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Section 7

WELDING STAINLESS STEEL


SECTION 7.1

SECTION 7.4

WELDABILITY OF STAINJ,ESS STEEL


Page
..
...
..........
...
......
......

7.1-1
7.1-1
7.1-9

7.1-9
7.1-10
7.1-12
7.1-13

.. 7.1-13

...... 7.1-H

7.1-14

... 7.1-16

1-1-16

WELDING STAINLESS STEELS WITH


THE GAS METAL-ARC PROCESS
Spray-Are Transfcr _....... .
Short-Circuiting Transfl'r ..
Pul~ed-Arc Trausi'cr ..
\Velding Electrodes .
Specia.l CunRiderations .

. 7.4-l
7.4-2
. 7.4-3
7.4-3

. 7.4-4

SECTION 7.5
W:ELDlNG STAINLESS STEELS WITH
THE GAS TUNGSTEN-ARC PROCESS
. 7.5-1
Electrodes and Gases .
7.5-1
\~'elding Rods.
. ... 7.5-2
W~lding Prucedures .
-. 7.5"3
Automatc GTA Welding.
7.5-3
Hot-Wire Welding ..
Muttiple-Eh.cirode Welding

SECTION 7.2
WELDIXG STAINLESS STEELS WITH
TH.l!; SHIELDED METAL-ARC PltOCESS
Selectiug Blectrodes.
. .......... 7.2-2
Considerations in Welding .
. . 7.2-4
Welding Pro<:edure.
. ............. 7.2-4

SECTION 7.3
WF.LDING STAINJ.ESS STEEJ,S WITH
THE SUBMERGEil-ARC J>ROCESS
Joint Design

Welding 1'rocedures .
Weld Rackup .
Indination of Work .
Welding Flux .
Welding Eledrodes ..
Welding Technique.

.....
. ...
. ...
. ...
. ...
....
.

7.3-1
7.3-2
7.3-2
7.3-2
7.3-2
7.3-2
7.3-3

----~~~-

ic

7.1-1

Weldability of Stainless Steel


about 0.04 percent, cause~ .:hromium carhide precpitation when exposed to temperatures hetween
800 and HlOO"F. This rlepletea thD matri.x in
~.hromium and reduces the corrosion resistance in
local area, leadin;: to inl.ergranular corn>5on
Si!icon, in larger amounu ihan used in other
alloys, increasca oxidution resistnce at high tenlperature~. Hulfur ami seienium impart free-machining
charactcristics. Niobium, (,.]~o call ... I columbium)
tit.anium, and tant.alum additions stubilize carbides
and reduce Hu~ceptibility to intergranular couoHion.

AISI STAINLESS STEEL GRADES

7. 1-2

Waldlng Stainless Steel

Weldability ot Stainless Steel

7.1-3

TABLE 71. Correiation ol Specificafions lor Stainless Sfeels (Conlinued)


Casi Alloys

'e'

r=-1- _

1-

)50442

CB 30

A2g6

__l_--""''c""='c""-c~,O~.C~ - - - - - j_'"_"_'_ ___:_ ~A2:

A296,
A351

71-4

Welding Stainless Steel

Othert
7_5 M~. 0060 P
10.0 Mn, 0060 P

- -1------

We/dability of Stain!ess Steel

Fig.71.

7.1-5

7.1-6

Welding Stainless Steel

1-

single alues dencte ma~iJr.vm porcen!agc unless QlherwLOC noled.


Untes, ctlwrwisa oo:oo. utl1er gloments of all alloys l1sled lncltJde maxlmum contsnts nf 1 0% SI. O 040% P. nd 0.0300 S, Balance is Fa

We/dability of Stainless Steel

7.1-7

7. 1-8

Welding Stainless Steel

TASLE 7-. Typicat Compositio~s ol Miirtensitic Slairlless Steels


:composmon

' __ ijj_=;~:~_:

(%)

~25-2~

1 '"'

12.0-14.0

;~:~

= ;::~

--

1.25 Mn. O 15 S (min). 0.060 P. 0.60 Mo (opt)

i 1.25 Mn, O 060 P. O 15 Se (rnin)

