SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED
CONVERTERS
LECTURE PLAN
Sl.
No.
Module as per Session Planner
Lecture
No.
PPT Slide No.
Introduction to Line commutated Inverter
L1
312
Principle of Phase Controlled Rectifier Operation
L2
1319
Expression for the RMS Value of Output Voltage
of a Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier
With Resistive Load
L3
2033
Performance Parameters
Of Phase Controlled Rectifiers
L4
3445
Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier
With An RL Load
L5
4661
Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier
With RL Load & Free Wheeling Diode
L6
6280
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier
Using A Center Tapped Transformer
L7
81113
Single Phase Full Wave Bridge Controlled
Rectifier
L8
114129
Lecture1
Introduction to Line commutated
Inverter
+
AC
Input
Voltage
Line
Commutated
Converter
DC Output
V0(dc )

Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed
frequency ac power supply.
Type of output: Variable dc output voltage
Type of commutation: Natural / AC line
commutation
Different types of
Line Commutated Converters
AC to DC Converters (Phase controlled
rectifiers)
AC to AC converters (AC voltage controllers)
AC to AC converters (Cycloconverters) at
low output frequency.
Differences Between
Diode Rectifiers
&
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Cntd
The diode rectifiers are referred to as
uncontrolled rectifiers .
The diode rectifiers give a fixed dc output
voltage .
Each diode conducts for one half cycle.
Diode conduction angle = 1800 or
radians.
We can not control the dc output voltage or
the average dc load current in a diode
rectifier circuit.
7
Cntd
Single phase half wave diode rectifier gives an
Average dc output voltage VO dc
Vm
Single phase full wave diode rectifier gives an
Average dc output voltage VO dc
2Vm
Applications of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
DC motor control in steel mills, paper and
textile mills employing dc motor drives.
AC fed traction system using dc traction
motor.
Electrochemical and electrometallurgical
processes.
Magnet power supplies.
Portable hand tool drives.
Classification of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
10
Different types of Single
Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Half wave controlled rectifiers.
Full wave controlled rectifiers.
Using a center tapped transformer.
Full wave bridge circuit.
Semi converter.
Full converter.
11
Different Types of
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Half wave controlled rectifiers.
Full wave controlled rectifiers.
Semi converter (half controlled
bridge converter).
Full converter (fully controlled
bridge converter).
12
Lecture2
Principle of Phase Controlled Rectifier
Operation
Principle of Phase Controlled
Rectifier Operation
14
Single Phase HalfWave Thyristor
Converter with a Resistive Load
15
Supply Voltage
Output Voltage
Output (load)
Current
16
Supply
Voltage
Thyristor Voltage
17
Equations
vs Vm sin t i/p ac supply voltage
Vm max. value of i/p ac supply voltage
VS
Vm
RMS value of i/p ac supply voltage
2
vO vL output voltage across the load
18
When the thyristor is triggered at t
vO vL Vm sin t ; t to
vO
iO iL
Load current; t to
R
Vm sin t
iO iL
I m sin t ; t to
R
Vm
Where I m
max. value of load current
R
19
Lecture3
To Derive an Expression for the
Average (DC)
Output Voltage Across The
Load
20
VO dc
1
Vdc
2
v .d t ;
O
vO Vm sin t for t to
VO dc
1
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t
VO dc
Vm sin t.d t
2
21
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
Vm
sin
t
.
d
Vm
cos t
2
Vm
cos cos ; cos 1
2
Vm
1 cos ; Vm 2VS
2
22
Maximum average (dc) o/p
voltage is obtained when 0
and the maximum dc output voltage
Vm
Vdc max Vdm
1 cos 0 ; cos 0 1
2
Vm
Vdc max Vdm
23
Cntd
Vm
VO dc
1 cos ; Vm 2VS
2
The average dc output voltage can be varied
by varying the trigger angle from 0 to a
maximum of 180 radians
0
We can plot the control characteristic
O dc
vs by using the equation for VO dc
24
Control Characteristic
of
Single Phase Half Wave Phase
Controlled Rectifier
with
Resistive Load
25
Cntd
The average dc output voltage is given by the
expression
Vm
VO dc
1 cos
2
We can obtain the control characteristic by
plotting the expression for the dc output
voltage as a function of trigger angle
26
27
Control Characteristic
VO(dc)
Vdm
0.6Vdm
0.2 Vdm
0
60
120
180
Trigger angle in degrees
28
Normalizing the dc output
voltage with respect to Vdm , the
Normalized output voltage
Vdc
Vn
Vdm
Vm
1 cos
2
Vm
Vdc 1
Vn
1 cos Vdcn
Vdm 2
29
To Derive An Expression for the RMS Value
of Output Voltage of a Single Phase Half
Wave Controlled Rectifier With Resistive
Load
30
Cntd
The RMS output voltage is given by
1 2 2
VO RMS
vO .d t
2 0
Output voltage vO Vm sin t ; for t to
VO RMS
1 2 2
Vm sin t.d t
2
1
2
31
Cntd
1 cos 2 t
By substituting sin t
, we get
2
2
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
1 2 1 cos 2 t
Vm
.d t
2
2
Vm2
1 cos 2 t .d t
1
2
1
2
Vm2
d t cos 2 t.d t
4
1
2
32
Cntd
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
Vm 1
t
2
Vm
2
Vm
sin 2 t
1
2
1
2
1
sin 2 sin 2
;sin2 0
2
1
sin 2
2
Vm
sin 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
33
Lecture4
Performance Parameters
Of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
34
Cntd
Output dc power (avg. or dc o/p
power delivered to the load)
PO dc VO dc I O dc ; i.e., Pdc Vdc I dc
Where
VO dc Vdc avg./ dc value of o/p voltage.
I O dc I dc avg./dc value of o/p current
35
Cntd
Output ac power
PO ac VO RMS I O RMS
Efficiency of Rectification (Rectification Ratio)
Efficiency
PO dc
PO ac
; % Efficiency
PO dc
PO ac
100
The o/p voltage consists of two components
The dc component VO dc
The ac /ripple component Vac Vr rms
36
Cntd
The total RMS value of output voltage is given by
VO RMS V
2
O dc
2
r rms
Vac Vr rms V
2
O RMS
2
O dc
Form Factor (FF) which is a measure of the
shape of the output voltage is given by
VO RMS
RMS output load voltage
FF
VO dc
DC load output load voltage
37
Cntd
The Ripple Factor (RF) w.r.t. o/p voltage w/f
Vr rms Vac
rv RF
VO dc Vdc
rv
2
O RMS
VO dc
2
O dc
VO RMS
1
VO dc
rv FF 1
2
38
Cntd
Current Ripple Factor ri
Where I r rms I ac I
I r rms
I O dc
2
O RMS
I ac
I dc
2
O dc
Vr pp peak to peak ac ripple output voltage
Vr pp VO max VO min
I r pp peak to peak ac ripple load current
I r pp I O max I O min
39
Cntd
Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF)
PO dc
TUF
VS I S
Where
VS RMS supply (secondary) voltage
I S RMS supply (secondary) current
40
Cntd
41
Cntd
Where
vS Supply voltage at the transformer secondary side
iS i/p supply current
(transformer secondary winding current)
iS 1 Fundamental component of the i/p supply current
I P Peak value of the input supply current
Phase angle difference between (sine wave
components) the fundamental components of i/p
supply current & the input supply voltage.
42
Cntd
Displacement angle (phase angle)
For an RL load
Displacement angle = Load impedance angle
L
tan
for an RL load
R
Displacement Factor (DF) or
Fundamental Power Factor
DF Cos
1
43
Cntd
Harmonic Factor (HF) or
Total Harmonic Distortion Factor ; THD
1
2
I I
IS
HF
1
2
I S 1
I S1
Where
2
S
2
S1
1
2
I S RMS value of input supply current.
I S 1 RMS value of fundamental component of
the i/p supply current.
44
Cntd
Input Power Factor (PF)
VS I S 1
I S1
PF
cos
cos
VS I S
IS
The Crest Factor (CF)
CF
I S peak
IS
Peak input supply current
RMS input supply current
For an Ideal Controlled Rectifier
FF 1; 100% ; Vac Vr rms 0 ; TUF 1;
RF rv 0 ; HF THD 0; PF DPF 1
45
Lecture 5
Single Phase Half Wave Controlled
Rectifier With An RL Load
46
Cntd
47
Input Supply Voltage (Vs)
&
Thyristor (Output) Current
Waveforms
48
Cntd
49
Output (Load)
Voltage Waveform
50
Cntd
To Derive An Expression For
The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
51
Cntd
Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z
52
Cntd
Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.
