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UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI

Date: 10-Nov-2010
I, Waleed Alzamil

hereby submit this original work as part of the requirements for the degree of:

Master of Community Planning


in

Community Planning

It is entitled:

Evaluate the Experiences of Governments in Dealing with Squatter


Settlements in Middle East Comparative Analysis of Cases of Squatter
Settlements in Egypt
Student Signature:

Waleed Alzamil

This work and its defense approved by:


Committee Chair:

Christopher Auffrey, PhD


Christopher Auffrey, PhD

Francis Russell, MArch, BA


Francis Russell, MArch, BA

11/12/2010

1,177

EvaluatetheExperiencesofGovernmentsinDealing
withSquatterSettlementsinMiddleEast
"ComparativeAnalysisofCasesofSquatterSettlementsinEgypt"

Athesissubmittedtothe
GraduateSchool
oftheUniversityofCincinnati
inpartialfulfillmentofthe
requirementsforthedegreeof

MasterofCommunityPlanning

intheDepartmentofPlanning
oftheCollegeofDesign,Architecture,ArtandPlanning
by
WaleedAlzamil
M.Sc.UrbanPlanning, KingSaudUniversity,SaudiArabia2005
B.Sc.UrbanPlanning,KingSaudUniversity,SaudiArabia2001
November2010

CommitteeChair:Prof.ChristopherAuffrey,PhD
FacultyMember:Prof.FrankRussell,AIA

Abstract
Key words: Evaluate, experiences, governments, dealing, Squatter Settlements, Middle East informal
settlements,urbandevelopment,Egypt,neighborhoodupgrading,urban,solution.

Large cities in Middle Eastern countries, like much of the world, are characterized by
rapidurbangrowth.Urbanizationandurbangrowthoftenresultintheproliferationof
squatter settlements on the urban fringe. While squatter settlementsprovide a relief
valvefrompressureforhousingverylowincomeresidents,theyalsocreateacomplex
arrayofphysical,social,economicproblems.InordertobetterunderstandhowMiddle
Easterngovernmentscanmoreeffectivelyrespondtosquattersettlements,thisthesis
adoptsananalyticalapproachandcasestudymethodtoassesstwosuchsettlementsin
Egypt. Insight is gained by analyzing both the positive and negative outcomes of the
Egyptian governments response to squatter settlements. These insights are used to
propose standards for scatter settlements that address the physical, social and
economicneedsofresidentswhileaddressingtheproblemsposedbysuchsettlements.
This study found that in Egypt, much of the governments response to squatter
settlements has reflected a reactionary planning approach responding to popular
pressure, media reports and donor requirements. The study found a lack of a
comprehensive strategy based on regional approaches to problemsolving. Also, the
Egyptian government's response to the need for housing very low income residents is
focusedonlyonthephysicaldimensionoftheproblemattheexpenseofthesocialand
economic dimensions, including the need for public participation, employment
generationstrategies,andcomprehensiveassessmentsofresidentsneeds.

This study recommends a balanced regional development strategy based on locally


appropriate development standards and building codes, and a fair distribution of
developmentresourcestocitiesandvillagesthroughoutthecountry.Suchanapproach
shouldbedesignedtoreachasmanyofthecountryspoorresidentsasispossible.This
approachwouldallowgreaterflexibilitytoallowpoorresidentstobuildforthemselves
structurally sound housing using relatively inexpensive building materials. Such an
approachcanencouragetheexpansionofhousingonthebasisofafamilysneedsand
resources.Inaddition,additionalresearchisneededonsquattersettlementsinEgyptin
ordertobetterunderstandexistingpatternsofdevelopmentsothatalternativemodels
mightbecreated.

iii

Allcopyrightsreserved,2010
WaleedAlzamil
SchoolofPlanningCollegeofDesign,Architecture,ArtandPlanning,Cincinnati,OH

iv

Preface
JohnTurner:
Takes a positive outlook and portrays squatter settlements as highly successful
solutionstohousingproblemsinurbanareasofdevelopingcountries(1)
HassanFathy:
Squatter settlements are represent the capabilities of the massive population by
organizingthemselvesandfindsomekindofcommunityrelations,whichisasubstitute
forinadequategovernmentpolicies.Theseareascorrespondwithmanyoftheprinciples
adoptedbyHassanFathy,like:"Tenpeoplecanbuildtenhouses,butonepersoncannot
buildonehouse"(2)

(1)Turner,JohnUncontrolledUrbanSettlement:ProblemsandPolicies"inG.Breese(eds.)TheCityin
NewlyDevelopingCountries:ReadingsonUrbanismandUrbanization.PrinticeHall1969,pp.507534.
(2)Fathy,Hassan,Architectureforpoor.Chicago:UniversityofChicagopress,1973.

Acknowledgments
TherearemanypeopleIwouldliketothankinwritingthisthesis.First,Iwould
liketothankProf.Dr. ChristopherAuffrey, InterimDirectorandAssociateProfessorin
the school of planning. My committee chair, whose guidance, encouragement, and
advice.Prof.Auffreywasagenerousgiving,correctanymistake,andhelpatanytime.
I would like to thank Prof. Frank Russell, The Director of the University of
Cincinnati Community Design Center and the Niehoff Urban Studio and is Assistant
ProfessorofPracticeinPlanningandUrbanDesignforhiseffortsandprovidedtohelp
meduringmyworkwithhiminCommunityDesignCenter.
IwouldlikealsotothankDr.MarisaZapatatheassistantprofessorintheschool
of planning. She helped in the early stages of this thesis are introduction, literature
review,andresearchmethodology.Ihavebenefitedgreatlyfromthepresentationsand
feedbackthatgotinprojectIandprojectII.
ThanksandgratitudetotheCentralAgencyforPublicMobilizationAndStatistics
(CAPMAS)inEgypttheofficialsourceforprovidingallthestatebodies,organizations,
universities, researchcenters,anddevelopmentandevaluationprocesses.Thanking,for
theireffortsandprovideallthepopulationstatisticalinformation.
I would like to thank all members of the faculty of the school of planning who
helpedmeintheinformationoradvice.

vi

Terms
Affordablehousing

Housingisaffordableifitcoststheoccupantnomorethan30%
oftheirincomeforgrosshousingcosts,includingutilities.
[USDepartmentofHousingandUrbanDevelopment(HUD)]

Block

Ablockisatractoflandboundedonallsidesbystreetsorbya
combination of streets, public parks, railroad rightsofway,
pierheadlinesorairportboundaries.
[NYCZoning,GLOSSARY:www.nyc.gov]

Casestudyapproach

An indepth exploration of a particular context, such as a


classroomorgroupofindividualsthatinvolvesthecollectionof
extensive qualitative data usually via interview, observation,
anddocumentanalysis.[setda.org/web/guest/glossary]

Crowding

Thefeelingthatisinducedifourexpectationsabouttheuseof
spaceareviolatedbythepresenceofothers.
[tuition.com.hk/psychology/c.htm]

Density

Referstotheintensityofdevelopmentwithinazoningdistrict.
In residence districts, density is generally measured by the
maximumnumberofdwellingunitspermittedonazoninglot.
The maximum number of units is calculated by dividing the
maximum residential floor area permitted on a zoning lot by
the applicable factor for each zoning district. (Fractions equal
to at least are considered one unit.) The factors for each
vii

districtareapproximationsofaverageunitsizeplusallowances
for any common areas. Special density regulations apply to
mixed buildings that contain both residential and community
facilityuses.[NYCZoning,GLOSSARY:www.nyc.gov]
Dealing

MethodormannerofconductinrelationtoothersOrtheact
oftransactingwithinorbetweengroups.
[wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn]

Development

Adevelopmentincludestheconstructionofanewbuildingor
other structure on a zoning lot, the relocation of an existing
buildingtoanotherlot,ortheuseofatractoflandforanew
use.[NYCZoning,GLOSSARY:www.nyc.gov]

Economicefficiency

Atermthatreferstotheoptimalproductionandconsumption
of goods and services. An investment may be considered
economicallyefficientifitoffersnetbenefitstotheeconomy.
[dfpni.gov.uk/eagglossary]

Evaluate

Retrospectiveanalysisofaproject,program,orpolicytoassess
howsuccessfulorotherwiseithasbeen,andwhatlessonscan
belearntforthefuture.Todrawconclusionsfromexamining;
to compute an expression. Or measure: evaluate or estimate
thenature,quality,ability,extent.
[dictionary.reference.com],[www.dfpni.gov.uk/eagglossary]

Experiences

General concept comprises knowledge of or skill in or

viii

observation of something or some event gained through


involvementinorexposuretothatthingorevent.
[Levitt,HeidiM.(1999)]

Facility

Abuildingorplacethatprovidesaparticularserviceorisused
for a particular industry; the assembly plant is an enormous
facility.[wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn]

Government

The act of governing; exercising authority. Or Authority


governingthecityorstate.
[wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn]

Povertyline

A level of income below which people are deemed poor. A


globalpovertylineof$1perpersonperdaywassuggestedin
1990 (World Bank 1990). This line facilitates comparison of
howmanypoorpeoplethereareindifferentcountries.But,it
is only a crude estimate because the line does not recognize
differences in the buying power of money in different
countries, and, more significantly, because it does not
recognize other aspects of poverty than the material, or
incomepoverty.
[ucatlas.ucsc.edu/glossary.html]

Regionalplanning

A branch of land use planning and deals with the efficient


placementoflanduseactivities,infrastructure,andsettlement
growth across a significantly larger area of land than an

ix

individual city or town. The related field of urban planning


deals with the specific issues of city planning. Both concepts
are encapsulated in spatial planning using a Eurocentric
definition.[USNationalAssociationofRegionalCouncils]
Squattersettlements

Residential area which has developed without legal claims to


thelandand/orpermissionfromtheconcernedauthoritiesto
build; as a result of their illegal or semilegal status,
infrastructureandservicesareusuallyinadequate.
[gdrc.org/uem/definesquatter.html]

Subsidizedhousing

Therearemanydifferentkindsofsubsidizedhousingprograms.
Most of these programs, however, work in the same way.
Peoplewhoarelowincomepay30%oftheirincometowards
rent,andthestateorfederalgovernmentpaysthedifference
betweenthisamountandtheactualcostsofthehousing.
[massaccesshousingregistry.org]

Socialequality

Is a social state of affairs in which all people within a specific


society or isolated group have the same status in a certain
respect.Attheveryleast,socialequalityincludesequalrights
under the law, such as security, voting rights, freedom of
speech and assembly, and the extent of property rights.
However,italsoincludesaccesstoeducation,healthcareand
othersocialsecurities.Italsoincludesequalopportunitiesand
obligations,andsoinvolvesthewholesociety.
[ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/689]

SocialCharacteristics

Squatter settlement households belong to the lower income


x

group, either working as wage labour or in various informal


sectorenterprises.Onanaverage,mostearnwagesatornear
theminimumwagelevel.Buthouseholdincomelevelscanalso
be high due to may income earners and parttime jobs.
Squatters are predominantly migrants, either ruralurban or
urbanurban. But many are also second or third generation
squatters.[gdrc.org/uem/definesquatter.html]
Urbanfabric

The physical aspect of urbanism, emphasizing building types,


thoroughfares, open space, frontages, and streetscapes but
excluding environmental, functional, economic and socio
culturalaspects.[parole.aporee.org]

xi

Abbreviation
SA
BMZ
FAR
HD
PL
CES
EEO
CAPMAS
GTZ
GIS
LE
PAT
P&Z
DP
UPL
UN
NGO
KFW
MOED
PDP

PP

SituationAnalysis.
GermanfederalministryforEconomic.
FloorAreaRatio.
HighDensity.
Povertyline.
CurrentEmploymentStatistics.
EqualEmployment Opportunity.
CentralAgencyforPublicMobilizationAndStatisticsinEgypt.
Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit which means The
Germantechnical cooperation.
geographicinformationsystem.
EgyptianPounds(unitofcurrencyinEgypt).
Patternoffabric.
Planning&Zoning.
DevelopmentPlan.
Upperpovertyline.
UnitedNations.
NoneGovernmentOrganization.
Entwicklungsbank(GermanDevelopmentBank).
MinistryofEconomicDevelopment.
ParticipatoryDevelopmentProgrammeinUrbanAreas.anEgyptianGerman
development project implemented by the Ministry of Economic
Development(MoED)astheleadexecutingagency,theGermanTechnical
Cooperation (GTZ) and the KfW Entwicklungs bank (German Development
Bank), with financial assistance by the German Federal Ministry for
EconomicCooperationand Development(BMZ).
ProjectPlan.

Sourse: Abbreviations as contained in: www.acronymfinder.com , Khaled Abdelhalim, Participatory


UpgradingofInformalAreas,ADecisionmakersGuideforAction,May2010.Andwww.Google.com

xii

Contents
Abstract.

iii

Preface......

Acknowledgments..

vi

Terms...

vii

Abbreviation...

xii

ChapterI:Introduction

1 Introduction.. 2
2 ResearchChapters

3 Definitionoftheproblem

4 Thereasonsforthesquattersettlements....

5 Researchquestions.

12

6 Objectives.

12

7 SubObjectives

13

ChapterII:LiteratureReviews

1 Challengesfacingthegovernment......

15

11TheEconomicChallenges

15

12TheSocialChallenges

16

13TheEnvironmentalChallenges

17

2 Waysofdealingwithsquattersettlements..

18

21Clearanceofsquattersettlement

18

xiii

22Conservationandimprovement

21

23Upgradingofsquattersettlement

23

24Provisionofalternativehousing

28

3 Trendsofgovernmentsindealingwithsquattersettlements....

35

31Physicaltrends...

35

32socialtrends.

35

33economictrends..

36

4 Summaryofthewaystodealwithsquattersettlements.

38

ChapterIII:Methodology

1 Methodologyofthestudy.

40

11Theoreticalapproach

40

12Casestudyapproach.

41

2 Thetheoreticalfoundation..

45

3 Theimplementationofresearchmethods.

47

31Socialequalityfactors....

48

32Economicefficiencyfactors

49

33Urbanenvironmentalfactors

49

4 Summaryofinformationrequired..

52

5 Informationgatheringmechanisms

53

6 Implicationsofinformation..

55

ChapterIV:Egypt'sExperience

1 TheissueofsquattersettlementsinEgypt..
xiv

59

11Populationgrowthandthehousingdeficit.....

60

12CausesofthesquattersettlementsinEgypt...

68

13Proliferationpatternsofsquattersettlement.

70

2 SquattersettlementsinCairo....

75

21StagesofCairogrowth...

75

22PopulationinCairo...

80

23HousinginCairo...

82

24ThedistributionofsquattersettlementsinCairo....

85

3 SquattersettlementsinMansura.

89

31PopulationinMansura...

89

32StagesofMansuragrowth... 91
33ThedistributionofsquattersettlementsinMansura... 92
4 SummaryoftheEgyptianexperience.
ChapterV: DataAnalysis

94

1 SquattersettlementinEgypt(Casestudies) 98
11EzbetBekhit-ManshietNasserinCairo 99
12EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesinMansura.. 102
2 Comparativeanalysisofurbanenvironment.. 105
21Generalfeatures..

105

22UtilitiesFeatures.

109

23Fabricfeatures..

112

24BlocksFeatures.

115

xv

25HousingandPlotsFeatures.

118

3 Comparativeanalysisofsocialandeconomicsituation.. 125
31Householdsmonthincome 125
3-2 HousingTenure.. 128
33OccupancyRatesandCrowding. 131
34Illiteratesituation. 133
35LengthofResidence..

135

36employmentstatus

137

4 Summaryoftheactualcondition..

141

ChapterVI: Results

1 EvaluateofEgyptianexperience. 145
11Servicinginformalareas.

145

12Sectorialupgrading.

146

13Planningandpartialadjustment

148

14Onsiteredevelopmentofinformalareas.

149

15Redevelopmentandrelocation.

150

16Unregulatedstyles

152

17Participatoryapproachtotheupgrading..

153

2 EvaluateofExistingcondition...

158

21Evaluationofactualurbanenvironment...

158

22Evaluationofactualsocialsituation.

166

23EvaluationoftheActualEconomicSituation

167

xvi

3 Guidelinesfordealingwithsquattersettlements 168
31Decisiontodevelopthesquattersettlements.. 169
32Thesuitabilityofthesitefordevelopment. 169
33Sustainableurbanenvironment. 170
34Sustainablesocialandeconomicalenvironment 176
35OtherGuidelines..
ChapterVII: Conclusion

179

1 Resultsofthestudy(Summary) 182
2 Recommendations

187

3 Thedifficultiesfacedbytheresearcher

192

4 Afterword..

194

References....

198

Appendixes...

205

xvii

ListofTables
ChapterII:LiteratureReviews

PopulationDensityinKagithane,Istanbul

26

Summaryofgovernmentsexperienceswithsquattersettlements..

38

ChapterIII:Methodology

Majorinformationrequiredofsquattersettlement..

52

Informationgatheringmechanisms..

54

Implicationsofinformation..

57

ChapterIV:Egypt'sExperience

PopulationgrowthinEgyptfrom19502050..

61

Populationdensity persquarekilometerinEgypt..

63

ConcentrationofpopulationinEgypt..

64

ThedistributionofsquattersettlementsandDevelopmentcostinEgypt.

71

10

ThecausesofmigrationtoCairo..

82

11

FamiliesandhousinginCairo..

83

12

DistributionofpopulationbasedonhousingtypeinCairo

84

13

ThemostfamoussquattersettlementsinCairo

86

14

StagesoftheevolutionofpopulationgrowthinMansura.

90

15

GrowthStagesandemergenceofsquattersettlementsinMansura

91

16

SquattersettlementsnamesinMansura.

92

xviii

ChapterV: DataAnalysis

17

Thestagesofsquattergrowthattheexpenseofagriculturalareas

104

18

Comparativeanalysisofphysicalfeaturesofthecasesstudy..

108

19

ComparativeanalysisofUtilities..

111

20

Comparativeanalysisofclustersandvacant

114

21

ComparativeanalysisofBlocktypes.

115

22

Comparativeanalysisofthemostcommontypesofblock

117

23

Comparativeanalysisofvisualfeaturesofthecasesstudy

119

24

Comparativeanalysisofhousingspace(squaremeters).

123

25

ComparativeanalysisofthemostcommontypesofHouses

124

26

ComparativeanalysisofHouseholdsmonthincome....

126

27

ComparativeanalysisofHousingTenure

128

28

Comparativeanalysisoftherateofexpenditureonhousing...

130

29

ComparativeanalysisofPersonsperRoom(crowding).

131

30

ComparativeanalysisofIlliteratesituation

134

31

ComparativeanalysisofLengthofResidence..

136

32

ComparativeanalysisofEmploymentstatus...

138

ChapterVI: Results

33

EvaluateofEgyptianexperienceindealingwithsquattersettlement

157

34

Comparingtheactualsituationwiththestandards(M2)

164

35

Evaluationofactualurbanenvironment..

165

36

Evaluationofactualsocialsituation.

166

xix

37

Evaluationofactualeconomicsituation..

167

38

Developmentofurbanblocksinsquattersettlements.

172

39

Theproportionofbuiltupareaofthetotalarea..

174

40

Areastandardsoffacilitiesproposedfor7500people..

177

41

Walkingdistanceproposedtothefacilitiesinthecommunity.

178

xx

ListofFigures
ChapterI:Introduction

Mainsectionsofthestudy

Stringentandmultiplicitylawsisoneofthereasonstheproblem........

ZabaleencommunityManshietNasserinCairo..

Lackofflexibilityinthelows,oneofthereasonsoftheproblem

10

ChapterII:LiteratureReviews

CollectionofgarbageandanimalgrazinginZabaleencommunity.

16

demolitionofsquattersettlementasoneofthegovernmentalattitudes

18

PopulationDensityinKagithane,Istanbu

26

Anaerialviewshowsthehighpopulationdensity..

26

UrbanfeatureinYahyakemalKagithaneIstanbul

27

10

ExamplesofcharitablehousinginSaudiArabia..

30

11

Theprocessofdecisionmakinginhousingfieldsolution ..

31

12

SelectedworkofHassanFathy, Differentformsofstarterunit.

33

13

Meetingofacommunitytodiscussingpossibleimprovements

33

14

Stagesofthedevelopmentofhousing...

34

15

Trendsofgovernmentsindealingwithsquattersettlements....

37

ChapterIII:Methodology

16

Casestudyapproachprocess.

42

17

BasicTypesofDesignsforCaseStudies..

43

18

CaseStudymethod

44

xxi

19

Factorsthatmustbestudiedinthesquattersettlement...

46

20

BasicTypesofDesignsforCaseStudies..

47

21

Comparativeanalysistoderivethemeanpopulationdensity..

48

22

Formationofclustersinthesquattersettlements...

50

23

Stepstostudyurbanpatternsofsquattersettlement..

50

24

UnitspatterncombinedasaUshaped.

51

25

Thebasichumanneedsforservethepublicinterest.....

55

ChapterIV:Egypt'sExperience

26

MapofEgyptandthemajorcities..

59

27

UrbanizationanddevelopmentinEgypt

60

28

PopulationgrowthinEgyptfrom19502050

61

29

ThepopulationpyramidinEgyptin2006.

62

30

Populationdensity inEgypt

64

31

MajorcitiesregionthatthepopulationisconcentratedinEgypt.

65

32

PopulationConcentrationinEgypt.

66

33

ThedistributionofsquattersettlementsinEgypt.

72

34

ThepopulationdistributionofsquattersettlementsinEgypt.

73

35

PopulationproportionofsquattersettlementsinEgypt..

74

36

Theproliferationofsquatter settlementaroundCairoin1981

78

37

CairobySPOTSatellite.

79

38

UrbanTransformationintheGreatCairo.

80

39

PopulationdensityinCairo..

80

xxii

40

NetresidentialdensitiesintheGreatCairo.

81

41

ThecausesofmigrationtoCairoin2006..

82

42

DistributionoffamiliesbasedonthenumberofroomsinCairo..

83

43

DistributionofpopulationbasedonhousingtypeinCairo..

85

44

SquattersettlementsinCairo.

87

45

StretchindiscriminateofSquattersettlementsinCairo.

88

46

MansuraCitysite

89

47

Stagesoftheevolutionofpopulationuntil2017.

90

48

SquattersettlementssitesinMansura

93

ChapterV: DataAnalysis

49

LocationofEzbetBakhitwithinManshietNasser.

100

50

LocationEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyeswithinMansura.

102

51

Duwaiqadisaster:Rockslide,destructionofmanyhousesinEzbetBakhit..

106

52

EzbetBekhit:Variationintheexpandedroad..

113

53

ComparativeanalysisofBlocktypes

116

54

Themostcommonplotsinsquattersettlements..

122

55

Comparativeanalysisofhousingspace(squaremeters)..

123

56

ComparativeanalysisofFamilymonthincome

126

57

ComparativeanalysisofHousingTenure...................

129

58

Therateofexpenditureonhousingintwocases..

130

59

EzbetBekhit:HousingTypeAccommodates.

132

60

ComparativeanalysisofIlliteratesituation.

134

xxiii

61

ComparativeanalysisofFamilymonthincome

136

62

AremovalofsomehousesinEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes.

137

63

ComparativeanalysisofEmploymentstatus..

139

ChapterVI: Results

64

ProjectsempoweringwomeninManshietNasserbyPDP..

147

65

Applicationofregulationlinesinsquattersettlements.

148

66

AlternativehousinginelDoweiqa,ManshietNasser.

151

67

ParticipationFactors.

154

68

Modelofpartnershipandparticipation..

155

69

Blockspatternsandequivalentpatternsintheplanning

162

70

Processtotakeadvantagefromsquattersettlementscases..

168

71

Guidancetocreateasustainableurbanenvironment..

171

72

Developmentofapedestrianenvironmentintheblock.

173

73

Guidelineoftheroadandbuildingheight.

175

74

Usingnaturalpavingadaptedtotheenvironment.

175

75

Guidelineofthesquaresproposed

176

76

GuidelineofWalkingdistancetothemainfacilities

179

77

OpportunitiesforPublicParticipation

180

xxiv

ChapterOne:Introduction
This chapter sheds light on the housing crisis in the Middle East and the
obstacles and limitations that prevent many poor people from obtaining adequate
housing.Theresultofpoorgovernmentpoliciesandsolutionstoprovidinghousingfor
allissquattersettlements.Thischapterintroducesthemostimportantissuesrelatedto
squatter settlements, including the definition of the housing problem, the reasons for
squattersettlements,andtheresearchquestionsandobjectivesthatwillbeaddressed.