"'

w
tt

Duplex Snfcgs Steels: The duplex stainless


s\.eels typicully consist of a micro5tmcture of ahout
50 percent ferrite and 50 percent austenite but may
range from 20 t<:> 80 volume percent ferrite They
were developed to provide a higher strengttiTurrosionreHiatant- alternative to....the 300 series austenitic
stainless steels. Compositinns are modified to favor
the high ferrite levels by increasiug the chromium
tu 22-26%, increaaing mulybdenum to 2-5%, decreasing the nickel to 4-8% aud adding copper up to 2%.
These compositions, . Table 7-8, provid~ exr.ellcnt
resiatance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress
corrosion cracking. These compositiuns also provide
oseful m~chunical properties, 'l'able 7-9, over a
temperature range from as low as
50" F to 500" ~'
with yield strength nearly twice thaL of wro1.1ght
austenitic otail'lless steel and duetility and toughness
approaching those of austenitic stainless steel. The
pretrred 50 percent ferrite - 50 percent austenite
microstrudure uf ihe duplex ~tainle8s steels is

Weldabifity of Stainless Steel

TABLE 7-8. Composiliorl ol Duplex

Stair~less

7. 1-9

Steels

a type 304L stainli'SS steel of FN 4.5 hut. l~s


susceptible than a typc 304L stainless steel of FN
O. The two experimental duplex alloys identified as21-9 and 2il-7 in 'fable 7-R were le&R susceptible to
weld metal hot cracking than the commercial duplex
stainless. Bot.h of these experimental allnys are
<'~8t'llti..ll.y free of M u and Cu. This leads
the
belief that :Mo anrl Cu form low melting
with iron which could cause Lhe hut.
su~ceptibiljty.

1!~

cile
ont
\00

....;._

experimental duplex ~lainle~s steels tu deter1nine


the effects of filler metal composilion and welding
pm.:edure on weld properties a:nd l1ot cracking
tendenc.y. Metallographic examination, tensile tests,
Charpy impact tests and Varestraint tests were used
to evalnate the welds by severa.! investiga.tors.
Mechanical test results showed that when ferr.iteeontent is below 60 EFN (approJrimately 60%) in
nearly matching wt>ld deposits for alloys 255 and
~205, sufficient ductility and toughness would be
attained to pass a side b<"lld test and provide a
Charpy "V" notch energy of 20 ft-lhs at
50"F.
Weld deposits of nearly makhing compositions with
ferrite conients ur OYt!r ao EFN (appro:ximately
30%) providcd tensile strength and yield strength
equivalent to that of baae metal.
While molybdenum is added to pro~ide r~sistance
to pitting and crevice rorrosion, high l~vels (4.0%
and over) cause embrittlcment of the deposit, even
for !<JW ferriLe level.~.
test results

WELDING THE AISI STAINLESS STEELS


not
the

with <"arhun and oxygen at welding t.emperatures


Presently, .wure wdding uf stainless steds is done
by manual shieldedarc methods than any other
proc~ss. Howcver, with lhe availability uf semiautomatic and autornatic equipment and electrodes,
lhe trend is toward autumaLic welding. Electrode~
for welding ~tainlesR steels are available in a wide
varicty of alloys.

Austenitic Grades
1\.Iost weldahle of the AlSI

7.1-10

Wefding Stainless Stee/

limitations thut require cureful att~ntion rlurin~


procesaing. Anst.enitic ~teels hav~ a h1gh coeIiciont
of thermal expansion - over 50% highEr than that
of carbon ~teel or of the 100-series alloys - which
demand~ maximum ~are tfl minimize disWrtion and
warping of wclded parts. Sorne of Lhcse alloys are
sus(:eptible to the formatiun of sigma phase whcn
expo&ed to certain high temp~rature ranges, which
can cause cracking und reduce corrosion r~ai~tance
unrler c~rtain conditions. Welding can als-o cause
carbde vrecipitatlon in sorne ~taiill!:ffls grades which
decrcases the corrosion resistance in sorne chemical
media.