Z R L =Load impedance.
2
L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1
R
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e L
Z
53
Cntd
Constant A1 is calculated from
initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=
R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L
A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e
Vm
Z sin
54
Cntd
Substituting the value of constant A1 in the
general expression for iO
R
t
L
Vm
Vm
iO
sin t e
sin
Z
Z
we obtain the final expression for the
inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z
R
t
L
sin
sin
Where t
55
Cntd
Extinction angle can be calculated by using
the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t
Vm
L
iO
sin
sin
0
Z
sin e
R
L
sin
can be calculated by solving the above eqn.
56
To Derive An Expression
For
Average (DC) Load Voltage of a
Single Half Wave Controlled
Rectifier with
RL Load
57
VO dc
VO dc
1
VL
2
v .d t
O
1
VL
vO .d t vO .d t vO .d t
2 0
vO 0 for t 0 to & for t to 2
1
VO dc VL
vO .d t ;
2
vO Vm sin t for t to
58
VO dc
1
VL
2
VO dc
Vm
VL
2
Vm sin t.d t
cos t
Vm
VO dc VL
cos cos
2
Vm
VO dc VL
cos cos
2
59
Effect of Load
Inductance on the Output
During the period t to the
instantaneous o/p voltage is negative and
this reduces the average or the dc output
voltage when compared to a purely
resistive load.
60
Average DC Load Current
I O dc I L Avg
VO dc
RL
Vm
cos cos
2 RL
61
Lecture6
Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier
With RL Load & Free Wheeling Diode
i0
+
V0
+
Vs
FWD
L
63
vS
Supply voltage
iG
Gate pulses
0
iO
Load current
t=
0
vO
Load voltage
64
The average output voltage
Vm
Vdc
1 cos which is the same as that
2
of a purely resistive load.
The following points are to be noted
For low value of inductance, the load current
tends to become discontinuous.
65
During the period to
the load current is carried by the SCR.
During the period to load current is
carried by the free wheeling diode.
The value of depends on the value of
R and L and the forward resistance
of the FWD.
66
For Large Load Inductance
the load current does not reach
zero, & we obtain continuous load
current
i0
t1
t2
t3
t4
SCR
FWD
SCR
FWD
67
Single Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier With
A
General Load
68
iO
vS
L
+
vO
E
69
E
sin
Vm
For trigger angle ,
the Thyristor conducts from t to
For trigger angle ,
the Thyristor conducts from t to
1
70
Vm
vO
Load voltage
E
0
iO
Im
Load current
0
71
Equations
vS Vm sin t Input supply voltage.
vO Vm sin t o/p load voltage
for t to .
vO E for t 0 to &
for t to 2 .
72
Expression for the Load Current
When the thyristor is triggered at a delay angle of
, the eqn. for the circuit can be written as
diO
Vm sin t iO R L
+E ; t
dt
The general expression for the output load
current can be written as
t
Vm
E
iO sin t Ae
Z
R
73
Where
Z R L = Load Impedance.
2
L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
The general expression for the o/p current can
1
be written as
Vm
E
iO
sin t Ae
Z
R
R
t
L
74
To find the value of the constant
'A' apply the initial conditions at t ,
load current iO 0, Equating the general
expression for the load current to zero at
t , we get
Vm
E
iO 0
sin Ae
Z
R
75
We obtain the value of constant 'A' as
R
V
E
L
m
A sin e
R Z
Substituting the value of the constant 'A' in the
expression for the load current; we get the
complete expression for the output load current as
Vm
E E Vm
iO sin t sin e
Z
R R Z
R
t
L
76
To Derive
An
Expression For The Average
Or
DC Load Voltage
77
VO dc
v .d t
O
1
VO dc
vO .d t vO .d t vO .d t
2 0
vO Vm sin t Output load voltage for t to
vO E for t 0 to & for t to 2
VO dc
E.d t Vm sin t E.d t
2 0
78
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
Vm cos t
E t
E t
2
0
E 0 Vm cos cos E 2
2
Vm
E
cos cos
2
2
2
2
Vm
cos cos
E
2
2
79
Conduction angle of thyristor
RMS Output Voltage can be calculated
by using the expression
2
VO RMS
1 2
vO .d t
2 0
80
Lecture7
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier Using A Center Tapped
Transformer
T1
A
+
vO
AC
Supply
T2
B
82
Discontinuous
Load Current Operation
without FWD
for
83
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
84
To Derive An Expression For
The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
85
Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z
86
Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.
Z R L =Load impedance.
2
L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1
R
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e L
Z
87
Constant A1 is calculated from
initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=
R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L
A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e
Vm
Z sin
88
Substituting the value of constant A1 in the
general expression for iO
R
t
L
Vm
Vm
iO
sin t e
sin
Z
Z
we obtain the final expression for the
inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z
R
t
L
sin
sin
Where t
89
Extinction angle can be calculated by using
the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t
Vm
L
iO
sin
sin
0
Z
sin e
R
L
sin
can be calculated by solving the above eqn.
90
To Derive An Expression For The
DC Output Voltage Of
A Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier With RL Load
(Without FWD)
91
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
92
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
vO .d t
1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc
cos cos
93
When the load inductance is negligible i.e., L 0
Extinction angle radians
Hence the average or dc output voltage for R load
VO dc
Vm
cos cos
VO dc
Vm
cos 1
VO dc
Vm
1 cos ; for R load,
when
94
To calculate the RMS output voltage we use
the expression
VO RMS
1 2 2
Vm sin t.d t
95
Discontinuous Load Current
Operation with FWD
96
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
97
Thyristor T1 is triggered at t ;
T1 conducts from t to
Thyristor T2 is triggered at t ;
T2 conducts from t to 2
FWD conducts from t to &
vO 0 during discontinuous load current.
98
To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage For
A
Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier
With RL Load & FWD
99
VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc
vO .d t
t 0
sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1
VO dc Vdc
Vm
1 cos
100
The load current is discontinuous for low
values of load inductance and for large
values of trigger angles.
For large values of load inductance the load
current flows continuously without falling to
zero.
Generally the load current is continuous for
large load inductance and for low trigger
angles.
101
Continuous Load Current
Operation
(Without FWD)
102
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
103
To Derive
An Expression For
Average / DC Output Voltage
Of
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier For Continuous Current
Operation without FWD
104
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
105
VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
vO .d t
Vm sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
106
VO dc Vdc
Vm
cos cos ;
cos cos
VO dc Vdc
Vm
VO dc Vdc
2Vm
cos cos
cos
107
By plotting VO(dc) versus ,
we obtain the control characteristic of a
single phase full wave controlled rectifier
with RL load for continuous load current
operation without FWD
108
Vdc Vdm cos
109
Vdc Vdm cos
V O(dc)
Vdm
0.6Vdm
0.2 Vdm
0
0.2Vdm
30
60
90
120
150
180
0.6 V dm
Vdm
Trigger angle in degrees
110
By varying the trigger angle we can vary the
output dc voltage across the load. Hence we can
control the dc output power flow to the load.
For trigger angle , 0 to 90
i.e., 0 90 ;
0
cos is positive and hence Vdc is positive
Vdc & I dc are positive ; Pdc Vdc I dc is positive
Converter operates as a Controlled Rectifier.
Power flow is from the ac source to the load.
111
For trigger angle , 900 to 1800
0
0
i
.
e
.,
90
180
cos is negative and hence
Vdc is negative; I dc is positive ;
Pdc Vdc I dc is negative.
In this case the converter operates
as a Line Commutated Inverter.
Power flows from the load ckt. to the i/p ac source.
The inductive load energy is fed back to the
i/p source.
112
Drawbacks Of Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier
With Centre Tapped Transformer
We require a centre tapped transformer
which is quite heavier and bulky.
Cost of the transformer is higher for the
required dc output voltage & output power.
Hence full wave bridge converters are
preferred.
113
Lecture8
Single Phase
Full Wave Bridge Controlled Rectifier
Single Phase
Full Wave Bridge Controlled
Rectifier
2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers are
Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(SemiConverter)
Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
(Full Converter)
The bridge full wave controlled rectifier does
not require a centre tapped transformer
115
Single Phase
Full Wave Half Controlled
Bridge Converter
(Single Phase Semi Converter)
116
117
Trigger Pattern of Thyristors
Thyristor T1 is triggered at
t , at t 2 ,...