Introduction
Housing is more than a place that protects people from the elements and
provides them with privacy and security. It is a part of the urban environment,
interconnectedwithsurroundingfacilities,roads,andplacesofwork.Butinmanyurban
centersaroundtheworld,residentsareunabletoaffordthecostofhousingduetothe
prices of construction materials, land prices, and strict laws. The housing crisis of the
poor is one of the problems that typically accompany modernization and it has been
especiallyseriousamongpoornationsandintheMiddleEast.
Providing adequate housing for residents has become the main dilemma that
many Middle Eastern governments face. Residents are unable to afford the cost of
housingduetothepricesofconstructionmaterials,landprices,andstrictlaws.Squatter
settlements have emerged as a result of governments failure to provide effective
solutions to the housing crisis. Many governments have tried to solve the housing
problembyestablishingprogramsforaffordablehouses,selfconstruction,andcharity
housing, but these alternatives have been ineffective because they frequently did not
meetthewishesandneedsofthepoorresidents.
In order to solve the housing problem in urban areas, the causes must be
identified and then addressed through sound regional planning and the provision of
alternative housing for the poor consistent with their needs. This research will review
theexperienceofonegovernment,thegovernmentofEgypt,indealingwithsquatter
settlementsintheMiddleEast,assesstheirexperiencesandthereasonsforsuccessor
2

failure, and propose effective solutions in dealing with this problem. The outcome of
this research will be planning guidances that meets the needs of poor residents for
alternative housing. Derivation of these criteria and standards will be based on a
comparative analysis of the physical, social, and economic conditions found in actual
squattersettlements.
ResearchChapters
ExplanationofthePartsoftheStudy
AsshowninFigure(1),thisthesisisdividedintosevenmainchapters:
1 Introduction:Thischapterincludesadefinitionoftheproblem,thecausesofthe
problem,andtheobjectivesofthestudy.
2 Literature review: This chapter reviews research on the prevalence of the
problemintheMiddleEast,theroleofgovernments,andthesolutionsproposed
by governments. This is a discussion of the reasons for the failure of
governmentstosolvetheproblem.
3 Researchmethodology:Thischaptercontainstheresearchmethodsusedinthis
study, such as the theoretical approach, comparative analysis approach, and
methodsandtechniquestocollectinformation.
4 Egypts experience with squatter settlements: This chapter reviews the
experienceofEgyptsgovernmentwithsquattersettlements,thedistributionof
squatter settlements in Egypt, the nature and distribution of squatter
settlementsinCairoandMansura.

5 Data analysis: This chapter provides a comparative analysis of squatter


settlementsinCairoandMansura,assessingthecurrenturbanpatternandthe
currentsocialandeconomicsituations.
6 Results: This chapter presents evaluate of the Egyptian experience in dealing
with squatter settlements, evaluate the actual situation, and provides planning
guidelinesandstandardsthatareconsistentwithmeetingtheneedsofsquatter
settlementresidents.
7 Conclusions: This chapter presents a study summary, recommendations of the

study,andthedifficultiesfacedbytheresearcher.

Introduction

Methodology

Egyptsexperience

Literaturereview

Dataanalysis

Results

Conclusions

Figure(1):TheMainSectionsoftheThesis(1)

(1)Researcher.

DefinitionoftheProblem
AnOverviewoftheConceptofSquatterSettlements
A squatter settlement is defined as a residential area which has developed
without legal claims to the land and/or permission from the concerned authorities to
build; as a result of their illegal or semilegal status, infrastructure and services are
usually inadequate.(2) It also is defined as residential buildings built in planned and
unplanned areas which do not have formal planning approval. They are characterized
mostly by the low quality houses and the lack of adequate infrastructure and social
services.(3)Squattersettlements,then,arehousingunitsthatareestablishedwithouta
land title, and without getting permission from the city government or the property
owner. They are the result of the absence of alternative cheap housing for the poor.
Poorpeoplesimplystartbuildingongovernmentlandwithoutanylegalclaims.Squatter
settlementsareanencroachmentongovernmentlandorprivateland.(4)
AsshowninFigure(2),stringentgovernmentregulationsareoneofthereasons
for the emergence of squatter settlements, as regulations drive up the cost of legal
residentialdevelopment.

(2)Srinivas,Hari.DefiningSquatterSettlements.www.gdrc.org/uem/definesquatter.html.
(3)Ali,MohammedHaji,andMuhammadSalimSulaiman.TheCausesandConsequencesoftheInformal
Settlements in Zanzibar. In Informal Settlements: Policy, Land Use and Tenure. Presented at XXIII
InternationalFIGCongress,Munich,Germany,813October2006,p.2.
(4)Ibid.

Figure(2):StringentandMultiplicityLawsAreOneoftheReasonsfortheProblem(5)
The Vienna Declaration (2004) on National Regional Policy and Programmes
Regarding Informal Settlements in South Eastern Europe provides the following
definitionforsquattersettlements:humansettlements,whichforavarietyofreasons
do not meet requirements for legal recognition (and have been constructed without
respecting formal procedures of legal ownership, transfer of ownership, as well as
construction and urban planning regulations), exist in their respective countries and
hampereconomicdevelopment.Whilethereissignificantregionaldiversityintermsof
theirmanifestation,thesesettlementsaremainlycharacterizedbyinformalorinsecure
landtenure,inadequateaccesstobasicservices,bothsocialandphysicalinfrastructure
andhousingfinance.(6)
Squatter settlements are often characterized as illegal residential formations
lacking basic services, such as water supply, electricity, sanitation, recreational space,

(5) Payne, Geoffrey and Michael Majale. The Urban Housing Manual, Making Regulatory Frameworks
WorkforthePoor.London:Earthscan,2004,p.19.
(6)ViennaDeclarationonInformalSettlementsinSouthEasternEurope.InMinisterialConferenceon
Informal Settlements in South Eastern Europe. Presented at OSCE Hofburg, Vienna, Austria, 28
September1October2004,p.1.(Retrieved25October2007fromwww.stabilitypact.org/humi/041001
conference.html.)

andpavedroads.

(7)

Inaddition,educationalservicesandmedicalfacilitiesareseverely

limited,asaresecurityoftenure,andadequatehousing.Unfortunately,thisisonlythe
tip of the iceberg. Underneath there are many different and complex sociocultural
processes that lead to the formation of informal settlements.(8) The United Nations
Habitat Agenda adopted in 1996 and the Declaration on Cities and Other Human
SettlementsintheNewMillenniumadoptedbytheSpecialSessionoftheUNGeneral
Assembly in 2001 reaffirm the commitment of governments to ensure that everyone
will have adequate shelter that is healthy, safe, secure, accessible and affordable and
that include basic services, facilities and amenities, and will enjoy freedom from
discrimination in housing and legal security of tenure. In order to achieve this
fundamentalgoal,anemphasiswasplacedoncollaborationbetweenpublicandprivate
actorsandinstitutions,aswellastheidentificationofenablingstrategies.(9)
In order to evaluate the situation of squatter settlements, it is necessary to
analyzetheunderlyingsocioculturalcontext.AsshowninFigure(3),themainfeatures
in the Zabaleen Manshiet Nasser squatter settlement in Cairo (10) include narrow,
unpaved roads, and garbage spread throughout the neighborhood. The conditions

(7) Abdelhalim, Khaled.ParticipatoryUpgradingofInformalAreas:ADecisionMakersGuideforAction.


May2010,pp.26.

(8) Committee on Housing and Land Management. In Search for Sustainable Solutions for Informal
SettlementsintheECERegion:ChallengesandPolicyResponses.Geneva,September2008,pp.2223.
(9)Ibid,p.10.
(10) Manshiet Nasser is a huge squatter settlement in Cairo that contains nine subdistricts, including
Zabaleen,inEgyptianArabic: whichmeans:garbagecommunity.

conflict with the residential environment for health that has been adopted in the UN
HabitatAgenda.(11)

(12)

Figure(3):ZabaleenCommunityManshietNasserinCairo

(11) Manshiet Nasser is a huge squatter settlement in Cairo that contains nine subdistricts, including
Zabaleen,inEgyptianArabic: whichmeans:garbagecommunity.
(12)TheHabitatAgendaGoalsandPrinciples,CommitmentsandtheGlobalPlanofAction,2003.Textas
statedinthereportp.1"ThepurposeofthesecondUnitedNationsConferenceonHumanSettlements
(Habitat II) is to address two themes of equal global importance: "Adequate shelter for all" and
"Sustainablehumansettlementsdevelopmentinanurbanizingworld".Humanbeingsareatthecentreof
concerns for sustainable development, including adequate shelter for all and sustainable human
settlements, and they are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature". For more
informationonthewebsite:www.unhabitat.org

TheReasonsforSquatterSettlements
Themaincausesoftheproblem
Therearesixmainreasonsfortheemergenceofsquattersettlements:
1. Regional planning: Little attention is paid to regional planning. Most Middle
Eastern countries are not interested in small cities and villages, and so focus
theirattentiononmajorcities.Theresultofthisfocusisthemigrationofpeople
fromsmalltownstomajorcities.Theaccumulationofpopulationinlargecities
equatestomoredemandinhousing,andthereforeleadstohighlandpricesand
highcost ofliving,whichinturnmakesitmoredifficultforpoorpeopletoget
properhousing.(13)
2. Alternativehousing:Therearenoalternativestocheaphousingforthepoor.In
largecitiesintheMiddleEast,thelackofgovernmentsupportforthepoor.Has
meantfewattemptsatalternativehousing,withnoeffectiveresults.Mostofthe
housingalternativesavailableintheMiddleEastaimedatmiddleincomeorhigh
income groups. It duplicates housing units do not fit with the social and
economicconsiderations.(14)
3. Weakoversight:Thereisoftenweakoversightandleniencyintheapplicationof
regulations and laws pertaining to land use. In many Middle Eastern countries,
the spread of many informal neighborhoods is the result of lack of control by

(13) Allam, Ahmad, shidid Yahya, and Mahdi Majid. Renew of Neighborhoods, 1st ed., translated from
Arabicversion.Cairo:EgyptianAngloLibrary,1997,p.48.
(14)Ibid,p.49.

municipal authorities, and the lack of qualified personnel to deal with the
situation.(15)
4. Highcostandbuildingregulation:Buildingregulationsthatareoverlystrictand
lack flexibly. This tends to raise the cost of legal housing beyond the means of
peopleoflimitedincome.Asaresult,squattersettlementsaretheonlyhousing
alternative for many.(16) As illustrated Figure (4), stringent laws regulations can
leadtousingothermethodsforobtainhousinglikesquattersettlements.

Figure(4):LackofFlexibilityintheLows,OneoftheReasonsoftheProblem(17)
Horacio Caminos (1975), a specialist in urban planning, said the high
planningratesandstandardsaretheoneswhohelpintheestablishmentofthe
squatter settlement areas, since most of the planning and constructions laws
andinstructionsinthedevelopedcountriesarearesultofunrealrulesbecauseit
was directly taken from the rates that are used in the developed countries

(15)Ibid,p.50.
(16)Doiades.Generalplan,theconditionsfortheresidentialarea.Riyadh,SaudiArabia:1973,p.1.
(17)PayneandMajale(2004),p.71.

10

EuropeandAmerica.Andthefactisthatonlyasmallpartoftheinhabitantscan
receivethoserates,whichresultsinmostlyinhabitantswithoutthosehighrates,
whichinitsturnresultsinthespreadofthesquattersettlementsareas.(18)
5. Subsidized housing: Subsidized housing or social housing is People who have
lowincomes pay 30% of their income towards rent, and the state or federal
governmentpaysthedifferencebetweenthisamountandtheactualcostsofthe
housing. (19) A lack of subsidized housing also may lead to growth of squatter
settlements. By ignoring the need for substitute housing suitable for people of
limitedincome,localauthoritiesineffectpromotethedevelopmentofsquatter
settlements. Fundsthatgovernmentsupportdoesnotcoverthecostofhousing.
inadditiontothelackofplansandhousingprogramscommunionbetweenthe
publicandprivatesector.(20)
6. Lackofgrowthinthehousingstock:Thefailureofhousingstocktokeepupwith
theincreaseindemandduetoimmigrationpromotessquattersettlements.This
is especially a problem in very large urban areas such as Cairo and New Delhi.
Increasing population leads to a lack of housing supply and thus leads to the
creationofsquattersettlements.(21)

(18) Caminos, Horacio and Rienhold Goethert. Urbanization Primer for Design of Sites and Services
Projects.Cambridge,Mass.:MITPress,1975.
(19)http://www.massaccesshousingregistry.org
(20) Samie, Mohamed Abdel. Lessons Learned From the Informal Housing in the Context of Affordable
Housing.ResearchpresentedinSupremeCommissionfortheDevelopmentofRiyadh.SeminaronHousing
II,Arabicversion,2004,p.51.
(21)Ibid.

11

ResearchQuestion
Themainquestioninthisthesis
Giventhatsquattersettlementsarelikelytobepartoflargecitiesindeveloping
countries for some time, much research is needed about how to make these
settlementsbetter,morehumanehousing.Thatisthefocusofthisresearch.
Basedontheurban,social,andeconomicconditionfoundintwocasesquatter
settlements(discussedinchapterfive),thisresearchwillanswerthefollowingresearch
question: What design guidelines for housing and urban form should be adapted to
bettermeetthebasicneedsofthesquattersettlementresidents?
Objective
Themainobjectiveinthisthesis
The primary objective of this thesis is to understand the advantage and
disadvantage patterns of the environment build for addressing the problems of
squatter settlements. To reach a successful solution to the problem of squatter
settlements,wemustfirstunderstandtheconditionsofhowsettlementresidentslive.
What are their needs? How do they create their environment? How can we take into
accountthephysical,economic,andsocialfactorsofresidentialneeds?Ultimately,the
final product of this research should be in actual squatter settlements suitable for
settlementresidents,sinceitstemsfromanalysisoftheexistingconsiderations.

12

SubObjectives
Inadditiontotheprimaryobjective,thisresearchalsohasthefollowingsubobjectives:
1 Formulationofguidelinesandsolutionsthatfitwiththecultureandeconomics
realitiesofthesettlementresident.
2 Development of guidelines for evaluating the experiences of governments in
dealingwiththesquattersettlements.
3 Development of guidelines for promoting the principle of popular participation
insolvingtheproblemofsquattersettlements.

13

ChapterTwo:LiteratureReview
This chapter explains the most important literature that has addressed the
squattersettlementsissueintermsofeconomic,social,andenvironmentalchallenges
facing the government policies in dealing with squatter settlements. This chapter
reviewsthewaysofgovernmentsindealingwithsquattersettlementsandthereasons
forfailureaccordingtotheresearchersview.Attheendofthischapteraresummaries
ofthegovernmentstrendsindealingwithsquattersettlementsintheMiddleEast.The
most important topics in this chapter are dealing with the economic, social, and
environmentalchallenges,thewaysofdealingwithsquattersettlements,andtrendsof
governmentsindealingwithsquattersettlements.

14

ChallengesFacingtheGovernment
TheEconomic,Social,andEnvironmentalChallengesoftheProblem
Addressingtheproblemsofsquattersettlementsrequiresbetterunderstanding
of the driving forces contributing to their expansion and growth as well as
understandingthefactorsthatledtotheproblem.Countriesintheregionexperiencing
squatter settlements growth are grappling with the same set of systemic problems
relatedtolackofaccesstoaffordablehousing,inefficientspatialplanningpolicies,and
anincompletesystemoflandmanagement,aswellasgrowingurbanpoverty.Thereare
three challenges facing governments in dealing with the problem of squatter
settlementscanbesummarizedasfollows(1):
1. EconomicChallenges
Squatter settlements impact on the governments ability to manage and plan
land use, as the owners illegally occupy parkland, former industrial zones that
areunsafeforresidentialdevelopment,orlandthatmayhavemoreproductive
commercialorsocialuses.Whilethismightnotbethehighestandbestuseof
theland,thesquattingcreateslongtermproblemsfortheorderlydevelopment
and growth of the city, its servicing requirements and overall real estate
potential.(2)

(1)Formoredetailssee:Gabriel,Bjoern.InformalSettlementsinSEE:ARegionalSupportApproach.In
Spatial Information Management Toward Legalizing Informal Urban Development. Presented at FIG
Commission3Workshop,Athens,Greece,2831March2007,pp.2934.
(2)COMMITTEEONHOUSINGANDLANDMANAGEMENT,InSearchforSustainableSolutionsforInformal
SettlementsintheECERegion:ChallengesandPolicyResponses.Geneva:22232008.

15

2. SocialChallenges
Residents of squatter settlements are often poor and disadvantaged, facing
higher unemployment, social hardships, and tenure insecurity. According to
WorldBank(2007),becauseofthelackofaccesstoschoolsandsocialservices,
periurban settlers generally do not hold secure land or housing tenure, facing
potentialthreatofeviction.Therearecasesintheregionwherethismightbe.(3)
Ontheotherhand,thelackofsocialinfrastructure,schools,medicalclinics,and
social services perpetuates a spatial form of social exclusion. In addition, the
majority of the population unemployed or working in menial jobs, as shown in
Figure(5).IntheZabaleencommunityManshietNasserinCairo,themajorityof
thepopulationisengagedinthecollectionofgarbageandanimalgrazing.(4)

Figure(5):CollectionofGarbageandAnimalGrazinginZabaleenCommunity(5)

(3) WorldBankResponsestotheProblemofInformalDevelopment:CurrentProjectsandFutureAction.
InInformalSettlementsRealEstateMarketsNeedsRelatedtoGoodLandAdministrationandPlanning.
PresentedatFIGCommission3Workshop,Athens,Greece,2831,March2007.
(4)Zabaleenorgarbagecollectorsusedtoliveinareasaroundurbancommunitiesclosetothegarbage
sources. During the development of the center of Cairo, those people became a burden to the urban
communities and inhibited the citys development. For that reason, the authorities decided to relocate
theminManshietNasser(GOPP,ManshietNasserDistrict&GTZ)and(AlWali,1993).
(5)www.alkhubr.biz.

16

3. EnvironmentalChallenges
The environmental challenges in squatter settlements are associated with an
unplanned useofland,contributingtourbansprawlanddefunctinfrastructure.
Peoplelackaccesstopurewater,adequateroads,public transport,andreliable
electricity.Thesituationalsoadverselyaffectsthequalityoflifeintheformal
areasofthecity,whereurbanrunoff,downstreampollutionfromgarbageand
sewer discharged directly in rivers, create serious environmental threats. The
infrastructure deficit in informal settlements is significant. Often illegal
connections are the only means to gain access, which is unreliable and
inefficient.(6)

(6) Deda, Luan. The New Housing Market in Tirana. In Housing Change in East and Central Europe:
Integration or Fragmentation? Edited by Stuart Lowe and Sasha Tsenkova. Aldershot, England: Ashgate
PublishingLimited,2003.

17

WaysofDealingwithSquatterSettlements
AnOverviewoftheMainApproachestoDealingwithSquatterSettlements
There are four major trends in the ways that governments deal with squatter
settlements:
1. DemolitionofSquatterSettlements
Basedontheprinciplethatsquattersettlementsdistortthecity,breedendemic
diseases and epidemics, and contain a large number of outlaws, therefore
encouragingthespreadofcrime,thesuccessfulresolutionofthisproblemisto
clearthesquattersettlementcompletelyandreturnthepopulationtotheareas
from which they came.(7) As shown in Figure (6), bulldozers are used to
completelydemolishsquattersettlements.

Figure(6):DemolitionasOneoftheGovernmentalAttitudes(8)
Thisisthemethodofdealingwithsquattersettlementsthatisappliedin
many Middle Eastern countries, such as Turkey. Rusen Keles (2006) finds that
clearance applies to squatter houses surrounding historical sites and

(7)Bello,MustaphaOyewole.SquatterSettlement,AccessibilityandtheUrbanPoor.InSurveyorsKey
RoleinAcceleratedDevelopment.PresentedatFIGWorkingWeek2009,Eilat,Israel,38May2009.
(8)http://movies.ndtv.com&www.projectosurbanos.com.br/category

18

monuments.Governmentsformedduringthe1970sand1980salsoorderedthe
demolition of unauthorized buildings in specific locations when they did not
conformtotheconditionsstipulatedbysquattinglegislation.(9)
Insteadofdealingwiththehousingproblem,thedemolitionofsquatter
settlementsexacerbatestheproblembecauseitreducesthehousingstockinthe
city. AsstatedbyGabriel(2007),Thisisnotsimplyanurbanplanningproblem,
but a rather more complex and intractable phenomenon which, unless rapidly
and efficiently addressed, may threaten the longterm sustainability of urban
communities.(10) The clearance of the squatter settlements is not a viable
solution to the problem, and instead may increase the problem in the future.
Turner (1969) takes a positive outlook and portrays squatter settlements as
highly successful solutions to housing problems in urban areas of developing
countries.(11) Turner believes that the negative perception of squatter
settlement represent a big mistake These areas represent a major victory for
selfhelp lowincome people and great ability of individuals to resolve their
problemswithoutthehelpofthegovernment.(12)

(9) Rusen Keles, a professor of local government and urban studies at the Eastern Mediterranean
University and Ankara University, is member of the Committee of Independent Experts in charge of
monitoring the implementation of the European Charter of Local Selfgovernment in the Council of
Europe.
(10) Gabriel(2007),p.5.
(11)Srinivas.DefiningSquatterSettlements.
(12) Turner, John. Uncontrolled Urban Settlement: Problems and Policies. In The City in Newly
DevelopingCountries:ReadingsonUrbanismandUrbanization.EditedbyGeraldBreese.EnglewoodCliffs,
N.J.:PrenticeHall,1969,pp.507534.

19

Theejectionofsquattersandthedemolitionofillegalstructuresgenerate
social, economic, and political problems along with their attendant security
implications.Ittendstoportraygovernmentasinsensitivetotheplightofthe
citizenry.Demolitionalsoresultsinfinanciallossesbothtothesquattersandthe
government; and depletes the national housing stock.(13) This approach is
sociallydestructiveandinvolveshighcosttothecommunity.Theultimateresult
hasbeenthelossofthesedwellingsandthedispersalofthepopulationseither
intonewslumsortoswelltheranksoftheexistingslums.(14)
Anotherapplicationofthispolicyisforthegovernmenttocreatevarious
restrictionsthat cause the squatter settlements to be unlivable, and therefore,
easier to demolish as residents vacate them voluntarily. Here, governments
attempttosolvetheproblembyeliminatinglowincomecommunities.Exclusion
from urban services such as water, electricity, and sewage systems, and
educational and health care is one form of the restrictive policy. The lack of
services was viewed as a means of discouraging residents from residing in the
urbanareas.(15)

(13) LandsDivision,FederalMinistryofWorksandHousing:RegularizationofSquatterOccupationasa
ToolofLandManagement.Presentedat18thConferenceoftheHeadsofLandsDivision/Departmentsin
FederalandStateMinistries,Akure,OndoStateNigeria,2022August1996.
(14) Modupe,OmirinM.IssuesinLandAccessibilityinNigeria.InLandManagementandPropertyTax
ReforminNigeria:ProceedingsofaNationalWorkshop.EditedbyM.M.Omirin,T.GbengaNubiandS.A.
Fawehinmi.Nigeria:DepartmentofEstateManagement,UniversityofLagos,2003,pp.4970.
(15) Obudho,R.A.andG.O.Aduwo.SlumandSquatterSettlementsinUrbanCentresofKenya:Towardsa
PlanningStrategy.JournalofHousingandtheBuiltEnvironment.Volume4,Number1,March1989,p.
21.

20

2. ConservationofExistingConditions
Many governments in the Middle East do not demolish squatter settlements
because they cannot afford to rebuild housing afterwards due to the lack of
adequate funding. Therefore, most governments resolve the problem by
conservingthesquattersettlements.SimilarsituationshaveoccurredwithLatin
American housing settlements (LEDCs). Demolition of squatter settlements [is]
notaworkablesolutionastheLEDCcitiesdonothavetheresourcestoreplace
thedemolishedhomeswithbetterqualityonesandthepressureofpopulationis
toogreat.InLatinAmericaandSEAsia,governmentshaveacceptedshanties
as permanent and have added basic amenities to them wherever financial
resourcesallow.(16)Theideaofthissolutionisbasedonmaintainingtheexisting
physicalstructure.Squattersettlementarecommonlyutilizedbygovernmentsas
ameansforcoveringtheshortageofhousing,especiallywithinthelimitationsof
financial resources of governments to continually provide housing for their
residents.Sincetheclearanceofsquattersettlementsleadstoawasteofhousing
stock,theideasisto maintainthegoodphysicalstructureasmuchaspossible,
and provide the necessary services for the population. In the end, this may
contributetothecreationofahealthyenvironmentinthefuture.(17)
The benefit of squatter settlement conservation is to maintain the
economic structure and social current population, thus maintaining social

(16) LEDCCities:ResponsestoProblemsofUrbanGrowth.www.geographyjim.org.
(17) Samie, Mohamed Abdel. Lessons Learned From the Informal Housing in the Context of Affordable
Housing.ResearchpresentedinSupremeCommissionfortheDevelopmentofRiyadh.SeminaronHousing
II,Arabicversion,2004,p.51.