Ferrite and Sigma Phase


Austenitic stainless steels may be susceptible tu
hot cracking (micro-fisSurin) if the ferrite t:ontent
in the weld metal is. not properly controll_ed. This
problem is corrected by u~ing electrodes that deposit
weld metal containing a small amount of ferrit..-.
Thus, recommended- electrodes for many Htandard
austenitic grades may deposit weld metal that
contains 3 to !5% ferrit.<:> llvt:!n, tbough tbe same
grade base metal cun~ains no-fe:rrite. Since !errit~
1li magnetic, it s casily detected in :m otherw:ise
IlDrunagnetic weldment
Ferrite is best determiwd by measurernent with
a magnetic instTument caltbrated to AWS A-1.2. It.
can also be estnated from the c-omposition of the
base material and filler material wilh the u~e of
any of severa! constitution diagrams. The oldest .of
these is tbe 19-tS Schaeffler Diagram. The Cr
equivalent (% Cr + % Mo + 1.5 x % Si + 0.5
x % Cb) i.~ plotted on the horizontal axis and the
nicke] equivalent {% Ni + 30 X % C 1- 0.;) X %
Mn) on the vertical axis. Despite long u~e, the
Schaeffler Diagram is now outdnted because it does
not cunsider nitrogen effects and because it has o-f
proVen possible to establi~h agreement among severa]
measures as to the ferrite percent in a given weld

metal.
An improv~ment on the Schaeffler Diagrsm ia
the 1973 WRC-DeL<:lng Diagram {Fig. 7-4), wbich
can be uscd tu estmate ferrite leve!. The main
differences are that the DeLong diagram includes.
nitrogen (N) in the Ni equivulent (% Ni + 30 x

equivalent numbcr. Thc l<'erdte Number


is indicatcd by ---the diagonal lin which pa~ses
t hrough t.he inncr~ection of t.he horizontal and vertical
lines.

Weldabifity of Stainfess Steel

Fig.7-4.

'

,,

h~

Oelo%

conell'''~'on

dragram fe aJstenltic

sta~n.ess

7.1~11

steel weld

,,,,
ag

_\

-----------------

7.1-12

Welding Stainless Stee/

Weldabi!ity of Stainless Steel

7.1-1:3

Ferritic Grades
These grades have what is me1allurgir.ally known
~s a ferritk mirrostructure. 'l'hey are magnetic and
nnnhardcnable hy heat treatment.. Typical applicaautomobilc trim und rnufflcn, interiur

Electrode Selection Without Heat Treating


Ferritic or martenaitio;...steel weldments to he
used in the "as-welded" condition shou!d he welded
with E308, E309, or E3HJ electrodes. The ductile
chrominm-nickel welds resi~i cracking from ddor
nt8lion Bnd impact bett.er than ifthe wcld and hcatHlicctocd zone wcre [)()th brittle. However, di!Terence~
in thermal e"pansion rates, weld and base metal

7.1-14

Weldng Stainless Steef

propert.ies ffi>JY require


chromium-typc clcctrode.

Duplex Stainless Steels


The duplex stainless
attain their duplcx
structure of roughly 50%
and 50% austenite
after an anncaling heat treatmenl or hul wurking.
Weld deposits in these alloys with matching filler
metals solidify and remain mmrly 100% ferrite. This
single plw.se deposit is mnch more su&eeptible
hot cracking than a mixed d~posit of ferrite
auslenite. A post weld annealing l.nnm~nl
o.:auRe the ferrite to partly transform to austenite
and improve the dnctility_ Howe~er, hot cracking
normlly would occur befare t.he h<o>ai lreHLm~ni
could be accomplished. In many cases, it would not
be acceptable or feasible lo heat treat the entire
welded assembly.

Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels


Preheating and Postheating
- Austenilic slululcss-steeh are best wetded without
preheat except to reduce shrinkage stresses on thick
~ections or reslrainedjuints. No preheat, low interpaas
or a stringer-head tech:nique reduce
the time the heat-affected wne i~ in the sen~itizi11J5
range {800-l60WF). thereby reducing the amount of
<'llrbidc prccipitation. Usually no posl.heating is
required for the austenitk ~tainlcss steels except
when an anncal is needed to dissoh-e the chromium
carbides.
t~mperature,

-+--------

The ned category of stainles~ ~teels - the


precipitstion-hardening grades - "ffers a combinatI:m _of properlius not attainable in other alloys
There are ~tronger steels; there are st.eels that ha~e
grcater corrosion resistance; and thcrc are steels
that are easier to fabrica-te. But few material&
combine all of these charaderistics as do the
precipitation- hardcning (a !so called ''age-hardening ")
stainless steelR.
These proprietary steels a1e used in applicatiuns
requiring high strength (from 12.\000 to nearly
300,000 psi, dcpcnding on heat treatment}, good
fracture touglmess, resistance to corrosion (c!>rfl>sion
resistance in moat environments i~ about equal t.o
that of AISI Lypes .902 and 304), and resistance to
oxidatiun at elevated temperatnrl's. 'T'h~y are amrmg
the most fabricable of the high-slrenglh materials.
They can be worked by most conventional methmlH
whilc in a vcry low-Htnmgth condition, then