Thyristor T2 is triggered at
t , at t 3 ,...
The time delay between the gating
signals of T1 & T2 radians or 180
0
118
Waveforms of
single phase semiconverter
with general load & FWD
for > 900
119
Single Quadrant
Operation
120
121
122
Thyristor T1 & D1 conduct
from t to
Thyristor T2 & D2 conduct
from t to 2
FWD conducts during
t 0 to , to ,...
123
Load Voltage & Load Current
Waveform of Single Phase Semi
Converter for
< 900
& Continuous load current
operation
124
vO
Vm
t
iO
()
()
125
To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage of
A
Single Phase SemiConverter
With R,L, & E Load & FWD
For Continuous, Ripple Free
Load Current Operation
126
VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc
vO .d t
t 0
sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1
VO dc Vdc
Vm
1 cos
127
Vdc can be varied from a max.
value of
2Vm
to 0 by varying from 0 to .
For 0, The max. dc o/p voltage obtained is
2Vm
Vdc max Vdm
Normalized dc o/p voltage is
Vm
1 cos
Vdc
1
Vdcn Vn
1 cos
Vdn
2
2Vm
128
RMS O/P Voltage VO(RMS)
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
2
2
Vm sin t.d t
2
Vm2
1
2
1 cos 2t .d t
Vm 1
sin 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
129
Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier
130
LECTURE PLAN
Sl.No
Module as per Session Planner
Lecture No.
PPT Slide No.
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier
Using A Center Tapped Transformer
L1
212
Derivation for Expression For The DC Output
Voltage Of A Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier With RL Load
L2
1320
Derivation for Expression For The DC Output
Voltage For A Single Phase Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier With RL Load & FWD
L3
2134
Single Phase Full Wave Bridge Controlled
Rectifier
L4
3544
Load Voltage & Load Current Waveform of
Single Phase Semi Converter for < 900 &
Continuous load current operation
L5
4551
Single Phase Full Converter
L6
5258
Derivation for Expression For The Average DC
Output Voltage of a Single Phase Full
Converter assuming Continuous & Constant
Load Current
L7
5968
Two Quadrant Operation
of a Single Phase Full Converter
L8
6978
131
Lecture1
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier Using A Center Tapped
Transformer
132
Single Phase Midpoint type
Fully controlled Rectifier
T1
A
+
vO
AC
Supply
T2
B
133
133
Discontinuous
Load Current Operation
without FWD
for
134
134
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
135
135
To Derive An Expression For
The Output
(Load) Current, During t to
When Thyristor T1 Conducts
136
136
Assuming T1 is triggered t ,
we can write the equation,
diO
L
RiO Vm sin t ; t
dt
General expression for the output current,
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e
Z
137
137
Vm 2VS maximum supply voltage.
Z R L =Load impedance.
2
L
tan
Load impedance angle.
R
L
Load circuit time constant.
R
general expression for the output load current
1
R
t
Vm
iO
sin t A1e L
Z
138
138
Constant A1 is calculated from
initial condition iO 0 at t ; t=
R
t
Vm
iO 0 sin A1e L
Z
R
t
Vm
L
A1e
sin
Z
We get the value of constant A1 as
A1 e
Vm
Z sin
139
139
Substituting the value of constant A1 in the
general expression for iO
R
t
L
Vm
Vm
iO
sin t e
sin
Z
Z
we obtain the final expression for the
inductive load current
Vm
iO
Z
R
t
L
sin
sin
Where t
140
140
Extinction angle can be calculated by using
the condition that iO 0 at t
R
t
Vm
L
iO
sin
sin
0
Z
sin e
R
L
sin
can be calculated by solving the above eqn.
141
141
Lecture2
To Derive An Expression For The DC
Output Voltage Of
A Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier With RL Load
(Without FWD)
142
142
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
143
143
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
vO .d t
1
Vdc Vm sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc
cos cos
144
144
When the load inductance is negligible i.e., L 0
Extinction angle radians
Hence the average or dc output voltage for R load
VO dc
Vm
cos cos
VO dc
Vm
cos 1
VO dc
Vm
1 cos ; for R load,
when
145
145
To calculate the RMS output voltage we use
the expression
VO RMS
1 2 2
Vm sin t.d t
146
146
Discontinuous Load Current
Operation with FWD
147
147
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
148
148
Thyristor T1 is triggered at t ;
T1 conducts from t to
Thyristor T2 is triggered at t ;
T2 conducts from t to 2
FWD conducts from t to &
vO 0 during discontinuous load current.
149
149
Lecture3
To Derive an Expression For The DC
Output Voltage For A Single Phase Full
Wave Controlled Rectifier With
RL Load & FWD
150
150
VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc
vO .d t
t 0
sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1
VO dc Vdc
Vm
1 cos
151
151
The load current is discontinuous for low
values of load inductance and for large
values of trigger angles.
For large values of load inductance the load
current flows continuously without falling to
zero.
Generally the load current is continuous for
large load inductance and for low trigger
angles.
152
152
Continuous Load Current
Operation
(Without FWD)
153
153
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
154
154
To Derive
An Expression For
Average / DC Output Voltage
Of
Single Phase Full Wave Controlled
Rectifier For Continuous Current
Operation without FWD
155
155
vO
Vm
t
0
iO
()
()
156
156
VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
vO .d t
Vm sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
157
157
VO dc Vdc
Vm
cos cos ;
cos cos
VO dc Vdc
Vm
VO dc Vdc
2Vm
cos cos
cos
158
158
By plotting VO(dc) versus ,
we obtain the control characteristic of a
single phase full wave controlled rectifier
with RL load for continuous load current
operation without FWD
159
159
Vdc Vdm cos
160
160
Vdc Vdm cos
V O(dc)
Vdm
0.6Vdm
0.2 Vdm
0
0.2Vdm
30
60
90
120
150
180
0.6 V dm
Vdm
Trigger angle in degrees
161
161
By varying the trigger angle we can vary the
output dc voltage across the load. Hence we can
control the dc output power flow to the load.
For trigger angle , 0 to 900 i.e., 0 900 ;
cos is positive and hence Vdc is positive
Vdc & I dc are positive ; Pdc Vdc I dc is positive
Converter operates as a Controlled Rectifier.
Power flow is from the ac source to the load.
162
162
For trigger angle , 900 to 1800
0
0
i
.
e
.,
90
180
cos is negative and hence
Vdc is negative; I dc is positive ;
Pdc Vdc I dc is negative.
In this case the converter operates
as a Line Commutated Inverter.
Power flows from the load ckt. to the i/p ac source.
The inductive load energy is fed back to the
i/p source.
163
163
Lecture4
Single Phase
Full Wave Bridge Controlled Rectifier
164
Drawbacks Of Full Wave
Controlled Rectifier
With Centre Tapped Transformer
We require a centre tapped transformer
which is quite heavier and bulky.
Cost of the transformer is higher for the
required dc output voltage & output power.
Hence full wave bridge converters are
preferred.
165
165
Single Phase Full Wave Bridge
Controlled Rectifier
2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers are
Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(SemiConverter)
Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
(Full Converter)
The bridge full wave controlled rectifier does
not require a centre tapped transformer
166
166
Single Phase
Full Wave Half Controlled
Bridge Converter
(Single Phase Semi Converter)
167
167
Single Phase Full Wave Half Controlled
Bridge Converter
168
168
Trigger Pattern of Thyristors
Thyristor T1 is triggered at
t , at t 2 ,...
Thyristor T2 is triggered at
t , at t 3 ,...
The time delay between the gating
signals of T1 & T2 radians or 180
0
169
169
Waveforms of
single phase semiconverter
with general load & FWD
for > 900
170
170
Single Quadrant
Operation
171
171
172
172
173
173
Thyristor T1 & D1 conduct
from t to
Thyristor T2 & D2 conduct
from t to 2
FWD conducts during
t 0 to , to ,...
