslims should give up fighting. If they refuse to accept Islam they should be
asked to pay the Jizya, but this choice is only for those non-believers on whom the Jizya may
be imposed. The Jizya should not be imposed on the apostates and Arab idolators. There is
no need for collecting Jizya from them. (s. 466)

FOMIFiqh

Page 7 of 13

When [Muhammed] used to despatch an expedition, he used to advise the commander that
before starting to fight he should lay a choice before the non-believers, either to accept Islam
or leave that place. If they refused to accept Islam, they should be asked to pay the Jizya. If
they refused all these terms, seek help from God the Excellent and start fighting. (s. 474)
al-Amili, d. 1622, teolog under shah Abbas I. Jami-i Abbasi: yakdawrah-i fiqh-i Farsi (Teheran 1980talet), s. 153 f.
Quote:
Islamic Holy war against followers of other religions, such as Jews, is required unless they
convert to Islam or pay the poll tax.

Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi, d. 1624, sufi. Cit. ur Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, Muslim Revivalist Movements
in Northern India in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Agra, Lucknow 1965), s. 247-50;
Yohanan Friedmann, Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi. An Outline of His Thought and a Study of His Image in
the Eyes of Posterity (Montreal 1971), s. 73-4.
Quote:
Shariat can be fostered through the sword.

Kufr and Islam are opposed to each other. The progress of one is possible only at the
expense of the other and co-existence between these two contradictory faiths is unthinkable.
[]

The execution of the accursed kafir of Gobindwal [Arjun, fifth guru of the Sikhs, executed in
1606] is an important achievement and is the cause of great defeat of the accursed Hindus.
Whatever might have been the motive behind the execution, the dishonour of the kafirs is an
act of highest grace for the Muslims. [] Whenever a Jew is killed, it is for the benefit of
Islam.
al-Majlisi, d. 1698, shia-jurist. The Treatise Lightning Bolts Against the Jews, vers. V.B. Moreen,
Die Welt des Islams (32:1992), s. 187-93.
Quote:
That is, fight against those who do not believe in God and in the Day of Resurrection, who
do not prohibit the things that have been prohibited by God and His Prophet, such as wine
and pork, and do not believe in the religion of truth, from among those who had been given
the Book, until they pay the jizyah, with their own hands, while they are in a low and abased
state.

Shah Wali-Allah, d. 1762, teolog, sufi, politisk aktivist. Cit. ur Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, Shah WaliAllah and His Times (Canberra 1980), s. 294-6, 299, 301, 305.
Quote:

FOMIFiqh

Page 8 of 13

It has become clear to my mind that the kingdom of heaven has predestined that kafirs
should be reduced to a state of humiliation and treated with utter contempt. []

Oh Kings! Mala ala urges you to draw your swords and not put them back in their sheaths
again until Allah has separated the Muslims from the polytheists and the rebellious kafirs
and the sinners are made absolutely feeble and helpless. []
Moreover, wherever there was even the slightest fear of a Muslim defeat, the Islamic army
should be there to disperse infidels to all corners of the earth. Jihad should be their first
priority, thereby ensuring the security of every Muslim.

The texts have been quoted so far back in the Middle Ages, but the doctrine of offensive jihad is seen as
still valid today.

Al Azhar University, which can be seen as Sunni Islam's equivalent of the papacy, held a conference in
1968, after the Arab defeat in the U.S. war against Israel. The conference advocated for jihad as the only
way to defeat Israel.
Quote:

Jihad is legislated in order to be one of the means of propagating Islam. Consequently NonMuslims ought to embrace Islam either willingly or through wisdom and good advice or
unwillingly through fight and Jihad. [] It is unlawful to give up Jihad and adopt peace and
weakness instead of it, unless the purpose of giving up Jihad is for preparation, whenever
there is something weak among Muslims, and their opponents are, on the other hand, strong.
[] War is the basis of the relationship between Muslims and their opponents unless there
are justifiable reason for peace, such as adopting Islam. [Shaikh Abdullah Ghoshah, chief
judge of the hashemite kingdom of Jordan]