Weldability ot Stainless Steel

7.1-15

~Lrcngl.henPd by a low-tempenttun! (900 tu 1150'F)


heal. r.realm~nt.
Precipitation hardcning is
mcthod
of increasing hardness aod strength
metal.
Although sorne variatinns apply to
grades,
precipitation bardening H gen~rally accomplished
by a three-step heat treatmcnt consisting of solution
l.reatment, rapid cooling. and controll~d reheating
(aging)
The first step (solutinn heat treating) dhsolve~
ccrtain elcnwnts such as copper, titanium, niobium,
and aluminum, thal_ar~ normally insoluable at room
icmpemture. 1'llis mechanism might be ~:ompared
with thc abilily of hot water tu dissolve more salt
than can cold waler
The ~econd stcp {quenching) eools the metal
ra]Jidly to retain thc solution cffcct al room
temperatme. 'Fhia conditlun i~ sumetimes called a
super-~ulurated solid solution.
The third step involves reheating- of lhe super
saturaWd metal to a relutively low aging temperature
(about 900"F for sorne grade><) for about an hour.
'l'his cffects a uniform, tmbmicroscopic precipitation
of the Hpecial elements {or compoun<ls) t.hroughoul
the ~tructure. This barden~ "'nd atrcngthens the
metal
Thc thrce classes of precipitulion-hanicnable
grades of &tainle~~ ~teels urc murtensitic, austenitic,
and semiausteiillic: Composition of representativa
materials are listed in TaUle 7-10, and dust:rptions
and typical applications appear in Table 7-11.

TABLE 7-10. Coml)csition of Precipitalion-Hardening Stainleas Steels

,.,
!y

od
on
Ce

-~--------

7.1-16

We!ding Stamless Steel

TABLE 7-11.

Chara~terislics

and Applications o1

Pre~ipitation-Hardenable

Stainless Steel
Appllcations

Valves. lastenars. gaars splines P'D


pellershalts.roller-ct>s,1p1ns

Aus1enitic Grades

Weldability of Stainless Steel

heat exchangen,
lines

;f

,..
ji

nt

val>E."~

and high

t~mperature

steam

7,1-17

7.1-18

We!ding Stain!ess Steel

1.2-1

Welding Stainless Steels with


the Shielded Metal-Are Process

72-2

Welding Stainless Steel

SELECTING ELECTRODES

"

11

Mechanical properties of stainless-steel v;eld


mdul usually are not as impmtant 1111 the chemical
compositin (Table 7-14) and the heat treatment.
l'her~ lli little difference in mechanical propertieR
or chemicRI composition hetween the DC (EXXX15) ~nrl the AC-DC (EXXX-lG) weld deposits made
'Vith electrodes of the same dass. Typical mechanical
ofstaiillCHH-Hted weld metal are giv<en in
Ji

Shielded Metar-Arc Process

TABLE 7-14. Typical Compositions


ol SlainlessSieel Weld Metal
AWS
Type

Compogl\ion (%)
C

1 .

c1

Nb (Cb)

~----=-

~~--:;

""
,.,.,-

TABLE 7-15. Typical Mechanical Properties


ot Stair~lessSteel Weld Melal
AWS Type

1 Ten~~~~0s~:;)gth

Elongatlon
1n 2in.(%)