174
174
Lecture5
Load Voltage & Load Current Waveform
of Single Phase Semi Converter for
< 900 & Continuous load current
operation
175
175
vO
Vm
t
iO
()
()
176
176
To Derive an Expression
For The
DC Output Voltage of
A
Single Phase SemiConverter
With R,L, & E Load & FWD
For Continuous, Ripple Free
Load Current Operation
177
177
VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
VO dc
vO .d t
t 0
sin t.d t
Vm
Vdc
cos t
Vm
Vdc cos cos ; cos 1
VO dc Vdc
Vm
1 cos
178
178
Vdc can be varied from a max.
value of
2Vm
to 0 by varying from 0 to .
For 0, The max. dc o/p voltage obtained is
2Vm
Vdc max Vdm
Normalized dc o/p voltage is
Vm
1 cos
Vdc
1
Vdcn Vn
1 cos
Vdn
2
2Vm
179
179
RMS O/P Voltage VO(RMS)
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
2
2
Vm sin t.d t
2
Vm2
1
2
1 cos 2t .d t
Vm 1
sin 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
180
180
Lecture6
Single Phase Full Converter
181
Single Phase Full Converter
182
182
Waveforms of
Single Phase Full Converter
Assuming Continuous
(Constant Load Current)
&
Ripple Free Load Current
183
183
184
184
185
185
Constant Load Current
iO=Ia
iO
Ia
iT1
Ia
Ia
& iT2
iT3
Ia
t
& iT4
186
186
Lecture7
To Derive An Expression For The Average
DC Output Voltage of a Single Phase Full
Converter assuming Continuous & Constant
Load Current
187
187
The average dc output voltage
can be determined by using the expression
2
1
VO dc Vdc
vO .d t ;
2 0
The o/p voltage waveform consists of two o/p
pulses during the input supply time period of
0 to 2 radians. Hence the Average or dc
o/p voltage can be calculated as
188
188
VO dc
VO dc
VO dc
2
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t
2
2Vm
Vdc
cos t
2
2Vm
Vdc
cos
189
189
Maximum average dc output voltage is
calculated for a trigger angle 0
and is obtained as
2Vm
2Vm
Vdc max Vdm
cos 0
Vdc max Vdm
2Vm
190
190
The normalized average output voltage is given by
VO dc
Vdc
Vdcn Vn
Vdc max Vdm
2Vm
Vdcn
Vn
cos
2Vm
cos
191
191
By plotting VO(dc) versus ,
we obtain the control characteristic of
a single phase full wave fully
controlled bridge converter
(single phase full converter)
for constant & continuous
load current operation.
192
192
To plot the control characteristic of a
Single Phase Full Converter for constant
& continuous load current operation.
We use the equation for the average/ dc
output voltage
VO dc Vdc
2Vm
cos
193
193
194
194
Vdc Vdm cos
V O(dc)
Vdm
0.6Vdm
0.2 Vdm
0
0.2Vdm
30
60
90
120
150
180
0.6 V dm
Vdm
Trigger angle in degrees
195
195
During the period from t = to the input
voltage vS and the input current iS are both
positive and the power flows from the
supply to the load.
The converter is said to be operated in the
rectification mode
Controlled Rectifier Operation
for 0 < < 900
196
196
During the period from t = to (+),
the input voltage vS is negative and the
input current iS is positive and the output
power becomes negative and there will be
reverse power flow from the load circuit to
the supply.
The converter is said to be operated in the
inversion mode.
Line Commutated Inverter Operation
for 900 < < 1800
197
197
Lecture8
Two Quadrant Operation
of a Single Phase Full Converter
198
Two Quadrant Operation
of a Single Phase Full Converter
0< < 900
Controlled Rectifier
Operation
900< <1800
Line Commutated
Inverter Operation
199
199
To Derive An
Expression For The
RMS Value Of The Output Voltage
The rms value of the output voltage
is calculated as
2
VO RMS
1 2
vO .d t
2 0
200
200
The single phase full converter gives two
output voltage pulses during the input supply
time period and hence the single phase full
converter is referred to as a two pulse converter.
The rms output voltage can be calculated as
VO RMS
2
2
vO .d t
2
201
201
VO RMS
1
2
2
Vm sin t.d t
VO RMS
V
2
sin t.d t
VO RMS
1 cos 2 t
.d t
2
VO RMS
d t cos 2 t.d t
2
2
m
2
m
2
m
202
202
VO RMS
VO RMS
VO RMS
t
2
2
m
2
m
2
m
sin 2 t
sin 2 sin 2
sin 2 2 sin 2
;
2
sin 2 2 sin 2
203
203
VO RMS
V
sin 2 sin 2
2
2
2
m
2
m
2
m
V
V
Vm
VO RMS
0
2
2
2
Vm
VO RMS
VS
2
Hence the rms output voltage is same as the
rms input supply voltage
204
204
Thyristor Current Waveforms
205
205
Constant Load Current
iO=Ia
iO
Ia
iT1
Ia
Ia
& iT2
iT3
Ia
t
& iT4
206
206
The rms thyristor current can be
calculated as
IT RMS
I O RMS
2
The average thyristor current can be
calculated as
IT Avg
I O dc
2
207
207
THREE PHASE LINE
COMMUTATED CONVERTERS
power Electronics
unit5
208
LECTURE PLAN
Sl.
No.
Module as per Session Planner
Lecture
No.
PPT Slide
No.
Introduction to Three phase converters
L1
310
3Phase Half Wave Converter
(3Pulse Converter)
L2
1126
3 Phase Half WaveControlled Rectifier
Output Voltage Waveforms For RL
Load atDifferent Trigger Angles
L3
2739
Three Phase Semiconverters
L4
4052
Wave forms of 3 Phase Semiconverter
for 600 and Discussion
L5
5263
Three Phase Full Converter
L6
6477
Single Phase Dual Converter
L7
7899
Three Phase Dual
power Electronics
Converters
unit5
209
L8
100119
Lecture1
Introduction to
Three phase converters
power Electronics
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210
1phase Controlled Rectifiers
Single phase half controlled bridge
converters & fully controlled bridge
converters are used extensively in
industrial applications up to about
15kW of output power.
The single phase controlled rectifiers
2Vm
provide a maximum dc output of Vdc max
The output ripple frequency is equal to
the twice the ac supply frequency.
power Electronics
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211
Contd
The single phase full wave controlled
rectifiers provide two output pulses during
every input supply cycle and hence are
referred to as two pulse converters
power Electronics
unit5
212
3 Phase Controlled Rectifiers
Three phase converters are 3phase controlled rectifiers
which are used to convert ac
input power supply into dc
output power across the load
power Electronics
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213
Features of 3phase controlled
rectifiers
Operate from 3 phase ac supply voltage.
They provide higher dc output voltage.
Higher dc output power.
Higher output voltage ripple frequency.
Filtering requirements are simplified for
smoothing out load voltage and load
current.
power Electronics
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214
214
Extensively used in high power variable
speed industrial dc drives.
Three single phase halfwave converters
can be connected together to form a three
phase halfwave converter.
power Electronics
unit5
215
215
Classification of 3phase
converters
3phase half wave converter
3phase semi converter
3phase full converter
3 phase dual converter
power Electronics
unit5
216
Classification according to
no of pulses in the output wave
3 pulse converter
6pulse converter
12 pulse converter
power Electronics
unit5
217
Lecture2
3Phase
Half Wave Converter
(3Pulse Converter)
with
RL Load
Continuous & Constant
Load Current Operation
power Electronics
unit5
218
218
Circuit Diagram of 3 pulse converter
power Electronics
unit5
219
219
Vector Diagram of
3 Phase Supply Voltages
VCN
120
120
VAN
0
0
120
vRN v AN
vYN vBN
vBN vCN
VBN
power Electronics
unit5
220
220
3 Phase Supply Voltage
Equations
We deifine three line to neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
power Electronics
unit5
221
221
vRN van Vm sin t ;
Vm Max. Phase Voltage
vYN
vbn Vm sin t
Vm sin t 120
vBN
vcn Vm sin t
Vm sin t 1200
Vm sin t 240
power Electronics
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222
222
van
vbn
vcn
power Electronics
unit5
van
223
223
Each thyristor conducts for 2/3 (1200)
Constant Load
Current
io=Ia
Ia
Ia
power Electronics
unit5
224
224
To Derive an
Expression for the
Average Output Voltage of a
3Phase Half Wave Converter
with RL Load
for Continuous Load Current
power Electronics
unit5
225
225
T1 is triggered at t 300
6
T2 is triggered at t
1500
6
0
T3 is triggered at t
270
6
2
0
Each thytistor conducts for 120 or
radians
3
power Electronics
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226
226
If the reference phase voltage is
vRN van Vm sin t , the average or dc output
voltage for continuous load current is calculated
using the equation
56
Vdc
Vm sin t.d t
2
6
power Electronics
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227
227
56
3Vm
Vdc
sin
t
.
