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SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED

CONVERTERS

LECTURE PLAN
Sl.
No.

Module as per Session Planner

Lecture
No.

PPT Slide No.

Introduction to Line commutated Inverter

L-1

3-12

Principle of Phase Controlled Rectifier Operation

L-2

13-19

Expression for the RMS Value of Output Voltage


of a Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier
With Resistive Load

L-3

20-33

Performance Parameters
Of Phase Controlled Rectifiers

L-4

34-45

Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier


With An RL Load

L-5

46-61

Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier


With RL Load & Free Wheeling Diode

L-6

62-80

Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier


Using A Center Tapped Transformer

L-7

81-113

Single Phase Full Wave Bridge Controlled


Rectifier

L-8

114-129

Lecture-1

Introduction to Line commutated


Inverter

+
AC
Input
Voltage

Line
Commutated
Converter

DC Output
V0(dc )
-

Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed


frequency ac power supply.
Type of output: Variable dc output voltage
Type of commutation: Natural / AC line
commutation

Different types of
Line Commutated Converters
AC to DC Converters (Phase controlled
rectifiers)
AC to AC converters (AC voltage controllers)
AC to AC converters (Cyclo-converters) at
low output frequency.

Differences Between
Diode Rectifiers
&
Phase Controlled Rectifiers

Cntd

The diode rectifiers are referred to as


uncontrolled rectifiers .
The diode rectifiers give a fixed dc output
voltage .
Each diode conducts for one half cycle.
Diode conduction angle = 1800 or
radians.
We can not control the dc output voltage or
the average dc load current in a diode
rectifier circuit.
7

Cntd

Single phase half wave diode rectifier gives an


Average dc output voltage VO dc

Vm

Single phase full wave diode rectifier gives an


Average dc output voltage VO dc

2Vm

Applications of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
DC motor control in steel mills, paper and
textile mills employing dc motor drives.
AC fed traction system using dc traction
motor.
Electro-chemical and electro-metallurgical
processes.
Magnet power supplies.
Portable hand tool drives.

Classification of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers

Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers.


Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers.

10

Different types of Single


Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Half wave controlled rectifiers.
Full wave controlled rectifiers.
Using a center tapped transformer.
Full wave bridge circuit.
Semi converter.
Full converter.

11

Different Types of
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Half wave controlled rectifiers.
Full wave controlled rectifiers.
Semi converter (half controlled
bridge converter).
Full converter (fully controlled
bridge converter).
12

Lecture-2

Principle of Phase Controlled Rectifier


Operation

Principle of Phase Controlled


Rectifier Operation

14

Single Phase Half-Wave Thyristor


Converter with a Resistive Load

15

Supply Voltage

Output Voltage

Output (load)
Current
16

Supply
Voltage

Thyristor Voltage

17

Equations
vs Vm sin t i/p ac supply voltage
Vm max. value of i/p ac supply voltage
VS

Vm

RMS value of i/p ac supply voltage

2
vO vL output voltage across the load

18

When the thyristor is triggered at t


vO vL Vm sin t ; t to
vO
iO iL
Load current; t to
R
Vm sin t
iO iL
I m sin t ; t to
R
Vm
Where I m
max. value of load current
R
19

Lecture-3

To Derive an Expression for the


Average (DC)
Output Voltage Across The
Load

20

VO dc

1
Vdc
2

v .d t ;
O

vO Vm sin t for t to

VO dc

1
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t

VO dc

Vm sin t.d t

2
21

VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

Vm

sin

t
.
d

Vm

cos t
2

Vm

cos cos ; cos 1


2
Vm

1 cos ; Vm 2VS
2
22

Maximum average (dc) o/p


voltage is obtained when 0
and the maximum dc output voltage
Vm
Vdc max Vdm
1 cos 0 ; cos 0 1
2
Vm
Vdc max Vdm

23

Cntd

Vm
VO dc
1 cos ; Vm 2VS
2
The average dc output voltage can be varied
by varying the trigger angle from 0 to a
maximum of 180 radians
0

We can plot the control characteristic

O dc

vs by using the equation for VO dc


24

Control Characteristic
of
Single Phase Half Wave Phase
Controlled Rectifier
with
Resistive Load
25

Cntd

The average dc output voltage is given by the


expression
Vm
VO dc
1 cos
2
We can obtain the control characteristic by
plotting the expression for the dc output
voltage as a function of trigger angle
26

27

Control Characteristic
VO(dc)
Vdm

0.6Vdm

0.2 Vdm
0

60

120

180

Trigger angle in degrees


28

Normalizing the dc output


voltage with respect to Vdm , the
Normalized output voltage
Vdc
Vn
Vdm

Vm
1 cos
2
Vm

Vdc 1
Vn
1 cos Vdcn
Vdm 2
29

To Derive An Expression for the RMS Value


of Output Voltage of a Single Phase Half
Wave Controlled Rectifier With Resistive
Load

30

Cntd

The RMS output voltage is given by


1 2 2

VO RMS
vO .d t

2 0

Output voltage vO Vm sin t ; for t to


VO RMS

1 2 2

Vm sin t.d t
2

1
2

31

Cntd

1 cos 2 t
By substituting sin t
, we get
2
2

VO RMS

VO RMS

VO RMS

1 2 1 cos 2 t

Vm
.d t
2
2

Vm2

1 cos 2 t .d t

1
2

1
2

Vm2

d t cos 2 t.d t
4

1
2

32

Cntd

VO RMS

VO RMS

VO RMS
VO RMS

Vm 1

t
2
Vm

2
Vm

sin 2 t

1
2

1
2

1
sin 2 sin 2


;sin2 0
2


1
sin 2
2

Vm
sin 2

2
2

1
2

1
2

33

Lecture-4

Performance Parameters
Of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers

34

Cntd

Output dc power (avg. or dc o/p


power delivered to the load)
PO dc VO dc I O dc ; i.e., Pdc Vdc I dc
Where
VO dc Vdc avg./ dc value of o/p voltage.
I O dc I dc avg./dc value of o/p current
35

Cntd

Output ac power
PO ac VO RMS I O RMS
Efficiency of Rectification (Rectification Ratio)
Efficiency

PO dc
PO ac

; % Efficiency

PO dc
PO ac

100

The o/p voltage consists of two components


The dc component VO dc
The ac /ripple component Vac Vr rms
36

Cntd

The total RMS value of output voltage is given by


VO RMS V

2
O dc

2
r rms

Vac Vr rms V

2
O RMS

2
O dc

Form Factor (FF) which is a measure of the


shape of the output voltage is given by
VO RMS
RMS output load voltage
FF

VO dc
DC load output load voltage
37

Cntd

The Ripple Factor (RF) w.r.t. o/p voltage w/f


Vr rms Vac
rv RF

VO dc Vdc
rv

2
O RMS

VO dc

2
O dc

VO RMS

1
VO dc

rv FF 1
2

38

Cntd

Current Ripple Factor ri


Where I r rms I ac I

I r rms
I O dc

2
O RMS

I ac

I dc
2
O dc

Vr pp peak to peak ac ripple output voltage


Vr pp VO max VO min
I r pp peak to peak ac ripple load current
I r pp I O max I O min
39

Cntd

Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)


PO dc
TUF
VS I S
Where
VS RMS supply (secondary) voltage
I S RMS supply (secondary) current
40

Cntd

41

Cntd

Where
vS Supply voltage at the transformer secondary side
iS i/p supply current
(transformer secondary winding current)
iS 1 Fundamental component of the i/p supply current
I P Peak value of the input supply current

Phase angle difference between (sine wave


components) the fundamental components of i/p
supply current & the input supply voltage.
42

Cntd

Displacement angle (phase angle)


For an RL load
Displacement angle = Load impedance angle
L
tan
for an RL load
R
Displacement Factor (DF) or
Fundamental Power Factor
DF Cos
1

43

Cntd

Harmonic Factor (HF) or


Total Harmonic Distortion Factor ; THD
1
2

I I
IS
HF
1
2
I S 1

I S1
Where
2
S

2
S1

1
2

I S RMS value of input supply current.