Your honorable conference has been an Arab, Islamic and patriotic necessity in view of the
present circumstances in which the Arabs and Muslims face the most serious difficulties. All
Muslims expect you to expound Allahs decree concerning the Palestine cause, to proclaim
that decree, in all clarity, throughout the Arab and Muslim world. We do not think this
decree absolves any Muslim or Arab from Jihad (Holy War) which has now become a duty
incumbent upon the Arabs and Muslims to liberate the land, preserve honor, retaliate for
[lost] dignity, restore the Aqsa mosque, the church of Resurrection, and to purge the
birthplace of prophecy, the seat of revelation, the meeting-place of Prophets, the startingpoint of Issa, and the scenes of the holy spirit, from the hands of Zionism the enemy of
man, of truth, of justice, and the enemy of Allah. [] The hoped-for judgment is that of
Muslim Scholars who draw their conclusions from the Book of Allah, and the Summa of His
prophet. [] May your decisive word rise to the occasion and enlighten the Arab and
Muslim world, so that it may be a battle-cry, urging millions of Muslims and Arabs on to the
field of Jihad, which will lead us to the place that once was ours. [] Muslims who are
distant from the battle-field of Palestine [] are indeed sinful if they do not hasten to offer
all possible means to achieve success and gain victory in the Islamic battle against their
enemies and the enemies of their religion. Particularly, this battle is not a mere combat
between two parties but it is a battle between two religions (namely, it is a religious battle).
Zionism in fact represents a very perilous cancer, aiming at domineering the Arab countries
and the whole Islamic world. [Sheikh Hassan Khalid, mufti of the republic of Lebanon]

FOMIFiqh

Page 9 of 13

[Cit. ur Bat Yeor, Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam, s. 391-4.]
Another modern interpreter of jihad is Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomenei (d. 1989), who in a speech in 1942
clarifies that, as the title suggests, "Islam Is Not a Religion of Pacifists".
Quote:

Islams jihad is a struggle against idolatry, sexual deviation, plunder, repression, and cruelty.
The war waged by [non-Islamic] conquerors, however, aims at promoting lust and animal
pleasures. They care not if whole countries are wiped out and many families left homeless.
But those who study jihad will understand why Islam wants to conquer the whole world. All
the countries conquered by Islam or to be conquered in the future will be marked for
everlasting salvation. For they shall live under [Gods law]. []
Those who know nothing of Islam pretend that Islam counsels against war. Those [who say
this] are witless. Islam says: Kill all the unbelievers just as they would kill you all! Does that
mean that Muslim should sit back until they are devoured by [the unbelievers]? Islam says:
Kill the [the non-Muslims], put them to the sword and scatter [their armies]. Does this mean
sitting back until [non-Muslims] overcome us? Islam says: Kill in the service of Allah those
who may want to kill you! Does this mean that we should surrender [to the enemy]? Islam
says: Whatever good there is exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword!
People cannot be made obedient except with the sword! The sword is the key to paradise,
which can be opened only for holy warriors!
There are hundreds of other [Koranic] psalms and hadiths [sayings of the prophet] urging
Muslims to value war and to fight. Does all that mean that Islam is a religion that prevents
men from waging war? I spit upon those foolish souls who make such a claim.
[Cit. ur red. Rubin & Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East, s. 29, 32-6.]
Another contemporary jihad Evangelist is Yusuf al-Qaradawi (b. 1926), a member of the Muslim
Brothers (the world's first terrorist organization), and leader of the European Council for Fatwa and
Research. Al-Qaradawi is counted as one of the most influential Muslim authorities. He has defended
suicide bombings against Israelis, because he believes that there are no Israeli civilians, as all Israelis do
military service, and therefore counted as soldiers. In the following interview, he advocated jihad to
fight Israel. He does this by referring to Muhammad as a role model for today's jihadists.
http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Pa ... ID=SP24601
Quote:
On the other hand, Allah wanted Muhammads life to be a model. [] Similarly, Allah has
also made the prophet Muhammad into an epitome for religious warriors [Mujahideen] since
he ordered Muhammed to fight for religion []
The youth who wish to hurry to establish an Islamic state with an Islamic rule seek clashes

FOMIFiqh

Page 10 of 13

with the existing regimes in the Arab states despite the fact that they dont have sufficient
strength; they dont have military strength and not even the mental strength to establish an
Islamic rule. []

On the other hand, there are some things that cannot wait; for instance, when the land of the
Muslims is being invaded. When that happens, we do not say lets wait, we will surrender to
them and only then [we shall see] [] no! In that case, Islam requires that the people of the
invaded land will fight the invaders [] and following them, their neighbors. And if this is
not enough, all the Muslims [must enlist for this purpose]. Hence, a problem like the current
Intifada and the Palestinian problem is one that cannot wait; the nation must fight and defend
itself and not allow the invader to ruin the land []
Sheik Al-Qaradhawi argued that there are two types of Jihad: A Jihad which you seek, and
a Jihad in which you repulse an attack." In the Jihad which you are seeking, you look for the
enemy and invade him. This type of Jihad takes place only when the Islamic state is invading
other [countries] in order to spread the word of Islam and to remove obstacles standing in its
way. The repulsing Jihad takes place when your land is being invaded and conquered []
[in that case you must] repulse [the invader] to the best of your ability; if you kill him he will
end up in hell, and if he kills you, you become a martyr [Shahid] []
Sheik Al-Qaradhawi who throughout his recent appearances has declared that Palestinian
suicide attacks are considered self-sacrifice and not suicide, and thus are permitted and
even welcome from a religious standpoint was again asked about this issue. He argued that
the person who commits that act is not a suicide [bomber]. He kills the enemy while taking
self-risk, similarly to what Muslims did in the past [] He wants to scare his enemies, and
the religious authorities have permitted this. They said that if he causes the enemy both
sorrow and fear of Muslims [] he is permitted to risk himself and even get killed.