d
2
6
3Vm
Vdc
cos t
3Vm
5
Vdc
cos
cos
2
6
power Electronics
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228
228
Note from the trigonometric relationship
cos A B cos A.cos B sin A.sin B
5
cos 6
3Vm
Vdc
2
5
cos sin
cos .cos sin sin
6
6
sin
0
0
cos
150
cos
sin
150
sin
3Vm
Vdc
0
0
2
cos
30
.cos
sin
30
sin
power Electronics
unit5
229
229
0
0
0
0
cos
180
30
cos
sin
180
30
sin
3Vm
Vdc
0
0
2
cos
30
.cos
sin
30
sin
Note:
cos 1800 300 cos 300
sin 1800 300 sin 300
0
0
cos
30
cos
sin
30
sin
3Vm
Vdc
0
0
2
cos
30
.cos
sin
30
s
in
power Electronics
unit5
230
230
3Vm
2 cos 300 cos
Vdc
3Vm
3
Vdc
cos
2
2
2
3Vm
3 3Vm
3 cos
Vdc
cos
2
2
3VLm
Vdc
cos
2
Where VLm 3Vm Max. line to line supply voltage
power Electronics
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231
231
The maximum average or dc output voltage is
obtained at a delay angle 0 and is given by
3 3 Vm
Vdc max Vdm
2
Where Vm is the peak phase voltage.
And the normalized average output voltage is
Vdc
Vdcn Vn
cos
Vdm
power Electronics
unit5
232
232
The rms value of output voltage is found by
using the equation
VO RMS
2
2
Vm sin t.d t
1
2
and we obtain
VO RMS
3
3Vm
cos 2
6 8
power Electronics
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1
2
233
233
Lecture3
3 Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier Output
Voltage Waveforms For RL
Load
at
Different Trigger Angles
power Electronics
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234
234
Van
Vbn
Vcn
V0
=30
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
Van
270
300
330
360
Vbn
390
420
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
=60
30
=300
Vcn
V0
0
300
330
360
390
power Electronics
unit5
420
=600
t
235
235
Vbn
Van
Vcn
=900
V0
=90
0
30
60
90
120
150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
power Electronics
unit5
390 420
236
236
3 Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier With
R Load
and
RL Load with FWD
power Electronics
unit5
237
237
T1
T1
a
T2
T2
b
T3
+
T3
c
R V0
R
V0
L
n
n
power Electronics
unit5
238
238
3 Phase Half Wave
Controlled Rectifier Output
Voltage Waveforms For R Load
or RL Load with FWD
at
Different Trigger Angles
power Electronics
unit5
239
239
Vbn
Van
Vcn
=0
Vs
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300 330
360
Vbn
Van
390
420
Vcn
=150
V0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300 330
360
390
420
power Electronics
unit5
=00
t
=150
t
240
240
Vbn
Van
Vcn
=300
V0
0
0
30
60
90
120
150 180
210
240 270
300 330
Vbn
Van
360 390 420
30
60
90
120
150 180
210
240 270
Vcn
=600
V0
=300
300 330
360 390 420
power Electronics
unit5
=600
t
241
241
To Derive An Expression For The
Average Or Dc Output Voltage Of A
3 Phase Half Wave Converter With
Resistive Load Or RL Load With FWD
power Electronics
unit5
242
242
T1 is triggered at t 300
6
T1 conducts from 30 to 180 ;
0
vO van Vm sin t
5
0
T2 is triggered at t
150
6
T2 conducts from 150 to 300 ;
0
vO vbn Vm sin t 120
power Electronics
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243
243
0
T3 is triggered at t
270
6
T3 conducts from 270 to 420 ;
0
vO vcn Vm sin t 240
Vm
power Electronics
unit5
sin t 120
0
244
244
3
Vdc
2
vO .d t
300
1800
vO van Vm sin t ; for t 30
3
Vdc
2
Vm sin t.d t
300
3Vm
Vdc
2
sin t.d t
300
to 180
0
1800
1800
power Electronics
unit5
245
245
3Vm
Vdc
2
cos t
300
1800
3Vm
0
0
Vdc
cos180
cos
30
2
0
cos180 1, we get
3Vm
0
Vdc
1
cos
30
2
power Electronics
unit5
246
246
Lecture4
Three Phase Semiconverters
power Electronics
unit5
247
Three Phase Semiconverters
3 Phase semiconverters are used in
Industrial dc drive applications upto 120kW
power output.
Single quadrant operation is possible.
Power factor decreases as the delay angle
increases.
Power factor is better than that of 3 phase
half wave converter.
power Electronics
unit5
248
248
3 Phase
Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(Semi Converter)
with Highly Inductive Load &
Continuous Ripple free Load
Current
power Electronics
unit5
249
249
power Electronics
unit5
250
250
Wave forms of 3 Phase
Semiconverter for
> 600
power Electronics
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251
251
power Electronics
unit5
252
252
power Electronics
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253
253
3 phase semiconverter output ripple frequency of
output voltage is 3 f S
The delay angle can be varied from 0 to
During the period
30 t 210
0
7
t
, thyristor T1 is forward biased
6
6
power Electronics
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254
254
If thyristor T1 is triggered at t ,
6
T1 & D1 conduct together and the line to line voltage
vac appears across the load.
7
At t
, vac becomes negative & FWD Dm conducts.
6
The load current continues to flow through FWD Dm ;
T1 and D1 are turned off.
power Electronics
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255
255
If FWD Dm is not used the T1 would continue to
conduct until the thyristor T2 is triggered at
5
t , and Free wheeling action would
6
be accomplished through T1 & D2 .
If the delay angle
, each thyristor conducts
2
for
and the FWD Dm does not conduct.
3
power Electronics
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256
256
We deifine three line neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t
Vm Max. Phase Voltage
0
vYN vbn Vm sin t
V
sin
120
m
3
0
vBN vcn Vm sin t
Vm sin t 120
3
Vm sin t 2400
Vm is the peak phase voltage of a wyeconnected source
power Electronics
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257
257
vRB vac van vcn
vYR vba vbn van
vBY vcb vcn vbn
vRY vab van vbn
3Vm sin t
6
3Vm sin t
3Vm sin t
2
3Vm sin t
6
power Electronics
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258
258
Lecture5
Wave forms of 3 Phase
Semiconverter for
600
power Electronics
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259
259
power Electronics
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260
260
power Electronics
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261
261
power Electronics
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262
262
To derive an Expression for the
Average Output Voltage of 3 Phase
Semiconverter for > / 3
and Discontinuous Output Voltage
power Electronics
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263
263
For
and discontinuous output voltage:
3
the Average output voltage is found from
6
3
Vdc
v
.
d
ac
6
3
Vdc
3
V
sin
2
6
power Electronics
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264
264
3 3Vm
Vdc
1 cos
2
3VmL
Vdc
1 cos
2
VmL 3Vm Max. value of linetoline supply voltage
The maximum average output voltage that occurs at
a delay angle of 0 is
Vdc max Vdm
3 3Vm
power Electronics
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265
265
The normalized average output voltage is
Vdc
Vn
0.5 1 cos
Vdm
The rms output voltage is found from
VO rms
v
.
d
ac
power Electronics
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1
2
266
266
VO rms
VO rms
2
2
3
V
sin
3
3Vm
4
sin 2
power Electronics
unit5
1
2
267
267
1
2
Average or DC Output Voltage
of a
3Phase Semiconverter
for / 3,
and Continuous Output Voltage
power Electronics
unit5
268
268
For
, and continuous output voltage
3
5
6
2
3
Vdc
v
.
d
v
.
d
ab
ac
2
6
3 3Vm
Vdc
1 cos
2
power Electronics
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269
269
Vdc
Vn
0.5 1 cos
Vdm
RMS value of o/p voltage is calculated by using
the equation
VO rms
VO rms
5
2
vab
.d t
3
3Vm
4
vac2 .d t
2
3 cos
power Electronics
unit5
1
2
1
2
270
270
Lecture 6
Three Phase Full Converter
power Electronics
unit5
271
Three Phase Full Converter
3 Phase Fully Controlled Full Wave Bridge
Converter.