I S 1 RMS value of fundamental component of
the i/p supply current.
44

Cntd

Input Power Factor (PF)


VS I S 1
I S1
PF
cos
cos
VS I S
IS
The Crest Factor (CF)
CF

I S peak
IS

Peak input supply current

RMS input supply current

For an Ideal Controlled Rectifier


FF 1; 100% ; Vac Vr rms 0 ; TUF 1;
RF rv 0 ; HF THD 0; PF DPF 1
45

Lecture -5

Single Phase Half Wave Controlled


Rectifier With An RL Load

46

Cntd

47

Input Supply Voltage (Vs)


&
Thyristor (Output) Current
Waveforms

48

Cntd

49

Output (Load)
Voltage Waveform

50

Cntd

To Derive An Expression For


The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
51

Cntd

Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
t

Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z

52

Cntd

Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.


Z R L =Load impedance.
2

L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1

R
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e L
Z

53

Cntd

Constant A1 is calculated from



initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=

R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L

A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e

Vm

Z sin

54

Cntd

Substituting the value of constant A1 in the


general expression for iO
R
t
L

Vm
Vm

iO
sin t e
sin

Z
Z

we obtain the final expression for the


inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z

R
t

L
sin

sin

Where t
55

Cntd

Extinction angle can be calculated by using


the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t

Vm
L
iO
sin

sin

0
Z

sin e

R

L

sin

can be calculated by solving the above eqn.


56

To Derive An Expression
For
Average (DC) Load Voltage of a
Single Half Wave Controlled
Rectifier with
RL Load
57

VO dc
VO dc

1
VL
2

v .d t
O

1
VL
vO .d t vO .d t vO .d t
2 0

vO 0 for t 0 to & for t to 2

1
VO dc VL
vO .d t ;
2

vO Vm sin t for t to
58

VO dc

1
VL
2

VO dc

Vm
VL
2

Vm sin t.d t

cos t

Vm
VO dc VL
cos cos
2
Vm
VO dc VL
cos cos
2
59

Effect of Load
Inductance on the Output
During the period t to the
instantaneous o/p voltage is negative and
this reduces the average or the dc output
voltage when compared to a purely
resistive load.
60

Average DC Load Current

I O dc I L Avg

VO dc
RL

Vm

cos cos
2 RL

61

Lecture-6

Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier


With RL Load & Free Wheeling Diode

i0
+
V0

+
Vs

FWD
L

63

vS

Supply voltage

iG
Gate pulses
0

iO

Load current

t=
0

vO

Load voltage

64

The average output voltage


Vm
Vdc
1 cos which is the same as that
2
of a purely resistive load.
The following points are to be noted
For low value of inductance, the load current
tends to become discontinuous.
65

During the period to


the load current is carried by the SCR.
During the period to load current is
carried by the free wheeling diode.
The value of depends on the value of
R and L and the forward resistance
of the FWD.
66

For Large Load Inductance


the load current does not reach
zero, & we obtain continuous load
current
i0

t1

t2

t3

t4

SCR

FWD

SCR

FWD

67

Single Phase Half Wave


Controlled Rectifier With
A
General Load

68

iO

vS

L
+

vO

E
69

E
sin
Vm
For trigger angle ,
the Thyristor conducts from t to
For trigger angle ,
the Thyristor conducts from t to
1

70

Vm

vO

Load voltage
E
0

iO

Im
Load current
0

71

Equations
vS Vm sin t Input supply voltage.
vO Vm sin t o/p load voltage
for t to .
vO E for t 0 to &
for t to 2 .
72

Expression for the Load Current


When the thyristor is triggered at a delay angle of
, the eqn. for the circuit can be written as
diO
Vm sin t iO R L
+E ; t
dt
The general expression for the output load
current can be written as
t

Vm
E
iO sin t Ae
Z
R

73

Where
Z R L = Load Impedance.
2

L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
The general expression for the o/p current can
1

be written as

Vm
E
iO
sin t Ae
Z
R

R
t
L

74

To find the value of the constant


'A' apply the initial conditions at t ,
load current iO 0, Equating the general
expression for the load current to zero at

t , we get
Vm
E
iO 0
sin Ae
Z
R

75

We obtain the value of constant 'A' as


R
V
E
L
m
A sin e
R Z

Substituting the value of the constant 'A' in the


expression for the load current; we get the
complete expression for the output load current as

Vm
E E Vm

iO sin t sin e
Z
R R Z

R
t
L

76

To Derive
An
Expression For The Average
Or
DC Load Voltage
77

VO dc

v .d t
O

1
VO dc
vO .d t vO .d t vO .d t
2 0

vO Vm sin t Output load voltage for t to

vO E for t 0 to & for t to 2


VO dc

E.d t Vm sin t E.d t


2 0

78

VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

Vm cos t
E t
E t

2

0

E 0 Vm cos cos E 2
2
Vm
E

cos cos
2
2
2
2
Vm

cos cos
E
2
2

79

Conduction angle of thyristor


RMS Output Voltage can be calculated
by using the expression
2

VO RMS

1 2

vO .d t
2 0

80

Lecture-7

Single Phase Full Wave Controlled


Rectifier Using A Center Tapped
Transformer

T1

A
+

vO
AC
Supply

T2
B
82

Discontinuous
Load Current Operation
without FWD
for

83

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()
84

To Derive An Expression For


The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
85

Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
t

Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z

86

Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.


Z R L =Load impedance.
2

L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1

R
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e L
Z

87

Constant A1 is calculated from



initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=

R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L

A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e

Vm

Z sin

88

Substituting the value of constant A1 in the


general expression for iO
R
t
L

Vm
Vm

iO
sin t e
sin

Z
Z

we obtain the final expression for the


inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z

R
t

L
sin

sin

Where t
89

Extinction angle can be calculated by using


the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t

Vm
L
iO
sin

sin

0
Z

sin e

R

L

sin

can be calculated by solving the above eqn.


90

To Derive An Expression For The


DC Output Voltage Of
A Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier With RL Load
(Without FWD)
91

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()
92

VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

vO .d t

1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc
cos cos

93

When the load inductance is negligible i.e., L 0


Extinction angle radians
Hence the average or dc output voltage for R load
VO dc

Vm

cos cos

VO dc

Vm

cos 1

VO dc

Vm

1 cos ; for R load,

when
94

To calculate the RMS output voltage we use


the expression

VO RMS

1 2 2

Vm sin t.d t

95

Discontinuous Load Current


Operation with FWD

96

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()
97

Thyristor T1 is triggered at t ;
T1 conducts from t to

Thyristor T2 is triggered at t ;

T2 conducts from t to 2
FWD conducts from t to &
vO 0 during discontinuous load current.
98

To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage For
A
Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier
With RL Load & FWD
99

VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc

vO .d t

t 0

sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1

VO dc Vdc

Vm

1 cos
100

The load current is discontinuous for low


values of load inductance and for large
values of trigger angles.
For large values of load inductance the load
current flows continuously without falling to
zero.
Generally the load current is continuous for
large load inductance and for low trigger
angles.
101

Continuous Load Current


Operation
(Without FWD)

102

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()

103

To Derive
An Expression For
Average / DC Output Voltage
Of
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier For Continuous Current
Operation without FWD
104

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()

105

VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc

vO .d t

Vm sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

106

VO dc Vdc

Vm

cos cos ;

cos cos

VO dc Vdc

Vm

VO dc Vdc

2Vm

cos cos
cos
107

By plotting VO(dc) versus ,


we obtain the control characteristic of a
single phase full wave controlled rectifier
with RL load for continuous load current
operation without FWD

108

Vdc Vdm cos

109

Vdc Vdm cos

V O(dc)
Vdm
0.6Vdm
0.2 Vdm
0
-0.2Vdm

30

60

90

120

150

180

-0.6 V dm
-Vdm
Trigger angle in degrees
110

By varying the trigger angle we can vary the


output dc voltage across the load. Hence we can
control the dc output power flow to the load.
For trigger angle , 0 to 90

i.e., 0 90 ;
0

cos is positive and hence Vdc is positive

Vdc & I dc are positive ; Pdc Vdc I dc is positive


Converter operates as a Controlled Rectifier.
Power flow is from the ac source to the load.
111

For trigger angle , 900 to 1800


0
0
i
.
e
.,
90

180

cos is negative and hence


Vdc is negative; I dc is positive ;

Pdc Vdc I dc is negative.