21

relations and harmony between members of these communities. Squatter


settlementconservationalsocontributestothestabilityofthepopulationinthe
neighborhood through the conversion of those squatter settlements from an
informalareaintoaformalsettlement.(18)
Governmentshaveattemptedtolegalizeareasofsquattersettlementsto
a very limited extent. In these cases, the governments role has been largely
reactive, not proactive. Addressing the situation in this manner is a clear
indicationoftheinabilityofsomegovernmentstosolvetheproblemofsquatter
settlement. Also, the lack of alternative housing reveals the limit of material
resources that are necessary for development. Gabriel (2007) reports that
municipal authorities are especially constrained in devising citywide planning
responses to the problem not just because of limitations in their capacities to
carry out comprehensive strategic planning exercises and citywide land
management plans, but often also because of structural problems in the
normative framework, often insufficient access to crucial land and property
information bases and inadequate equipment. Adhoc, limited scale,
interventions of upgrading and limited resettlement is therefore the norm.
Meanwhile the same pattern of illegal occupation in all its different
manifestations continues and current interventions seem unable to provide a
longtermanswertotheunmetsocialdemandforcheaplandandhousing.(19)

(18) Soliman, Ahmed, Possible Way Out Formalization Housing Informality In Egyptian Cities .Maryland:
UniversityPressofAmerica,2004.
(19) Gabriel(2007),p.11.

22

3. UpgradingSquatterSettlements
Theupgradingtrenddependsonthedevelopmentofthephysicalstructuresthat
are present. The main upgrades are rebuilding some of the buildings that are
deteriorating; and improving the physical environment, including roads, utility
systems, electricity, water, telephone, sanitation, repaved roads, and
renovations of some areas. Ignacio and Geoffrey (2010) state that there are
several developing countries have gone through great efforts to legalize
squatter settlements and illegal subdivisions by providing property title to
squatters.Atbest,however,thesetitlingprogramsseemtohaveonlyamodest
effectonaccesstoloansforupgradinghousingandotherproperty.Asaresult,
the integration of former illegal settlements into the city requires a generous
levelofdirectmunicipalgovernmentinvolvement.(20)
Upgrading informal areas results in a number of benefits not only for their
residents but also for governments. It is more feasible and resource efficient
than demolition and complete redevelopment. This does not only help the
governmenttoachievemorewithlessresources,butitalsohelpstotargetthe
poormostlyconcentratedininformalareas,hencebeingameasureofpoverty
alleviation. Therefore, upgrading lowincome informal neighborhoods can be
seen as leading to social justice and inclusion as well as a direct application of
rightsbased development. Thus, upgrading helps governments to abide by

(20) Navarro, Ignacio A.andGeoffrey K. Turnbull. The LegacyEffect ofSquatter Settlements on Urban
Redevelopment.WorkingpaperNo.2010/3/25,UNUWIDER,2010.

23

globallyagreeduponobjectives.Atthesametime,upgradingopensthedoorfor
a real partnership between residents and the government with channels to
demand their rights, means to improve their living conditions and a sense of
belonging and social inclusion. The following paragraphs explain the objectives
thatcanbeachievedthroughupgrading.(21)
TerziandBlen(2003)reportsthatupgradingofsquattersettlementsis
not successful in dealing with them. The reasons for the failure of this policy,
fromtheviewpointofthisresearcherisbacktothetwomainupgrades.Firstly,
the regulations to upgrade squatter settlements resulted in developments that
are harmful for the natural environment due to legalization of the squatter
settlementsthathavebeendevelopedonlandswithaslopeinexcessof25%.(22)
Thisdevelopmentandplanningprocesshasresultedinexcessiveutilitycostsand
ineffectiveservices,andhasnotbeenabletoprovidesustainabledevelopment
strategies. Secondly, the expectations of households for ownership, such as
providing a house for their children and requesting additional stories on their
buildings,resultedinhighlanduse.Besides,theplansforupgradinghavefaced
difficultyinimprovingbuildingconditionsduetothelackofafinancialsupport
system.Lastly,theprovisionofaffordablehousinghasnotbeenachievedeven
afterthetransformationofsquatterswiththeupgradingplans.(23)

(21) Khaled Abdelhalim, Participatory Upgrading of Informal Areas,A Decisionmakers Guide for
Action,May2010.Imageshavebeenconvertedintosketchesbytheresearcher.
(22) Terzi,FatihandFulinBlen.DoestheUpgradingPlanHelptoImproveSquatterSettlements?Case
Study:Kagithane,Istanbul.IstanbulTechnicalUniversity,2003.
(23) Ibid.

24

In the case study of Kagithane, Istanbul, Terzi and Blen (2003)


demonstratesthatthepolicyofupgradingledtomanyoftheproblemswiththe
developmentinthecasestudyarea.Apparentlytheareaisnotinharmonywith
thenaturalenvironment.Theroadswithmorethan16%slopesareinaccessible
for service facilities, such as garbage trucks, fire engines, and ambulances. The
inaccessibilityofservicestosomehousingunitscontributestofatalitieseventsin
emergency situations such as earthquakes and fires. As a result, the
transformation of the case study area has resulted in developments that are
contrary to sustainable development strategies.(24) Table (1) indicates that the
population density in the case study area is rapidly increasing. 80% of the
buildings had one or two floors before the upgrading plan was made in 1986.
Since then, many squatter houses have been transformed into apartments.
Upgradeshaveincludedaddingmorestoriesandenlargingthegroundfloor.At
thetimeofthestudy(2003),only20%ofbuildingshadoneortwofloors,while
70%ofbuildingshadoverfourfloors.Figures(7)and(8)showthedistribution
andpopulationdensityratiosintheneighborhood.

(24) Ibid.

25

Table(1):ThePopulationDensityinKagithane,Istanbul
Netdensity(person/ha)**
0500
501750
7511000
10011250
Over1251
Totalnumberoflots

Numberoflots
7
8
10
11
10
46

Percent
15
17
22
24
22
100

*Source:TerziandBlen,2003,p.4.
**Ha:Hectare

Figure(7):ThePopulationDensityintheNeighborhood(25)

Figure(8):AnAerialViewShowstheHighPopulationDensity(26)

(25)Researcher,adaptedfromTable(1).
(26) www.spaceandculture.org/2006/07/29/unhousingkagithaneistanbul

26

Terzi and Blen (2003) mentions that 70% of squatter houses which
developed over 25% slope should be relocated to a place which is in harmony
with topography to provide sustainability before they turn into highrise
apartments.98%ofdwellingunits,whichwerelegalizedbytheupgradingplan,
haveinsufficientlightandventilation.Besides,85%oflotshavethedensityover
501people/hawhichistoohightoprovidesanitaryhousingenvironments.(27)As
shown in Figure (9), physical deterioration and an unhealthy environment are
mainfeaturesintheneighborhood.Therefore,theupgradingplanwasnotbeen
successful in improving housing conditions, and it becomes hard to provide
livableandsustainableenvironmentsafterthetransformation.

Figure(9):UrbanFeaturesinYahyakemalKagithaneIstanbul(28)
4. ProvisionofAlternativeHousing
Alternativehousingsolutionsdependonseveralfactors,includingthepatternsof
squatter settlements, the lifestyle of the population, economic conditions, and
thesocialsituationfortheproductionofhousingsuitableforthesepopulations,

(27) TerziandBlen(2003).
(28) www.spaceandculture.org/2006/07/29/unhousingkagithaneistanbul

27

such as which type of construction using popular participation is employed:


affordable housing, public housing, or selfconstruction. Housing programs in
Middle Eastern countries are sometimes characterized by bureaucracy and
inflexibility.Forthisreason,manyalternativeprogramsdidnotsucceed.
41 Affordablehousing:Affordabilityofhousingcorrelatestotheaffordabilityof
the materials and labor to build it. That means developers must search for
andfindthebestpriceformaterialsandlaborinordertokeepthehousing
to a low enough cost to benefit poor residents. A guideline for housing
affordability is a housing cost that does not exceed 30% of a household's
gross income. (29) Several studies have proposed using patterns of slums in
the production of lowcost housing to serve the poor. This method has
provided a significant role in the provision of housing units for those with
limited income. Squatter settlements could benefit from this same idea of
the cheap building materials such as mud, stone, and woods. (30) Gabriel
(2007) finds that other alternative options have been backed by
policymakers dealing with informal settlements. A greater focus has been
placedonthecreationofanenablingenvironment,agreaterinvolvementof
communitiesintodecisionmakingprocessandmobilizingtheirresourcesfor
lowcost selfhelp housing construction. Governments have promoted

(29) Calculatedaspercentageofrenterhouseholdsmultipliedbypercentageofrenterhouseholdsthatis
burdenedbyhousingcostsinexcessof30%RenterHouseholdsData.
"http://www2398.ssldomain.com/nlihc/doc/lalihdrenterreport.pdf.Retrieved20080319.
(30)Formoreinformationsee:Canadianaffordablehousing1980s2006,editorialarticlebyCanadian
ArchitectmagazineeditorIanChodikoff.RetrievedMarch8,2007.
"http://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/TopStories/20080130/housing_affordable_080130.

28

alternativehousingfinancesystemsthatallowaccesstocreditfortheurban
poor and disadvantaged. These small credits, often microloans, encourage
theimprovementofinformalhousingandassistwiththelegalizationcosts.If
an informal settlement is deemed fit for occupancy, local governments
should work with national bodies and civil society to promote affordable
finance tools that can be accessed by residents. This would encourage the
development of fit settlements and make funds available for housing
improvements.Itwouldbeamutuallybeneficialsituationforresidentsand
localgovernments.Lendingprovidersandlocalgovernmentscouldjustifythe
expenseasaninitialinvestmentthatwouldhavetheimpactofbeingalong
term investment. Upgrading in this way seems to be the least expensive
approachforgovernmenttodealwithurbanpoverty.(31)
42 Publichousing:Alsocalledcharityhousing,thisisaformofhousinginwhich
the property is owned by a government authoritygovernmentowned
housing units made available to lowincome individuals and families at no
cost or for nominal rental rates.(32) Some governments in the Middle East
provide charitable housing programs. Construction of economic housing
unitsforthepoorreliesonlongtermsoftloanspayableininstallments.The
funding for these public housing units comes from money collected as a
charity from the population as well as government support. Figure (10)

(31) Gabriel(2007),p.60.
(32) www.yourwebassistant.net/glossary/p21.htm

29

showsthegeneralfeaturesofpublichousinginSaudiArabia.Thesehousing
unitstendtobesmallandareinadequatetotheneedsofmostpoorfamilies.

Figure(10):ExamplesofCharitableHousinginSaudiArabia

(33)

43 Selfconstruction(byparticipation):Theideaofselfconstruction,alsocalled
thecooperativehousing,isforthepopulationtoparticipateinbuildingtheir
own houses [see Figure (13)]. Gabriel (2007) reports that governments
cannot offer appropriate and flexible solutions due to a lack of sufficient
resources and capacity. This model is based on the belief that people and
communities have a great potential for selforganization, mobilization and
management of their resources from below. For the transformation of
squatter settlements to be successful, it is necessary that people and
communitiesactivelyparticipateandinfluencethewayinwhichtheirneeds
and future opportunities are addressed to prevent multiple disadvantages
accumulated in their settlements. However, it has also been argued that in
orderforsuchapeoplebasedapproachtoworkandbesufficientlyorganized
itmuststillbeconnectedtoandguidedbyadministrationathigherlevels.In

(33) www.alriyadh.com

30

somecountrieswithatraditionofastrongState,itmaytakemoretimefor
people and governments to create an enabling environment for self
organization and active participation, and thus some control is important.
Furthermore, a strong tendency toward individualistic consumption has
already had negative implications for mutual support and collective action.
Suchanegativetendencyisevenstrongerinsometransitioncountrieswhere
collectiveactionswereadrivingideologytocreateegalitariansocietyinthe
past.(34)Figure(11)showstheprocessofdecisionmakingintheconstruction
of housing. Building housing units requires a ready design that is easy to
implement.
Population
Family

Humaneffort

Friends
Finalproduct

Decision
making

Building
materials

Fundingsources

Services

Figure(11):TheProcessofDecisionMaking(35)

(34) Gabriel(2007),p.61.
(35) Suleiman,Ahmed.HousingandSustainableDevelopmentinDevelopingCountries,p.134.

31

Therearenobuildingregulationsthatspecifythathousingunitsneed
to be prepared by professional labors, so the population can participate in
construction.Selfbuilderscouldalsouserecycledcomponentstolowertheir
construction costs. This type of housing unit is known as Hassan Fathy
style,referringtobuildingconceptsputforthinFathysstudy.Fathy(1989)
findsthatclayisanideal buildingmaterialforlowincomeEgyptianstobuild
theirownhousingbecauseitisreusableandinexpensive.
Fathyarguesthatthepoorhavetobuildforthemselvesandshould

have their own architecture. Participation leads to selfsufficiency and aids


the poor by making them less reliant on government support. In addition,
selfconstruction makes it easier to make sure the housing units are
adequatefortheneedsofthepoorpopulation.(36)
Fathybelievesthatonemancannotbuildahouse,buttenmencan
build ten houses.(37) It takes at least one week to construct a housing unit
andrequirestheeffortsofthreetofourmen.Figures(12)and(13)illustrate
thestagesandpatternsofselfconstructionefforts.(38)

(36) Suleiman,Ahmed.HousingandSustainableDevelopmentinDevelopingCountries,p.134.
(37) Fathy,Hassan.ArchitectureforthePoor.TheAmericanUniversityinCairoPress,1989.
(38) FormoredetailsseeHassanfathywebsite:www.hassanfathy.webs.com

32

Figure(12):ExamplesofDifferentFormsofHassanFathyStarterUnits(39)

Figure(13):PopulationMeetingtoDiscussPossibleImprovements(40)
431 Wetcore: Wetcore housing is a type of unit consisting of a small
room with a bathroom and a kitchenthe core of the house. This
type of unit contributes to the reduction of expenditure on housing
and is commonly used in selfconstruction builds. In the future, the
familymayexpandthehousingunitwhenthereiseconomicpotential

(39) Attia,MagedKamalMohamed.AnApproachtoAffordableandSustainableHousing:A
ContemporaryVisionforaChronicEgyptianCrisis.PresentedatSymposiumofHousingII:Affordable
Dwelling,Riyadh,SaudiArabia,2831March2004,p.24.
(40) Attia(2004),p.24;andPayneandMajale(2004),p.71.

33

forthem(seecorehousing).Thistechniquehasspreadacrossseveral
thirdworldcountriessuchasTurkey,Mexico,Brazil,andEgypt.(41)
432 Core housing: Core housing develops around a wetcore, expanding
the housing unit according to the familys needs. Expansion
possibilities depend on the availability of local materials. (42) Figure
(14)showsanexampleoftheevolutionofbuildingahouseaccording
totheneedsandgrowthofthefamily.

Figure(14):StagesoftheDevelopmentofHousing(43)

(41) Suleiman,Ahmed.HousingandSustainableDevelopmentinDevelopingCountries,pp.134136.
(42) Soliman,AhmedM.PossibleWayOut:FormalizingHousingInformalityinEgyptianCities.Lanham,
Md.:UniversityPressofAmerica,2004.
(43) Ibid.

34

TrendsofGovernmentsinDealingwithSquatterSettlements
Themostimportanttrendsofgovernmentindealingwithinformalsettlements
Thetrendsthatgovernmentsusetodealwithsquattersettlementscanbesummarized
basedonthreemaincategories:
1. PhysicalTrends
There are three main physical trends for how governments deal with squatter
settlements:thedemolitionofsquattersettlementbecausetheyareharmfulto
the city's environmental impacts and are a major source for the spread of
diseases and crimes; maintain the physical structures by giving the current
populationthelegalrighttoresideontheland;orthedevelopmentofexisting
housing conditions through the renovation of the neighborhood and the
provision of services and facilities. Governments also promote sustainable
housing such as wetcore or core housing. The governments that follow the
physical trends are absent the social and economic trends in dealing with
squatter settlements. Physical trends deal with the slums to the point that it
distortstheurbanfabricofthecity.(44)
2. SocialTrends
Thesocialtrendsofhowgovernmentsdealwithsquattersettlementsaresocial
participation,andthepromotionofsocialcooperationinbuildingahousingunit
through charity work, that is, nongovernmental support such as from
companies, institutions, and people, for construction of housing for the poor.

(44)CaminosandGoethert,1975,p.227.

35

Governments following this trend focus only on the social side to resolve the
problemwithoutabalancewiththeeconomicandphysicaltrends.Governments
depend upon the solution resulting from the people. Most of these solutions
havebeenineffectivebecausetheyrelysolelyontheideasandparticipationof
thepopulation.(45)
3. EconomicTrends
This trend focuses on the economic aspects of the materials provided by the
government, or the socalled government support. The various means of
governmentsupportarethroughtheloweringofrentprices,subsidizinghousing
construction, flexibility in payments for construction, and encouragement of
using cheaper construction materials such as wood or clay. The governments
dealinginthistrendfocusonlyontheeconomicaspectsinsolvingthehousing
problemwithoutpayingattentiontoenvironmentalaspects,orsocialorphysical
trends. The top priority of the governments is to look for alternative cheap
housing.Thisconflictswiththesocialaspectssuchasfamilysizeandattendingto
the needs of the population. In addition, the focus on economic aspects is
inconsistentwiththephysicalaspectbecausethefinalproductischeapbutlacks
quality.(46)

(45)Attia,2004,p.24.
(46)Soliman,2004.

36

Figure (15) summarizes the ways that governments deal with squatter settlements
accordingtothethreemaintrends.
Conservation
ofexisting

Newbuilding
materials

Corehousing

Wetcore

Constructionasthe
populationwishes

Sustainablehousing

Physical
trends
Governmentsupport

Housingforall

Economic
trends

Social
trends

Affordablehousing
Cheaprentand
materials

Cooperationof
thepopulation
Selfbuild

Charity
housing

Figure(15):TrendsofGovernmentsinDealingWithSquatterSettlements(47)

(47) Summaryofalltheideasbytheresearcher.

37

SummaryoftheWaystoDealwithSquatterSettlements
Table (2) summarizes the experiences some of governments in dealing with squatter
settlementsinMiddleEast:
Table(2):SummaryofGovernmentsExperienceswithSquatterSettlements

Turkey,SaudiArabia

In

Negatives

Egypt

Turkey,Egypt

Positive

Reducesthehousingstockinthe
city.
Emergenceofsquatter
settlementsinotherareas.
Superficialsolutiontothe
problem,doesntaddressthe
root.
Theproblemasitwaspersists.
Continuedpopulationpressures
intheprovisionofinfrastructure,
facilities,andservices.

SaudiArabia

Provisionofalternative
housing

Upgradingofsquatter
settlement

Conservationof
existingconditions

Clearanceof
squatter
settlement

Politics

Encouragesthepopulationto
encroachlandofthegovernment
ortheprivatesectorinthe
future.
Increasedratesofovercrowding
andpopulationdensitybecause
theneighborhoodhasbecome
formal.
Raiseslandpricesandrent.
Thelackofappropriatehousing
alternativesforthepopulationin
termsoffamilysize,income,and
familyneeds.
Allhousingalternativesarenot
derivedfromthedevelopmentof
thefeaturesofsquatter
settlementssoitwillnotsucceed.

*Sources:Researcher,adaptedfromsummariesofallthetheorystudies.
38

Removesthevisual
pollutioncausedbyslum
settlements.
Transformsthephysical
environmentofan
unhealthyenvironment
tohealthy.
Maintainstheexisting
physicalstructure.
Maintainsthehousing
stockinthecity.
Stabilizesthepopulation
intheneighborhood
withoutdisplacingthem.
Renewalofthe
neighborhoodandthe
stabilityofthepopulation
inthesamearea.
Transformsthe
neighborhoodfrom
informaltoformal.

Reducestheburdenon
thegovernmentto
providehousing
alternatives.
Anoptionto
accommodatepoor
peopleandreducethe
emergenceofnew
squattersettlements.

ChapterThree:Methodology
This chapter addresses the research methodology used in this study, including
the case study approach, comparative analysis, the methods of selection of the case
studies, and the types of information and methods that are utilized in the study. This
chapter summarizes the information required in detail and the mechanisms for
collectingtheinformation.Attheendofthischapterisasummaryoftheeffectsofthe
information in formulating solutions that also addresses the indicators of information,
andthewaystotakeadvantageofthem.Themostimportanttopicsinthischapterare
dealing with the methodology of the study, the implementation of research methods,
informationgatheringmechanisms,andtheimplicationsoftheinformation.

39

MethodologyoftheStudy
MainResearchMethodologies
Methodology is the way in which information is found or something is done.
Themethodologyincludesthemethods,procedures,andtechniquesusedtocollectand
analyzeinformation.(1)Thisstudyusestwomainmethodologicalapproaches:
1. TheoreticalApproach
Thetheoreticalapproachincludesinformationanddatathatisobtainedthrough
books and references. This approach was used for the selection of topics that
relate to the subject of study and the analysis to draw conclusions and
recommendations. This thesis is based on a lot of studies and government
reportsonsquattersettlementsinEgyptasacasestudy.Mostofthestatistical
informationcontainedinthisthesisbasedongovernmentstatisticalreports,such
as Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics in Egypt (CAPMAS),
MinistryofEconomicDevelopment(MOED).Thestudyalsoreliedonanumber
of government research, reports, and organizations such as Participatory
Development Programme in Urban Areas, an EgyptianGerman development
project implemented by the Ministry of Economic Development (MoED) as the
lead executing agency, the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and the (KfW)
Entwicklungsbank(GermanDevelopmentBank),withfinancialassistancebythe
GermanFederalMinistryforEconomicCooperationandDevelopment(BMZ).(2)

(1)www.lillytrials.com/docs/terminology.html
(2)Seebibliography

40

SomeofthestudiesarewritteninArabic;henceitwillbetranslatedintoEnglish.
Some studies and reports include extensive information on the squatter
settlement issue within terms of urban environment, and economic and social
information. Although many studies have addressed the squatter settlement
issue, they did not exploit the wealth of information to correctly contribute to
the solution of the problem. Therefore, this thesis will benefit from a lot of
theoreticalinformationandanalysistoensureaccesstotheresultsforthemain
objectiveofthisthesis.
2. CaseStudyApproach
A case study is an indepth exploration of a particular context, such as a
classroom or group of individuals that involves the collection of extensive
qualitativedatausuallyviainterview,observation,anddocumentanalysis.(3)As
shown in Figure (16), this approach consists of six major stages (4): At the plan
stage, researchers determine the location of the case study. Next is the design
stage,wherethecasestudyismappedout.Thedesignstageisalsodetermined
bythequalityoftheinformationrequiredbythestudy.Thepreparestageisprior
to the collection of information where the researchers determine the type of
informationtheyrequireandthepurposeofthestudyobjectives.Atthecollect
stage, the researchers gather the required information. This may lead to some
adjustments in the case study design. At the analysis stage, researchers use

(3)www.setda.org/web/guest/glossary
(4) Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Applied Social Research Methods Series,
ThousandOaks,Calif.:SagePublications,Inc.,2006.

41

methodsofanalysisofthecollectedinformationtodeducesolutions.Finally,the
sharestageconsistsofthereviewofsolutionsandrecommendations.

Figure(16):TheCaseStudyApproachProcess(5)
The research has selected two case studies Egypt on which to apply the case
studyapproach.Firstcaseshouldrefertothesquattersettlementattheexpense
of government land desert; on the other hand the second case study refers to
the settlement at the expense of agricultural areas. As shown in Figure (17),
comparativeanalysisofthecontentsofeachcasestudycanbeusedtoextract
thepositiveandnegativedifferencesaswellasthefinalresults.

(5) Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Applied Social Research Methods Series,
ThousandOaks,Calif.:SagePublications,Inc.,2006,p.1.

42

Figure(17):BasicTypesofDesignsforCaseStudies(6)
Figure (18) summarizes the stages of the case study, starting from the
stageofdefinitionanddesign,preparation,collection,analysis,andconclusion.
In the first stage is the selection of case studies and the type of information
required.Inthesecondstage,areportiswrittenindividuallyforeachcasestudy.
Thethirdstageinvolvesdrawingconnectionsbetweeneachcasestudyinorder
to know the elements common to each study. Then theories and policy
development effects are identified. The final stage is writing the final report,
whichincludesacrossreportofthecasestudies.

(6)Ibid,p.46.

43

44

*Source:Yin(2006),p.57.