00

-~

--+-more care t-o avoicl slag inclt1sions. Thcso clectrodes


~re recommenderi for horizontal fillets and fnr al!
fiat-position welding. EXXX-16 electrodos are also
\lRed in all positions by skilled weldors.
Selecting the proper electrode must bu done
with care because of the lar;e nLJmlJ<H Df ~tainless
steel ulloyb. All AISI Htainlcss aHoya are not available
as electrodes. The titau..iw;u in type 321 does not

~~~:::"cc'"~:~::~s'uc~0 a~h;3~:1 ~r:~~~;ad~~y~ ;:~~


r~J

n~

is
d
lC

compositionH are not produced.


the electrodes commonly llsed
with the various types of stainless al!oys. When two
different types are to be joined, Tublc 7-17 ~an be
tlsed as a guide. These tables should be used only
~s general guides, however particularly whtl_t:
oervice conditions are sev.,rely curwsive or where
high temperaturea may cause scaling
The free-machining grades uf ~laiulcss stccl are
rccommendcd for wdding because the sulfur,
or phosphorus cause sever~ porosity and
crH<:king. If theHe steels must be welded,

7.2-3

7_2-4

Welding Stainless Steel

TABLE 7 17
304L

Typic<~l
308

Filiar Metells f,r


309

J\l9S

Dh~sl~llar Metal

~10

J10S

Joints , Austenitic Stainless

3;~~

J16L

'--,=,~,_,=,+--!--+--+---+-+-----!~---+----+

317

~-~
~32~~

- _- ,

3. Flame-beveling and machining may leave


n>ntaminants or oxide films 1hat must be
removed.

4. Avoid zinc COJltamination from brush~~ or


tools that have heen uRed on galvani:r.ed steel.
UHe nnly stainless-steel win< bruahliB that
have been used only on stainl~ss steel.
CONSIDEAATIONS IN WELDING

Welding Procedure

Cleaning: .l<'or high-quality welds, joints must be


dean and d;... The choice of power bru~hing,

,Joint Design: Accurate fitup and good


preparation are necessary for good wtdd
minimum disiortiun. Joint desig:ns are
to
those dcscriUed for mild BteeL For butt welds on
plate to l/2-in. thick, the beve! shuuld b<J a 60"
induded angle for good penetration and easy slag
removaL On plate owr 1/2-in. thid1. and up tD
1-1/2 in. tlck, a double bev.,J !; re~ommended if
the welding can be done from both sidcs. Fot buU
welds over 1-in. thick that mu~t be done from one
side, a U-groove is used. For butt welds in plate over
l-J/2 in. thick that can be welded from bnth sides,
a duuble U-gruuve is recommended.

degreasing, pickling, grinding, or msrely wiping


depends 1.1pon the kind and amount of dirt. Sorne
specific recommendations are;
l. Remove moisture by heating or by
with dry air (beware of mniHlure in
lino). Moisturc caJJ collect
overnight in high-humidity

"L,
th

Shielded Metal-Are Procass

7.2-5

:::~ 75. "Bunenng' t&:hmque lor JOin.c.; mtld steel

~'or prelwating and postheating information HH<J


Mction7-l.

Joining Stainless tmd Other Stecls:

lLl

~ome

applicativns, stainless-stcel weld-mcutl is applied tu


mild steel: for example, lining mild-steel vessels ur
t:ontainer with ijtainlcss steel. fo'or such applications,
stainless electrodes with higher alloy content are
\13ed so th<J admixl.ure of the mild steel into the
stainless wdd d<Jpu~it docs nul forman unsatisfact><Y
al! uy

r::=Sdbcodc

M1ldsteel

(e)

Welding l.ecbniqu"'~ can lwlp control distortion.


\Veld witb low current consistent with sufficient
penfltYaLion tu re<:luc~ the heat inpLJ\, to the work

(Table 7-lB). U~e string~r beads-11t a higher speed


ratht'r than wide heads at a slower speed. If weave
bcads nust be made, limit the weave to 2-112 times

the etectrode diameter.


Ol.l1er means to contml distortion a.-e:
IJse rigid fixt.ures to hold parts in <~lignment.

(e)

~''"'
{d)

7_2-6

Welding Stainless Stee/

SHIELDED METAl-ARC (MANUAL)

AISI300SerillsSlainlessSteels

[1IJ
SHIELDED METAL-ARC (MANUAL)

AISI300SeriesStainles.Steels

Weld0u3lity L,.,. c~o"


SL~Oi 1\'olda!),:lty. Good

Shielded Metal-Are Process

7.2-7

SIIIELDED METAL-ARC (MANUAL)


AlSI300Serie<St~lnle ..

Steels

=:-:=ce==---------- -----------,

SHIELDED

METAL-~RC

(MANUAL)

Al SI Seris 300 Stainler;s St~~l