Known as a 6pulse converter.
Used in industrial applications up to
120kW output power.
Two quadrant operation is possible.
power Electronics
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272
power Electronics
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273
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274
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275
The thyristors are triggered at an interval of
/ 3.
The frequency of output ripple voltage is
6fS.
T1 is triggered at t = (/6 + ), T6 is
already conducting when T1 is turned ON.
During the interval (/6 + ) to (/2 + ),
T1 and T6 conduct together & the output
load voltage is equal to vab = (van vbn)
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276
T2 is triggered at t = (/2 + ), T6 turns
off naturally as it is reverse biased as soon
as T2 is triggered.
During the interval (/2 + ) to (5/6 + ),
T1 and T2 conduct together & the output
load voltage vO = vac = (van vcn)
Thyristors are numbered in the order in
which they are triggered.
The thyristor triggering sequence is 12,
23, 34, 45, 56, 61, 12, 23, 34,
power Electronics
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277
We deifine three line neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t ;
Vm Max. Phase Voltage
vYN vbn Vm sin t Vm sin t 1200
3
0
vBN vcn Vm sin t Vm sin t 120
3
Vm sin t 2400
Vm is the peak phase voltage of a wyeconnected source.
power Electronics
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278
The corresponding linetoline
supply voltages are
vRY
vab van vbn 3Vm sin t
6
vYB vbc vbn vcn 3Vm sin t
2
vBR vca vcn van 3Vm sin t
2
power Electronics
unit5
279
279
To Derive An Expression For
The Average Output Voltage
Of
3phase Full Converter
With Highly Inductive Load
Assuming Continuous And
Constant Load Current
power Electronics
unit5
280
280
The output load voltage consists of 6
voltage pulses over a period of 2 radians,
Hence the average output voltage is
calculated as
VO dc
6
Vdc
2
vO .d t ;
vO vab 3Vm sin t
6
power Electronics
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281
Vdc
Vdc
3Vm sin t .d t
6
3 3Vm
cos
3VmL
cos
Where VmL 3Vm Max. linetoline supply voltage
The maximum average dc output voltage is
obtained for a delay angle 0,
Vdc max Vdm
3 3Vm
3VmL
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282
The normalized average dc output voltage is
Vdcn
Vdc
Vn
cos
Vdm
The rms value of the output voltage is found from
VO rms
2
vO .d t
1
2
power Electronics
unit5
283
283
VO rms
VO rms
VO rms
2
vab .d t
6
2
1
2
2
2
3Vm sin t .d t
6
2
1 3 3
3Vm
cos 2
2 4
power Electronics
unit5
1
2
1
2
284
284
Lecture7
Single Phase Dual Converter
power Electronics
unit5
285
Single Phase Dual Converter
power Electronics
unit5
286
286
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287
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288
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289
289
The average dc output voltage of converter 1 is
Vdc1
2Vm
cos 1
The average dc output voltage of converter 2 is
Vdc 2
2Vm
cos 2
power Electronics
unit5
290
290
In the dual converter operation one
converter is operated as a controlled rectifier
with 90 & the second converter is
operated as a line commutated inverter
0
in the inversion mode with 90
Vdc1 Vdc 2
power Electronics
unit5
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291
2Vm
cos 1
2Vm
cos 2
2Vm
cos 1 cos 2
cos 2
or
cos 2 cos 1 cos 1
2 1 or
1 2
radians
Which gives
2 1
power Electronics
unit5
292
292
To Obtain an Expression
for the
Instantaneous Circulating
Current
power Electronics
unit5
293
293
vO1 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 1.
vO2 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 2.
The circulating current ir can be determined by
integrating the instantaneous voltage difference
(which is the voltage drop across the circulating
current reactor Lr), starting from t = (2  1).
As the two average output voltages during the
interval t = (+1) to (2  1) are equal and
opposite their contribution to the instantaneous
circulating current ir is zero.
power Electronics
unit5
294
294
1
ir
vr .d t ; vr vO1 vO 2
Lr 2 1
As the o/p voltage vO 2 is negative
vr vO1 vO 2
1
ir
vO1 vO 2 .d t ;
Lr 2 1
vO1 Vm sin t for 2 1 to t
power Electronics
unit5
295
295
t
t
Vm
ir
sin t.d t sin t.d t
Lr 2 1
2 1
2Vm
ir
cos t cos 1
Lr
The instantaneous value of the circulating current
depends on the delay angle.
power Electronics
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296
296
For trigger angle (delay angle) 1 0,
the magnitude of circulating current becomes min.
when t n , n 0, 2, 4,.... & magnitude becomes
max. when t n , n 1,3,5,....
If the peak load current is I p , one of the
converters that controls the power flow
may carry a peak current of
4Vm
Ip
Lr
power Electronics
unit5
297
297
where
I p I L max
Vm
,
RL
&
ir max
4Vm
max. circulating current
Lr
power Electronics
unit5
298
298
Different Modes Of Operation of
Dual converter
Noncirculating current (circulating current
free) mode of operation.
Circulating current mode of operation.
power Electronics
unit5
299
299
NonCirculating
Current Mode of Operation
In this mode only one converter is
operated at a time.
When converter 1 is ON, 0 < 1 < 900
Vdc is positive and Idc is positive.
When converter 2 is ON, 0 < 2 < 900
Vdc is negative and Idc is negative.
power Electronics
unit5
300
300
Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
In this mode, both the converters are
switched ON and operated at the same
time.
The trigger angles 1 and 2 are adjusted
such that (1 + 2) = 1800 ; 2 = (1800 1).
power Electronics
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301
When 0 <1 <900, converter 1 operates as
a controlled rectifier and converter 2
operates as an inverter with 900 <2<1800.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are positive.
When 900 <1 <1800, converter 1 operates
as an Inverter and converter 2 operated as
a controlled rectifier by adjusting its trigger
angle 2 such that 0 <2<900.
In this case Vdc and Idc, both are negative.
power Electronics
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302
Four Quadrant Operation
Conv. 2
Inverting
2 > 900
Conv. 1
Rectifyin
g
1 < 900
Conv. 2
Rectifyin
g
2 < 900
Conv. 1
Inverting
1 > 900
power Electronics
unit5
303
303
Advantages of Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
The circulating current maintains
continuous conduction of both the
converters over the complete control
range, independent of the load.
One converter always operates as a
rectifier and the other converter operates
as an inverter, the power flow in either
direction at any time is possible.
power Electronics
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304
304
As both the converters are in continuous
conduction we obtain faster dynamic
response. i.e., the time response for
changing from one quadrant operation to
another is faster.
power Electronics
unit5
305
305
Disadvantages of Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
There is always a circulating current flowing
between the converters.
When the load current falls to zero, there will be
a circulating current flowing between the
converters so we need to connect circulating
current reactors in order to limit the peak
circulating current to safe level.
The converter thyristors should be rated to
carry a peak current much greater than the
peak load current.
power Electronics
unit5
306
306
Lecture8
Three Phase Dual Converters
power Electronics
unit5
307
Three Phase Dual Converters
For four quadrant operation in many
industrial variable speed dc drives , 3
phase dual converters are used.
Used for applications up to 2 mega watt
output power level.
Dual converter consists of two 3 phase full
converters which are connected in parallel
& in opposite directions across a common
load.
power Electronics
308
308
unit5
power Electronics
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309
309
power Electronics
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310
310
power Electronics
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311
311
Outputs of Converters 1 & 2
During the interval (/6 + 1) to (/2 +
1), the line to line voltage vab appears
across the output of converter 1 and
vbc appears across the output of
converter 2
power Electronics
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312
312
We deifine three line neutral voltages
(3 phase voltages) as follows
vRN van Vm sin t
;
Vm Max. Phase Voltage
0
vYN vbn Vm sin t
V
sin
120
m
3
0
vBN vcn Vm sin t
V
sin
120
m
3
Vm sin t 2400
power Electronics
unit5
313
313
The corresponding linetoline
supply voltages are
vRY
vab van vbn 3Vm sin t
6
vYB vbc vbn vcn 3Vm sin t
2
vBR vca vcn van 3Vm sin t
2
power Electronics
unit5
314
314
To obtain an Expression for the
Circulating Current
If vO1 and vO2 are the output voltages of
converters 1 and 2 respectively, the
instantaneous voltage across the current
limiting inductor during the interval
(/6 + 1) t (/2 + 1) is given by
power Electronics
unit5
315
315
vr vO1 vO 2 vab vbc
vr 3Vm sin t sin t
6
2
vr 3Vm cos t
6
The circulating current can be calculated by
using the equation
power Electronics
unit5
316
316
1
ir t
Lr
1
ir t
Lr
3Vm
ir t
Lr
ir max
vr .d t
3Vm cos t .d t
6
sin t 6 sin 1
3Vm
Lr
power Electronics
unit5
317
317
Four Quadrant Operation
Conv. 2
Inverting
2 > 900
Conv. 1
Rectifyin
g
1 < 900
Conv. 2
Rectifyin
g
2 < 900
Conv. 1
Inverting
1 > 900
power Electronics
unit5
318
318
Contd
There are two different modes of
operation.