In this case the converter operates


as a Line Commutated Inverter.
Power flows from the load ckt. to the i/p ac source.
The inductive load energy is fed back to the
i/p source.
112

Drawbacks Of Full Wave


Controlled Rectifier
With Centre Tapped Transformer
We require a centre tapped transformer
which is quite heavier and bulky.
Cost of the transformer is higher for the
required dc output voltage & output power.
Hence full wave bridge converters are
preferred.
113

Lecture-8

Single Phase
Full Wave Bridge Controlled Rectifier

Single Phase
Full Wave Bridge Controlled
Rectifier

2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers are


Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(Semi-Converter)
Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
(Full Converter)
The bridge full wave controlled rectifier does
not require a centre tapped transformer
115

Single Phase
Full Wave Half Controlled
Bridge Converter
(Single Phase Semi Converter)

116

117

Trigger Pattern of Thyristors


Thyristor T1 is triggered at

t , at t 2 ,...

Thyristor T2 is triggered at

t , at t 3 ,...

The time delay between the gating


signals of T1 & T2 radians or 180

0
118

Waveforms of
single phase semi-converter
with general load & FWD
for > 900

119

Single Quadrant
Operation
120

121

122

Thyristor T1 & D1 conduct


from t to
Thyristor T2 & D2 conduct

from t to 2

FWD conducts during

t 0 to , to ,...
123

Load Voltage & Load Current


Waveform of Single Phase Semi
Converter for
< 900
& Continuous load current
operation
124

vO

Vm
t

iO

()

()

125

To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage of
A
Single Phase Semi-Converter
With R,L, & E Load & FWD
For Continuous, Ripple Free
Load Current Operation
126

VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc

vO .d t

t 0

sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1

VO dc Vdc

Vm

1 cos
127

Vdc can be varied from a max.


value of

2Vm

to 0 by varying from 0 to .

For 0, The max. dc o/p voltage obtained is


2Vm
Vdc max Vdm

Normalized dc o/p voltage is


Vm
1 cos
Vdc
1
Vdcn Vn

1 cos
Vdn
2
2Vm

128

RMS O/P Voltage VO(RMS)

VO RMS

VO RMS

VO RMS

2
2
Vm sin t.d t
2

Vm2

1
2

1 cos 2t .d t

Vm 1
sin 2

2
2

1
2

1
2

129

Single Phase Full Wave


Controlled Rectifier

130

LECTURE PLAN
Sl.No

Module as per Session Planner

Lecture No.

PPT Slide No.

Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier


Using A Center Tapped Transformer

L1

2-12

Derivation for Expression For The DC Output


Voltage Of A Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier With RL Load

L2

13-20

Derivation for Expression For The DC Output


Voltage For A Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier With RL Load & FWD

L3

21-34

Single Phase Full Wave Bridge Controlled


Rectifier

L4

35-44

Load Voltage & Load Current Waveform of


Single Phase Semi Converter for < 900 &
Continuous load current operation

L5

45-51

Single Phase Full Converter

L6

52-58

Derivation for Expression For The Average DC


Output Voltage of a Single Phase Full
Converter assuming Continuous & Constant
Load Current

L7

59-68

Two Quadrant Operation


of a Single Phase Full Converter

L8

69-78

131

Lecture-1

Single Phase Full Wave Controlled


Rectifier Using A Center Tapped
Transformer

132

Single Phase Midpoint type


Fully controlled Rectifier
T1

A
+

vO
AC
Supply

T2
B
133
133

Discontinuous
Load Current Operation
without FWD
for

134
134

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()
135
135

To Derive An Expression For


The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
136
136

Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
t

Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z

137
137

Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.


Z R L =Load impedance.
2

L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1

R
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e L
Z

138
138

Constant A1 is calculated from



initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=

R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L

A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e

Vm

Z sin

139
139

Substituting the value of constant A1 in the


general expression for iO
R
t
L

Vm
Vm

iO
sin t e
sin

Z
Z

we obtain the final expression for the


inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z

R
t

L
sin

sin

Where t
140
140

Extinction angle can be calculated by using


the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t

Vm
L
iO
sin

sin

0
Z

sin e

R

L

sin

can be calculated by solving the above eqn.


141
141

Lecture-2

To Derive An Expression For The DC


Output Voltage Of
A Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier With RL Load
(Without FWD)

142
142

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()
143
143

VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

vO .d t

1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc
cos cos

144
144

When the load inductance is negligible i.e., L 0


Extinction angle radians
Hence the average or dc output voltage for R load
VO dc

Vm

cos cos

VO dc

Vm

cos 1

VO dc

Vm

1 cos ; for R load,

when
145
145

To calculate the RMS output voltage we use


the expression

VO RMS

1 2 2

Vm sin t.d t

146
146

Discontinuous Load Current


Operation with FWD

147
147

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()
148
148

Thyristor T1 is triggered at t ;
T1 conducts from t to

Thyristor T2 is triggered at t ;

T2 conducts from t to 2
FWD conducts from t to &
vO 0 during discontinuous load current.
149
149

Lecture-3

To Derive an Expression For The DC


Output Voltage For A Single Phase Full
Wave Controlled Rectifier With
RL Load & FWD

150
150

VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc

vO .d t

t 0

sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1

VO dc Vdc

Vm

1 cos
151
151

The load current is discontinuous for low


values of load inductance and for large
values of trigger angles.
For large values of load inductance the load
current flows continuously without falling to
zero.
Generally the load current is continuous for
large load inductance and for low trigger
angles.
152
152

Continuous Load Current


Operation
(Without FWD)

153
153

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()

154
154

To Derive
An Expression For
Average / DC Output Voltage
Of
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier For Continuous Current
Operation without FWD
155
155

vO

Vm
t

0
iO

()

()

156
156

VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc

vO .d t

Vm sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

157
157

VO dc Vdc

Vm

cos cos ;

cos cos

VO dc Vdc

Vm

VO dc Vdc

2Vm

cos cos
cos
158
158

By plotting VO(dc) versus ,


we obtain the control characteristic of a
single phase full wave controlled rectifier
with RL load for continuous load current
operation without FWD

159
159

Vdc Vdm cos

160
160

Vdc Vdm cos

V O(dc)
Vdm
0.6Vdm
0.2 Vdm
0
-0.2Vdm

30

60

90

120

150

180

-0.6 V dm
-Vdm
Trigger angle in degrees
161
161

By varying the trigger angle we can vary the


output dc voltage across the load. Hence we can
control the dc output power flow to the load.
For trigger angle , 0 to 900 i.e., 0 900 ;
cos is positive and hence Vdc is positive

Vdc & I dc are positive ; Pdc Vdc I dc is positive


Converter operates as a Controlled Rectifier.
Power flow is from the ac source to the load.
162
162

For trigger angle , 900 to 1800


0
0
i
.
e
.,
90

180

cos is negative and hence


Vdc is negative; I dc is positive ;

Pdc Vdc I dc is negative.

In this case the converter operates


as a Line Commutated Inverter.
Power flows from the load ckt. to the i/p ac source.
The inductive load energy is fed back to the
i/p source.
163
163

Lecture-4

Single Phase
Full Wave Bridge Controlled Rectifier

164

Drawbacks Of Full Wave


Controlled Rectifier
With Centre Tapped Transformer
We require a centre tapped transformer
which is quite heavier and bulky.
Cost of the transformer is higher for the
required dc output voltage & output power.
Hence full wave bridge converters are
preferred.
165
165

Single Phase Full Wave Bridge


Controlled Rectifier
2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers are
Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(Semi-Converter)
Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
(Full Converter)
The bridge full wave controlled rectifier does
not require a centre tapped transformer
166
166

Single Phase
Full Wave Half Controlled
Bridge Converter
(Single Phase Semi Converter)

167
167

Single Phase Full Wave Half Controlled


Bridge Converter

168
168

Trigger Pattern of Thyristors


Thyristor T1 is triggered at

t , at t 2 ,...

Thyristor T2 is triggered at

t , at t 3 ,...

The time delay between the gating


signals of T1 & T2 radians or 180

0
169
169

Waveforms of
single phase semi-converter
with general load & FWD
for > 900

170
170

Single Quadrant
Operation
171
171

172
172

173
173

Thyristor T1 & D1 conduct


from t to
Thyristor T2 & D2 conduct

from t to 2

FWD conducts during

t 0 to , to ,...
174
174

Lecture-5
Load Voltage & Load Current Waveform
of Single Phase Semi Converter for
< 900 & Continuous load current
operation

175
175

vO

Vm
t

iO

()

()

176
176

To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage of
A
Single Phase Semi-Converter
With R,L, & E Load & FWD
For Continuous, Ripple Free
Load Current Operation
177
177

VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc

vO .d t

t 0

sin t.d t

Vm
Vdc
cos t

Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1

VO dc Vdc

Vm

1 cos
178
178

Vdc can be varied from a max.


value of

2Vm

to 0 by varying from 0 to .