~~~~--,,-----

----

-~
go- 1/4"

e
l:>ockng

7.2-8

We!ding Stainless Sfeel

\Vhen stainless-steel b joined to mild steel,

th~

mild steel is "buttered" with stainlesB steel. This


technique consists oi dpositing a ]ayer of atainless
on the surfacc o' the mild steel. then complcting
the joint wth stainleas eleclrude, as illuslrated in
Flg. 7-5. The elec:trode commonly used for buttering
is F.309. 'fhiH tedmique is ahm u~ed for joining
hurd-toweld or high-carbon steels that cannot be
preheated.
J<~308 Blectrmle is used l'or juinln( >HJ~1Hniti~
mnngancse steel to carhon steel or to manganese
stt'el. However, for cornpunents that ITI\JSt be rep!aced
periodically, such as dippcr teeih, a mangauese
clectrode ia recommended because the stainless weld
is more difficulLt torch cut.
There are severa] methods for applying a stainless

sllrface to mild steel. For a small area. overlapping


wcld beads are used, Wl illustrated in Fig. 76(a).
For larger areas, staiuless sheets are plug-welded to
the mild steel [log. 7-6(b}, or stainless strips are
attach<"d as shown in Fg. 7-6(c) and (rt)].
Powor Sources; The opencircuit ''oltagc uf lighitranafonner welders may not be high ("Oongh
sorne brands uf EXXX-16 ~lectrodes; utherwiae
same power sources used with steel electrodes
are satisfactory for stainless electrodes
l'aramelt>rs and procedures J'or wlding "tainlcs'i
steel in thickncsses from Hl gauge to 112 in~h
given on pages 7.2-6 - 7.2-8. The~e show
deslgns and baekup bars for butt, T, Jap,
90
degree edge joints.

SHIELDED METAL-ARC (MANUAL)


Al SI 31lll Series Stainless Sr~els

--------------------------------------~---------~

7.5-1

Welding Stainless Steels with


the Gas TungstenArc Process

1Electrodes and Gases

Welding Rods
\Velding rods (filler metal) J'or gas lungsten-ar,.
welding are specified in A WS Af>.9-8l, and Lheir
chemical compositions are shown in Table 4-20.
TlwrB i~ no specificatino forthe mechani.,al propertie~

of the weld metal. According to AWI:i A5.9-81 thc


clas~ification is on the basis of chPmical composition
of th"' iillcr metal a~ manufactured. Meehanical testl!
have not bE<en included but reference is made in
the "l'l't:mdix AWS fiA-81 whkh lists mechanical
properties for weld~ made with stsinleBB ated costed _
electrodes. This ia containcd as Table 7-13 in this
scction. Jt can be slated, however, that Joints mad"
with th~se filler rndHIH und~r properly cont.rol!cd

welding procedurc~ and using the proces& prescribed


herein will have mechankal properties at l<>ast equ;TABLE 7-23. Typical Procedures for Welding S!a1nlass Steels with the Ga$ Tungsten-Arc Process

7.5-2

tu

Welding Stainless Stee/

thE has" metal of corresponding chcmica.l

I'Oropooit.ion

Welding Procedures
Typical procedures for gas tnngsten-arc weldinr;
of sLa.inless stee] are givcn in 'l'ablc 7-23.
Filler-metal selection is very important in GTA
welding and i~ um.mlly "pecifed by the design
engineer. If no class of filler metal is speclficd,
- Table 716 can be 11sed as a general guide to fillermetal ~election. When two dilferent t.ypes of ~tainless
steels are t.o be joined, Table 7-17 can be used as
a guide. However, the tables should be used with
caution. Where corrosive conditions are severe, the
filler-metal selection can be very critica~ as indicated
in the footnot.e to Table 7-16
The DC pQwer ~ource for gM Lunghtcn-rc
welding must be a variablevultage typc, and lt is
recommended that a highfrequen<::y voltage be
~uperimposed on the welding cir~uit. The high
frequency ne~d be on only to s.tart the are. As thc
elect.rode is \Jro.,ght dose to the work, the highfrequency jumps the gap from th!! tungsten tu t.he
work and ignites the welding are. Since the tungsten
eledrode does not actually touch the wrk, the
posaibi\ity of cont.aminating the stain!ess steel wit.h
tungsten is greatly reduced. Electrode negati;e
polarity sho-ulrl be \1sed - which produces deep
penetration.
A "scratch" start may be used in lieu of a highfrequency stort, althouh there is snme possibility
of tungsten pickup. The are should not be struck

carbon block because of the likelihood of


contamination. Good jig~m!( is essential for
performance. The problems likely to hP
cncount.ered when GTA welding- lhe auBl~nilic typc
stainles~ steels and the pussible remedies are !isted
in 'fable 7-24
The pulsed GTA process m ay be useJ for wclding
thin sheet and for root pass welding wiih inert ga~
backup. The puhing rate, which i.~ contrnlled by a
pulHing powcr supply with dropplng voltage characteristies, is much luwer than used
curnmt power supplies used for GMA
high current pulse!! are enou~h to cause
penetration uf th~ joint but tbe duratiun is
enuugh toPNvent excesaive drop-throu~h. The low
CLltrent portian maintains the are so that it. can