Figure (18): The Case Study Method

TheTheoreticalFoundation
The primary concern of the objectives of this thesis is the sustainability of
squatter settlements. There first must be an understanding of what defines
sustainability.TheBrundtlandCommissionprovidesasimpledefinitionofsustainability:
meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of
futuregenerationstomeettheirneeds.(7)Adams(2006)definessustainabilityasthe
capacity to endure. For humans it is the potential for longterm maintenance of well
being,whichinturndependsonthewellbeingofthenaturalworldandtheresponsible
use of natural resources.(8) The official United Nations definition of sustainability has
threedimensions,orthreepillars,knownasthethreeEsofsustainability.Theseare
environmentalprotection,economicdevelopment,andsocialequity.(9)
WarnerandDeCosse(2009)explain,Sustainabilityhasnowbecomeaconcern
of virtually every sector of human society. It enjoys more popular support than
environmental resource conservation because it focuses on human needs, but also
because it provides a positive vision for the future of the human family. From a
motivational perspective, few people are inspired by the notion of being less bad in

(7) Edwards, Andrs R. The Sustainability Revolution: Portrait of a Paradigm Shift. Philadelphia: New
SocietyPublishers,2005.
(8)Adams,W.M.TheFutureofSustainability:RethinkingEnvironmentandDevelopmentintheTwenty
first Century.Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting, 2931 January 2006. Retrieved 16
February,2009.
(9)Edwards,2005.

45

their environmental impact. In contrast, sustainability provides a framework and


markersformakingpositivechange.(10)
Conflictofinterestisthemostimportantethicalissuefacingplanners.Because
the planners are dealing with all members of society, its very difficult to balance
between conflicting interests. Dealing with the public interest becomes very
complicated, especially regarding planning projects that generate a good profit but in
turn have negative effects on some social groups such as the poor and lowincome
families. Figure(19)showsthatthebalancebetweenthethreeEstoservethepublic
interest.(11)

Figure(19):FactorsThatMustBeStudiedintheSquatterSettlement(12)

(10)Warner,KeithDouglassandDavidDeCosse.LessonFour:TheEthicalDimensionofSustainability.A
ShortCourseinEnvironmentalEthics.SantaClaraUniversity,May2009.
www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/environmental_ethics/lesson4.html.
(11)Researcher,adaptedfromErkins,Dr.EstherK.23PLAN731.PoliticalandEthicalIssuesinPlanning.
Spring2010;andJackson,Kenneth,TheCostofGoodIntentions:TheGhettoizationofPublicHousingin
theUnitedStates.InCrabgrassFrontiers:TheSuburbanizationoftheUnitedStates.NewYork:Oxford,
1985.
(12) Researcher, adapted from Scheme of Sustainable Development: at the confluence of three
constituentparts,2006.

46

In order for sustainable alternative housing to be provided, the social,

physicalandeconomicfactorsofhowpeoplelivemustfirstbeunderstood.Thisincludes
understandinghowthesepeoplebuildtheirownenvironmentinlinewiththeincome,
familysize,andneedsofthepopulation.
TheImplementationofResearchMethods
Based on the theoretical foundation, the three major factors of squatter
settlementsthatmustbeknownaresocialequalityfactors,economic efficiencyfactors,
and urban environmental factors. In order to take advantage of the casestudy
approach, a situation analysis (SA) of urban patterns, social status, and the current
economic conditions will be used in order to identify the patterns of choice for the
population. As shown in Figure (20), this thesis uses two case studies to derive the
standardsforplanningforproposinghousingalternatives.
Theoreticalinformation

Casestudy(1)

Case study(2)

Comparative
analysis

Results
Figure(20):BasicTypesofDesignsforCaseStudies(13)

(13)Researcher.

47

1. SocialEqualityFactors
Social equality is a social state of affairs in which all people within a specific
society or isolated group have the same status in a certain respect. (14) In this
factors will be a comparative analysis of family size, overcrowding, and the
methods of living of the population in squatter settlements will include
population density, educational status, and social classification. Figure (21)
demonstratesacomparativeanalysisbetweenthedensitiesofthecasestudies,
whichshowsthenumberofpersonsperacre.

CasestudyNo.1

CasestudyNo.2

Figure(21):ComparativeAnalysistoDerivetheMeanPopulationDensity(15)

Socialfactorsmustbetakenintoaccountwhenplanningfuturehousing

alternatives. Social factors give the impression of a pattern of the social life of
thepopulation,thenatureandsizeoffamilies,andthetraditionsandcustomsof
the population. They also help with estimating the size and area of proposed

(14) Russell Blackford Genetic enhancement and the point of social equality Institute for Ethics and
EmergingTechnologies.July20,2006
(15)AbdelKader(1997).

48

housing,thenumberofroomsneeded,andthemethodofexploitingthecluster
andvoid,andthemethodforforminghousing.(16)
2. EconomicEfficiencyFactors
Acomparativeanalysisofthecurrenteconomicsituationofthepopulationand
will include the income, expenditure, and economic needs necessary for the
squattersettlement.Thetwomainareasofthestudywillbelandeconomiesand
the economies of the population. The objective of the study of the economic
factors is to identify the current economic situation of the inhabitants of
squatter settlements. That informs in developing new housing models that fit
theincome,expenses,andeconomicsituationofthepopulation.(17)
3. UrbanEnvironmentalFactors
A comparative analysis of the urban environment will include the average
lengthsofroads,andthecompatibilityofexistingroadstovehiculartraffic.This
will compare current patterns of roads such as patterns of longitudinal roads,
winding roads, and organic roads. The comparative analysis will also study the
ways of shaping the built environment and the favorite patterns of the
population, including both the urban fabric and urban form. Figure (22) shows
the different formations of blocks: Ushaped blocks, rectangular blocks, and

(16) For more information see: Thorvaldur Gylfason and Gylfi Zoega Education, Social Equality and
EconomicGrowth:AViewoftheLandscapeCESifoEconomicStudies,Vol.49,4/2003,557579.
(17)Wilkinson,Richard;Pickett,Kate(2009).TheSpiritLevel:WhyMoreEqualSocietiesAlmostAlwaysDo
Better.AllenLane.pp.352.

49

organicblocks.Allofthesepatternsareformedaccordingtotheenvironmental,
social,oreconomicconditions.(18)

Figure(22):FormationofClustersintheSquatterSettlements(19)
Figure(23)illustratesthestagesofthestudyandanalysisofcurrentpatternsof
squatter settlements, including the study of the patterns of blocks and the

Derivetheurbanfabric

Casestudiesselected

analysisoftheroads,blocks,andspaces.

Figure(23):StepstoStudyUrbanPatternsofSquatterSettlements(20)

(18)Hathloul,Saleh.ArabandIslamiccity,theimpactoflegislationonformationofthephysical
environment,i1,Riyadh,1994.
(19)AbdelKader(1997).
(20)Ibid.

50

Physical factors give an impression about the quality of the built

environment favored by residents. That helps in the development of future


scenarios of the environment of choice for residents. Some factors are the
number of floors, the quality of construction materials used, the method of
forming the housing, road patterns, and patterns of the formation of urban
clusters.Inaddition,thestudymusttakeintoaccountthenaturalenvironmental
factors such as soil, water, climate, slope, and topography. This helps in the
design of future housing alternatives suitable for the population and the
environment. Figure (24) illustrates the advantage of squatter settlement
patternsinbuildinganewurbanenvironmentsuitabletothestyleandpatterns
ofpopulationliving.Theformationofspacesandroads,andthedistributionof
building blocks are according to analysis of the current situation of squatter
settlements.

Figure(24):UnitsPatternCombinedasaUshapedBlock(21)

(21)Researcher.

51

SummaryofRequiredInformation
Table(3)summarizesthestagesofthestudiesrequiredofsquattersettlement
andthecontentsofeachstudy.

Formationofbuildings:
Theproportionof
spaces,typeof
construction,style
Thenumberoffloors

BuildingCondition

Economic
Residentialproperty

Landprices
Housingcost:Lower
thantheaverage
priceofconstruction
intheformal
neighborhoodor
more?
Jobstatus

Income:Isthe
incomesufficientto
coverexpenses?

Buildingmaterials:
Wood,clay,concrete

Social
Educationalstatus

Socialpattern

Facilities: Typeof
services,coverage,and
thedistancefromthe
housing

Overcrowding

Socialclassification

Urbanenvironment
Patternsofroads:
Lengthsofstreets,
pavement,andpatterns
formationoftheblocks
typesofurbanclusters

Populationeconomies

Urbanform

Urbanfabric

Landeconomies

Table(3):MajorInformationRequiredofSquatterSettlements

Populationdensity:Is
densityabovethe
normalrates?
Comparedwiththe
standards
Familysize:Isthesize
ofthefamilyabovethe
normalrates?
Averageoffamilysize

Agegroups

**Sources:Researcher,adaptedfromSoliman(2004);Fadan,Y.UrbanDwellingEnvironmentsinJeddah
Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: King Saud University, 1979; & Symposium of Housing II: Affordable
Dwelling.Riyadh,SaudiArabia,2831March2004.

52

InformationGatheringMechanisms
Mechanismsforinformationcollectionaredividedintofourmainsections:
1. MapsandAerialImages
An analysis of aerial images and redrawn maps of the residential blocks to are
used to extract patterns favored by the population. This information is
summarized in the form of maps showing the cluster and void, so that we can
learnthepopulationsfavoriteblockpatterns.
2. GovernmentReports
Thisincludesinformationonsocial,physical,andeconomicfactorsofthecurrent
situation. Useful information, such as the types of facilities available, the
proportion of residential use, and social and economic statistics are extracted
fromreports.Thisinformationissummarizedintheformoftablesandgraphs.
3. PreviousStudies
Thisincludesanyinformationthatcanbelearnedfrompreviouscasestudies. It
alsoincludesanyinformationcontainedinbooksandreferences.
4. Interview
Often this mechanism is used to obtain information on the current economic
situationofthepopulation,suchasincome,pricesofland,therateofhousehold
income,andexpenditureandhousingprices.
Table(4)summarizestheinformationgatheringmechanismsusedinthisstudy.

53

Table(4):InformationGatheringMechanisms

Urbanfabric

Patternsofroads

Mapsanalysis,aerial
photographers
Mapsanalysis,aerial
photographers
Maps,previousstudies,books

Formation,lengths,areasquare
oftheblocks
Facilities

Urbanform

Thenumberoffloors

Informationdetails

Governmentreports
photographers
Governmentreports
photographers
Gatheringmechanisms

Residentialproperty

Statistics,governmentreports

Landprices

Interview

Housingcost

Interview

Jobstatus

Previousstudies,books

Income

Statistics,governmentreports

Informationdetails

Gatheringmechanisms

EducationalStatus

Statistics,governmentreports

Overcrowding

Statistics,governmentreports

Populationdensity

Dividingthenumberofpeopleto
landarea
Statistics,governmentreports

Social
classification

Socialpattern

Typeofstudy

Conditionofthebuilding
BuildingMaterials

Familysize
Averageoffamilysize
Agegroups

**Source:Researcher,adaptedfromSoliman(1996).

54

Mapsanalysis,aerial
photographers
Previousstudies,books

Land
economies

Economicinfo.

Gatheringmechanisms

Formationofbuildings

Typeofstudy

Socialinfo.

Informationdetails

Pop.
economies

Urbanenvironmentalinfo.

Typeofstudy

Divisionoffamilysizeonthe
numberofhousing
Governmentreports

ImplicationsofInformation
Maslow (1954) classifies the major needs of human beings that bring them
comfort,privacy,andsecurity.Figure(25)showstheclassificationoftheserequirements
necessarytosubsidiaryneeds.

Figure(25):TheBasicHumanNeedstoServethePublicInterest(22)
An analysis of the comprehensive information on squatter settlements can
contribute to the development of planning standards and criteria that will meet the
needsofthepopulationandbecompatiblewiththeireconomicandsocialconditions.
This may eventually lead to the provision of adequate housing for the poor residents.
According to the Habitat Agenda (1996), adequate housing means more than a roof
overoneshead.Italsomeansadequateprivacy;adequatespace;physicalaccessibility;

(22)Maslow,Abraham.MotivationandPersonality.NewYork:Harper,1954,p.236.

55

adequate security; security of tenure; structural stability and durability; adequate


lighting, heating and ventilation; adequate basic infrastructure, such as water supply,
sanitationandwastemanagementfacilities;suitableenvironmentalqualityandhealth
related factors; and adequate and accessible location with regard to work and basic
facilities: all of which should be available at an affordable cost. Adequacy should be
determined together with the people concerned, bearing in mind the prospect for
gradualdevelopment.Adequacyoftenvariesfromcountrytocountry,sinceitdepends
onspecificcultural,social,environmentalandeconomicfactors.(23)
Accesstoastablybuiltenvironmentwillmeanachievingtheneedsofhumansas
identified by Maslow (1954). All the information collected gives an indication of the
physicalenvironmentofchoiceforthepopulation,aswellasthequalityofservicesand
theproportionoffacilitiesandutilities.Thisinformationcanbeutilizedtohelpcreatean
idealenvironmentthatissafeandsustainable. Table(5)showswaystotakeadvantage
of the current information and indications of this information in building future
scenarios.

(23)TheHabitatAgendaGoalsandPrinciples,CommitmentsandtheGlobalPlanofAction,Article60.
Habitat II Conference, Committee on Economic, Social, Cultural Right. Istanbul, 1996. Found in Smit,
Warren. The Impact of the Transition From Informal Housing to Formalized Housing in LowIncome
Housing Projects in South Africa. Presented to the Development Action Group at the Nordic Africa
InstituteConferenceontheFormalandInformalCityWhatHappensattheInterface?Copenhagen,15
18June2000.

56

Table(5):ImplicationsofInformation

Information

Urbanenvironmentalinfo.

Patternsofroads
Formation,lengths,
areasquareofthe
blocks
Facilities
Formationofbuildings

Indications

Thenumberoffloors
Conditionofthe
building

Existingpercapitaofthefacilities.
Theneedsoftheformationofpatterns.
Urbanfabricgivesusanindicationofthefitwith
theclimate.
Buildingmaterialsofchoiceforthepopulation.
Narrowroadsthatdonotallowvehiclestoenter
indicatethatthepopulationdoesnotneed
vehicles.Thisinformationshouldbeconsidered
whenplanninghousingalternatives.
Thelengthsofblocksgiveanindicationof
walkingdistancesappropriatetothepopulation.

Socialinfo.

Economicinfo.

Buildingmaterials
Residentialproperty
Landprices
Housingcost
Jobstatus
Income
EducationalStatus
Overcrowding
Populationdensity

Familysize
Averageoffamilysize
Agegroups

Thetypesofjobsprovidedtothepopulation
thatmeettheirqualifications.
Constructionmaterials,typeofhousing,which
fitswiththeincome.
Theabilityofresidentstoaffordhousing.
Socialactivitiesneededbythepopulation,such
assquaresandtheformationofthecluster.
Percapitaofthebuildingandthespaces.
Typeoffacilitiesrequired(ifthemajorityofthe
societyisyoungpeople,theneedforschools,
playgrounds,etc.).
Percapitaofthefacilitiesbasedonpopulation
density.

**Source: Researcher, adapted from Allam, and Ghaith, Mahmoud. Planning Neighboring Residential,
Cairo,Arabicversion,1995.

57

ChapterFour:EgyptsExperience
Egypt is one of the countries in the Middle East that most suffers from the
spreadofsquattersettlements.Forthisreason,Egypthasbeenselectedasacasestudy
regardinghousingforpoorresidents.Thischapterexplainstheproliferationofsquatter
settlements in Egypt and examines the causes and the stages of growth of squatter
settlements in the capital city, Cairo, and Mansura. At the end of this chapter is a
summaryofEgyptsexperiencesdealingwithsquattersettlements.Themostimportant
topics in this chapter are an examination of the cause and growth of the squatter
settlementsinCairoandMansura,andanoverviewofEgyptsexperienceswiththem.

58

TheIssueofSquatterSettlementsinEgypt
Overviewandcausesoftheproblem
EgyptislocatedinthenortheastportionofthecontinentofAfrica,coveringan
areaofabout1,010,0090squarekilometers(390,000squaremiles).Egyptisoneofthe
mostpopulouscountriesbothinAfricaandtheMiddleEast.Thecurrentpopulationis
estimated at 84,348,000.(1) Figure (26) shows the site of Egypt and the neighboring
countries,aswellasandmostofthemajorcitiesofEgypt.

Figure(26):MapofEgyptandtheMajorCities(2)
The major cities in Egypt are Cairo, the capital of Egypt as well as the
administrative and economic center; Port Said, one of the main ports in Egypt; and

(1) CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilizationandStatistics:PopulationClock.
www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg.AccessedJuly2008.

(2) www.valdosta.edu,http://kenanaonline.com/users/aaadawey/posts/112863

59

Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.(3) Figure (27) shows the most
importantcitiesandmajorlandmarksinEgypt.

Cairo

PyramidsinGiza

Sharmelsheikh
Mansura
Figure(27):UrbanizationandDevelopmentinEgypt(4)
1 PopulationGrowthandtheHousingDeficit
One of the main challenges facing the government is to deal with
population and density. The main problem is the uneven distribution of the
populationintheregions.Theconcentrationofpopulationincertainareasleads
to increased consumption of housing, thus increasing the demand for informal
housing as a solution to the housing crisis. Table (6) and Figure (28) show the

(4)www.google.com/images
(3) www.alexandria.gov.eg

60

population growth from 1950 to 2010, as well as population projections until


2050.
Table(6):PopulationGrowthinEgyptfrom19502050
Year

1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

Population
21,198
26,847
33,574
42,634
56,694
63,322
64,705
66,134
67,602
69,067

Year

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2010
2020*
2030*
2040*
2050*

Population
70,492
71,902
73,313
74,719
76,117
84,348
97,295
109,044
119,010
126,921

Period
19501960
19601970
19701980
19801990
19902000
20002010
20102020
20202030
20302040
20402050

Rate
2.4
2.2
2.4
2.9
2.2
1.8
1.4
1.1
0.9
0.6

Source:CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilizationandStatistics:PopulationClock.
www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg.AccessedJuly2008.
*Note:Projected.
**Note:Populationinthousand.

Figure(28):PopulationGrowthinEgyptFrom19502050(5)

AnanalysisofTable(6)andFigure(28)showsapronouncedincreasein

thepopulationgrowthratebetween1950and1980,whichwasacrucialperiod

(5) Researcheradaptedfrom:CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilizationandStatistics:PopulationClock
(July2008),websitehttp://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg,

61

in Egypt accompanied by many events such as war in Egypt (the Suez Crisis),
regimechangefromamonarchytoarepublic,andindustrialization.Accordingto
Table(6),Egyptspopulationisexpectedtoreach84,348,000in2010,thusthere
isaneedtoincreaseservices,particularlyinthehousingsector,toaccommodate
the expected population increase. Table (6) also indicates that the rate of
populationgrowthafter2010willbedownto0.6percentin2050,andthatthe
populationwillbe126,921,000.Figure(29)showsthat,in2006,thevastmajority
ofthepopulationwasyoungorchildren.Thatindicatestheamountofhousing
thatwillberequiredtoservethesegroupsintentofifteenyears.

Figure(29):TheAgesofthePopulationinEgyptin2006(6)
The challenge facing the government is not in the population growth
exactly, but in the distribution of the population within the state. The focus of

(6) CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilisationandStatisticsPopulationClock(July2008),website
http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg

62

the services and facilities in some major cities are leading to increased
populationdensityintheregion,thusincreasingthedemandforhousing.Table
(7)andFigure(30)showthepopulationdensity persquarekilometerinEgypt.(7)
Table(7):PopulationDensity perSquareKilometerinEgypt
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Cityregion
Cairo
Dakahlia
Albuhera
Alexandria
Sharkya
Giza
Garbia
Qalyubia
Menoufia
Sohag
Minya
Qana
Assiut
KafrElSheikh

Ismailia

Density
2,523.93
1341.55
482.1
1,786.99
1087.37
475.77
2,059.17
3,768.64
1,308.69
339.9
129.47
277.96
250.85
698.49
186.07

No.
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Cityregion
Fayoum
BeniSuef
Damietta
Aswan
PortSaid
Suez
NorthSinai
Matruh
NewValley
RedSea
SouthSinai
6October
Luxor
Helwan
Total

Density
414.11
209.1
1,200
18.88
424.38
56.76
12.33
1.94
0.43
2.42
4.78

187.29

19,249.37

Source: Central Agency for Population Mobilization and Statistics: Population Clock.
www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg.AccessedJuly2008.ScrutinizedbytheresearcherusingExcel.
**Note: On 17 April 2008, a presidential decree was issued about Helwan and 6 October as
separate provinces, and on 9 December 2009, a presidential decree established the Luxor
governorate.

Table(8)andFigure(31)showtheconcentrationofpopulationbasedon
cityregionsinEgyptin2006.

(7) MonaKhalifa,JulieDaVanzo,andDavidM.Adamson,PopulationGrowthinEgypt,AContinuingPolicy
Challenge.http://www.rand.org/pubs/issue_papers/IP183/index2.html#fnB19

63


(8)

Figure(30):PopulationDensity inEgypt

Table(8):ConcentrationofPopulationinEgypt
No.

Cityregion

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Cairo
Dakahlia
Albuhera
Alexandria
Sharkya
Giza
Garbia
Qalyubia
Menoufia
Sohag
Minya
Qana
Assiut
KafrElSheikh

Ismailia

Population
concentration
13.5%
7.86%
7.26%
6.52%
6.37%
6.03%
5.98%
5.11%
4.97%
4.97%
4.69%
4.67%
4.59%
4.55%
3.61%

No.

Cityregion

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Fayoum
BeniSuef
Damietta
Aswan
PortSaid
Suez
NorthSinai
Matruh
NewValley
RedSea
SouthSinai
6October
Luxor
Helwan
Total

Population
concentration
2.2%
1.61%
1.48%
1.41%
1.09%
0.67%
0.32%
0.2%
0.2%
0.15%

100%

Source: Azza, Abdul Aziz, Simon Shenouda Shenouda, urbanization and the housing problem In
Egypt with reference to the Cairo seminar urbanization motives and problems of urban
developmentpoliciesandtheInstituteofNationalPlanning,Cairo1988.P.335.Scrutinizedbythe
researcherusingExcel.
*Note: On 17, April 2008, a presidential decree was issued about Helwan and 6 October as
separate provinces, and 9 December 2009, a presidential decree established the Luxor
governorate.
**Note:NumberscorrespondtothenumbersattributedtocityregionsinFigure(32).

(8) Central Agency for Population Mobilisation and Statistics Population Clock (July 2008), web site
http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg,ScrutinizedbytheresearcherusingExcel.

64

(9)

Figure(31):MajorCityRegionsWherethePopulationIsConcentratedinEgypt

An analysis of the previous tables and figures shows that population


density (population per square kilometer) is highest in the largecityregions of
Cairo(1),2,523.93;Qalyubia(8),3,768.64;Garbia(7),2,059.17;andAlexandria
(4), 1,786.99. Figure (32) shows a map of the concentration of population in
northernandcentralEgypt.

(9) Azza, Abdul Aziz, Simon Shenouda Shenouda, urbanization and the housing problem In Egypt with
referencetotheCairoseminarurbanizationmotivesandproblemsofurbandevelopmentpoliciesandthe
InstituteofNationalPlanning,Cairo1988.P.335.usingExcelforGraphbyresearcher.

65

Figure(32):PopulationConcentrationinEgypt(10)
The concentration of population in Egypt is moving towards the center
andnorth,suchasCairo(1),13.5percent;Dakahlia(2),7.86percent;Albuhera
(3),7.26percent;andAlexandria(4)6.52percent.(11)Thetotalconcentrationof
populationis47.54percentinthecenterandnorth,becauseoftheproximityof
watersources,economicactivity,andnetworksofthemajorports.Equivalentto
halfthepopulationofEgyptisconcentratedinanareanotexceeding20percent
of the country. As is clear from Figure (32), the population concentration is
wherethecommercial,administrative,andeconomicactivitiesareconcentrated.

(10) AbdelAal,Ahmed,squattersettlementsincityofFayoum,ageographicalstudyseminar
indiscriminateurbanizationEgypt'sSupremeCouncilofCultureinCairoinMay2000,Arabiclanguage
version

(11) Ibid.

66

Thefocusofservices,theincreaseintheproportionofyoungpeople,the
high population growth rate, and interest in major cities, all contribute to the
increasedfrequencyofinternalmigration.Zohry(2002)analyzesthepopulation
data: Rural to urban migration decreased as a proportion of total migration
from24.6to13percentbetween1976and1986,whilethepercentagesharesin
1986 and 1996 were about the same, but the volume of movement slightly
increased, in view of overall Egyptian population growth. In contrast, urban to
ruralmigrationincreasedfrom6.5to10.3percentofthetotalintergovernorate
flows between 1976 and 1986, then to 23 percent in 1996. Urban to urban
migration(interurban)isthelargest.Itfluctuatedfrom64.3to72.9thento60.4
percentbetween1976,1986,and1996respectively.Ruraltoruralmigrationwas
theleastimportanttypeofmovement,around4percentateachcensus.Urban
to urban migration is, almost certainly, greatly dominated by interurban
migrations between the big urban governoratesCairo, Giza, Qalyubia, and
Alexandria.(12)Thelowincomepeoplesuchasnewmigrants,newstudents,and
job seekers in major cities cannot afford the high housing costs. Hence, they
prefertoliveinthesquattersettlementsontheoutskirtsofcities.Thisgivesus
anindicationoftheimbalanceinthedistributionofpopulationandfacilities,one
ofthemaincausesforthespreadofsquattersettlementsinEgypt.