Circulating current free
(non circulating) mode of operation
Circulating current mode of operation
power Electronics
unit5
319
319
Non Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
In this mode of operation only one
converter is switched on at a time
When the converter 1 is switched on,
For 1 < 900 the converter 1 operates in
the Rectification mode
Vdc is positive, Idc is positive and hence the
average load power Pdc is positive.
Power flows from ac source to the load
power Electronics
unit5
320
320
When the converter 1 is on,
For 1 > 900 the converter 1 operates in
the Inversion mode
Vdc is negative, Idc is positive and the
average load power Pdc is negative.
Power flows from load circuit to ac source.
power Electronics
unit5
321
321
When the converter 2 is switched on,
For 2 < 900 the converter 2 operates in
the Rectification mode
Vdc is negative, Idc is negative and the
average load power Pdc is positive.
The output load voltage & load current
reverse when converter 2 is on.
Power flows from ac source to the load
power Electronics
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322
322
When the converter 2 is switched on,
For 2 > 900 the converter 2 operates in
the Inversion mode
Vdc is positive, Idc is negative and the
average load power Pdc is negative.
Power flows from load to the ac source.
Energy is supplied from the load circuit to
the ac supply.
power Electronics
unit5
323
323
Circulating Current
Mode Of Operation
Both the converters are switched on at the
same time.
One converter operates in the rectification
mode while the other operates in the
inversion mode.
Trigger angles 1 & 2 are adjusted such
that (1 + 2) = 1800
power Electronics
unit5
324
324
When 1 < 900, converter 1 operates as a
controlled rectifier. 2 is made greater
than 900 and converter 2 operates as an
Inverter.
Vdc is positive & Idc is positive and Pdc is
positive.
power Electronics
unit5
325
325
When 2 < 900, converter 2 operates as a
controlled rectifier. 1 is made greater
than 900 and converter 1 operates as an
Inverter.
Vdc is negative & Idc is negative and Pdc is
positive.
power Electronics
unit5
326
326
A.C Voltage Controller
And
CycloConverter
Power Electronics
Unit6
327
LECTURE PLAN
Sl. No
Module as per Session Planner
Lecture No.
PPT Slide No.
Introduction to AC voltage controllers
L1
312
Expression For The RMS Value Of
Output Voltage, For ONOFF Control
Method
L2
1327
Principle Of AC Phase Control And
Operation of single Phase halfWave
Ac Voltage controller with RLoad
L3
2843
Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage
Controller (Bidirectional Controller)
With RLoad
L4
4459
TRIAC and Its Modes of Operation
L5
6073
Single phase full wave ac voltage
controller (Bidirectional Controller) using
TRIAC
L6
7491
Cycloconverter Midpoint Type
L7
92101
Power Electronics
1 to 1 Bridge type Cycloconverter
with R and RL load
Unit6
L8
101109
328
Lecture1
Ac Voltage Controllers
Power Electronics
Unit6
329
Ac Voltage controller circuits
(RMS voltage controllers)
An ac voltage controller is a type of thyristor
power converter which is used to convert a
fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac input supply
to obtain a variable voltage ac output
Power Electronics
Unit6
330
Applications Of Ac Voltage
Controllers
Lighting / Illumination control in ac power
circuits.
Induction heating.
Industrial heating & Domestic heating.
Transformer tap changing (on load
transformer tap changing).
Speed control of induction motors C
magnet controls.
Power Electronics
Unit6
331
Type Of Ac Voltage Controllers
Single phase half wave ac voltage controller
(Unidirectional controller).
Single phase full wave ac voltage controller
(Bidirectional controller).
Three phase half wave ac voltage controller
(Unidirectional controller).
Three phase full wave ac voltage controller
(Bidirectional Controller)
Power Electronics
Unit6
332
A.C voltage control technique
Power Electronics
Unit6
333
Principle of ONOFF Control
Technique
Power Electronics
Unit6
334
Vs
wt
Vo
io
wt
ig1
Gate pulse of T1
wt
ig2
Gate pulse of T2
wt
Power Electronics
Unit6
335
Power Electronics
Unit6
336
Power Electronics
Unit6
337
Power Electronics
Unit6
338
Lecture2
Expression For The RMS Value Of
Output Voltage, For ONOFF
Control Method
Power Electronics
Unit6
339
Power Electronics
Unit6
340
Power Electronics
Unit6
341
Power Electronics
Unit6
342
Power Electronics
Unit6
343
Power Electronics
Unit6
344
RMS Out put voltage
Power Electronics
Unit6
345
Duty cycle
Power Electronics
Unit6
346
Power Electronics
Unit6
347
Input Power factor
Power Electronics
Unit6
348
Power Electronics
Unit6
349
The Average Current Of Thyristor
Power Electronics
Unit6
350
Waveform of Thyristor current
Power Electronics
Unit6
351
Power Electronics
Unit6
352
RMS Thyristor Current
Power Electronics
Unit6
353
Lecture3
Principle Of AC Phase Control
And
Operation of single Phase halfWave
A.C Phase controller
Power Electronics
Unit6
354
Principle Of AC Phase Control
Power Electronics
Unit6
355
Power Electronics
Unit6
356
Equations
Power Electronics
Unit6
357
Output Load Voltage
Power Electronics
Unit6
358
Out Put Load Current
Power Electronics
Unit6
359
Expression For RMS Out put Load
Voltage
Power Electronics
Unit6
360
Power Electronics
Unit6
361
Power Electronics
Unit6
362
Power Electronics
Unit6
363
Power Electronics
Unit6
364
Control Characteristics
Power Electronics
Unit6
365
Average Value of Out put Voltage
Power Electronics
Unit6
366
Power Electronics
Unit6
367
Power Electronics
Unit6
368
Disadvantages
Power Electronics
Unit6
369
Lecture4
Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage
Controller (Bidirectional Controller)
With RLoad
Power Electronics
Unit6
370
Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage
Controller With RLoad
Fig.: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller
(Bidirectional Controller) using SCR
Power Electronics
Unit6
371
Waveforms of single phase full
wave ac voltage controller
Power Electronics
Unit6
372
Expression for RMS output voltage
V
L RMS
sin t.d t
2
L RMS
VL2 RMS
2
L
.d t
1
2
2
Vm sin t d t Vm sin t d t
2
Power Electronics
Unit6
373
Contd
1
2
2
2
2
Vm sin t.d t Vm sin t.d t
2
1
2
2
2
2
Vm sin t.d t Vm sin t.d t
2
Vm
1 cos 2t
1 cos 2t
d t
d t
2
2
2
2
2
Vm
d t cos 2t.d t d t cos 2t.d t
2 2
Power Electronics
Unit6
374
Vm
t
4
2
Vm
sin 2 t
sin 2t
2 2
1
1
2 sin 2 sin 2 2 sin 4 sin 2
2
Vm
1
1
2 2 0 sin 2 2 0 sin 2
Vm
sin 2 sin 2
4
2
2
Power Electronics
Unit6
375
Vm 2
4
Vm 2
sin 2 sin 2 2
2
2
sin 2 1
sin
2
.cos
2
cos
2
.sin
2
2
2
sin 2 0 & cos 2 1
Therefore,
2
L RMS
Vm 2
V 2 L RMS
sin 2 sin 2
2 2 2
Vm 2
2 2 sin 2
4
Power Electronics
Unit6
376
Taking the square root, we get
Vm
VL RMS
2
Vm
VL RMS
VL RMS
2 2 sin 2
2 2
Vm
VL RMS
2 2 sin 2
1
2 2 sin 2
2
Vm
2
1
sin 2
2
2
2
Power Electronics
Unit6
377
VL RMS
1
sin 2
Vm
2
VL RMS Vi RMS
VL RMS VS
1
sin 2
1
sin 2
2
Power Electronics
Unit6
378
Lecture5
Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage
Controller (Bidirectional Controller)
With RL Load
Power Electronics
Unit6
379
Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage
Controller (Bidirectional Controller)
With RL Load
Power Electronics
Unit6
380
Input supply voltage & Thyristor
current waveforms
Power Electronics
Unit6
381
Gating Signals
Power Electronics
Unit6
382
Waveforms For RL load for
and for Discontinuous Conduction
Power Electronics
Unit6
383
Expression for the inductive load
current of a single phase full wave
ac voltage controller with RL load
R
t
Vm
L
iO
sin
sin
Where
Z R L
2
L
tan
R
= Load impedance angle (power
Power Electronics
factor angle
of load). Unit6
1
384
Output voltage and output current
waveforms for a single phase full wave
ac voltage controller with RL load for
vO
vO=vS
Vm
iO
Im
t
Power Electronics
Unit6
385
Lecture5
TRIAC and Its Modes of Operation
Power Electronics
Unit6
386
TRIAC
MT1
G
N2
MT2
P2
N3
P2
N1
N1
N4
P1
MT1
P1
MT2
Fig.1 : Triac Structure
Power Electronics
Fig. 2 : Triac Symbol
Unit6
387
TRIGGERING MODES OF TRIAC
MODE 1 : MT1 positive, Positive gate current
( I+ mode of operation)
MT2 (+)
P1
N1
P2
Ig
N2
MT1 ()
G
(+)
V
Ig
Power Electronics
Unit6
388
When and gate current are positive with respect
to MT1, the gate current flows through P2N2
junction
The junction P1N1 and P2N2 are forward
biased but junction N1P2 is reverse biased.
