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# Analysis (Muhammad Fitri Bin Hassan)

## 1) Identify each pulse width accumulated from graph in procedure 4.1f.

Value list:
Resistance ratio paramvalue
0.1
100.000m
0.2
200.000m
0.8
800.000m

rise time
3.6755m
3.4076m
1.2102m

## 2) From (1), make an overall conclusion of potentiometer value over

output voltage.
Based on the graft can be concluded that when the resistivity
value of potentiometer or parameter value is increase, the value of rise
time is decrease. The value of output voltage is decrease by time,
although the rise time of each different, but the rate of change of
output voltage and the maximum output value is slightly different.
3) Make a conclusion from graph 4.2e.
Based on the graph can be concluded that the capacitor is an
element that able to store linearly by time amount of voltage that
supply through it and linearly discharge the voltage by time if the
voltage source is removed.
4) Make a conclusion from graph 4.2g.
Based on the graph can be concluded that the inductance is an
element that able to store amount of current and the value of current
stored is increase by time depend on the value of current that have
been supply through it.

Discussion:
1) Discuss transient analysis in general.
A transient analysis deals with behavior of an electric circuit as a
function of time. If a
Circuit contains an energy storage element(s), a transient can also
occur in a DC circuit after a sudden change due to switches opening or
closing. PSpice allow simulating transient behaviors by assigning initial
conditions to circuit elements, generating sources and the opening and
closing of switches.
2) Discussion the significant of setting initial condition (.IC) voltage as
procedure 4.1a.
The various nodes can be assigned to initial voltages during
transient analysis. The initialvalues are used by PSpice to calculate the
transient analysis bias point and the linearizedparameters of nonlinear
devices for transient analysis. After the transient analysis bias point
has been calculated, the transient analysis starts, and the node are
released. It should be noted that the initial conditions do not affect the
regular bias-point calculation during DC analysis or the DC sweep
3) Discussion how potentiometer is set to a desired value as in procedure
4.1b.
Refer to on the lab sheet the set value of potentiometer is 5k,
10k and 40k, all three value need to divided by 50k to convert all
the resistance value to the form of ratio, as the result the new value is
0.1 for 5k, 0.2 for 10k and 0.8 for 40k. Enter the all three resistance
ratio to the value list. the sweep time have been set to sweep from
8ms to 20ms.
4) Discuss in general the benefit of performance analysis in this
experiment.
Transient analysis also can be used to predict the pulse width or
rise time of an output signal. Transient analysis also used to recognize
the effect of rapid opening or closing switch to the rate of change of
voltage or current in each of the element in the circuits.
5) Discuss the switching operation for transient analysis performed in
procedure 4.2.

For the NC state whole circuits received the voltage supply from
the V1, based on the voltage and current divider the voltage across C1
and L1 is same but the value of current is different, in this state the
capacitance C1 store all the voltage across it and the inductance L1
also store all the current across it. After 10ms, the circuits shift to NO
state, during this state the batteries is remove from the circuits, the
capacitance will act like a batteries, the capacitor will slowly discharge
as the result the current flow across the inductance L1 will increase
linearly.