(12) Zohry, Ayman G. RuraltoUrban Labor Migration: A Study of Upper Egyptian Laborers in Cairo.
Doctorofphilosophythesis.UniversityofSussexatBrighton,UK,2002,p.30.

67

2 CausesoftheSquatterSettlementsinEgypt
Populationgrowthandinternalmigrationtomajorcitiesandthelackofsupplyof
affordable housing are the main reasons for the emergence of squatter
settlementsinEgypt.SquattersettlementshavemanifestedinEgyptduringthe
periodof19521960.(13)Inthisperiodtherewereseveralsubstantialchangesin
the political, economic, physical, and social aspects; for example, war in Egypt
(theSuezCrisisin1956),regimechangefromamonarchytoarepublic(in1953),
constructionoftheHighDamintheNileRiver(constructionbeganin1960),and
the focus on industrial strategies rather than agricultural strategies. The most
important reasons for the spread of squatter settlements in Egypt can be
summarizedasfollows:
21 Priceoftheland: Landpricesbecamehighbeginningin1970duetothelack
ofsupply,increaseddemand,andpopulationconcentrationinlargecities.(14)
Asaresult,muchoftheagriculturallandthathadbeenadjacenttothecities
hasbeenconvertedfromagriculturallandtoresidentiallandbecauseofthe
lackofeconomicfeasibilityandpopulationgrowth.Agriculturallandadjacent

(13) AbdelAal,Ahmed(2000),p.4.

(14) Alsofti,Madiha,InformalhousingSocialStudiesoftheEgyptianReality.Thefirstannualconference
for the planning of cities and territories, unplanned growth around population centers in Egypt, the
EgyptianAssociationofPlanning,26January1987,Arabiclanguageversion,p.2.

68

tothecityisamagnetforinvestorsthatareplanningtosellitasresidential
land.(15)
22 Reducetherentalvalueofdwellings:Lawsimposedbythestatebeginningin
1960reducedtherentalhousingvalue,andledtowithdrawaloftheprivate
sectorfrominvestinginthehousingsector.Thispolicyaffectedthenumberof
housing units available for rent. Therefore, lowincome people tended to
makeuseofselfconstructioneffortsontheoutskirtsofcities.(16)
23 Ruralmigration:Therapidshiftofthenationalstrategyfromagriculturalto
industrialaftertheendofthemonarchyin1953contributedtotheincrease
in the pace of migration from rural to urban areas. In addition, the
proliferation of factories on the outskirts of cities while not providing any
alternativehousingfortheworkerswasoneofthemostimportantfactorsin
thespreadofsquattersettlementsinthoseareas.(17)
24 Housing laws: The Physical Planning Act of 1982 contains the laws for
planning construction and dividing the land space that will have a major
impact on urban land in Egypt. However, these laws do not distinguish
between one city or region and another. Therefore, many small investors
builtininformalresidentialareasinordertoavoidpayingthefeesequivalent

(15) Hazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,slums,citiesofMansouraTalkha(AlsfiihandAlhoyesCase
Study)AnnualConferenceofthethirtyseventhtotheissuesofpopulation,1113December2007,Arabic
languageversion,p.3.

(16) StatisticsCentreofEgypt,theconceptofinformalsettlementsinEgyptanditscharacteristics:
www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/owsimg2/pdf/random/1st.pdf

(17) Ibid,p.3.

69

to 10 percent of the total cost of construction and to exploit as much as


possiblefromthegroundinthebuildingtogetthebesteconomicreturn.(18)
3 ProliferationPatternsofSquatterSettlements
Of the more than 10 million people living in Cairo, an estimated 2.19
million live in 79 squatter settlements,(19) making about 30 percent of the
population.(20)AsshowninTable(9),theproliferationofsquattersettlementsin
Egyptingeneralwascloselylinkedtotheincreasedpaceofurbanizationinmajor
citiessuchasCairo(1),Alexandria(4),andIsmailia(15).Thesecitieshaveallthe
attractions of various economic and social services, education, and health
services, making the regions attractive for migrants from both small towns and
ruralareas.
Squattersettlementsareoneofthesolutionsofferedbythepopulation
to the housing crisis in Egypt. The way the governments deal with squatter
settlements then is through conservation and development of the squatter
settlementsbecausethecompleteremovalofthemmeanstheconsumptionof
housingstock,thusincreasingthehousingproblem.

(18) Fouad, D.,M., UnauthorizedResidential Settlements: Causes, Determinants, Environmental Effects


AndSuggestedSolutions,The25thAnnualSeminaronPopulationIssuesInTheMiddleEast,Africa&Asia
,CairoDemographicCenter,Cairo,1995,p.50.

(19) EgyptianArabic: the term ashwaiyat meaningsquatter settlement is the only one used
officiallytoindicatedeterioratedorunderservedurbanareas.Itactuallymeansrandom,implyingthat
these areas are unplanned and illegally constructed. For more details see: Sims, D. The Case of Cairo,
Egypt. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on Human Settlements, University
CollegeLondon/DPU,London,2003, p.7.

(20) CenterforStatisticsandpackaging,Environmentaldevelopmentofthesquattersettlement,Chapter
IX,Arabiclanguageversion,Egypt,2006,p.214.

70

Table(9):TheDistributionofSquatterSettlementsandDevelopmentCostinEgypt
No.

Cityregion

No.of
squatter
settlements

Area
sq.km

Squatter
settlement
population

%of
population

Development
cost(millions)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Cairo
Dakahlia
Albuhera
Alexandria
Sharkya
Giza
Garbia
Qalyubia
Menoufia
Sohag
Minya
Qana
Assiut
KafrElSheikh
Ismailia
Fayoum
BeniSuef
Damietta
Aswan
Portsaid
Suez
NorthSinai
Matruh
NewValley
RedSea
SouthSinai
6October
Luxor
Helwan
Total

79
109
66
41
70
34
47
67
24
34
30
75
50
46
17
28
51
86
33
7
14
0
5
0
21
12

1046

28
5
12
13
17
44
13
20
1
13
8
9
6
6
5
5
4
16
3
1
2
0
9
0
28
61

329

2,193,000
648,000
404,000
1,113,000
291,000
2,259,000
558,000
938,000
32,000
381,000
291,000
64,000
401000
209,000
149,000
100,000
144,000
179,000
193,000
71,500
43,000
0
31,000
0
69,000
8,000

32
56
43
35
38
60
35
64
13
56
49
30
25
34
40
23
32
64
30
8
11
0
60
0
36
29

$172.7
$25.09
$32.5
$90.5
$9.3
$168
$54
$50.8
$0.9
$9.09
$10.3
$126
$28.9
$13.4
$21.8
$6.36
$17.2
$13.2
$32.7
$5.09
$15.03
$0
$5.09
$0
$52.1
$9.81

$969.86

10,796,500

Source: Fouad, D., M., Unauthorized Residential Settlements: Causes, Determinants, Environmental
Effects And Suggested Solutions, The 25 Th. Annual Seminar on Population Issues In The Middle East,
Africa&Asia,CairoDemographicCenter,Cairo,1995,p.50.TranslationandconversiontotheUSdollar
bytheresearcher.Formoredetails,seeAppendixNo.(1A)and(1B).
**Note: On April 17, 2008 presidential decree was issued about Helwan and 6 October as separate
provincesandintheDecember9,2009presidentialdecreewastheestablishmentofLuxorGovernorate.

71

Figure (33) shows the distribution of squatter settlements in Egypt,


indicatingthattheyareconcentratedinareaswithhighpopulationdensity,such
assettlementsinCairo(1),79;Dakahlia(2),109;andSharkya(5),70.Figure(33)
alsoshowsthatsomeregionsdonotcontainanysquattersettlements,including
NorthSinai(22)becauseitisatouristareaandmostoftheregionspopulation
havehighincomeorareforeigners.NewValley(24)isadesertregionwithlow
populationdensity.Itdoesnotcontainanysquattersettlementsduetothelack
ofeconomicactivityanddevelopment.

Figure(33):TheDistributionofSquatterSettlementsinEgypt(21)

(21) AbdelAal,Ahmed,Ibid.

72

Figure(34)showsthenumbersquattersettlementsandtheproportionof
themcomparedtothewholepopulation.Thenumbersofsquattersettlements
areconcentratedinregionswithhighpopulationdensity.Forexample,Cairo (1)
has2,193,000peoplelivinginsquattersettlements,whichisnearly32percentof
the population of Cairo, and Giza (6), an area adjacent to Cairo, has 2,259,000
people living in squatter settlements. This means that more than 4 million
people live in squatter settlements in an area not exceeding 5 percent of the
areaofEgypt.

Figure(34):ThePopulationDistributionofSquatterSettlementsinEgypt(22)

(22) Ibid.

73

Figure(35)showstheconcentrationofpopulationlivinginthesquatter
settlements,comparedtothetotalpopulationforeachregion.Forexample,the
figure shows that the areas most affected by the increase in the proportion of
the population living in squatter settlements are Matruh(23), 60 percent; Giza
(6),60percent;andCairo(1),32percent,respectively.Thismeansthatthereare
some areas in Egypt where more than half of its population lives in informal
neighborhoods. Ontheotherhand,someareasarefreeofsquattersettlements
due to natural conditions or tourism, such as North Sinai (22) and New Valley
(24).

Figure(35):PopulationProportionofSquatterSettlementsinEgypt(23)

(23) Ibid.

74

SquatterSettlementsinCairo
RepresentstheExtensionoftheSquatterSettlementsinDesertandAgriculturalAreas
The spread of squatter settlements in Cairo have gone through three main
phases.Thefirstphase(19221952)consistsoftheemergenceofsquattersettlements.
ThisphaseaccompaniedbytheurbangrowthofthemodernCairo.Duringthesecond
phase(19521982),squattersettlementsspreadtotheoutskirtsofthecity.Thisphase
accompanied the migration of the population and a housing deficit. The third phase
(1982present)ischaracterizedbytheexpansionofsquattersettlements.Thisphasehas
accompanied the expansion of the Greater Cairo area where the squatter settlements
haveappearedwithinthecordonofthecity.(24)
1 StagesofCairoGrowth
ThespreadofsquattersettlementsinCairoisaresultofpopulationgrowthand
rapidurbanexpansion.Thisgrowthisevidentinthisoverviewofthreestagesof
thecitysgrowth:
11 First growth (19221952): The first stage of growth in Cairo was during the
period of independence beginning in 1922. The city growth resulted in the
creation of buildings, bridges, and transportation. In addition, the city
expanded into the upscale neighborhoods of Garden City, Zamalek, and
Heliopolis.(25) Increasing the services, activities, and employment

(24) Adaptedfrom: Cairo: A Model for Urban Planning.Ibid, p. 3 ; World's Densest Cities. Forbes. 21
December 2006. Website www.forbes.com/2006/12/20/worldsmostcongestedcitiesbizenergy
cx_rm_1221congested_slide.html. Retrieved 6 March 2010; Rose, Christopher and Linda Boxberger.
Ottoman Cairo. Cairo: Living Past, Living Future. The University of Texas Center for Middle Eastern
Studies,1995.http://menic.utexas.edu/cairo/history/ottoman/ottoman.html.Retrieved30July2009.

(25) Raymond,Andr.Cairo.Cambridge,Mass.:HarvardUniversityPress,2000,pp.326329.

75

opportunities in the city led to increased migration from small towns and
villages. The population in Cairo increased from 347,000 in 1882 to 1.3
millionin1937.Theaveragerateofpopulationincreaseoverthatfiftyfive
year period was 17,327 people each year.(26) The area of the city increased
from 1,000 hectares (10 square kilometers; 4 square miles) to 16,300
hectares (163 square kilometers; 63 square miles).(27) The area of the first
growth includes Old Cairo with its narrow streets and handicraft shops.
Thisissurroundedbynewerareasofhighdensity,plustheaffluentmodern
urbandevelopmentofHeliopolis,Maady,HelwanandlaterNasrCity.(28)In
1950,neartheendofthisperiod,Egyptspopulationwas21.198million.(29)
12 Urban expansion (19521982): This stage started as the British departed
CairofollowingtheEgyptianRevolutionof1952.Theresultofthiswarwasa
changeinthegovernmentfromamonarchytoarepublic.
ThenewEgyptianrepublicthenbecameambitiousswitchingtoanindustrial
strategytocatchupwithglobaldevelopment.Thisstrategytriedtoquickly
transform Egypt into an industrialized country without paying attention to
the infrastructure of the farming community.(30) As a result, Cairo has
experiencedalargeinfluxofpeoplefromruralareas.Thenewresidentshave

(27) Ibid,p.322.
(28)Cairo:UrbanPlanningModel.May2006,p.3.www.rentalcartours.net/raccairo.pdf.
(29) CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilisationandStatistics,Ibid.
(26) Ibid,p.319.

(30) Researcheradaptedfrom:NGDCpageontheCairoearthquake.www.ngdc.noaa.gov/nndc.

76

come with few financial resources and the available government programs
havebeeninsufficienttomeettheneed.(31)
ThespreadofinformalsettlementsinCairobetween19601980wasdueto
the population concentration in Cairo and the lack of cheap housing
alternatives.(32)Figure(36)showsthespreadofsquattersettlementsonthe
outskirtsofCairoandtheadjacentagriculturalareasin1981.

(31) Cairo:UrbanPlanningModel(2006),p.3.
(32) Soliman, Ahmed, Housing and sustainable development in developing countries, 1996. Arabic
version.FormoreinformationaboutStagesofCairoGrowthsee:
1.

Demographia World Urban Areas & Population Projections, Demographia, April 2009,
http://www.demographia.com/dbworldua.pdf,retrieved9July2009.

2.

PopulationandHousingCensus2006,Governoratelevel,Populationdistributionbysex,Central
Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/ows
img2/xls/rep1ne.xls,retrieved9July2009.Adjustedcensusresult,asHelwangovernoratewas
createdon17April2008froma.o.partsoftheCairogovernorate.

3.

"World'sDensestCities".Forbes.21December2006.Retrieved6March2010.
http://www.forbes.com/2006/12/20/worldsmostcongestedcitiesbizenergy
cx_rm_1221congested_slide.html.

4.

Rose,Christopher;LindaBoxberger(1995)."OttomanCairo".Cairo:LivingPast,LivingFuture.The
UniversityofTexasCenterforMiddleEasternStudies.
http://menic.utexas.edu/cairo/history/ottoman/ottoman.html.Retrieved30July2009

5.

Mortada,Hisham(2003),TraditionalIslamicprinciplesofbuiltenvironment,Routledge,p.viii.

77


Figure(36):TheProliferationofSquatterSettlementsAroundCairoin1981(33)

(33) Themaptranslatedbytheresearcherfromthesource:ElSioufi,M,UrbanizationofAgriculturalland,
unpublishedMscthesis,MIT,n.p,1981.

78

13 Metropolitan area (1982present): This is the largest phase of urban


expansionandpopulationgrowthinCairo.Thepopulation ofCairois17.29
millionaccordingtothelateststatisticsin2007,(34)equivalentto20percent
ofEgyptspopulationspreadover453squarekilometers(175squaremiles).
Atthisstage,squattersettlementsthatwereoncelocatedontheoutskirtsof
thecityhavebecomewithintheterritoryofthecity.Figure(37)showsthe
physicalexpansionofthecityinalldirections,andalongNileRiver.

Figure(37):CairobySPOTSatellite(35)
Figure (38) shows the stages of physical transformation in Cairo, noting
theenormousconstructionboomovertheshortperiodoftime.

(34) ThesestatisticsfortheGreaterCairoarea(cityandsuburbsthathavebecomepartofthecity)areas
indicated by: Demographia World Urban Areas and Population Projections, Demographia, March 2010,
www.demographia.com/dbworldua.pdf.RetrievedMarch2010.ThepopulationofthecityofCairoonly,
7,787,000,isby:GeneralAuthorityforInformation.www.sis.gov.eg.Retrieved10July2008.

(35) http://gallery.spotimage.com/product_info.php?products_id=1006

79

Figure(38):UrbanTransformationintheGreaterCairoArea(36)

2 PopulationinCairo
TheconcentrationofpopulationinCairoisaffectedbythefactorsofpopulation
growthandannualmigration.
21 Population growth in Cairo: Figures (39) and (40) show the areas of
populationconcentrationinCairo,includingtheoldareasandtheinterior
of the city where less than one million people live because it is
unattractive.

Figure(39):PopulationDensityinCairo(37)

(36) HousingandBuildingResearchCentre(HBRC).FormoredetailsseeAppendixNo.2.
(37) Translationandmodificationbytheresearcherdependingon:www.gisc.capmas.gov.eg

80

AnanalysisofFigure(39)findsthattheareasadjacenttothecityof
Cairo,wheresquattersettlementshavespread,hasreachedaconcentration
of population of more than 4 million people. Neighborhoods with high
populationdensity(HD)suchasAlmatrih,MiyetAkqubh,andAlbesatien,are
attractive to much population due to the cheap housing compared to the
moderndistrictsinthecity,suchasZamalekandGardenCity.

Figure(40):NetResidentialDensitiesintheGreaterCairoArea(38)

22 PopulationmigrationinCairo:Annualmigrationisoneofthemainreasons
thatledtopopulationgrowthinCairo.Table(10)andFigure(41)showthe
causes of migration to Cairo. An analysis of Table (10) finds that the
majority of migrants (88 percent) come to Cairo because of life changes,

(38) Sims, D. The Case of Cairo, Egypt. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
HumanSettlements,UniversityCollegeLondon/DPU,London,2003.

81

including work (27.7 percent), marriage (34 percent), and accompanying


family(27.1percent).
Table(10):TheCausesofMigrationtoCairo
Causes
Work
Study
Marriage
Divorce
Accompanying
Other
Total

Migrants
222715
28510
273656
6052
217657
55813
804403

Percent
27.7%
3.54%
34%
0.75%
27.1%
6.94%
100%

Source: Central Agency for Population Mobilization and Statistics Population Clock (July
2008),websitehttp://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg,Scrutinizedbytheresearcherusing
Excel.

Figure(41):TheCausesofMigrationtoCairoin2006(39)
3 HousinginCairo

According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, The


amount of living space required to meet health and safety standards is not
consistently specified; measurable standards for overcrowding vary. The most
widelyusedmeasureassumesthatahomebecomesunhealthyandunsafewhen

(39)CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilizationandStatistics:PopulationClock.
www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg.AccessedJuly2008.ScrutinizedbytheresearcherusingExcel.

82

thereismorethan1personperroom.(40)Table(11)andFigure(42)showthat
45percentoffamiliesinCairoliveinhousesorapartmentsnotexceedingthree
rooms,withanovercrowdingrateof1.11peopleperroom.Also,13.2percentof
families in Cairo live in one or two rooms, with an overcrowding rate of 1.12
peopleperroom.(41)
Table(11):FamiliesandhousinginCairo
Rooms

Families

Individuals

No.ofrooms

Percent

1
2
3
4
5>
Total

86,859
147,253
801,823
598,865
148,535
1,783,335

275,971
527,208
2,988,255
2,319,731
576,796
6,687,961

291,005.839
493,345.338
2,686,367.27
2,006,392.1
497,640.454
5,974,751

4.9%
8.3%
45%
34%
8.3%
100%

Avg.
family
size
3.2
3.6
3.7
3.9
3.9
3.8

Over
crowding
0.95
1.07
1.11
1.16
1.16
1.12

Source:CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilizationandStatistics:PopulationClock.
www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg.AccessedJuly2008.ScrutinizedbytheresearcherusingExcel.

Figure(42):DistributionofFamiliesBasedontheNumberofRoomsinCairo(42)

(40) Measuring Overcrowding in Housing, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
www.huduser.org.
(41) ItshouldbenotedthattherateofovercrowdinghereisthelevelofCairo,bycalculatingthetotal
numberofroomsandthetotalnumberofpopulation.Whenchoosingaresidentialneighborhoodspecific
orsquattersettlement,thepercentageofovercrowdingwillcertainlyincrease.
(42) Central Agency for Population Mobilisation and Statistics Population Clock (July 2008), web site
http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg,ScrutinizedbytheresearcherusingExcel.

83

Table(12)andFigure(43)showthatthemaintypeofhousinginCairois
an apartment6,043,750 inhabitants like apartments, equivalent to 90.4
percent of the population. It should be noted that all apartments within the
squatter settlements in Cairo are informal, that is, they were built without
governmentapproval.Villashouse1.65percentofthepopulationandareoften
deployedinhighendresidentialneighborhoodslikeZamalekandGardenCity.(43)
Table(12):DistributionofPopulationBasedonHousingTypeinCairo
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Typeofhouse

No.of
inhabitants
6,043,750
48,396
110,256
27,880
207,177
233,699
4,936
8,300
3,567
6,687,961

Apartment
Morethanapartment
Villa
Traditionalhouse
Roomswithinthebuilding
Separaterooms
Nests
Graves(turub)*
Other
Total

Percent
90.4%
0.72%
1.65%
0.42%
3.1%
3.49%
0.07%
0.12%
0.05%
100%

Source: Central Agency for Population Mobilization and Statistics: Population Clock.
www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg.AccessedJuly2008.ScrutinizedbytheresearcherusingExcel.
* Turub: Egyptian Arabic: which means Cemeteries containing the external wall. Some of
thepoorlivewheretheyprotectthemfromenvironmentalconditions.Itisbetterforthemfrom
liveintheopen.

(43) Central Agency for Population Mobilisation and Statistics Population Clock (July 2008), web site
http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg,ScrutinizedbytheresearcherusingExcel.

84


Figure(43):DistributionofPopulationBasedonHousingTypeinCairo(44)
Table (12) shows that 278,382 people live in places not suitable as a
dwelling,suchasnests(4,936),graves(8,300),ortraditionalhouses(27,880),a
combined4.15percentofthetotalpopulationofCairo.
Thecircumstancesofthepeoplemustbetakenintoaccountinorderto
provide housing alternatives to suit their requirements and meet their needs,
whether this is through the development of existing squatter settlements or
throughtheprovisionofaffordablehousing.
4 TheDistributionofSquatterSettlementsinCairo
Cairo contains 79 squatter settlements covering an estimated total area of 28
square kilometers (11 square miles), housing more than 2.193 million people,

(44)CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilizationandStatistics:PopulationClock.
www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg.AccessedJuly2008.ScrutinizedbytheresearcherusingExcel.

85

which represents 32 percent of the total population.(45) Table (13) shows the
namesofthefamoussquattersettlementsinCairo.
Table(13):TheMostFamousSquatterSettlementsinCairo
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Squattersettlement
Samman
Herrm
Harrania
BulaqDakrur
MiyetAkqubh
Almneira
ShubraalKhaymah
Almatrih

No.
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Squattersettlement
ManshietNasser*
TelalZeinhom
Albesatien
Tora
Helwan
Alibdrhien
ManialShiha
Alknisa(Church)

Source:ElSioufi,M.UrbanizationofAgriculturalLand.Unpublished.
*Note:The firstcasestudyarea,EzbetBakhit,lieswithinManshietNasser.
**Note:ThenumberscorrespondtothenumbersonthemapinFigure(44).

These neighborhoods began as informal settlements on the outskirts of


Cairo. After the city extended, these settlements became residential
neighborhoods within the territory of Cairo. Figure (44) shows all the sites of
squatter settlements in Cairo; the sites are numbered as the most famous
squattersettlementsinCairo.

(45) Fouad,D.M.,Ibid.

86


Figure(44):SquatterSettlementSitesinCairo(46)

Figure (45) illustrates the extension of the squatter settlements


throughout Cairo.Thesettlementsareattheexpenseofagriculturalareasand

(46) Redrawing of settlement sites by the researcher based on: Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency
(EEAA):www.eeaa.gov.eg/English/reports/SoE2008Ar/urban.pdf.

87

the desert, since the vast majority of squatter settlements are spread
throughout the agricultural areas around Cairo. This confirms that the value of
agricultural land has become very cheap in order to encourage owners into
convertthelandtoresidentialareaswithoutrequiringgovernmentapproval.

Figure(45):IndiscriminateSpreadingofSquatterSettlementsinCairo(47)

(47) Sims, D. The Case of Cairo, Egypt. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
HumanSettlements,UniversityCollegeLondon,DPU,London,2003,p.5.

88

SquatterSettlementsinMansura
RepresentstheExtensionoftheSquatterSettlementsinAgriculturalAreas
Mansura,thecapitalprovinceofDakahlia,liesontheeastbankoftheDamietta
branch of the Nile, in the Delta region. Mansura is about 120 kilometers (75 miles)
northeastofCairoandin2006hadapopulationof437,311people.(48)Dakahliaprovince
contains109squattersettlementswheremorethan648,000peoplelive,representing
56percentofthetotalpopulationoftheprovince.(49) Figure(46)showsthesiteforthe
cityofMansuraandthesurroundingcities.