For 0, The max. dc o/p voltage obtained is


2Vm
Vdc max Vdm

Normalized dc o/p voltage is


Vm
1 cos
Vdc
1
Vdcn Vn

1 cos
Vdn
2
2Vm

179
179

RMS O/P Voltage VO(RMS)

VO RMS

VO RMS

VO RMS

2
2
Vm sin t.d t
2

Vm2

1
2

1 cos 2t .d t

Vm 1
sin 2

2
2

1
2

1
2

180
180

Lecture-6

Single Phase Full Converter

181

Single Phase Full Converter

182
182

Waveforms of
Single Phase Full Converter
Assuming Continuous
(Constant Load Current)
&
Ripple Free Load Current
183
183

184
184

185
185

Constant Load Current


iO=Ia

iO
Ia

iT1

Ia

Ia

& iT2

iT3

Ia
t

& iT4


186
186

Lecture-7

To Derive An Expression For The Average


DC Output Voltage of a Single Phase Full
Converter assuming Continuous & Constant
Load Current

187
187

The average dc output voltage


can be determined by using the expression
2

1
VO dc Vdc
vO .d t ;
2 0

The o/p voltage waveform consists of two o/p


pulses during the input supply time period of
0 to 2 radians. Hence the Average or dc
o/p voltage can be calculated as
188
188

VO dc
VO dc
VO dc

2
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t
2

2Vm

Vdc
cos t
2
2Vm
Vdc
cos

189
189

Maximum average dc output voltage is


calculated for a trigger angle 0

and is obtained as
2Vm
2Vm
Vdc max Vdm
cos 0

Vdc max Vdm

2Vm

190
190

The normalized average output voltage is given by


VO dc
Vdc
Vdcn Vn

Vdc max Vdm


2Vm

Vdcn

Vn

cos

2Vm

cos

191
191

By plotting VO(dc) versus ,


we obtain the control characteristic of
a single phase full wave fully
controlled bridge converter
(single phase full converter)
for constant & continuous
load current operation.
192
192

To plot the control characteristic of a


Single Phase Full Converter for constant
& continuous load current operation.
We use the equation for the average/ dc
output voltage
VO dc Vdc

2Vm

cos
193
193

194
194

Vdc Vdm cos

V O(dc)
Vdm
0.6Vdm
0.2 Vdm
0
-0.2Vdm

30

60

90

120

150

180

-0.6 V dm
-Vdm
Trigger angle in degrees
195
195

During the period from t = to the input


voltage vS and the input current iS are both
positive and the power flows from the
supply to the load.
The converter is said to be operated in the
rectification mode
Controlled Rectifier Operation
for 0 < < 900
196
196

During the period from t = to (+),


the input voltage vS is negative and the
input current iS is positive and the output
power becomes negative and there will be
reverse power flow from the load circuit to
the supply.
The converter is said to be operated in the
inversion mode.
Line Commutated Inverter Operation
for 900 < < 1800
197
197

Lecture-8

Two Quadrant Operation


of a Single Phase Full Converter

198

Two Quadrant Operation


of a Single Phase Full Converter
0< < 900

Controlled Rectifier
Operation

900< <1800
Line Commutated
Inverter Operation
199
199

To Derive An
Expression For The
RMS Value Of The Output Voltage

The rms value of the output voltage


is calculated as
2

VO RMS

1 2

vO .d t
2 0

200
200

The single phase full converter gives two


output voltage pulses during the input supply
time period and hence the single phase full
converter is referred to as a two pulse converter.
The rms output voltage can be calculated as
VO RMS

2
2

vO .d t
2

201
201

VO RMS

1
2
2

Vm sin t.d t

VO RMS

V
2

sin t.d t

VO RMS

1 cos 2 t

.d t


2

VO RMS

d t cos 2 t.d t
2

2
m

2
m

2
m

202
202

VO RMS
VO RMS

VO RMS

t
2
2
m

2
m

2
m

sin 2 t

sin 2 sin 2

sin 2 2 sin 2

;
2


sin 2 2 sin 2
203
203

VO RMS

V
sin 2 sin 2

2
2

2
m

2
m

2
m

V
V
Vm
VO RMS

0
2
2
2
Vm
VO RMS
VS
2
Hence the rms output voltage is same as the
rms input supply voltage
204
204

Thyristor Current Waveforms

205
205

Constant Load Current


iO=Ia

iO
Ia

iT1

Ia

Ia

& iT2

iT3

Ia
t

& iT4


206
206

The rms thyristor current can be


calculated as
IT RMS

I O RMS

2
The average thyristor current can be
calculated as
IT Avg

I O dc
2
207
207

THREE PHASE LINE


COMMUTATED CONVERTERS

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208

LECTURE PLAN
Sl.
No.

Module as per Session Planner

Lecture
No.

PPT Slide
No.

Introduction to Three phase converters

L1

3-10

3-Phase Half Wave Converter


(3-Pulse Converter)

L2

11-26

3 Phase Half WaveControlled Rectifier


Output Voltage Waveforms For RL
Load atDifferent Trigger Angles

L3

27-39

Three Phase Semi-converters

L4

40-52

Wave forms of 3 Phase Semi-converter


for 600 and Discussion

L5

52-63

Three Phase Full Converter

L6

64-77

Single Phase Dual Converter

L7

78-99

Three Phase Dual

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209

L8

100-119

Lecture-1
Introduction to
Three phase converters

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210

1-phase Controlled Rectifiers


Single phase half controlled bridge
converters & fully controlled bridge
converters are used extensively in
industrial applications up to about
15kW of output power.
The single phase controlled rectifiers
2Vm
provide a maximum dc output of Vdc max
The output ripple frequency is equal to
the twice the ac supply frequency.
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211

Contd
The single phase full wave controlled
rectifiers provide two output pulses during
every input supply cycle and hence are
referred to as two pulse converters

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212

3 Phase Controlled Rectifiers


Three phase converters are 3phase controlled rectifiers
which are used to convert ac
input power supply into dc
output power across the load

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213

Features of 3-phase controlled


rectifiers

Operate from 3 phase ac supply voltage.


They provide higher dc output voltage.
Higher dc output power.
Higher output voltage ripple frequency.
Filtering requirements are simplified for
smoothing out load voltage and load
current.
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214
214

Extensively used in high power variable


speed industrial dc drives.
Three single phase half-wave converters
can be connected together to form a three
phase half-wave converter.

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215
215

Classification of 3-phase
converters

3-phase half wave converter


3-phase semi converter
3-phase full converter
3- phase dual converter

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216

Classification according to
no of pulses in the output wave
3- pulse converter
6-pulse converter
12- pulse converter

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217

Lecture-2

3-Phase
Half Wave Converter
(3-Pulse Converter)
with
R-L Load
Continuous & Constant
Load Current Operation
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218
218

Circuit Diagram of 3- pulse converter

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219
219

Vector Diagram of
3 Phase Supply Voltages
VCN

120
120

VAN

0
0

120

vRN v AN
vYN vBN
vBN vCN

VBN
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220
220

3 Phase Supply Voltage


Equations

We deifine three line to neutral voltages


(3 phase voltages) as follows

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221
221

vRN van Vm sin t ;


Vm Max. Phase Voltage
vYN

vbn Vm sin t

Vm sin t 120

vBN

vcn Vm sin t

Vm sin t 1200
Vm sin t 240
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222
222

van

vbn

vcn

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van

223
223

Each thyristor conducts for 2/3 (1200)


Constant Load
Current
io=Ia
Ia

Ia

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224
224

To Derive an
Expression for the
Average Output Voltage of a
3-Phase Half Wave Converter
with RL Load
for Continuous Load Current
power Electronics
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225
225

T1 is triggered at t 300
6

T2 is triggered at t
1500
6

0
T3 is triggered at t
270
6

2
0
Each thytistor conducts for 120 or
radians
3
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226
226