Gas Metal--Are Process

1
1

AUTOMA TIC GTAW WELDING


Stainless steels are readily welded with automatic
GTA W. Are voltage is propurtional to are lcngth thna, a reliablc signa! can be generated to operate
automat.ic arc-voltage control cquipment. Filler metal
may be used, or light-gagc material ma.v be juined
by Himple fusion of the joint edge~. Wheu "cold~
filler meil is u~ed, it is always added to the front
- of the puddle.

7.5-3

hase metal and the AC power oupJIIY furniHheo. a


targe portion of the energy needed to resistancemelt the filler wire. The hot-wirl' method iH, in
cl"feet, an adaptation of the long-siidwut principie
u~ed in anllmerged-arc and aelf-shie\ded flux-cored
are welding. The wire u sed for hot-wire GT A W
welding is usually 0.045-in. diametn Since the wire
is mclled - or very nearly melted - by ita own
power sources, the deposition rate can be contrvl!Rd
almost independPntly of the w
Using the GTAW hot-wiru
rates up to 18 lb/hr can be
at -100 to 500 amp DCI!;N {Table
greater
depositiun rates can be ubtained using an automatic
oscillated welding technique. Voltage control ia
e~~ential to achieve control uf the large pudlile when
welding at high depoAition ratt'S. For this reason,
GTA hut-.oorire welding requires th~ use of ~-olillgc
cuntrol equipment.

Hot-Wire Welding
The so-called "hot.wire method ofwelding gives
greatly increased deposition ratBs and wf'lding sp1!do..

The wire - which tra1ls thc torch, HS i!lustrated in


1
1

__

Fig. 7-13 - is resistsnce-heated by a separat.e AC


power supp]y, lt ia fed through a contad tube and
extcnds beyond ihe tubo. The extension is resistance-heated ~o that it approaches ur read1e11 the melt.ing

il~~~t~~fo~:ci:r~~~i~~~;li~~:sw:~~ ~~~~~~~ r!~l8t ~~:

Multiple-Eiectrode Welding
By using cloHely ~paced multiple tungsten
electrodes, the welding speed can also be increased
subst.~nti~lly when GTA\V we!ding: stainles8-Meel
tuhing or sheet. Multiplc cleill_mhl prNctically
climinate the problem ofundercutting llt higl1 ~pcPds.

TABLE 7-25. Typtcat Speeds and Deposition Rafes


with GTAW HDI-Wlre

Oeposition
lb/hr

7.5-4

Welding Stainless Steel

7.3-1

Welding Stainless Steels with


!he Submerged-Arc Process
l:mtted since weld hHcking is not. us~d- Thc advantagc
of this joint design is that it requires a
of ocdge preparativo, yet produces weJ,-JH
qualily having- ~deql111le pen.,lration
Single- V groove welds with a root face, Figure
7- Tb, are used with nonfusible backing for singlepass butt welds of 5/16-in. thickness or greater. Fur
most industrial applications, tho maximum thickness

JOINT OESIGN

is of the onl.,r of 1-114 Lo 1-1/2 in. Ruot face


dimensions are 1/8 to 3/16 in. This joint design is
also UsBd for lwn-pll!m wcldb wit.hnut backin~ whcre
plat.e thickness <"Xceeds 5/8 in. The first pa~s is
made in the V of the joint, Figt1re 7-Th- The work
is thcn turned over and th first pass bcomes the
backing pass. In this position, the finishing pass is
made on thc llat ~idc of the joint penetrating into
the rootofthe first pass. 'l'herootface isapproximately
3/8 in. for lwn-pa~& welds.
The doub\e-V groove butt, Figure 7-7d, is the
basic joint desi;;n for Kubmerged-an; welding. A \ar.;e
root face is generally ued with this desig:n. Figure

Fig
lar submerged-arc

w~ld1n~

7.3-2

Wefding Stainfess Steel

taken to prtlvent copper grain boundary pcnetration.


Recommended groove dimensiona ~~~ ahown in Fig
7-9.
Wit.h a fusible metallic hacking, the weld
penetrateR into and fuses with the stainless backing,
which eithcr temporarily or permanently becomes
an integral part of the SH~embly.