Figure(46):MansuraCitySite(50)
1 PopulationinMansura
Mansurahasbeenveryattractive,drawing25,902migrantsduringtheperiodof
19962006, due to the availability of services, employment opportunities, and
infrastructure. This population increase became a burden on the city and its

(48) www.citypopulation.de/Egypt.html
(49) Fouad, D.,M., UnauthorizedResidential Settlements: Causes, Determinants, Environmental Effects
And Suggested Solutions, The 25 Th. Annual Seminar on Population Issues In The Middle East, Africa &
Asia,CairoDemographicCenter,Cairo,1995,P.50

(50) http://knooz1.a3a3.com/showthread.php?t=24685

89

facilities,andledtoencroachmentonagriculturalland,withalargenumberof
squatter settlements. The development of construction in Mansura was due
primarilytotheevolutionofpopulation,whichincreasedfrom60,960peoplein
1903,to112,983peoplein1947,255,310peoplein1986,389,112in1996,until
it reached 437,311 people in 2006.(51) Table (14) and Figure (47) show the
growthinpopulationinMansuraduetobothnaturalgrowthandtheincreasein
theratesofmigrationfromnearbyvillagesandtowns.

Table(14):StagesoftheEvolutionofPopulationGrowthinMansura
2017*
1.82
533,464

2012*
1.83
487,627

2006
1.18
437,311

1996
389,112

1986
255,310

Year
Growth rate
Population

Source: Makkawy, Mohamed. The Comprehensive Urban Development of Egypt in the 21st
Century.MansuraUniversity,2008,p.9.Translatedbytheresearcher.
*Note:Projected.

Figure(47):StagesoftheEvolutionofPopulationUntil2017*(52)
*Note:Projected.

(51) Makkawy,Mohamed.TheComprehensiveUrbanDevelopmentofEgyptinthe21stCentury.Mansura
University,2008,p.10.Translatedbytheresearcher.
(52) Sims, D. The Case of Cairo, Egypt. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
HumanSettlements,UniversityCollegeLondon,DPU,London,2003,p.5.

90

2 StagesofMansuraGrowth
Mansurawentthroughsixmaingrowthstages,startingfromthecitysfounding
in1219 A.D.,untilthepresent.SquattersettlementshavebeenpartofMansura
sincetheendofthefifthstageofgrowthin1979.Table(15)summarizesthesix
stagesofgrowthofMansuraandtheemergenceofsquattersettlements.
Table(15):GrowthStagesandEmergenceofSquatterSettlementsinMansura
Stage
Stage(1)
12191887

Stage(2)
18871903

Stage(3)
19031935

Stage(4)
19351949

Stage(5)
19491979

Stage(6)
1979Now

Descriptionstage
Urbanblockareaof1.1sq.kmalong1.3
kmoftheNileRiverwithadepthof0.84
km(theseurbanclustersaretheheartof
thecurrentcity).
Urban block compact area of 2.1 sq. km
along 2.0 km of the Nile River with a
depthof1.05km.

Urban mass of 4.7 sq. km extended


betweentheNileRiveronthenorthand
thesouthcoastareaofthecanal.

Growthform

Urban mass extended along the Nile in


the north and an area in excess of 6 sq.
km, punctuated by spaces and the
movementoflargearteries.
Urban area of 10.2 sq. km. Notes the
spread of squatter settlements at the
endofthisperiod.
Urban area that exceeds 19 sq. km.
Squatter settlements have increased
throughout the city during this period,
especiallyintermsofagriculturalland.

Source: Makkawy, Mohamed, THE COMPREHENSIVE URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF EGYPT IN THE


21STCENTURY,MansuraUniversity,2008,p.8.Translatedbytheresearcher.

91

3 TheDistributionofSquatterSettlementsinMansura
ThecityofMansura,withits29squattersettlements,isaclearexample
ofsquattergrowthattheexpenseoffarming. Thesizesofsquattersettlements
in Mansura range between 7,000 square meters (about 1.67 acres) to 210,000
squaremeters(50acres). Highpopulationdensityinsomesettlementsismore
than4,000personsperacre.(53)
Table(16)listsallthesquattersettlementsinthecityofMansura,while
Figure (48) shows the distribution of squatter settlements throughout the city
andspreadingtotheoutskirtsandtheagriculturalareas.
Table(16):NamesofSquatterSettlementsinMansura
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Squattersettlement
Kalifaland
Garbalastation
Zionistland
Kalfoutobes
Kalfport
Masrifomda
Rashaharea
Rouda
Newtoril
Rashahjadila
Masrifotrobi
Torilextend
Kingsaleh
EzbethAlsfihandAlhoyes*
Hodalkala

No.
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Squattersettlement
Hoadalkharnshfa
Hoadrezaawest
Hoadabotahakids
Hoadkharos
Hoadzarkaandthamania
Hoadkalaa
Hoadtaweel
Hoadshayaka
Hoadabolile
Hoadbosaebliya
Hoadkhalahbahri
Hoadalbashtameer
Hoadalbouma
Hoadalmula

Source:Makkawy(2008),p.10.Translatedbyresearcher.
*Note:The secondcasestudyarea.
**Note:NumberscorrespondtothenumbersonthemapinFigure(48).

(53)ResearcherbasedonMakkawy(2008).
92


Figure(48):SquatterSettlementSitesinMansura(54)

(54) Hazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,slums,citiesofMansouraTalkha(AlsfiihandAlhoyesCase
Study)AnnualConferenceofthethirtyseventhtotheissuesofpopulationfrom11to13December2007.
Arabiclanguageversion,p.5.

93

SummaryofEgyptsExperience
Egypt has had a steady increase in squatter settlements due to the population
growthinEgyptsmajorcitiesaswellasmigrationofthepopulation.Thelackofaclear
strategyforregionaldevelopmentinEgyptsincetheregimechangein1952,inaddition
tothefocusonindustrialdevelopmentattheexpenseofagriculturaldevelopmentthat
wasprevalentbefore1952,ledtoincreasedimmigrationandpopulationconcentration
incitiessuchasCairo,Giza,andAlexandria.(55)
Theabsenceofcontrolsorstrictlawstopreventthedivisionofagriculturalland
from residential land encouraged many farmers to convert their farmland on the
outskirtsofcityintoresidentiallandorinformalapartmentstoaccommodatethenew
immigrants. In addition, the lack of supply of affordable housing contributed to the
directionofmanyofthepoorornewimmigrantstoliveontheoutskirtsofthecities.
Withcontinuedimmigrationandthedifficultyinobtainingsuitablehousingforthepoor,
residents formed informal settlements on the outskirts of cities and along farmland.
Withthecontinuedgrowthofthecity,thesesquattersettlementshavebeenabsorbed
withinthecordonofthecity.(56)
Despite the disadvantages of squatter settlements in Egypt in terms of the
environment, the physical health and their impact on the population and the price of
adjacent land, the Egyptian government has tried to maintain and improve those

(55) Cairo:AModelforUrbanPlanning,Ibid,p.3.

(56) Hazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,slums,citiesofMansouraTalkha(AlsfiihandAlhoyesCase
Study)AnnualConferenceofthethirtyseventhtotheissuesofpopulation,1113December2007.Arabic
languageversion,p.3.

94

neighborhoods. The Egyptian governments experience in dealing with informal


settlements is to preserve them as long as they solve the housing crisis. Even though
thesesquattersettlementsarebuiltwithoutobtainingpermitsandinviolationoflaws
andbuildingregulationsintermsofnarrowroads,lackofopenareas,(57)thegovernment
of Egypt has dealt with them as formal residential neighborhoods. As a result of
populationpressures,thegovernmenthasbeendeliveringelectricityandwater, paving
roads,beautifyingthefacades,andprovidingallthenecessaryfacilities,suchasschools
and health clinics.(58) These settlements have become one of the solutions to the
housingcrisisthatthegovernmenthasofferedtoresidents.(59)Theyhavecontinuedto
appear around the major cities in Egypt, representing a model of the governments
deficiencyinprovidingaffordablehousingforall.
In dealing with squatter settlements, the Egyptian government tends toward
conservation of the settlements and improvement as funding becomes available. The
Egyptian governments experience does not have favorable results with the complete
eliminationof the squatter settlements or reconstruction because that consumes too
muchofthefinancialresources.Duringtheperiodbetween19902010,thegovernment
began to demolish squatter settlements, particularly those that were built at the

(57)KamelAbdelNasser,AzzaDjaid,astudyforthedevelopmentofresidentialareas,slumsinthecityof
Egypt, a case study on the path of Aghannamp city of Assiut, the Fourth International Conference on
Architectural,ArchitectureandUrbanismontheoutskirtsofthethirdmillennium,28to30March2000,
Arabiclanguageversion,p.2.

(58) Alwali,Mamdouh,theinhabitantsofthenestsandsquatter,themapofhousingtotheprovinces,
theEgyptianEngineersSyndicate,Cairo1993,Arabiclanguageversion,p.173.

(59) CenterforStatisticsandpackaging,Environmentaldevelopmentofthesquattersettlement,Chapter
IX,Arabiclanguageversion,Egypt2006.p.216

95

expense of agricultural areas, because their presence was a violation of the Physical
PlanningActof1982criminalizingbuildingonagriculturalland.(60)Thecostofaddressing
squattersettlementsinEgyptis$969.86,and$172.7inCairo.(61)
Egypts experience in dealing with squatter settlements is not full of only
drawbacks. There have been many positive efforts, as well. For example, On 18
October 2008, President Mubarak decreed the establishment of the Informal
Settlements Development Facility, a fund run by the Prime Ministers cabinet and
mandated to coordinate government efforts to deal with informal settlements in
Egypt.(62) In addition, between 1982 and 2002, the government built 1,142,000
economic housing units and 945,700 more between 2002 and 2007. According to the
2006populationcensus,shortageofeconomichousingcontinuedastheserepresented
11.8percentof(formal)housingunitsinEgypt.(63)
But all these solutions need to be critiqued and evaluated to benefit from the
advantages in the development of squatter settlements. Therefore, the study in this
thesis will be on the particulars of actual squatter settlements cases in order to find
waystodealwiththecurrenthousingsituation.

(60)PreventionActtobuildonagriculturalland.See:http://arlawfirm.com/ADVdetails.asp?id=1130
(61)Fouad,D.,M.Ibid.
(62) AmnestyInternational,BuriedAliveTrappedByPovertyAndNeglectInCairosInformalSettlements
HousingIsAHumanRight.2009,p.36.
(63) SeeCentralAgencyforPopulationMobilizationandStatistics,StudyofCurrentandFutureNeedsfor
HousingUnitsinEgypt,CentralAgencyforPopulationMobilizationandStatistics,April2008,pp.3336.

96

Chapterfive:Dataanalysis
ThepreviouschapterdiscussedtheexperienceofEgyptindealingwithsquatter
settlements, which were adopted to maintain and develop according to available
resources.Despitethegovernmentseffortstoreducethespreadofsquattersettlement
in Egypt, the statistics point to an increase in squatter settlements. (1) In addition, the
supply of affordable housing still does not accommodate all of the poor. Proposing a
successfulwaytodealwithsquattersettlementsmustbebasedonaphilosophytotake
advantage of the existing squatter settlements in order to develop standards and
criteriathatmeettheneedsofthepopulationintermsofphysical,social,andeconomic
development.
To achieve this, presented here is a comparative analysis of two squatter
settlementsinEgypt.Thesestudieswilllookatthephysicalformationsmostcommonly
usedinthesesettlementsintermsofplots,blocks,roads,andurbanfabric.Inaddition,
therewillbeananalysisofthesocialandeconomicsituationoftheactualpopulationin
termsofovercrowding,income,andeducationalstatus.Attheendofthischapterisa
summaryofthecurrentstatusofsquattersettlementsinEgyptthroughthesamplesfor
these two cases. This will help in the formulation of planning standards in the next
chapter based on the most common development of urban patterns, bearing in mind
thatthosestandardsareconsistentwiththeeconomicandsocialstatusofresidents.

(1) SeeChapterIV.

97

SquattersettlementsinEgypt(casestudies)
There are more than 1,046 squatter settlements in Egypt.(2) Most of these
settlementsemergedontheoutskirtsofmajorcitiesattheexpenseofagriculturalareas
orongovernmentlandattheexpenseofdesertareas. Thisstudyconsiderthecurrent
situation of squatter settlements, and considering the existing features of the built
environment, as well as the social, and economic necessary for the development of
successfulsquattersettlements.
Most of the solutions and programs for affordable housing create alternative
legalphysicalenvironmentswithoutthebenefitofunderstandingtheactualconditions
of the inhabitants of squatter settlements. These legal environments do not take into
account the needs of residents. Resident who been removed return to squatter
settlements,astheyprovideanenvironmentcompatiblewiththeireconomicandsocial
realities.
In order to understand the experience of Egypt in dealing with squatter
settlements,andtodevelopanunderstandingofbenefitsandthelessonslearned,two
squattersettlementshavebeenselected.ThefirstcaseisEzbetBekhit-ManshietNasser
in Cairo, (3) as a representative of a settlement at the expense of desert government

(2) Fouad, D., M., Unauthorized Residential Settlements: Causes, Determinants, Environmental Effects
and Suggested Solutions, The 25th Annual Seminar on Population Issues in the Middle East, Africa and
Asia,CairoDemographicCenter,Cairo,1995,p.50.

(3)EgyptianArabic: whichmeans:Bekhitcommunity.

98

land. The second case is Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes in the city of Mansura

(4)

as a

representativeofasettlementonagriculturalareas.
1 EzbetBekhit-ManshietNasserinCairo
Representstheextensionofthesquattersettlementsindesertareas
Ezbet Bekhit is a typical community as part of the squatter settlement of
Manshiet Nasser. It has a population of 28,900 made up of 6,600 households
livingin1,500buildingsextendingover18.5hectares.The netresidentialdensity
is2,200personsperhectare. EzbetBekhitisstrategicallylocatedinacrossroads
nearmajortrafficarteriesandisclosetothecitycenterandmajorfacilities.On
itsnorthwestsideliesthehighwayconnectingdowntownCairototheNasrCity
neighborhood. Its northeast border is a deadend street (Tayaran Street)
terminatingatasecurityforcescamp.(5)

(4)EgyptianArabic: whichmeans:TinandAlhoyescommunity.

(5) Duetodeficientandcontradictorydataontheestimatedpopulation,thestudyadoptedthemedian
betweenthethreemostrecentstudiesestimatedat28,900inhabitants.Thesestudies:

1.

In 2003, Zeinab NourEddine TagEldeen, Participatory Urban Upgrading: The Case of Ezbet
Bekhit.Indicates28,200inhabitants.

2.

Faraj, Osama, and others, Improve environmental conditions through the development of
sustainable trees as a component of improving the environment, Ezbet Bakhit case study,
MansuraUniversity,Egypt,2003,Arabicversion.Indicates28,900inhabitants.

3.

In 2003, Sims, D. The Case of Cairo, Egypt. Understanding Slums. Indicates 37,000 inhabitants.
Ibid.

4.

In2001,theProjectTeamestimatedthefigureat38,000inhabitants(GOPP,2001).

5.

In1998,accordingtotheDepartmentofSocialAffairs,CairoGovernorate,theestimatednumber
was28,200(TheProjectTeam&FederalRepublicofGermany,1998).

In1996,theCentralStatisticsOrganizationestimatedthepopulationfigureat20,253inhabitants.

99

ItissurroundedfromtheeastandsouthbyotherareasofManshietNasser.(6)
Figure(49)showsEzbetBekhitsitewithinManshietNasser.

(7)

Figure(49):LocationofEzbetBekhitwithinManshietNasser
The whole area of Manshiet Nasser is a squatter settlement built on
governmentownedlandamongthelowfoothillsoftheMokattamplateauinthe
governorate. The area was used as quarries to extract limestone. In 1960,
reconstruction of the district began.(8) Most of the population originated in the
citiesneartheSuezCanel,andmigratedtoCairoaftertheSixDayWarin1967in
searchofalivelihoodandtogetabetterchanceofliving.Bytheendof1967,the
populationwasestimatedinthethousands.Atthattime,PresidentJamalAbdel

(6)

EgyptianArabic: whichmeans:Nassersettlement,referringtoPresidentJamalAbdelNasser,
whose thepresidentialtermwasfrom19561970.
(7) Faraj,Osama,andothers,Improveenvironmentalconditionsthroughthedevelopmentofsustainable
treesasacomponentofimprovingtheenvironment,EzbetBakhitcasestudy,MansuraUniversity,Egypt,
2003,p.2.Translationandmodifiedbytheresearcher

(8) egypturban.pdpgtz.de1.cc/pilotareas/manshietnasser

100

Nasserordertoconnectwaterandelectricity,forthisreason,thedistrictcame
tocallManshietNasser.(9)Bytheendofthe1970s,thepopulationfigurewas
estimatedat 100,000 inhabitants.(10) The lack ofsecure tenure has discouraged
investmentanddeepenedthesenseofinsecurityamongtheresidents.Thearea
doesnothaveproperadministrativeinfrastructure.

Manshiet Nasser includes nine subdistricts are Ezbet Bekhit, Alewah

and Alahali, Ghazan, Almahajer, Alrazaz, Zabaleen,(11) Almaadasa, Aljabl, and


alherafeen.(12) All urban features, social and economic that found in Manshiet
Nasserarepartoftheproblemsexistinginallthesettlementswithinthecordon
area such as Ezbet Bekhit. The illiteracy rate in Manshiet Nasser is 52.9%.(13)
Thereisnohighschool,eitherpublicorindustrial,soonly1.6%ofthepopulation
hasahighschoolequivalenteducation.(14)Thereisagovernmenthealthcenter
in Manshiet Nasser, but Its health services are very rudimentary and most
inhabitantsturntoprivatespecialistdoctorsandclinics whentheyaresick.The
costsoftheseservices meanthatforpoorfamiliesan illnesscanmeanaserious
financialcrisis."(15)

(9) Egyptian Arabic: "which means: Nasser settlement, referring to President Jamal Abdel
Nasser,whose thepresidentialtermwasfrom19561970".

(11)EgyptianArabic:whichmeans:garbageCommunity.
(12)EgyptianArabic:whichmeans:artisancommunity.
(13)AccordingtorecentstatisticsissuedbytheNationalCentreforSocialandCriminologicalResearch
(14)Formoredetails,seedistributionofilliteracyinCairo,appendixNo.3.
(15)Sims,D.,Ibid, p.19.

(10) ZeinabNourEddineTagEldeen,Ibid,p.30.

101

2 EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesinMansura
Representstheextensionofthesquattersettlementsinagriculturalareas
Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes is a squatter settlement built on agricultural
governmentlandlocatedontheoutskirtsofMansura,totheeastofthecity.Itis
aligned with the Nile River and is close to major facilities. It is bounded by
Gaafrahonthenorth,byJadelaonthesouth,byagriculturallandonthewest,
andbythemainroadinMansuraontheeast.Figure(50)showstheEzbetAlsfih
andAlhoyessitewithinMansura,andthemajortraffichubsnearthesettlement.

Figure(50):LocationEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyeswithinMansura(16)

(16) http://uqu.edu.sa/msmandoer/ar/104838.Translationandmodifiedbytheresearcher

102

Several factors have encouraged the growth in this squatter, including


the proximity of the industrial area(Sandob), cheap land,and the proximity to
themainroadinMansura.Theestimatedpopulationis1,783,mostlyworkingin
agricultureandunskilledoccupations.EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesoccupies358,260
squaremeters,occupyingthelandspaceofmorethan56.2%ofthetotalarea.
Residentiallandareais24.9%andagriculturalis18.9%ofthetotalarea.(17)Ezbet
AlsfihandAlhoyeswerecreatedbythesquatterareasonagriculturallands.
Despite the strict laws against development on agricultural land, many
houses are built right next to agricultural land. An estimated 74.8% of the
buildingswereconstructedduringtheperiodof19801990.(18)Whereas,during
theperiodbetween19902010,only25.2%ofthebuildingswereconstructed.(19)
Table (17) shows the stages of squatter settlements at the expense of
agriculturalareas.Itstartedasafewhousingunits.

(18)Ibid,p.178.
(19)ResolutionNo.(1)oftheCouncilofMinisterson5November1996,whichcriminalizesthebulldozing

(17) WalidYousef,UrbancommunityinthecityofMansura,MasterThesis,UniversityofZagazig,Egypt,
2005,p.181.

ofagriculturallandforconstruction,hadamajorimpactinthelossratioofbuildingsconstructedduring
the period from 19902010, which reached 25.2% of the total buildings. This resolution prohibits the
following:
1.

Commissionofanyactionthatwouldsetasidefertileagriculturalland .

2.

Leveling of agricultural land or the transfer of dust, including for nonagricultural purposes of
improvingormaintainingsoilfertility .

3.

Theestablishmentofanybuildingsorfacilitiesonagriculturallandorthetakingofactiononthe
divisionforthesepurposes.

Article II provides that without prejudice to any severer penalty provided for in the Penal Code or any
otherlawshallbepunishedwithimprisonmentnotlessthantwoyearsandnotexceedingfiveyearsfor
anyone who violates any provision of the preceding articles. Governed as well as punishment and
confiscation of all means of transport, machinery and equipment used in committing the crime and
materialsderivedfromthem.Inallcases,theMinisterofAgriculturecanordertheworkerstostopthe
violationandreturnthecasetowhatitwasattheexpenseoftheviolatoruntiltheverdictisdetermined
inthecase.Formoredetails,see:arlawfirm.com/ADVdetails.asp?id=1130

103

Oncetheareawasstabilized,thepopulationbegantogrowintothesettlement
untilresidentialusedominatedoveragriculturalactivity,andthenincreasedto
becomeanurbanfabricthatiscomplexandintertwined.
Table(17):Thestagesofsquattergrowthattheexpenseofagriculturalareas
Phase(1)Beginningoftheurbanfabric

Phase(2)Urbangrowth

Theproportionofagriculturalland99%
Phase(3)Expansionofurban

Theproportionofagriculturalland82%
Phase(4)Squattersettlement

Theproportionofagriculturalland52%

Theproportionofagriculturalland18%

*Source: Mohamed Abdel Samie, Lessons learned from the informal housing in the context of
affordable housing, research presented in: Supreme Commission for the Development of Riyadh,
SeminaronHousingII,2004(Arabicversion),p.55.Chartsaddedbytheresearcher.
**Note: Images contained in the table above represent a simulation of the squatter growth at the
expenseofagriculturalareasinEgyptingeneral;theyarenotpicturesofthestudyarea.

104

Comparativeanalysisofurbanenvironment
Compareurbanfeaturesofthesquattersettlements
Examination of the current situation of the squatter settlements in Egypt is be
done through the analysis of the urban environment prevailing in the two
representative samples (cases studies). The comparative analysis of the urban
environment is based on three main levels. The first level is to analyze the general
physical features of the locations in terms of facilities, services, and roads, and the
currentproblemsafflictingthepopulation.Thesecondlevelisthecomparativeanalysis
ofthecurrentpatternsofurbanfabric(PAT),theclusterandvoid.Thethirdleveldeals
withthecurrenthousingsituationandhousingpatterns,andthephysicalconditionof
housing.
1 Generalphysicalfeatures
ThecurrentsituationofEzbetBekhitischaracterizedbydeteriorationintermsof
construction standards, health, utilities, construction materials, and aesthetics.
There is no architectural character of the area, where there are any
requirements or determinants of the building. In addition, the district is not
eligible for human habitation because of the area quarries. Residents of Ezbet
Bekhit and all the inhabitants of Manshiet Nasser still face hazard from falling
rocks.(20)Figure(51)showstheextentofthedamagetohousesinEzbetBekhit
asaresultofarockfallin2008.

(20)AmnestyInternational,BuriedAliveTrappedbyPovertyandNeglectinCairosInformalSettlements
HousingIsaHumanRight,2009.