If the reference phase voltage is


vRN van Vm sin t , the average or dc output
voltage for continuous load current is calculated
using the equation
56

Vdc
Vm sin t.d t

2
6

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227
227

56

3Vm

Vdc
sin

t
.
d

2
6

3Vm

Vdc
cos t

3Vm
5

Vdc
cos
cos

2
6

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228
228

Note from the trigonometric relationship


cos A B cos A.cos B sin A.sin B

5
cos 6
3Vm

Vdc
2

5
cos sin



cos .cos sin sin
6
6

sin

0
0

cos
150
cos

sin
150
sin

3Vm

Vdc
0
0
2

cos
30
.cos

sin
30
sin

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229
229

0
0
0
0

cos
180

30
cos

sin
180

30
sin

3Vm

Vdc
0
0
2

cos
30
.cos

sin
30
sin

Note:

cos 1800 300 cos 300

sin 1800 300 sin 300


0
0

cos
30
cos

sin
30
sin

3Vm

Vdc
0
0
2

cos
30
.cos

sin
30
s
in

power Electronics
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230
230

3Vm
2 cos 300 cos
Vdc

3Vm
3
Vdc
cos
2
2
2

3Vm
3 3Vm
3 cos
Vdc
cos

2
2
3VLm
Vdc
cos
2
Where VLm 3Vm Max. line to line supply voltage
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231
231

The maximum average or dc output voltage is


obtained at a delay angle 0 and is given by
3 3 Vm
Vdc max Vdm
2
Where Vm is the peak phase voltage.
And the normalized average output voltage is
Vdc
Vdcn Vn
cos
Vdm
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232
232

The rms value of output voltage is found by


using the equation

VO RMS

2
2
Vm sin t.d t

1
2

and we obtain
VO RMS

3
3Vm
cos 2
6 8

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1
2

233
233

Lecture-3
3 Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier Output
Voltage Waveforms For RL
Load
at
Different Trigger Angles
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234
234

Van

Vbn

Vcn

V0
=30
0
30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

Van

270

300

330

360

Vbn

390

420

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

=60

30

=300

Vcn

V0
0

300

330

360

390

power Electronics
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420

=600
t

235
235

Vbn

Van

Vcn

=900

V0

=90

0
30

60

90

120

150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

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390 420

236
236

3 Phase Half Wave


Controlled Rectifier With
R Load
and
RL Load with FWD
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237
237

T1

T1

a
T2

T2

b
T3

+
T3

c
R V0

R
V0

L
n

n
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238
238

3 Phase Half Wave


Controlled Rectifier Output
Voltage Waveforms For R Load
or RL Load with FWD
at
Different Trigger Angles
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239
239

Vbn

Van

Vcn

=0
Vs
0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300 330

360

Vbn

Van

390

420

Vcn

=150
V0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300 330

360

390

420

power Electronics
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=00
t

=150
t

240
240

Vbn

Van

Vcn

=300
V0

0
0

30

60

90

120

150 180

210

240 270

300 330

Vbn

Van

360 390 420

30

60

90

120

150 180

210

240 270

Vcn

=600
V0

=300

300 330

360 390 420

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=600
t

241
241

To Derive An Expression For The


Average Or Dc Output Voltage Of A
3 Phase Half Wave Converter With
Resistive Load Or RL Load With FWD

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242
242

T1 is triggered at t 300
6

T1 conducts from 30 to 180 ;


0

vO van Vm sin t
5

0
T2 is triggered at t
150
6

T2 conducts from 150 to 300 ;


0

vO vbn Vm sin t 120


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243
243

0
T3 is triggered at t
270
6

T3 conducts from 270 to 420 ;


0

vO vcn Vm sin t 240


Vm
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sin t 120
0

244
244

3
Vdc
2

vO .d t
300

1800

vO van Vm sin t ; for t 30


3
Vdc
2

Vm sin t.d t
300

3Vm
Vdc
2

sin t.d t
300

to 180
0

1800

1800

power Electronics
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245
245

3Vm
Vdc
2

cos t

300

1800

3Vm
0
0

Vdc

cos180

cos

30

2
0
cos180 1, we get
3Vm
0

Vdc
1

cos

30

2
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246
246

Lecture-4

Three Phase Semi-converters

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247

Three Phase Semi-converters


3 Phase semi-converters are used in
Industrial dc drive applications upto 120kW
power output.
Single quadrant operation is possible.
Power factor decreases as the delay angle
increases.
Power factor is better than that of 3 phase
half wave converter.
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248
248

3 Phase
Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(Semi Converter)
with Highly Inductive Load &
Continuous Ripple free Load
Current

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249
249

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250
250

Wave forms of 3 Phase


Semiconverter for
> 600

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251
251

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252
252

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253
253

3 phase semiconverter output ripple frequency of


output voltage is 3 f S
The delay angle can be varied from 0 to
During the period
30 t 210
0

7
t
, thyristor T1 is forward biased
6
6
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254
254

If thyristor T1 is triggered at t ,
6

T1 & D1 conduct together and the line to line voltage


vac appears across the load.
7
At t
, vac becomes negative & FWD Dm conducts.
6
The load current continues to flow through FWD Dm ;
T1 and D1 are turned off.

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255
255

If FWD Dm is not used the T1 would continue to


conduct until the thyristor T2 is triggered at
5

t , and Free wheeling action would


6

be accomplished through T1 & D2 .


If the delay angle

, each thyristor conducts

2
for
and the FWD Dm does not conduct.
3
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256
256

We deifine three line neutral voltages


(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t

Vm Max. Phase Voltage

0
vYN vbn Vm sin t

V
sin

120

m
3

0
vBN vcn Vm sin t
Vm sin t 120
3

Vm sin t 2400

Vm is the peak phase voltage of a wye-connected source


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257
257

vRB vac van vcn


vYR vba vbn van
vBY vcb vcn vbn
vRY vab van vbn

3Vm sin t
6

3Vm sin t

3Vm sin t
2

3Vm sin t
6

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258
258

Lecture-5

Wave forms of 3 Phase


Semiconverter for
600

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259
259

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260
260

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261
261

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262
262

To derive an Expression for the


Average Output Voltage of 3 Phase
Semi-converter for > / 3
and Discontinuous Output Voltage

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263
263

For

and discontinuous output voltage:

3
the Average output voltage is found from

6
3

Vdc
v
.
d

ac

6
3

Vdc
3
V
sin

2
6

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264
264

3 3Vm
Vdc
1 cos
2
3VmL
Vdc
1 cos
2
VmL 3Vm Max. value of line-to-line supply voltage
The maximum average output voltage that occurs at
a delay angle of 0 is
Vdc max Vdm

3 3Vm

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265
265

The normalized average output voltage is


Vdc
Vn
0.5 1 cos
Vdm
The rms output voltage is found from
VO rms

v
.
d

ac

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1
2

266
266

VO rms

VO rms

2
2

3
V
sin

3
3Vm
4

sin 2

power Electronics
unit-5

1
2

267
267

1
2

Average or DC Output Voltage


of a
3-Phase Semi-converter
for / 3,
and Continuous Output Voltage
power Electronics
unit-5

268
268

For

, and continuous output voltage

3
5

6
2
3

Vdc
v
.
d

v
.
d

ab
ac

2
6

3 3Vm
Vdc
1 cos
2
power Electronics
unit-5

269
269

Vdc
Vn
0.5 1 cos
Vdm
RMS value of o/p voltage is calculated by using
the equation
VO rms

VO rms

5
2
vab
.d t

3
3Vm
4

vac2 .d t

2
3 cos

power Electronics
unit-5

1
2

1
2

270
270

Lecture -6

Three Phase Full Converter

power Electronics
unit-5

271

Three Phase Full Converter


3 Phase Fully Controlled Full Wave Bridge
Converter.
Known as a 6-pulse converter.
Used in industrial applications up to
120kW output power.
Two quadrant operation is possible.

power Electronics
unit-5

272
272

power Electronics
unit-5

273
273

power Electronics
unit-5

274
274

power Electronics
unit-5

275
275

The thyristors are triggered at an interval of


/ 3.
The frequency of output ripple voltage is
6fS.
T1 is triggered at t = (/6 + ), T6 is
already conducting when T1 is turned ON.
During the interval (/6 + ) to (/2 + ),
T1 and T6 conduct together & the output
load voltage is equal to vab = (van vbn)
power Electronics
unit-5