7-8 shows a typieal double-V groovc wcld in 311 in.

3[)4 plate and de~cribes the welding se<.ucncc.


A single-U groove butt joiut design, Figure
7-7f, is also commonly useo:I. A srnall manually
producud. backing weld is often made from the
reverse si de of t.he joint.

WE[DJNG PROCEDURE
For stainhcss-st.~el welding, DC power is geuerally
u~ed rm chin senions and either AC nr DC fur
heavier secti6ns. However DC is
the
preferred methm.i. Curr~nls ure
for carbon steeis. Single-pass
reRIJlt in dilution leveill uf 40 to 60%.
decreased by using multi"pas; w~ld.s.

We~~::e~~~far~

lnclination of Work
Most submerged-arc welding is done in the 11at
po~itiun. This reaults in the heHt lwad contonr and
Occasionally, welding la done nn
seams. Figure 7"10 muatratP.H tbe
indinat.ions

Weldlng Flux
Submerged-arc fluxes are available as proprietary
materials for welding: stainless steel. Composition
materials fall into two
- fused type and
bonded type. The fns~d
is gla~s-likc and is
prnduced by melting
in;:rl'di<cnf.'> at. high
temperatures followed by crushing to granulate the
11n~- The bond..,d type is produced by mixing the
ingrcdicnts with a suitablc binder and baking the
mixture.
Neutral fluxes are generally n!<:ommended for
the welding of stainless steel. Neutral tluxes are

~~~~~::~~~~=ea71~:e~:~:t~p:~:~~:;:;Y:;g;i~:s~~;

welding crates a large volume


of multen meta.! that remains fluid for appredahle
time. It 8 essent-ial thllt ihs molten metal be

of a huge change in th ar~ volt.age. These fluxes


usually contain little or no active allny. Whrn

ft1sible backing in !.he wdding of stainless steel.


Whcn copper ia used as 11 chill bar, care mu~t be

compensa~e for the _loas of ullo~ wlwn lhe stam!I!~S


eleetrode IS melted m the weldmg procesa.

:~~po~! a~~~~~~ain~:a~1~ti~~t ::~t~:~~~:~ ~~: ~~~t~:~d ~~~:!~e ::~dinc~J::a~~ain81:~1tt:~c~ 0~~~:"":f


non~~~~=r ~:~~i~1~ ~:~h!u~~~~ ~:~::;ly used no!L_ ~~:~~i:~~Yni~~~;t:~ta~: ~~~::;~~oyP:::~~;.n~~

Submerged-Arc Process

7.3-3

7.3-4

Weldmg Stainless Steel

-~--------

7.4-1

Welding Slainless Sleels with


lhe Gas Metal-Are Process

SPRAY-ARC TRANSFER
l<'illcr metals for gas metal HrC welding lln
Sf!ecified in AWS-A5.9-81 and--iheir chemical com
positiuns "'" slwwn in Table 4-20
Electrode diameters as great as
but
usually ai0und 1/ 16-in., are used with

TABLE 7-21. Gas Metal-Are Welding (Semiautomatic) General Weldlng


Condllions lor Spray-Are Transfer
AISI 200 and 300 Series Stainless Steels

7_4-2

Welding Stainless Steel

Gas Metal-Are Process

7.4-3

PULSED-ARC TRANSFER

Pul sed CMA welding <'haracteristicR are excellcnt


tranafer with lowcr currellts. Thcre are many
advantageo with thia procesa induding low Rpatter,
pcnctrirrilm without melt-through and excellent

operator appeal

WELDING ELECTRODES

7A-4

Welding Starn!ess Steef

will "he ul>ta.iue_d at a welding \:llrtent of


amp llC:EP. F1~ure 7-12 illmt.r_at~s t.yPical
ra_te c:urves f~r various stamless- steel

Kas. I~iz~~u~81~; :;~~n~~~~i~l~i'~~:t:l~~; ~~i~d!~:

minimum current ~ minim11m are volt.agc must also


be obtained. 'fhis 1s generully betwccn 24 anct 31) v
It increases with an increase in current. and i8 hiKhe~
for helium ~hielding t.han for argon or arKon CO,

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

:>.

.___

_______

---.

-------

whcn wclding magnet


For uniform fusiun.
centered over- the
joint. .

Gas Metal-Are Process

7.4-5

7.4-6

Welding Stainless Steel