105

Figure(51):RockslidedestructionofmanyhousesinEzbetBekhit(21)

(21) Human Rights Watch report says Between 8:30 A.M. and 9:20 A.M. on 6 September 2008, huge
boulders and rocks crashed down AlMuqattam Hill in AlDuwayqa onto Ezbet Bekhit in the Manshiet
Nasser neighborhood of east Cairo. After the roar subsided, 107 people were dead and 58 lay injured,
according to officials. Survivors put the toll much higher, saying that the bodies of their relatives and
entirefamiliesremainburiedundertherubble.Nearly100buildingsweredestroyed.Survivorssearched
desperately for their relatives and neighborsdead or alivewith the help of a small number of civil
protectionpersonnel.
Theypouredouttheirangerattheauthoritiesforfailingtopreventtherockslideorrelocateresidents,
despiterepeatedwarningsabouttheimpendingrockslide.Survivorsthrewstonesatvisitingofficialsand
clashedwiththeriotpolicecordon.Theybelievedthatnoonehadlistenedtothembecausetheywere
seenaspoor,powerlessandlessthanhuman.
Studies initiated by the government following a deadly 1993 rock fall in the neighboring AlZabaleen
informal settlement had identified danger zones all around AlMuqattam Hill, including the area in
ManshietNasserdevastatedbythe2008rockslide.Residentslivinginthevicinityofthehillhadinformed
theauthoritiesthatcrackswereappearinginthewallsoftheirhomes,andtheyfearedfortheirsafety.A
contractorhiredbylocalauthoritiestosecurerocksonthehillrepeatedlywarnedtheauthoritiesabout
thehighriskofarockfall. EgyptsSpeakerofParliamentbeganaspeechinparliamentbysaying:How
similartodayistoyesterday!referringtotherockfallof1993.
Overthenextfewdays,survivorsbegantomoveintotheSuzanneMubarakdwellings.TheEgyptianRed
Crescentandcharitieshelpedtoequipsomebutnotalloftheflats.Thiswelcomeandquickresponsewas
marredbyirregularitiesintheallocationoftheflats,includingallegedcorruption.Inthedaysfollowing
therockslide,theMinistryofSocialSolidarityofferedcompensationofupto5,000Egyptianpounds(EGP
approximately US$900) to families for each member killed, and up to EGP 1,000 for each person
injured. For more information refer to: Amnesty International, Buried Alive Trapped by Poverty and
NeglectinCairosInformalSettlementsHousingIsaHumanRight,2009,p.6.

106

Thesettlementconsistsofmostlylowbuildings,whichiscontrarytothe
laws and requirements of construction. The population has suffered from
pollutionduetothedisparityintheheightandconfigurationsoftheasymmetric
sizesandformsofthebuildingsandtheabsenceofthenecessarymaintenance
ofthebuildings.Inaddition,thesettlementlacksgreenspacesandopenareas,
withnorecreationalservicesforchildren.(22)
The settlement Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes was constructed in a random
approachinalinearpattern.Thepopulationsuffersfromalackofmainfacilities,
such as potable water, electricity, and sewage disposal, as well as the
proliferationofwaste. Thesettlementdoesnotcontainanybasicfacilitiessuch
asschoolsorclinics.Thevastmajorityofthepopulationdependsongovernment
hospitals in the city of Mansura. Statistics indicate that 93% of the population
usepublichospitalsinthecityofMansura,(23)while3%relyonfolkremedies.(24)
Sincethepopulationlivesonlandownedbythestate,thepeopleliveinconstant
anxiety,especiallyafterthe1996lawtoremoveencroachmentsonfarmland.
Table(18)showsacomparativeanalysisofthegeneralphysicalandvisual
featuresofeachofcase(1)EzbetBekhit-ManshietNasserinCairo,andcase(2)
EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesinMansura.


(23)Ibid,p.12.
(24) Folk remedies: A home remedy is a treatment to cure a disease or ailment that employs certain
spices,vegetables,orothercommonitems.
(22) Ibid.

107

Table(18):Comparativeanalysisofphysicalfeaturesofthecasesstudy
Case(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesMansura

Settlementsiteforthecity

Case(1)EzbetBekhitCairo

Case(2)Urbancurrentsituation

Urbanfabric

Case(1)Urbancurrentsituation

Case(2)Detailsofconstruction

SitePlan

Case(1)Detailsofconstruction

*Source:AerialmapsfromGoogle,MapsLocationfrom:Hazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,Ibid.

108

2 UtilitiesFeatures
PublicutilitiesinEzbetBekhitaredeteriorating.Theexistingnetworksdo
not cover the whole area and need considerable maintenance, especially the
sewagenetwork. ApartialseweragenetworkwasintroducedtoEzbetBekhitin
1970.(25) Around 60% of the housing units are connected to the potable water
system, while only 56% are connected to a sewage system.(26) However, the
sewage is completely undersized for the current population and most
households must rely on soakaway pits. These pits need regular emptying by
cart or suction truck, which can cost up to LE 3050 per month (US: $610).(27)
Thefloodingofwastewaterintheareaisadailyfeature. Sewagefloatingonthe
roadshasbecomeabreedinggroundforinsects.Thisleadstopollutionandthe
spread of infectious diseases is rapidly among the population. The electricity
grid, compared with the other basic physical infrastructure, is in good shape.
Mostofthehousingunitsareconnectedlegallytothemainelectricitynetwork
andtheresidentspaytheirbillsregularly.Nevertheless,thelevelofmaintenance
is good, but nevertheless requires some further improvement.

(28)

Typical

monthlyelectricitybillsareLE1530($36),dependingonconsumption.(29)
Ontheotherhand,thecurrentsituationinEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesisnobetter
than previous. Because the number of residents of the settlement does not

(26)ZeinabNourEddineTagEldeen,ParticipatoryUrbanUpgrading,Ibid,p.44.
(27)Sims,D.,Ibid, p.18.
(28)ZeinabNourEddineTagEldeen,Ibid,p.44.
(29)Sims,D.,Ibid, p.18.
(25) Sims,D.,Ibid, p.18.

109

exceed1,783people,(30)theydonotconstituteapressureonthegovernmentto
obtainwater,electricity,andsewage,asisthecaseinEzbetBekhit.Purewateris
available to only 17.1% of the population and the rest of the population has
accesstowaterthrougheitherpublictaps(73.4%)orpumps(6.3%).(31)Unlikein
the case of Ezbet Bekhit, the settlement does not have a sanitation system.
About 31% of the population is dependent on agricultural channels for the
disposal of organic waste. This affects negatively on the environment and
agricultural production as it participates in the formation of contaminated
swamps. About 69% of the population depends on pits tanks for their houses
and use trucks to empty tanks each month. Most of the population works on
farmsnearbyandliveinprimitivesituations.Theirworkdayendsaftersunset,
but many people dont have electricity. The current situation for electricity is
verybadcomparedwithEzbetBekhit,as22.6%ofthepopulationisdependent
onkeroseneorgasforlightingandheating.Therestofthepopulationreceives
electricitythroughlegalconnections67.8%orillegally9.6%.(32)Table(19)shows
thecomparativeanalysisofthelevelofutilitiesincase(1)EzbetBekhitandcase
(2) Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes, specifying the current situation of water and
sewagesystems,andaccesstoelectricity.

(30) Hazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,Slums,citiesofMansouraTalkha(AlsfiihandAlhoyesCase
Study) 37th Annual Conference on the issues of population, 1113 December 2007. Arabic language
version,p.7.

(32)Ibid,p.13.
(31) Ibid,p.11.

110

Table(19):Comparativeanalysisofutilities
Meansofaccesstowaterinthestudyareas

Exampleofapublicwatertaps**
Case(1)EzbetBekhitCairo
Case(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes

Watersystem
Publictaps
Other

60%
Watersystem
40%
Publictaps
0%
Other
Meansofsewagedisposal

17%
73%
10%

Sewagenetwork
Cistern
Channelsagricultural

56%
44%
0%

Sewagenetwork
Cistern
Channelsagricultural

0%
69%
31%

Electricity:Mostofthehousingunits
areconnectedlegally.

Electricity:22.6%usegas,therestuse
electricitylegallyorillegallyconnected.

*Source Hazin, AbdelFattah, Ibid, p. 12, and Sims, D., The Case of Cairo, Egypt. Understanding
Slums:CaseStudiesfortheGlobalReportonHumanSettlements,UniversityCollegeLondon/DPU,
London,2003, p.18.ZeinabNourEddineTagEldeen,ParticipatoryUrbanUpgrading,Ibid,p.44.
**Note:Theimagesabovearetoclarifythemeansofobtainingwaterfrompublictaps.Thepictures
arenottakenfromthesite.
***Note: Peoplebuyagallonofwaterat75Egyptianpounds(US:$.10).Everyfamilyneedsatleast
9gallonsofwaterperday.almasryalyoum.com/article2.aspx?ArticleID=20921

111

3 FabricFeatures
The urban fabric in Ezbet Bekhit is compact and complex, and has many
disadvantages relating to lighting and ventilation. Roads are very narrow and
jagged.Theyrangefrom25metersinwidth, whicheliminatesanysafetyarea
on the side.(33) The settlement has been developed randomly following the
pattern of housing construction. As shown in figure (52) the roads are very
narrow,oftenculdesacs,anddonotallowfirefightingandemergencyvehicles
access to the area. In some cases, road width is barely sufficient for three
pedestrianstowalksidebysideandtherearealmostnoopenspaces.Different
typesofactivitieshavebeendevelopedsuchassmallscaleindustries(leather
treatment, painting, etc.), workshops, and handcrafts etc., which increase the
impactofpollutiononthehousingenvironment.(34)Ingeneral,thehouseshave
beenconstructedinunplannedpatternsandwithoutconsiderationofthebasic
health and hygienic conditions such as ventilation and sun penetration. Joint
walls attach the housing into blocks. Each block covers almost the whole plot,
thusreducingthewidthofthestreet.Usually,thefirstfloor(orgroundfloor)of
thebuildingisusedashousingunitswithshopsorworkshopsintheroomsthat
face the streets. The roof is mainly used to dry laundry and in some cases for raising
chickensandasstorage.

(35)

(34) Zeinab NourEddine TagEldeen, Participatory Urban Upgrading: The Case of Ezbet Bekhit, Cairo,
(33) NematMohamedNazmi,Ibid,2007,p.161,Arabicversiontranslatedbyresearcher.

Master of Science Thesis in the Subject of Built Environment Analysis, Division of Urban Studies,
DepartmentofInfrastructureRoyalInstituteofTechnology,2003, p.36.

(35) Ibid,p.36.

112


Figure(52):EzbetBekhit:Variationintheexpandedroad(36)

Incomparison,EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyeswerefoundedinalinearpattern
in the formation of voids and clusters. The proportion of construction areas is
24.9% of the total land in Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes, while 18.9% is agricultural
land,and65.2%isvacantland.(37)Roadsarealmostlinearandstraightforward.
Given the increase in the proportion of spaces and farmland surrounding the
houses, an optimal pattern of the physical composition of the settlement, as
favored by the population, has not yet been determined. Table (20) shows the
comparative analysis of clusters and vacant in case (1) Ezbet Bekhit Manshiet
NasserinCairo,case(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesinMansura.Theanalysisnotes
thattheformationofurbanclustersinthefirstcasedependsonexploitingthe
largest amount of space. In addition, it shows the diversity of urban blocks,
roads,andspaces.Thesecondcasefindsthattheurbanfabrictendstobeina
linearpatternwithmostlyagriculturalareasspreadbetweentheblocks.

(37)Ibid.P.3

(36) ZeinabNourEddineTagEldeen,Ibid,p.36.

113

Case(1)EzbetBekhitCairo

Case(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes

Siteplan

Table(20):Comparativeanalysisofclustersandvacant

Patternsoftheformationof

clusters(1)

clusters(2)

clusters(1)

clusters(2)

Theformationofspaces

clusters(3)

clusters(4)

clusters(3)

clusters(4)

Patternspace(1)

Patternspace(2)

Patternspace(1)

Patternspace(2)

Patternspace(3)

Patternspace(4)

Patternspace(3)

Patternspace(4)

*Source: Researcher based on: Participatory Urban Upgrading Manshiet Nasser / Cairo Egypt,
B.U.S.UrbanManagementandEnvironmentalPlanning:ProjectReferences,19982001,p.2,and
Hazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,Ibid.

114

4 Blocksfeatures
Thecompositionoftheurbanenvironmentthroughthedistributionpatternsof
the blocks themselves and in isolation of the requirements of the government
regulations is remarkable. The composition of the patterns of the blocks is a
reflection of the social and economic conditions of the population. The
development of these patterns is in line with the health conditions and
considerations of the general environment and provides access to the urban
environment. It is a perfect fit with the situation of the population and meets
theirneeds.Table(21)showsthecomparativeanalysisoftheblocktypesincase
(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasserinCairo,andcase(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes
in Mansura, and the overall average of the two cases. The table refers to the
main variables for block types: blocks containing the square, culdesac, semi
regular, organic, and linear. Figure (53) explains the statistical information
containedinthetablewithagraph.
Table(21):Comparativeanalysisofblocktypes
Variable
Blocktypes
Containsthesquare
Culdesac
Semiregular
Organic
Linear
Total

Case(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasser
12%
63%
5%
20%

100%

Case(2)EzbetAlsfihand
Alhoyes

100%
100%

*Source: Research based on the maps and aerial photos from Participatory Urban Upgrading
Manshiet Nasser / Cairo Egypt, B.U.S. Urban Management and Environmental Planning:
ProjectReferences,19982001,p.2,andHazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,Ibid.

115

Figure(53)Comparativeanalysisofblocktypes(38)
TheAnalysisoftheprevioustableandtheaccompanyinggraphshowsthatthe
vast majority of the blocks in Ezbet Bekhit are formed by culdesac (63%) or
blocks that contain the square (12%).(39) This gives an indication that people
prefer patterns that maintain the privacy of social groups, and confirms that
mostofthepopulationhasasocialfabricwithsimilarcharacteristics.Incontrast,
theanalysisfindsthattheonlyonetypeofblockinEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesisa
linearlongitudinalpattern.Thisisduetotheflatnatureofthearea,asthisisa
stylecommoninagriculturalland.Table(22)showsthecomparativeanalysisof
the most common types of block in case (1) Ezbet Bekhit Manshiet Nasser in
Cairo, and case (2) Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes in Mansura. There are four main
types of blocks in the first case: culdesac (63%), organic (20%), blocks that
containthesquare(12%),andsemiregular(5%).Incontrast,thelinearpatternis
thesinglemostcommonpatterninthesecondcase.

(39)Basedontheabovetable.

(38) Researcherbasedontheabovetable.

116

Case(1)EzbetBekhit

Table(22):Comparativeanalysisofthemostcommontypesofblock

Blocktype

Containsthesquare

Blocktype

Culdesac

Prevalence

12%

Prevalence

63%

Case(2)EzbetAlsfih

Blocktype

Semiregular

Blocktype

Organic

Prevalence

5%

Prevalence

20%

Blocktype
Prevalence

Linear
100%

*Source: Researcher redrawing based on the maps and aerial photos from Participatory Urban
Upgrading Manshiet Nasser / Cairo Egypt, B.U.S. Urban Management And Environmental
Planning:ProjectReferences,19982001,p.2,andHazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,Ibid.

117

5 Housingandplotsfeatures
There is great diversity in housing patterns in Ezbet Bekhit, a product of the
topography of the surfaces and the forms of land parcels. Ezbet Bekhit is
characterized by diversity in building height. The floor area ratio (FAR) of the
housingvaries.Somehouseshaveonefloor,whileothershaveevenmorethan
fivefloors. Landsubdivisionsarebetween50250 squaremeters (40), whilethe
surfaces of housing units range from 50100 square meters. Residents locate
buildingsofsquattersorhireworkersorcraftsmentocarryouttheconstruction
ofhousing.(41)
Housing patterns in Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes are different from Ezbet
Bekhit,especiallyintermsofthediversityofbuildingheight.Thevastmajorityof
houses have less than three floors, representing 88.3% of the total housing.
Therefore,thereisnodiversityintermsofheightofbuildingsinEzbetAlsfihand
Alhoyes.
Table(23)showsthecomparativeanalysisofthevisualfeaturesincase
(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasserinCairo,andcase(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes
in Mansura. Visual features show the deterioration of both urban settlements.
Themaindifferencesarevariationsintheheightofthebuildingsinthefirstcase,
whereastheheightofthebuildingsinthesecondcaseistwoorthreefloors.

(40) Faraj, Osama, and others, Improve environmental conditions through development of sustainable
treesasacomponentofimprovingtheenvironment,EzbetBakhitcasestudy,MansuraUniversity,Egypt,
2003,Arabicversion,pp.78,andWalidYousef,UrbancommunityinthecityofMansura,MasterThesis,
UniversityofZagazig,Egypt,2005,Arabicversion,pp.177181.

(41) NematMohamedNazmi,andothers,Ibid,p.161.

118

Case(1)EzbetBekhitCairo

Case(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes

Visualfeatures(urbanandarchitecturalelements)

Table(23):Comparativeanalysisofvisualfeaturesofthecasesstudy

EzbetBekhitCairo

EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesMansura

SkyLine

Diversityintheconstruction

Monotonousrepetition

*Source:HodaMahrous,architecturalandurbancompositionandtheidentityofsomeareasofthe
city of Cairo, the Conference: "Architecture and Urbanism in the context of sustainable
development,CairoUniversityFacultyofEngineering,2004,p.5.
**http://jelajahunik.blogspot.com/2010/04/wowwperkampunganpalingkumuhdikairo.html
andwww.7okokia.blogspot.com

119

The most common types of housing can be summarized in both squatter


settlementsasfollows:
51 TypeI Largeplots:Thisstyleofoldstructureisbuiltonlargetractsofland
about 250 square meters. It consists of one story with a square (housh)
compound represented by separate rooms, each with private residential
units and with shared bathrooms. The structures walls are made from
irregularstoneandhaveasmallopening.Theroofisusuallyconstructedof
light materials such as wooden beams, or tree branches covered by leaf
stalks. Most of these buildings are without proper foundations. This is the
style of the poorest quality housing in Ezbet Bekhit.(42) In Ezbet Alsfih and
Alhoyes, this style of residential units is built on land area of about 150
square meters and accounts for 19.6% of the total housing in the
(43)

settlement.

52 TypeIImediumplots:InEzbetBekhit,mostofthisstyleoftheoldstructure
is built on spare land in a medium space about 120 square meters. The
structure is usually composed of two or three floors, with all the housing
unitsononefloor.Eachunitconsistsoftwoorthreebedrooms.Sometimes
the toilets are within the residential units, and sometimes they are shared.

(42) Faraj, Osama, and others, Improve environmental conditions through development of sustainable,
treesasacomponentofimprovingtheenvironment,EzbetBakhitcasestudy,MansuraUniversity,Egypt,
2003,Arabicversion,pp.78,andWalidYousef,UrbancommunityinthecityofMansura,MasterThesis,
UniversityofZagazig,Egypt,2005,Arabicversion,pp.177181.

(43) Hazin,AbdelFattahandYousef,Walid,Slums,citiesofMansouraTalkha(AlsfiihandAlhoyesCase
Study) 37th Annual Conference on the issues of population 1113 December 2007, Arabic language
version,pp.1011.

120

The structure consists of brick walls and a ceiling made of reinforced


concrete.(44)Ontheotherhand,inEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes,housingunitsare
built on the land area ranging from 50150 square meters, averaging 75
squaremeters,andaccountfor77%ofthetotalhousinginthesettlement.
53 Type III Small plots: In Ezbet Bekhit, the majority of this style of modern
structureisbuiltonsmalltomediumlandareausuallyconsistingofthreeto
fivefloors.Eachfloorhousesunitswithtwotofourroomsinadditiontothe
services (kitchen and bathroom) for the unit. The structures walls are
constructed of red brick and the ceilings are reinforced concrete. There is
great diversity in this pattern, and cases vary from acceptable to good.(45)
However,inEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes,residentialunitsarebuiltonlandarea
oflessthan50squaremeters,andrepresent6.7%ofthetotalhousinginthe
settlement.(46)
Figure (54) shows the sizes of land plots that are most common for
the squatter settlement cases, ranging from land area of 50250 square
meters.(47)

(45)Hazin,AbdelFattah,Ibid,pp.1011.
(46)Faraj,Osama,Ibid,pp.177181.
(47)Hazin,AbdelFattah,Ibid,pp.1011.
(44) Faraj,Osama,Ibid,pp.177181.

121

Figure(54):Themostcommonplotsinsquattersettlements(48)

Table (24) shows the comparative analysis of housing space (in square
meters) in case (1) Ezbet Bekhit Manshiet Nasser in Cairo, and case (2) Ezbet
Alsfih and Alhoyes in Mansura, and the overall average of the two cases. The
tablereferstothemainvariablesforhousingspacetypes,whichisdividedinto
lessthan50squaremeters,from50to100squaremeters,andmorethan100
square meters. Figure (55) explains the statistical information contained in the
tablewithagraph.

(48) Modified by the researcher based on: Soliman, A., A tale of informal housing in Egypt, 1995, in
Aldeich,B.andSandhu,R.,eds.,Housingtheurbanpoor:policyandpracticeindevelopingcountries,Zed
Biik,Ltd.,London,pp.297316.

122

Table(24)Comparativeanalysisofhousingspace(insquaremeters)
Variable
spaceM2

Case(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasser

Case(2)Ezbet
AlsfihandAlhoyes

Average

<50
50100
>100

15%
79%
6%

Total

100%

7%
27.80%
65.20%
100%

11%
53.40%
35.60%
100%

*Source: Statistics of Manshiet Nasser from: Nemat Mohamed Nazmi, and others, The
development of squatter settlements as a model for housing in Egypt corresponds to a case
study Nasser area facility in Cairo, Research Institute of Architecture and Housing National
CenterforResearchonHousing,BuildingCairoEgypt,1214April2007,p.162,Arabicversion,
and Statistics of Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes from: Walid Yousef, urban community in the city of
Mansura,MasterThesis,UniversityofZagazig,Egypt,2005.

Figure(55):Comparativeanalysisofhousingspace(insquaremeters)(49)
TheAnalysisoftheprevioustableandtheaccompanyinggraphshowsthatthe
vastmajorityofthepopulationinbothsettlementslivesinhousesranginginsize
from50to100squaremeters,representing53.40%ofthetotalhousing.Table
(25)showsexamplesofthemostcommonhousingunitsincase(1)EzbetBekhit
ManshietNasserinCairo,andcase(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesinMansura.The
analysisnotesmorediversityofmultistoryhousinginEzbetBekhitthaninEzbet
AlsfihandAlhoyes.

(49) Researcherbasedontheabovetable.

123

TypesofhousinginEzbetAlsfih

TypesofhousinginEzbetBekhit-ManshietNasser

Table(25):Comparativeanalysisofthemostcommontypesofhouses

Source: Participatory Urban Upgrading Manshiet Nasser / Cairo Egypt, B.U.S. Urban
ManagementAndEnvironmentalPlanning:ProjectReferences,19982001,p.2,anddvmetals.com
**Note:TheexamplegiveninEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesisanimaginingbasedontheinformation
contained on the average the number of rooms and unit space. For more information, refer to:
WalidYousef,UrbancommunityinthecityofMansura,MasterThesis,UniversityofZagazig,Egypt,
2005,p.181.

124

Comparativeanalysisofsocialandeconomicsituation
Comparedtosocialandeconomiccharacteristics
Theanalysisofthecurrentsituationofthesquattersettlementsisnotadequate
tobuildacomprehensivevisionforsquattersettlementsinEgypt.Thesolutionsbased
on physical characteristics only, without taking into account the social and economic
characteristics, will be limited. The physical environment created by the final product,
whether it is affordable housing or public housing, must take into account the
characteristicsofthepopulationandtheirwayoflife,consideringtheirincome,family
size, and overcrowding. The physical environment must be consistent with the
population and meet their needs. The current social and economic situations of the
squatter settlements in Egypt will be extracted through the analysis of the socio
economicprofilesoftherepresentativesamples(casesstudies).Thesefeaturesinclude
comparativeanalysisofmonthlyhouseholdincome,employmentstatus,literacy,length
ofresidence,housingtenure,andoccupancyratesandovercrowding.
1 Monthlyhouseholdincome
The household income is the financial gain (earned or unearned) accruing
over a given period of time.(50)Themonthlyincomeofhouseholdsinsquatter
settlements is indicative of the current economic situation of the population.
Thisindicatestheaffordabilityofrentalcostsandmaintenancecostsofhousing.
Table(26)showsthecomparativeanalysisofmonthlyhouseholdincomeincase
(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasserinCairo,andcase(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes
in Mansura, and the overall average of the two cases. The table refers to the

(50) wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

125

main variables for monthly household income, which is divided into less than
$44 (in US dollars), from $44$88, and more than $88. Figure (56) explains the
statisticalinformationcontainedinthetablebythegraph.
Table(26):Comparativeanalysisofmonthlyhouseholdincome
Variable
IncomeUS
<$44
$44$88
>$88

Total

Case(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasser
15.2%
50.1
34.7
100%

Case(2)EzbetAlsfih
andAlhoyes
16.6
69.2
14.1
100%

Average
15.90%
59.60%
24.40%
100%

*Source:StatisticsofEzbetBekhit-ManshietNasserfrom:Sims,D.,AndTheCaseofCairo,Egypt.
Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on Human Settlements, University
CollegeLondon/DPU,London,2003, p.17,andStatisticsofEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesfrom:Walid
Yousef,Ibid.
**Note: Currency has been converted from Egypt pounds to U.S. dollars by the researcher.
Incomegroupsweremergedintothreemaincategories.

Figure(56):Comparativeanalysisofmonthlyhouseholdincome(51)
TheAnalysisoftheprevioustableandtheaccompanyinggraphshowsthatthe
vast majority of the population of squatter settlements has monthly income
ranging between $44$88. The average income does not exceed $66 for more

(51) Researcherbasedontheabovetable.