Abdullah Yusuf Azzam issued his fatwah Defense of the Muslim Lands, the First Obligation after Faith
(1979) after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Fatwahn supported by Saudi Arabia's Grand Mufti, Abd
al-Aziz Bin Bazz. Azzam legitimize both defensive and offensive jihad.
Quote:

Jihad Against the Kuffar is of two Types: Offensive Jihad (where the enemy is attacked in
his own territory) ... [and] Defensive Jihad. [] Where the Kuffar [infidels] are not
gathering to fight the Muslims, the fighting becomes Fard Kifaya [religious obligation on
Muslim society] with the minimum requirement of appointing believers to guard borders,
and the sending of an army at least once a year to terrorise the enemies of Allah. It is a duty
of the Imam to assemble and send out an army unit into the land of war once or twice every
year. Moreover, it is the responsibility of the Muslim population to assist him, and if he does
not send an army he is in sin. - And the Ulama have mentioned that this type of jihad is for
maintaining the payment of Jizya. The scholars of the principles of religion have also said:
Jihad is Dawah with a force, and is obligatory to perform with all available capabilities,
until there remains only Muslims or people who submit to Islam.
http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc ... _chap1.htm

FOMIFiqh

Page 11 of 13

The Muslim Brotherhood founder Hasan al-Banna, wrote in his text Jihad to offensive jihad decreed by
Muhammad, and that the edict is still legitimate.
Quote:

The verses of the Qur'an and the Sunnah [] summon people in general [] to jihad, to
warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land and sea fighting.
All Muslims Must Make Jihad
Jihad is an obligation from Allah on every Muslim and cannot be ignored nor evaded. Allah
has ascribed great importance to jihad and has made the reward of the martyrs and the
fighters in His way a splendid one. Only those who have acted similarly and who have
modeled themselves upon the martyrs in their performance of jihad can join them in this
reward. Furthermore, Allah has specifically honoured the Mujahideen {those who wage
jihad} with certain exceptional qualities, both spiritual and practical, to benefit them in this
world and the next. Their pure blood is a symbol of victory in this world and the mark of
success and felicity in the world to come.
Those who can only find excuses, however, have been warned of extremely dreadful
punishments and Allah has described them with the most unfortunate of names. He has
reprimanded them for their cowardice and lack of spirit, and castigated them for their
weakness and truancy. In this world, they will be surrounded by dishonour and in the next
they will be surrounded by the fire from which they shall not escape though they may
possess much wealth. The weaknesses of abstention and evasion of jihad are regarded by
Allah as one of the major sins, and one of the seven sins that guarantee failure.
Islam is concerned with the question of jihad and the drafting and the mobilisation of the
entire Umma {the global Muslim community} into one body to defend the right cause with
all its strength than any other ancient or modern system of living, whether religious or civil.
The verses of the Qur'an and the Sunnah of Muhammad (PBUH) are overflowing with all
these noble ideals and they summon people in general (with the most eloquent expression
and the clearest exposition) to jihad, to warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land
and sea fighting.
[]
The Scholars on Jihad
I have just presented to you some verses from the Qur'an and the Noble Ahadith concerning
the importance of jihad. Now I would like to present to you some of the opinions from
jurisprudence of the Islamic Schools of Thought including some latter day authorities
regarding the rules of jihad and the necessity for preparedness. From this we will come to
realise how far the ummah has deviated in its practice of Islam as can be seen from the
consensus of its scholars on the question of jihad.
The author of the 'Majma' al-Anhar fi Sharh Multaqal-Abhar', in describing the rules of jihad
according to the Hanafi School, said: 'Jihad linguistically means to exert one's utmost effort
in word and action; in the Sharee'ah {Sharia -- Islamic law} it is the fighting of the
unbelievers, and involves all possible efforts that are necessary to dismantle the power of the
enemies of Islam including beating them, plundering their wealth, destroying their places of
worship and smashing their idols. This means that jihad is to strive to the utmost to ensure
the strength of Islam by such means as fighting those who fight you and the dhimmies {nonMuslims living under Islamic rule} (if they violate any of the terms of the treaty) and the
apostates (who are the worst of unbelievers, for they disbelieved after they have affirmed
their belief).
It is fard (obligatory) on us to fight with the enemies. The Imam must send a military