When sufficient number of charge carriers are
injected in P2 layer by the gate current the
junction N1P2 breakdown and triac starts
conducting through P1N1P2N2 layers.
Once triac starts conducting the current
increases and its VI characteristics is similar to
that of thyristor. Triac in this mode operates in
the firstquadrant.
Power Electronics
Unit6
389
MODE 2
MT2 positive, Negative gate current
(I mode of operation)
MT2 (+)
P1
Initial
conduction
Final
conduction
N1
P2
N3
N2
MT1 ()
V
Power Electronics
Ig
Unit6
390
When MT2 is positive and gate G is negative
with respect to MT1 the gate current flows
through P2N3 junction
The junction P1N1 and P2N3 are forward
biased but junction N1P2 is reverse biased.
Hence, the triac initially starts conducting
through P1N1P2N3 layers.
As a result the potential of layer between P2N3
rises towards the potential of MT2.
Thus, a potential gradient exists across the layer
P2 with left hand region at a higher potential
than the right hand region.
Power Electronics
Unit6
391
This results in a current flow in P2 layer
from left to right, forward biasing the
P2N2 junction. Now the right hand
portion P1N1  P2N2 starts conducting.
The device operates in first quadrant.
When compared to Mode 1, triac with
MT2 positive and negative gate current is
less sensitive and therefore requires
higher gate current for triggering.
Power Electronics
Unit6
392
MODE 3
MT2 negative, Positive gate current
(III+ mode of operation)
MT 2 ()
N4
P1
N1
P2
N2
MT1 (+)
G
(+)
Ig Electronics
Power
Unit6
393
When MT2 is negative and gate is positive with
respect to MT1 junction P2N2 is forward biased
and junction P1N1 is reverse biased.
N2 layer injects electrons into P2 layer as shown
by arrows in figure below.
This causes an increase in current flow through
junction P2N1. Resulting in breakdown of
reverse biased junction N1P1.
Now the device conducts through layers
P2N1P1N4 and the current starts increasing,
which is limited by an external load.
The device operates in third quadrant in this
mode. Triac in this mode is less sensitive and
requires higher gate current for triggering.
Power Electronics
Unit6
394
MODE 4
MT2 negative, Negative gate current
(III+ mode of operation)
MT 2 ()
N4
P1
N1
N3
P2
MT1 (+)
G
(+)
Power Electronics
Ig
Unit6
395
In this mode both MT2 and gate G are negative
with respect to MT1, the gate current flows
through P2N3 junction as shown.
Layer N3 injects electrons as shown by arrows
into P2 layer. This results in increase in current
flow across P1N1 and the device will turn ON
due to increased current in layer N1.
The current flows through layers P2N1P1N4.
Triac is more sensitive in this mode compared to
turn ON with positive gate current. (Mode 3).
Power Electronics
Unit6
396
Triac sensitivity is greatest in the first quadrant
when turned ON with positive gate current and
also in third quadrant when turned ON with
negative gate current. when is positive with
respect to it is recommended to turn on the triac
by a positive gate current.
When is negative with respect to it is
recommended to turn on the triac by negative
gate current. Therefore Mode 1 and Mode 4 are
the preferred modes of operation of a triac
(mode and mode of operation are normally
used).
Power Electronics
Unit6
397
Triac characteristics
I
+
A
RL
MT2
Rg
Vgg
G
MT1
Vs
+

Power Electronics
Unit6
398
VI Characteristics of a triac
VB01, VB01
 Breakover voltages
MT2(+)
G(+)
Ig2 > Ig21
Ig2
VB02
V
VB01
Ig1
V
MT2()
G()
Power Electronics
Unit6
399
Lecture6
Single phase full wave ac
voltage controller
(Bidirectional Controller)
using TRIAC
Power Electronics
Unit6
400
Single phase full wave ac voltage
controller (Bidirectional
Controller) using TRIAC
Power Electronics
Unit6
401
Waveforms of single phase full
wave ac voltage controller
Power Electronics
Unit6
402
Single phase full wave ac controller
with common cathode
(Bidirectional controller in common
cathode configuration)
Power Electronics
Unit6
403
Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage
Controller Using A Single Thyristor
D1
D3
+
T1
D4
AC
Supply
D2
RL
Power Electronics
Unit6
404
Problems In Voltage Controller
Power Electronics
Unit6
405
Power Electronics
Unit6
406
Power Electronics
Unit6
407
Power Electronics
Unit6
408
Power Electronics
Unit6
409
Power Electronics
Unit6
410
Power Electronics
Unit6
411
Power Electronics
Unit6
412
Power Electronics
Unit6
413
Power Electronics
Unit6
414
Power Electronics
Unit6
415
Power Electronics
Unit6
416
Power Electronics
Unit6
417
Power Electronics
Unit6
418
Lecture7
CYCLOCONVERTER
Power Electronics
Unit6
419
CYCLOCONVERTER
A device which converts input power at
one frequency to the out put power at
different frequency with one stage
conversion is called a cycloconverter.
A cycloconverter requires one stage
frequency conversion.
Cycloconverter of two types
(i) StepUp Cycloconverter ( fo > s)
(ii) stepDown Cycloconverter ( fo < fs)
Power Electronics
Unit6
420
Single phase to single phase Mid point
type stepup Cycloconverter
with R load
Power Electronics
Unit6
421
Power Electronics
Unit6
422
Single phase to single phase
Bridge type stepup
Cycloconverter with R load
Power Electronics
Unit6
423
Power Electronics
Unit6
424
1 to 1 Mid point type stepDown
Cycloconverter with R load
Power Electronics
Unit6
425
Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io) waveform
Power Electronics
Unit6
426
Lecture8
1 to 1 Bridge type Cycloconverter with R and RL load
Power Electronics
Unit6
427
1 to 1 Bridge type stepDown
Cycloconverter with R load
Power Electronics
Unit6
428
Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io) waveform
Power Electronics
Unit6
429
1 to 1 Midpoint type stepDown
Cycloconverter with RL load
Power Electronics
Unit6
430
Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io)
waveform for Discontinuous
Conduction mode
Power Electronics
Unit6
431
Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io)
waveform for Continuous Conduction mode
Power Electronics
Unit6
432
1 to 1 Bridgetype stepDown
Cycloconverter with RL load
Power Electronics
Unit6
433
Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io)
waveform for Discontinuous
Conduction mode
Power Electronics
Unit6
434
Output voltage (Vo) and current (Io)
waveform for Continuous
Conduction mode
Power Electronics
Unit6
435