276
276

T2 is triggered at t = (/2 + ), T6 turns


off naturally as it is reverse biased as soon
as T2 is triggered.
During the interval (/2 + ) to (5/6 + ),
T1 and T2 conduct together & the output
load voltage vO = vac = (van vcn)
Thyristors are numbered in the order in
which they are triggered.
The thyristor triggering sequence is 12,
23, 34, 45, 56, 61, 12, 23, 34,
power Electronics
unit-5

277
277

We deifine three line neutral voltages


(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t ;

Vm Max. Phase Voltage

vYN vbn Vm sin t Vm sin t 1200


3

0
vBN vcn Vm sin t Vm sin t 120
3

Vm sin t 2400

Vm is the peak phase voltage of a wye-connected source.


power Electronics
unit-5

278
278

The corresponding line-to-line


supply voltages are
vRY

vab van vbn 3Vm sin t


6

vYB vbc vbn vcn 3Vm sin t


2

vBR vca vcn van 3Vm sin t


2

power Electronics
unit-5

279
279

To Derive An Expression For


The Average Output Voltage
Of
3-phase Full Converter
With Highly Inductive Load
Assuming Continuous And
Constant Load Current
power Electronics
unit-5

280
280

The output load voltage consists of 6


voltage pulses over a period of 2 radians,
Hence the average output voltage is
calculated as

VO dc

6
Vdc
2

vO .d t ;

vO vab 3Vm sin t


6

power Electronics
unit-5

281
281

Vdc

Vdc

3Vm sin t .d t
6

3 3Vm

cos

3VmL

cos

Where VmL 3Vm Max. line-to-line supply voltage


The maximum average dc output voltage is
obtained for a delay angle 0,
Vdc max Vdm

3 3Vm

3VmL

power Electronics
unit-5

282
282

The normalized average dc output voltage is


Vdcn

Vdc
Vn
cos
Vdm

The rms value of the output voltage is found from

VO rms

2
vO .d t

1
2

power Electronics
unit-5

283
283

VO rms

VO rms

VO rms

2
vab .d t

6
2

1
2

2
2
3Vm sin t .d t

6
2

1 3 3

3Vm
cos 2
2 4

power Electronics
unit-5

1
2

1
2

284
284

Lecture-7

Single Phase Dual Converter

power Electronics
unit-5

285

Single Phase Dual Converter

power Electronics
unit-5

286
286

power Electronics
unit-5

287
287

power Electronics
unit-5

288
288

power Electronics
unit-5

289
289

The average dc output voltage of converter 1 is


Vdc1

2Vm

cos 1

The average dc output voltage of converter 2 is


Vdc 2

2Vm

cos 2

power Electronics
unit-5

290
290

In the dual converter operation one


converter is operated as a controlled rectifier
with 90 & the second converter is
operated as a line commutated inverter
0

in the inversion mode with 90

Vdc1 Vdc 2
power Electronics
unit-5

291
291

2Vm

cos 1

2Vm

cos 2

2Vm

cos 1 cos 2

cos 2

or
cos 2 cos 1 cos 1

2 1 or

1 2

radians

Which gives

2 1
power Electronics
unit-5

292
292

To Obtain an Expression
for the
Instantaneous Circulating
Current

power Electronics
unit-5

293
293

vO1 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 1.


vO2 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 2.
The circulating current ir can be determined by
integrating the instantaneous voltage difference
(which is the voltage drop across the circulating
current reactor Lr), starting from t = (2 - 1).
As the two average output voltages during the
interval t = (+1) to (2 - 1) are equal and
opposite their contribution to the instantaneous
circulating current ir is zero.
power Electronics
unit-5

294
294

1
ir
vr .d t ; vr vO1 vO 2
Lr 2 1

As the o/p voltage vO 2 is negative

vr vO1 vO 2

1
ir
vO1 vO 2 .d t ;
Lr 2 1

vO1 Vm sin t for 2 1 to t


power Electronics
unit-5

295
295

t
t

Vm
ir
sin t.d t sin t.d t
Lr 2 1

2 1
2Vm
ir
cos t cos 1
Lr

The instantaneous value of the circulating current


depends on the delay angle.
power Electronics
unit-5

296
296

For trigger angle (delay angle) 1 0,


the magnitude of circulating current becomes min.
when t n , n 0, 2, 4,.... & magnitude becomes
max. when t n , n 1,3,5,....
If the peak load current is I p , one of the
converters that controls the power flow
may carry a peak current of

4Vm
Ip
Lr

power Electronics
unit-5

297
297

where
I p I L max

Vm

,
RL

&
ir max

4Vm

max. circulating current


Lr
power Electronics
unit-5

298
298

Different Modes Of Operation of


Dual converter
Non-circulating current (circulating current
free) mode of operation.

Circulating current mode of operation.

power Electronics
unit-5

299
299

Non-Circulating
Current Mode of Operation
In this mode only one converter is
operated at a time.
When converter 1 is ON, 0 < 1 < 900
Vdc is positive and Idc is positive.
When converter 2 is ON, 0 < 2 < 900
Vdc is negative and Idc is negative.

power Electronics
unit-5

300
300

Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
In this mode, both the converters are
switched ON and operated at the same
time.
The trigger angles 1 and 2 are adjusted
such that (1 + 2) = 1800 ; 2 = (1800 1).
power Electronics
unit-5

301
301

When 0 <1 <900, converter 1 operates as


a controlled rectifier and converter 2
operates as an inverter with 900 <2<1800.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are positive.
When 900 <1 <1800, converter 1 operates
as an Inverter and converter 2 operated as
a controlled rectifier by adjusting its trigger
angle 2 such that 0 <2<900.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are negative.
power Electronics
unit-5

302
302

Four Quadrant Operation


Conv. 2
Inverting
2 > 900

Conv. 1
Rectifyin
g
1 < 900

Conv. 2
Rectifyin
g
2 < 900

Conv. 1
Inverting
1 > 900
power Electronics
unit-5

303
303

Advantages of Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
The circulating current maintains
continuous conduction of both the
converters over the complete control
range, independent of the load.
One converter always operates as a
rectifier and the other converter operates
as an inverter, the power flow in either
direction at any time is possible.
power Electronics
unit-5

304
304

As both the converters are in continuous


conduction we obtain faster dynamic
response. i.e., the time response for
changing from one quadrant operation to
another is faster.

power Electronics
unit-5

305
305

Disadvantages of Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation

There is always a circulating current flowing


between the converters.
When the load current falls to zero, there will be
a circulating current flowing between the
converters so we need to connect circulating
current reactors in order to limit the peak
circulating current to safe level.
The converter thyristors should be rated to
carry a peak current much greater than the
peak load current.
power Electronics
unit-5

306
306

Lecture-8

Three Phase Dual Converters

power Electronics
unit-5

307

Three Phase Dual Converters


For four quadrant operation in many
industrial variable speed dc drives , 3
phase dual converters are used.
Used for applications up to 2 mega watt
output power level.
Dual converter consists of two 3 phase full
converters which are connected in parallel
& in opposite directions across a common
load.
power Electronics
308
308
unit-5

power Electronics
unit-5

309
309

power Electronics
unit-5

310
310

power Electronics
unit-5

311
311

Outputs of Converters 1 & 2


During the interval (/6 + 1) to (/2 +
1), the line to line voltage vab appears
across the output of converter 1 and
vbc appears across the output of
converter 2

power Electronics
unit-5

312
312

We deifine three line neutral voltages


(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t

;
Vm Max. Phase Voltage

0
vYN vbn Vm sin t

V
sin

120

m
3

0
vBN vcn Vm sin t

V
sin

120

m
3

Vm sin t 2400

power Electronics
unit-5

313
313

The corresponding line-to-line


supply voltages are
vRY

vab van vbn 3Vm sin t


6

vYB vbc vbn vcn 3Vm sin t


2

vBR vca vcn van 3Vm sin t


2

power Electronics
unit-5

314
314

To obtain an Expression for the


Circulating Current
If vO1 and vO2 are the output voltages of
converters 1 and 2 respectively, the
instantaneous voltage across the current
limiting inductor during the interval
(/6 + 1) t (/2 + 1) is given by

power Electronics
unit-5

315
315

vr vO1 vO 2 vab vbc


vr 3Vm sin t sin t


6
2

vr 3Vm cos t
6

The circulating current can be calculated by


using the equation
power Electronics
unit-5

316
316

1
ir t
Lr

1
ir t
Lr
3Vm
ir t
Lr
ir max

vr .d t

3Vm cos t .d t
6

sin t 6 sin 1

3Vm

Lr
power Electronics
unit-5

317
317

Four Quadrant Operation


Conv. 2
Inverting
2 > 900

Conv. 1
Rectifyin
g
1 < 900

Conv. 2
Rectifyin
g
2 < 900

Conv. 1
Inverting
1 > 900
power Electronics
unit-5

318
318

Contd
There are two different modes of
operation.
Circulating current free
(non circulating) mode of operation
Circulating current mode of operation

power Electronics
unit-5

319
319

Non Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
In this mode of operation only one
converter is switched on at a time
When the converter 1 is switched on,
For 1 < 900 the converter 1 operates in
the Rectification mode
Vdc is positive, Idc is positive and hence the
average load power Pdc is positive.
Power flows from ac source to the load
power Electronics
unit-5