FOMIFiqh

Page 12 of 13

expedition to the Dar-al-Harb {House of War -- the non-Muslim world} every year at least
once or twice, and the people must support him in this. If some of the people fulfill the
obligation, the remainder are released from the obligation. If this fard kifayah (communal
obligation) cannot be fulfilled by that group, then the responsibility lies with the closest
adjacent group, and then the closest after that etc., and if the fard kifayah cannot be fulfilled
except by all the people, it then becomes a fard 'ayn (individual obligation), like prayer on
everyone of the people.
[]
The scholarly people are of one opinion on this matter as should be evident and this is
irrespective of whether these scholars were Mujtahideen or Muqalideen and it is irrespective
of whether these scholars were salaf (early) or khalaf (late). They all agreed unanimously
that jihad is a fard kifayah imposed upon the Islamic ummah in order to spread the Da'wah
of Islam, and that jihad is a fard 'ayn if an enemy attacks Muslim lands. Today, my brother,
the Muslims as you know are forced to be subservient before others and are ruled by
disbelievers. Our lands have been besieged, and our hurruma'at (personal possessions,
respect, honour, dignity and privacy) violated. Our enemies are overlooking our affairs, and
the rites of our din are under their jurisdiction. Yet still the Muslims fail to fulfill the
responsibility of Da'wah that is on their shoulders. Hence in this situation it becomes the
duty of each and every Muslim to make jihad. He should prepare himself mentally and
physically such that when comes the decision of Allah, he will be ready.
I should not finish this discussion without mentioning to you that the Muslims, throughout
every period of their history (before the present period of oppression in which their dignity
has been lost) have never abandoned jihad nor did they ever become negligent in its
performance, not even their religious authorities, mystics, craftsmen, etc. They were all
always ready and prepared. For example, Abdullah ibn al Mubarak, a very learned and pious
man, was a volunteer in jihad for most of his life, and 'Abdulwahid bin Zayd, a sufi and a
devout man, was the same. And in his time, Shaqiq al Balkhi, the shaykh of the sufis
encouraged his pupils towards jihad.
Associated Matters Concerning Jihad
Many Muslims today mistakenly believe that fighting the enemy is jihad asghar (a lesser
jihad) and that fighting one's ego is jihad akbar (a greater jihad). The following narration
[athar] is quoted as proof: "We have returned from the lesser jihad to embark on the greater
jihad." They said: "What is the greater jihad?" He said: "The jihad of the heart, or the jihad
against one's ego."
This narration is used by some to lessen the importance of fighting, to discourage any
preparation for combat, and to deter any offering of jihad in Allah's way. This narration is
not a saheeh (sound) tradition: The prominent muhaddith Al Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said
in the Tasdid al-Qaws:
'It is well known and often repeated, and was a saying of Ibrahim ibn 'Abla.'
Al Hafiz Al Iraqi said in the Takhrij Ahadith al-Ahya':
Al Bayhaqi transmitted it with a weak chain of narrators on the authority of Jabir, and Al
Khatib transmitted it in his history on the authority of Jabir.'
Nevertheless, even if it were a sound tradition, it would never warrant abandoning jihad or
preparing for it in order to rescue the territories of the Muslims and repel the attacks of the
disbelievers. Let it be known that this narration simply emphasises the importance of
struggling against one's ego so that Allah will be the sole purpose of everyone of our actions.
Other associated matters concerning jihad include commanding the good and forbidding the
evil. It is said in the Hadeeth: "One of the greatest forms of jihad is to utter a word of truth in
the presence of a tyrannical ruler." But nothing compares to the honour of shahadah kubra
(the supreme martyrdom) or the reward that is waiting for the Mujahideen.

FOMIFiqh

Page 13 of 13

Epilogue
My brothers! The ummah that knows how to die a noble and honourable death is granted an
exalted life in this world and eternal felicity in the next. Degradation and dishonour are the
results of the love of this world and the fear of death. Therefore prepare for jihad and be the
lovers of death. Life itself shall come searching after you.
My brothers, you should know that one day you will face death and this ominous event can
only occur once. If you suffer on this occasion in the way of Allah, it will be to your benefit
in this world and your reward in the next. And remember brother that nothing can happen
without the Will of Allah: ponder well what Allah, the Blessed, the Almighty, has said:
'Then after the distress, He sent down security for you. Slumber overtook a party of you,
while another party was thinking about themselves (as to how to save themselves, ignoring
the others and the Prophet) and thought wrongly of Allah - the thought of ignorance. They
said, "Have we any part in the affair?" Say you (O Muhammad): "Indeed the affair belongs
wholly to Allah." They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying: "If
we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here." Say: "Even if
you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have
gone forth to the place of their death: but that Allah might test what is in your hearts; and to
purify that which was in your hearts (sins), and Allah is All-Knower of what is in (your)
hearts."' {Sura 3:154}

Verwandte Interessen