320
320

When the converter 1 is on,


For 1 > 900 the converter 1 operates in
the Inversion mode
Vdc is negative, Idc is positive and the
average load power Pdc is negative.
Power flows from load circuit to ac source.

power Electronics
unit-5

321
321

When the converter 2 is switched on,


For 2 < 900 the converter 2 operates in
the Rectification mode
Vdc is negative, Idc is negative and the
average load power Pdc is positive.
The output load voltage & load current
reverse when converter 2 is on.
Power flows from ac source to the load
power Electronics
unit-5

322
322

When the converter 2 is switched on,


For 2 > 900 the converter 2 operates in
the Inversion mode
Vdc is positive, Idc is negative and the
average load power Pdc is negative.
Power flows from load to the ac source.
Energy is supplied from the load circuit to
the ac supply.
power Electronics
unit-5

323
323

Circulating Current
Mode Of Operation
Both the converters are switched on at the
same time.
One converter operates in the rectification
mode while the other operates in the
inversion mode.
Trigger angles 1 & 2 are adjusted such
that (1 + 2) = 1800

power Electronics
unit-5

324
324

When 1 < 900, converter 1 operates as a


controlled rectifier. 2 is made greater
than 900 and converter 2 operates as an
Inverter.
Vdc is positive & Idc is positive and Pdc is
positive.

power Electronics
unit-5

325
325

When 2 < 900, converter 2 operates as a


controlled rectifier. 1 is made greater
than 900 and converter 1 operates as an
Inverter.
Vdc is negative & Idc is negative and Pdc is
positive.

power Electronics
unit-5

326
326

A.C Voltage Controller


And
Cyclo-Converter
Power Electronics

Unit-6

327

LECTURE PLAN
Sl. No

Module as per Session Planner

Lecture No.

PPT Slide No.

Introduction to AC voltage controllers

L-1

3-12

Expression For The RMS Value Of


Output Voltage, For ON-OFF Control
Method

L-2

13-27

Principle Of AC Phase Control And


Operation of single Phase half-Wave
Ac Voltage controller with R-Load

L-3

28-43

Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage


Controller (Bidirectional Controller)
With R-Load

L-4

44-59

TRIAC and Its Modes of Operation

L-5

60-73

Single phase full wave ac voltage


controller (Bi-directional Controller) using
TRIAC

L-6

74-91

Cycloconverter Midpoint Type

L-7

92-101

Power Electronics
1- to 1- Bridge type Cyclo-converter
with R and R-L load

Unit-6

L-8

101-109

328

Lecture-1

Ac Voltage Controllers

Power Electronics

Unit-6

329

Ac Voltage controller circuits


(RMS voltage controllers)
An ac voltage controller is a type of thyristor
power converter which is used to convert a
fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac input supply
to obtain a variable voltage ac output

Power Electronics

Unit-6

330

Applications Of Ac Voltage
Controllers
Lighting / Illumination control in ac power
circuits.
Induction heating.
Industrial heating & Domestic heating.
Transformer tap changing (on load
transformer tap changing).
Speed control of induction motors C
magnet controls.
Power Electronics

Unit-6

331

Type Of Ac Voltage Controllers


Single phase half wave ac voltage controller
(Uni-directional controller).
Single phase full wave ac voltage controller
(Bi-directional controller).
Three phase half wave ac voltage controller
(Uni-directional controller).
Three phase full wave ac voltage controller
(Bi-directional Controller)
Power Electronics

Unit-6

332

A.C voltage control technique

Power Electronics

Unit-6

333

Principle of ON-OFF Control


Technique

Power Electronics

Unit-6

334

Vs

wt

Vo
io
wt

ig1

Gate pulse of T1
wt

ig2

Gate pulse of T2
wt
Power Electronics

Unit-6

335

Power Electronics

Unit-6

336

Power Electronics

Unit-6

337

Power Electronics

Unit-6

338

Lecture-2

Expression For The RMS Value Of


Output Voltage, For ON-OFF
Control Method

Power Electronics

Unit-6

339

Power Electronics

Unit-6

340

Power Electronics

Unit-6

341

Power Electronics

Unit-6

342

Power Electronics

Unit-6

343

Power Electronics

Unit-6

344

RMS Out put voltage

Power Electronics

Unit-6

345

Duty cycle

Power Electronics

Unit-6

346

Power Electronics

Unit-6

347

Input Power factor

Power Electronics

Unit-6

348

Power Electronics

Unit-6

349

The Average Current Of Thyristor

Power Electronics

Unit-6

350

Waveform of Thyristor current

Power Electronics

Unit-6

351

Power Electronics

Unit-6

352

RMS Thyristor Current

Power Electronics

Unit-6

353

Lecture-3
Principle Of AC Phase Control
And
Operation of single Phase half-Wave
A.C Phase controller

Power Electronics

Unit-6

354

Principle Of AC Phase Control

Power Electronics

Unit-6

355

Power Electronics

Unit-6

356

Equations

Power Electronics

Unit-6

357

Output Load Voltage

Power Electronics

Unit-6

358

Out Put Load Current

Power Electronics

Unit-6

359

Expression For RMS Out put Load


Voltage

Power Electronics

Unit-6

360

Power Electronics

Unit-6

361

Power Electronics

Unit-6

362

Power Electronics

Unit-6

363

Power Electronics

Unit-6

364

Control Characteristics

Power Electronics

Unit-6

365

Average Value of Out put Voltage

Power Electronics

Unit-6

366

Power Electronics

Unit-6

367

Power Electronics

Unit-6

368

Disadvantages

Power Electronics

Unit-6

369

Lecture-4
Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage
Controller (Bidirectional Controller)
With R-Load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

370

Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage


Controller With R-Load

Fig.: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller


(Bi-directional Controller) using SCR
Power Electronics

Unit-6

371

Waveforms of single phase full


wave ac voltage controller

Power Electronics

Unit-6

372

Expression for RMS output voltage


V

L RMS

sin t.d t
2

L RMS

VL2 RMS

2
L

.d t

1
2
2

Vm sin t d t Vm sin t d t
2

Power Electronics

Unit-6

373

Contd

1
2
2
2
2

Vm sin t.d t Vm sin t.d t


2

1
2
2
2
2

Vm sin t.d t Vm sin t.d t


2

Vm
1 cos 2t
1 cos 2t

d t
d t

2
2
2

2
2

Vm

d t cos 2t.d t d t cos 2t.d t


2 2

Power Electronics

Unit-6

374

Vm

t
4
2

Vm

sin 2 t
sin 2t

2 2

1
1

2 sin 2 sin 2 2 sin 4 sin 2


2

Vm

1
1

2 2 0 sin 2 2 0 sin 2

Vm
sin 2 sin 2

4
2
2

Power Electronics

Unit-6

375

Vm 2

4
Vm 2

sin 2 sin 2 2

2
2

sin 2 1

sin
2

.cos
2

cos
2

.sin
2

2
2

sin 2 0 & cos 2 1


Therefore,
2
L RMS

Vm 2

V 2 L RMS

sin 2 sin 2

2 2 2

Vm 2

2 2 sin 2

4
Power Electronics

Unit-6

376

Taking the square root, we get

Vm

VL RMS

2
Vm

VL RMS
VL RMS

2 2 sin 2

2 2
Vm

VL RMS

2 2 sin 2

1
2 2 sin 2
2

Vm
2

1
sin 2
2

2
2

Power Electronics

Unit-6

377

VL RMS

1
sin 2

Vm
2

VL RMS Vi RMS

VL RMS VS

1
sin 2

1
sin 2

2
Power Electronics

Unit-6

378

Lecture-5

Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage


Controller (Bidirectional Controller)
With R-L Load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

379

Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage


Controller (Bidirectional Controller)
With R-L Load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

380

Input supply voltage & Thyristor


current waveforms

Power Electronics

Unit-6

381

Gating Signals

Power Electronics

Unit-6

382

Waveforms For RL load for


and for Discontinuous Conduction

Power Electronics

Unit-6

383

Expression for the inductive load


current of a single phase full wave
ac voltage controller with RL load
R
t

Vm
L
iO
sin

sin

Where

Z R L
2

L
tan

R
= Load impedance angle (power
Power Electronics
factor angle
of load). Unit-6
1

384

Output voltage and output current


waveforms for a single phase full wave
ac voltage controller with RL load for
vO

vO=vS

Vm

iO
Im

t
Power Electronics

Unit-6

385

Lecture-5

TRIAC and Its Modes of Operation

Power Electronics

Unit-6

386

TRIAC
MT1
G

N2
MT2
P2

N3

P2

N1

N1

N4

P1

MT1

P1
MT2

Fig.1 : Triac Structure

Power Electronics

Fig. 2 : Triac Symbol

Unit-6

387

TRIGGERING MODES OF TRIAC


MODE 1 : MT1 positive, Positive gate current

( I+ mode of operation)
MT2 (+)

P1
N1
P2

Ig

N2
MT1 ()

G
(+)

V
Ig
Power Electronics

Unit-6

388

When and gate current are positive with respect


to MT1, the gate current flows through P2-N2
junction
The junction P1-N1 and P2-N2 are forward
biased but junction N1-P2 is reverse biased.
When sufficient number of charge carriers are
injected in P2 layer by the gate current the
junction N1-P2 breakdown and triac starts
conducting through P1N1P2N2 layers.
Once triac starts conducting the current
increases and its V-I characteristics is similar to
that of thyristor. Triac in this mode operates in
the first-quadrant.
Power Electronics

Unit-6

389

MODE 2
MT2 positive, Negative gate current
(I- mode of operation)
MT2 (+)

P1
Initial
conduction

Final
conduction

N1
P2
N3

N2
MT1 ()

V
Power Electronics

Ig

Unit-6

390

When MT2 is positive and gate G is negative


with respect to MT1 the gate current flows
through P2-N3 junction
The junction P1-N1 and P2-N3 are forward
biased but junction N1-P2 is reverse biased.
Hence, the triac initially starts conducting
through P1N1P2N3 layers.
As a result the potential of layer between P2-N3
rises towards the potential of MT2.
Thus, a potential gradient exists across the layer
P2 with left hand region at a higher potential
than the right hand region.
Power Electronics

Unit-6

391

This results in a current flow in P2 layer


from left to right, forward biasing the
P2N2 junction. Now the right hand
portion P1-N1 - P2-N2 starts conducting.
The device operates in first quadrant.
When compared to Mode 1, triac with
MT2 positive and negative gate current is
less sensitive and therefore requires
higher gate current for triggering.

Power Electronics

Unit-6

392

MODE 3
MT2 negative, Positive gate current
(III+ mode of operation)
MT 2 ()

N4
P1
N1
P2

N2
MT1 (+)

G
(+)
Ig Electronics
Power

Unit-6

393

When MT2 is negative and gate is positive with


respect to MT1 junction P2N2 is forward biased
and junction P1-N1 is reverse biased.
N2 layer injects electrons into P2 layer as shown
by arrows in figure below.
This causes an increase in current flow through
junction P2-N1. Resulting in breakdown of
reverse biased junction N1-P1.
Now the device conducts through layers
P2N1P1N4 and the current starts increasing,
which is limited by an external load.
The device operates in third quadrant in this
mode. Triac in this mode is less sensitive and
requires higher gate current for triggering.
Power Electronics

Unit-6

394

MODE 4
MT2 negative, Negative gate current
(III+ mode of operation)
MT 2 ()

N4
P1
N1
N3

P2
MT1 (+)

G
(+)
Power Electronics

Ig

Unit-6

395

In this mode both MT2 and gate G are negative


with respect to MT1, the gate current flows
through P2N3 junction as shown.
Layer N3 injects electrons as shown by arrows
into P2 layer. This results in increase in current
flow across P1N1 and the device will turn ON
due to increased current in layer N1.
The current flows through layers P2N1P1N4.
Triac is more sensitive in this mode compared to
turn ON with positive gate current. (Mode 3).

Power Electronics

Unit-6

396

Triac sensitivity is greatest in the first quadrant


when turned ON with positive gate current and
also in third quadrant when turned ON with
negative gate current. when is positive with
respect to it is recommended to turn on the triac
by a positive gate current.
When is negative with respect to it is
recommended to turn on the triac by negative
gate current. Therefore Mode 1 and Mode 4 are
the preferred modes of operation of a triac
(mode and mode of operation are normally
used).
Power Electronics

Unit-6

397

Triac characteristics
I
+
A

RL
MT2
Rg

Vgg

-G
MT1

Vs

+
-

Power Electronics

Unit-6

398

V-I Characteristics of a triac

VB01, VB01
- Breakover voltages

MT2(+)
G(+)

Ig2 > Ig21


Ig2

VB02
V

VB01

Ig1
V

MT2()
G()

Power Electronics

Unit-6

399

Lecture-6
Single phase full wave ac
voltage controller
(Bi-directional Controller)
using TRIAC
Power Electronics

Unit-6

400

Single phase full wave ac voltage


controller (Bi-directional
Controller) using TRIAC

Power Electronics

Unit-6

401

Waveforms of single phase full


wave ac voltage controller

Power Electronics

Unit-6

402

Single phase full wave ac controller


with common cathode
(Bidirectional controller in common
cathode configuration)

Power Electronics

Unit-6

403

Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage


Controller Using A Single Thyristor

D1

D3

+
T1
D4

AC
Supply

D2
RL

Power Electronics

Unit-6

404

Problems In Voltage Controller

Power Electronics

Unit-6

405

Power Electronics

Unit-6

406

Power Electronics

Unit-6

407

Power Electronics

Unit-6

408

Power Electronics

Unit-6

409

Power Electronics

Unit-6

410

Power Electronics

Unit-6

411

Power Electronics

Unit-6

412

Power Electronics

Unit-6

413

Power Electronics

Unit-6

414

Power Electronics

Unit-6

415

Power Electronics

Unit-6

416

Power Electronics

Unit-6

417

Power Electronics

Unit-6

418

Lecture-7
CYCLOCONVERTER

Power Electronics

Unit-6

419

CYCLOCONVERTER
A device which converts input power at
one frequency to the out put power at
different frequency with one stage
conversion is called a cycloconverter.
A cycloconverter requires one stage
frequency conversion.
Cycloconverter of two types
(i) Step-Up Cycloconverter ( fo > s)
(ii) step-Down Cycloconverter ( fo < fs)
Power Electronics

Unit-6

420

Single phase to single phase Mid point


type step-up Cycloconverter
with R load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

421

Power Electronics

Unit-6

422

Single phase to single phase


Bridge type step-up
Cycloconverter with R load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

423

Power Electronics

Unit-6

424

1- to 1- Mid point type step-Down


Cycloconverter with R load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

425

Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io) waveform

Power Electronics

Unit-6

426

Lecture-8

1- to 1- Bridge type Cycloconverter with R and R-L load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

427

1- to 1- Bridge type step-Down


Cycloconverter with R load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

428

Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io) waveform

Power Electronics

Unit-6

429

1- to 1- Midpoint type step-Down


Cycloconverter with R-L load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

430

Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io)


waveform for Discontinuous
Conduction mode

Power Electronics

Unit-6

431

Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io)


waveform for Continuous Conduction mode

Power Electronics

Unit-6

432

1- to 1- Bridge-type step-Down
Cycloconverter with R-L load

Power Electronics

Unit-6

433

Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io)


waveform for Discontinuous
Conduction mode

Power Electronics

Unit-6

434

Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io)


waveform for Continuous
Conduction mode

Power Electronics

Unit-6

435