126

than59%ofthetotalpopulation. Theglobalpovertyline(PL)isdefinedas$1
perpersonperday.(52)Inotherwords,percapitaincomeabovethepovertyline
shouldbe$30permonth.Sincetheaveragenumberoffamilymembersinboth
cases is equivalent to 4.6 people,(53) the average household income above the
povertylineshouldbeatleast$138permonth.Asshowninthetableabove,all
householdsinthecaseshavemonthlyincomesbelowthepovertyline.Thereare
nohouseholdincomesintheupperpovertyline(UPL).Inaddition,theaverage
income of the inhabitants of squatter settlements is less than the average in
Egypt ($115.21 per month).

(54)

Thus the population not only suffers from

housingspending,butalsoisunabletoprovideessentialneeds.
Income is divided by the essential needs of the households, such as
housing rent, food, transportation, and medicine. More than 30% of income is
spentonhousing.(55)Fromthislogic,anyphysicaldevelopmentprogramsorthe
provisionofhousingforthispopulationmustbeaccompaniedbysupportfrom
thepublicorthegovernment.Therefore,theproportionofspendingonhousing
shouldbereducedtolessthan30%ofthetotalincome.

(52) http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/glossary.html

(53)Seetable(29)Comparativeanalysisofpersonsperroom(overcrowding).

(54) http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/glossary.html

(55)BoardofTrusteesoftheInvestmentAuthorityinEgypt:www.arabianbusiness.com

127

2 Housingtenure
Housingtenurereferstothefinancialarrangementsunderwhichsomeonehas
therighttoliveinahouseorapartment.Themostfrequentformsaretenancy,
in which rent is paid to a landlord and owner occupancy.(56) Table (27) shows
the comparative analysis of housing tenure in case (1) Ezbet Bekhit Manshiet
NasserinCairo,andcase(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesinMansura,andtheoverall
average of the two cases. The table refers to the main variables for housing
tenure,whichisdividedintoowners, renters,and other.Figure(57)explainsthe
statisticalinformationcontainedinthetablewithagraph.
Table(27):ComparativeanalysisofHousing Tenure
Variable
Tenure
owners
renters
Other**
Total

Case(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasser
44%
52%
4%
100%

Case(2)EzbetAlsfih
andAlhoyes
72.2%
26.3%
1.5%
100%

Average
58.1%
39.15%
2.75%
100%

*Source:StatisticsofEzbetBekhit-ManshietNasserfrom:ZeinabNourEddineTagEldeen,,Ibid,
p.40,andStatisticsofEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesfrom:WalidYousef,Urbancommunityinthecity
ofMansura,Ibid,p.180.
** Familieslivinginhutsortentsbecauseofthecollapseoftheirhomes.InEzbetBekhit others
meanthatsomehousingunitsaccommodatetheirinhabitantsrelativespermanently

(56)Guidetotenanciesandtenancyagreements,http://www.letsuni.org/information/contracts
128

Figure(57):Comparativeanalysisof housing tenure

(57)

The Analysis of the previous table and the accompanying graph shows that
regardinginternationalstandards,acommonlyacceptedguidelineforhousing
affordabilityisahousingcostthatdoesnotexceed30%ofahousehold'sgross
income. Housing costs considered in this guideline generally include taxes and
insurance for owners, and usually include utility costs. When the monthly
carryingcostsofahomeexceed3035%ofhouseholdincome,thenthehousing
isconsideredunaffordableforthathousehold.(58)
InEzbetBekhit,marketratesprevail.Atypicalsmalltworoomflatwill
rent for $20$30 and a single room for $7$10, plus a negotiated down
payment. Given that the median family income is probably around $50, these
market rental rates are quite burdensome, even though they are among the

(58)ATaleofTwoTownHouses,AtlanticMonthly,November2007.Formoredetailsreferto:NLIHC:
NationalLowIncomeHousingCoalitionOutofReach2006.
http://www.nlihc.org/oor/oor2006/?CFID=26410704&CFTOKEN=24486575.Retrieved20080319.
(57) Researcherbasedontheabovetable.

129

lowest in the whole city.(59) Table (28) and figure (58) refer to the rate of
expenditureontypicalhousing,assumingthatthemodelisequivalentto$20a
monthinthetwosettlements.(60)
Table(28):Comparativeanalysisoftherateofexpenditureonhousing
Variable
IncomeUS
<$44
$66

>$88

Total

Case(1)EzbetBekhit
-ManshietNasser
Pop.%
H.Spe.
15.2%
57%
50.1
38%
34.7
28%
100%

Case(2)EzbetAlsfih
Average
andAlhoyes
Pop.%
H.Spe. Pop.% H.Spe.
16.6
57%
15.90%
57%
69.2
38%
59.60%
38%
14.1
28%
24.40%
28%

100%
100%

*Source: Statistics of Ezbet Bekhit -Manshiet Nasser from: Sims, D., Ibid, 2003, p. 17, and
StatisticsofEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesfrom:WalidYousef,Ibid.
**Note:$25hasbeenchosenastheaverageofpublicexpenditureinsquattersettlements.
***Note: Currency has been converted from Egypt pounds to U.S. dollars by the researcher.
Incomegroupsweremergedintothreemaincategories.

Figure(58):Therateofexpenditureonhousingintwocases(61)

(59) Sims, D. The Case of Cairo, Egypt. Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on
HumanSettlements,UniversityCollegeLondon/DPU,London,2003, p.18.

(60) Housingspendingstartedfrom$7tomorethan$30,therefore,$25hasbeenchosenastheaverage
ofpublicexpenditureforhousinginsquattersettlementspermonth.

(61) Researcherbasedontheabovetable.

130

TheAnalysisoftheprevioustableandtheaccompanyinggraphfindsthat15.9%
of the population in both cases of settlements spend 57% of their income on
housing, while 59.60% of the population in the two cases spend 38% of their
income on housing. Thus, more than 75% of the total squatter settlements
population spends more than 38% of income for housing. This percentage is
muchhigherthaninternationalaverages.(62)
3 Occupancyratesandovercrowding
Crowding is a situation in which people or things are crowded together.(63)
Table(29)summarizestheinformationrelatedtoovercrowdingandtheaverage
number ofmembers per household in case(1) EzbetBekhit and case (2) Ezbet
AlsfihandAlhoyes.
Table(29):Comparativeanalysisofpersonsperroom(overcrowding)
Variable

Case(1)EzbetBekhit Case(2)EzbetAlsfih
Average
-ManshietNasser
andAlhoyes
crowding
1.58**
1.30
1.44
4.45
HouseholdSize
5.2**
3.7
*Source:StatisticsofEzbetBekhit from: Sims,D.,TheCaseofCairo,Ibid,2003, p.17, according
to the Ministry of Social Affairs (1998, p 4). Statistics of Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes from: Walid
Yousef,urbancommunityinthecityofMansura,Ibid,p.181.
**Note:ThereisnoinformationaboutovercrowdinginEzbetBekhit.Theratementionedabove
isforManshietNasseringeneral. HouseholdSizeaveragefrom4.46=5.2.Allstudiesbasedon
thisrateactasarepresentationofEzbetBekhit.FromSims,D.,Ibid,p.14.

The Analysis of the previous table shows that the average of overcrowding in
two squatter settlements is equivalent 1.44 persons per room, which is more
thanthegeneralaverageinEgypt,1.13personsperroom.However,theaverage

(63)http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu

(62) Housingcostshouldnotexceed30%ofhousholdincome.

131

householdsizeis4.45persons,whichexceedstheoverallaveragehouseholdsize
in Egypt, 4.19 persons. (64) Ezbet Bekhit is very crowded. The net residential
density is 2,200 persons per hectare. Over 30% of families live in one single
room, sharing toilets. (For all Cairo the proportion is 8.2%.) The remaining
familieslivemostlyinsmalltwoandthreeroomapartmentswithinternaltoilets.
TheaveragegrossfloorareaperpersoninEzbetBekhitis6.2squaremetersand
thr average room rate of 2.6 room per unite.(65) In Ezbet Bekhit there are
practicallynovacantdwellingunits(under2%),whereasthevacancyrateforall
Cairoissaidtobe18%.(66) Figure(59)illustratesthepatternofatypicalroom
andtheamountofspacebetweenroomsinEzbetBekhit.

Figure(59):EzbetBekhit:Typeofhousingaccommodations(67)

Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes does not differ much from Ezbet Bekhit. The total
number of housing units is 270. The settlement contains 794 rooms, with the
averageroomrateof2.9roomperunite(overcrowdingis1.3personsperroom).

(64) Central Agency for Population Mobilization and Statistics Population Clock (July 2008), website
http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg

(66)Sims,D.Ibid,p.17.
(67)ZeinabNourEddineTagEldeen,Ibid,p.38.
(65) ZeinabNourEddineTagEldeen,,Ibid, p.38.

132

TheaveragegrossfloorareaperpersoninEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesis19square
meters. (68) The housing units have a minimum area of 50 square meters,
representing 6.7% of the total unit. In these units, the rate of overcrowding is
morethan3.6personsperroom.However,thevastmajorityofhousingunitsin
the settlement range in size from 100150 square meters and represent 45.6%
fromthetotal.Therateofcrowdingintheseunitsis1.1personsperroom.
4 Literacy
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
defines illiterate as the "inability to identify, understand, interpret, create,
communicate, compute and use printed and written materials associated with
varyingcontexts."(69)AccordingtoaUNESCOreport,37.8%ofthepopulationwas
illiteratein1986.By2003,thereportsaidthat29.8%ofthepopulationwasstill
illiterate, although this is an improvement."(70) Despite the marked
improvement in literacy in Egypt, the current rates of illiteracy in squatter
settlementsareveryhigh.Table(30)showsthecomparativeanalysisofliteracy
incase(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasserinCairo,andcase(2)EzbetAlsfihand
AlhoyesinMansura,andtheoverallaverageofthetwocases.Thetablerefersto
the main variables for literacy, which is divided by gender, as well as by those

(69)MentioneddefinitionistheoppositeoftheUNESCOdefinitionoftheconceptofliterate.
http://www.unesco.org/en/efa
(70)http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2003/654/eg2.htm

(68) Bydividingthemedianareaofthehousingunitis70withtheaveragenumberofpersonsis3.7

133

who are illiterate, and those who are educators. Figure (60) explains the
statisticalinformationcontainedinthetablewithagraph.
Table(30):Comparativeanalysisofliteracy
Variable
Gender
Illiterate
Educators
Total

Case(1)EzbetBekhit**
Total
%52
%48
100%

Males
%45.1
%54.9
100%

Females
%59.6
%40.4
100%

Variable
Gender
Illiterate
Educators
Total

Case(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes
Total
%22.5
%77.5
100%

Males
%48.2
%54
100%

Females
%51.8
%46
100%

Average
Total
%37
%63
100%

Males
%47
%53
100%

Females
%55.7
%44.3
100%

*Source:StatisticsofManshietNasserfrom: Sims,D.TheCaseofCairo,Ibid,2003, p.17,(%of


totalage9+)StatisticsofEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesfrom:WalidYousef,urbancommunityinthe
cityofMansura,MasterThesis,Ibid,p.187.
**Note: ForallofCairothe1996Censusgivesilliteracyrates(forthoseovernineyearsofage
whocannotreadorwrite)of24.2%.ThesimilarrateforManshietNasseris52.0%,overtwiceas
high.(EzbetBekhitisnotseparatelycountedinthecensus.)

Figure(60):Comparativeanalysisofliteracy

(71)

TheAnalysisoftheprevioustableandtheaccompanyinggraphshowsthat52%
ofthepopulationofEzbetBekhitisilliterate,and33%ofthepopulationinEzbet
Alsfih and Alhoyes is illiterate. The overall average of illiteracy in selected

(71) Researcherbasedontheabovetable.

134

squattersettlementsis37%.ThehighestrateofilliteracyinEgyptis29.8%.The
illiteracyrateissignificantlyhighamongwomeninsquattersettlementsdueto
thelackofeducationalprogramsforwomenandthefactthatwomeninsquatter
settlements often work within the home or in the upbringing of children. The
highilliteracyrateinsquattersettlementsisamainreasonfortheproliferation
of those settlements because they provide the population with an informal
working system that does not require skills or high education. Therefore, it is
important when creating a new urban environment to take into account the
provision of educational and rehabilitation programs to help provide the
populationwithjobs.Otherwise,theywillreturntothesamesettlements.(72)
5 Lengthofresidence
Thelengthofstayofresidentsinsquattersettlementsgivesanindicationofthe
stability and livelihoods of the people, and sets a historical timeline for the
settlement.Table(31)showsthecomparativeanalysisoflengthofresidencein
case (1) Ezbet Bekhit Manshiet Nasser in Cairo, and case (2) Ezbet Alsfih and
AlhoyesinMansura,andtheoverallaverageofthetwocases.Thetablerefersto
the main variables for length of residence, which is divided into less than 15
years, from 1525 years, and more than 25 years. Figure (61) explains the
statisticalinformationcontainedinthetablewithagraph.

(72) Readings for: Laila R. Iskandar Kamel, Mokattam Garbage Village, Cairo, Egypt, 1994, and Mark
Kramer,Dispossessed,Lifeinourwordsurbanslums,NewYork,2009.

135

Table(31):ComparativeanalysisofLengthofResidence
Variable
Years
<15
1525
>25
Total

Case(1)EzbetBekhitManshietNasser
59.5%
24.8%
15.7%
100%

Case(2)EzbetAlsfih
andAlhoyes
53%
47%
Noinfo.available**

100%

Average
56.25%
35.9%
15.7%
100%

*Source:StatisticsofEzbetBekhit-ManshietNasserfrom:Sims,D.,TheCaseofCairo,Ibid,2003,
p.17,andStatisticsofEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesfrom:WalidYousef,Urbancommunityinthecity
ofMansura,Ibid,2005.
**ThereisnoinformationavailableaboutthelengthofresidenceinEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesfor
morethan25years,becauseitisanewsettlementcomparedtoEzbetBekhit.

Figure(61):Comparativeanalysisoflengthofresidence(73)
TheAnalysisoftheprevioustableandtheaccompanyinggraphshowsthatthe
vast majority of the population in both settlements has stayed less than 15
years59.5% for case (1), and 53% for case (2). There is an imbalance in the
population staying for more than 15 years. While 15.7% of the population in
Ezbet Bekhit has stayed more than 25 years, no information was found of
populationstayingmorethan25yearsinEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes.Thatgivesan
indicationofthestateofstabilityexperiencedbythepopulationinEzbetBekhit

(73) Researcherbasedontheabovetable.

136

compared with Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes. Whereas the government in case (1)
recognized (indirectly) to establish a population within the settlement and
provided some necessary utilities such as electricity, sewer, and water, the
government did not recognize the establishment of the population in case (2).
Often, people face the demolition of their nonstructured homes held on
agricultural land. Figure (62) shows the status of instability experienced by the
populationEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes.

Figure(62):RemovalofsomehousesinEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes(74)
6 Employmentstatus
TheCurrentEmploymentStatistics(CES)isthekeytothestabilityofpopulations
withinthesettlements,asitisoneofthemaincausesofmigrationfromvillages
tocitiesinsearchingofbetterincome.Mostofthegovernmenthousingprojects
or the affordable housing did not succeed because it they did not take into

(74) On12March2009,dozensofpeopleinEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesgatheredinfrontoftheirhomesto
protesttheforcedremovalofanumberofhomesandtoactashumanshieldstostoptheremovals.Three
womenfelldowninfrontoftheirhouses,whichallowedentrytoremovethehouseswithoutcompletely
clearingthem.Formoredetails,see:http://75.125.134.85/viewarticle.php?id=3061

137

account the economic aspect. Housing is not a place for accommodation of


population only, but it is a comprehensive system of life. Table (32) shows the
comparative analysis of employment status in case (1) Ezbet Bekhit Manshiet
NasserinCairo,andcase(2)EzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesinMansura,andtheoverall
averageofthetwocases.Thetablereferstothemainvariablesforemployment
status,whichisdividedintogovernment,privatesector,and unemployed.Figure
(63)explainsthestatisticalinformationcontainedinthetablewithagraph.
Table(32):Comparativeanalysisofemploymentstatus
Variable
Case(1)EzbetBekhit
Employment
-ManshietNasser
Government
12.2%
Privatesector**
57.83%
Unemployed
13.61%
Total
83.6%***

Case(2)EzbetAlsfih
andAlhoyes
11.9%
78.5%
9.6%

Average
12.05%
68.2%
11.6%

100%
91.8%
*Source: Statistics of Ezbet Bekhit -Manshiet Nasser from: Zeinab NourEddine TagEldeen,
ParticipatoryUrbanUpgrading:TheCaseofEzbetBekhit,Cairo,MasterofScienceThesisinthe
Subject of Built Environment Analysis, Division of Urban Studies, Department of Infrastructure
Royal Institute of Technology, 2003, p. 35, Statistics of Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes from: Walid
Yousef,UrbancommunityinthecityofMansura,Ibid,2005.
** The vast majority of the population that works in the private sector are selfemployed
persons,laborers,orcraftsmen.
*** Althoughtheresearchertriedtoobtaininformationfromavarietyofsources,16.3%ofthe
totalpopulationisnotcalculatedinEzbetBekhit,perhapsbecauseofthestatisticsdealtwiththe
workingage (+18) population only. The statistics in Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes dealt with the
entirepopulationwithoutlimitationofagetowork.

138


Figure(63)Comparativeanalysisofemploymentstatus

(75)

TheAnalysisoftheprevioustableandtheaccompanyinggraphshowsthatthe
vast majority of the inhabitants of squatter settlements work in the private
sector or on their own. The rate of those who work in the private sector was
57.83% in Ezbet Bekhit and 78.5% in Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes.(76) Most people
whoworkintheprivatesectorinEzbetBekhitworkascraftsmen,andinEzbet
Bekhitinagriculture.Coffeeshopsrepresenttheonlyrecreationfacilityinboth
cases,(77)butespeciallyinEzbetBekhittheseareusedmainlyforcasualworkers
gatheringtodiscussandagreeaboutworksystems.Thesecoffeeshopsarewell
known in Cairo as sources of labours manpower according to types of skill
required.(78) Residents of squatter settlements are often selfreliant in the
management of life, work, and construction. This is evident from the overall

(76)Basedontheabovetable.
(77) Each coffee shop belongs to one or more category of activity such as laborers in building
constructionandhandicrafts.
(78) Zeinab NourEddine TagEldeen, Participatory Urban Upgrading: The Case of Ezbet
(75) Researcherbasedontheabovetable.

Bekhit,Cairo,Master of Science Thesis in the Subject of Built Environment Analysis, Division of Urban
Studies,DepartmentofInfrastructureRoyalInstituteofTechnology,2003, p.36.

139

percentageofworkersinthepublicsectorfromthesquattersettlements,which
is 12.05%. The unemployment rate in both settlements do not exceed 11.6%,
which is not much different from the general unemployment rate in Egypt of
9.3%.(79) This gives an indication that the squatter settlements provide job
opportunities for the population. Therefore, most of the inhabitants of those
settlementsarelinkedtowork.Fromthispremise,theprovisionofanyhousing
program must be accompanied by programs that contribute to job creation of
thepopulationinordertoensurestability.

(79) Mohamed Hassan, Cyrus Sassanpour, and Labor Market Pressures in Egypt: Why is the
UnemploymentRateStubbornlyHigh?InternationalConferenceonTheUnemploymentCrisisintheArab
Countries1718March2008,Cairo,Egypt,p.3.

140

Summaryofthecurrentcondition
Summaryofurbanenvironment,social,andeconomicsituation
ThegrowthofthesquattersettlementsinEgypttaketwoforms:growthattheexpense
of government land in the desert, is in the case of Ezbet Bekhit, or growth at the
expenseofagriculturalland,isinthecaseofEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes.Thesettlements
are located near the major facilities in the city, to take advantage of such factors as
roads,services,accessibility,andthecitycenter.(80)
Residents have formed their own homes, roads, blocks, and land according to
their social and economic situations, variable as to family size, affordability, and the
proximityofservices.ResidentsinEzbetBekhitconductedpressureonthegovernment
toprovideessentialservicessuchaswater,electricity,andsanitation.Eventually,they
managed to receive most of the basic utilities. On the other hand, residents in Ezbet
Alsfih and Alhoyes were unable of apply any pressure on the government to provide
immediateneedssuchasdrinkingwater.(81)Thisisduetothesmallpopulation,andthe
feeling of the population of the illegality of building on agricultural land, particularly
withaclearlawtocriminalizetheconstructiononagriculturalland.(82)
The roads are narrow and winding, and are not suitable for the movement of
vehicles.(83) Residential blocks cover almost the whole plot of land. There are some

(81)Basedontheinformationrelatedwithutilitiesfeatures.

(80) Basedontheinformationrelatedwithgeneralfeatures.

(82) Resolution No. (1) Of the Council of Ministers on 5 November 1996 criminalized the bulldozing of
agriculturallandforconstruction.

(83) Basedontheinformationrelatedwithfabricfeatures.

141

spacesbetweentheblocksandtheyreflecttheurbansocialpatternandthedesireto
form a homogeneous urban environment. Construction of the settlement is not
completedsotherecanbenojudgmentonthepatternsofplanningblocksordealwith
themaspatternsofchoiceamongthepopulation.Generally,itpursuesalinearpattern
thatiscommoninagriculturalland.(84)
Thevastmajorityofhousinginthesquattersettlementsselectedascasestudies
havedegradeddespitebuildingregulations,andthereisalackofthebarenecessitiesof
a healthy environment suitable for humans. Housing units range in size from 50100
squaremeters.BuildingheightsvaryinEzbetBekhit,fromonefloortomorethanfive
floors, while in Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes the buildings do not exceed more than three
stories.Thepatternsoflandthatismostcommoninthesecasesofsquattersettlements
start from an area of 50 square meters, and can be 75 square meters, 120 square
meters,150squaremeters,or250squaremeters.(85)
All residents in squatter settlements live under the poverty line. They can not
afford housing, where the vast majority of the population spends more than 38% of
theirincomeonhousingonly.(86)Inaddition,mostofthemworkinunskilledoccupations
inworkshops,inmaintenance,orasfarmers,asinthecaseofEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes.
The average overcrowding in the two squatter settlements is 1.44 persons per room,
whichismorethanthegeneralaverageinEgypt,1.13personsperroom.However,the

(85)Basedontheinformationrelatedwithhousingfeatures.
(86)Basedontheinformationrelatedwithmonthlyhouseholdincomeandemploymentstatus.
(84) Basedontheinformationrelatedwithblocksfeatures.

142

average household size is 4.60 persons, which exceeds the overall average household
sizeinEgypt,4.19persons.(87)
The overall average of illiteracy in these selected squatter settlements is 37%,
comparedtothehighestrateofilliteracyinEgypt,29.8%.Womendonotgetanykindof
careeducation,sotheilliteracyrateinwomenismuchhigherthaninmen,andconsists
of55%ofthetotalilliteracyinthesettlements.(88)

(88)Basedontheinformationrelatedwithliteracy.

(87) Basedontheinformationrelatedwithoccupancyratesandovercrowding.

143

Chaptersix:Results
The previous chapter analyzed the actual conditions of squatter settlements in
Egyptthroughtheselectionofanexampleofasettlementattheexpenseofpublicland
(EzbetBekhit)andanexampleofthesettlementattheexpenseoftheagriculturalareas
(Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes). Comparative analyses of the urban environment of these
settlementshavebeenintermsoftheurbanfabric,utilities,blocks,roads,andhousing
units.Inaddition,comparativeanalysisofthesocialandeconomicsituationhasbeenin
termsoffamilysize,income,residence,literacy,andhousingrents.Thischapterwilllay
outtheguidelinesextractedfromtheanalysisthatarecompatiblewiththeneedsofthe
residents of squatter settlements regarding the built environment, and the social and
economic conditions. This chapter begins with an evaluation of Egypts experience in
dealing with squatter settlements through the two case studies. Then there is an
evaluationoftheactualsituationintermsoftheurbanfabric,blocks,andhousingunits.
There is also an evaluation of the social and economic situation of the case study
settlementsintermsofsuitabilitywithurbanpatternsandenvironmentalconditions.At
theendofthischapterisaproposaltodealwiththesquattersettlementsituationwith
guidelines that meet the needs of the residents of squatter settlements based on
positiveresultsfromexperiencesdealingwithactualhousingconditions.

144

EvaluationofEgyptsExperience
EvaluatetheFeaturesofEgyptsExperienceinDealingwiththeCases
Egypts experiences in dealing with squatter settlements have taken place
through several stages and different approaches. The government dealt with squatter
settlementsindifferentwaysdependingonthesourcesoffunding,theimportanceof
spatiallocation,theinterventionofdonors,popularpressure,andthecriticalissuesor
disasters.(1) Inbothcasestudies,severalsolutionsandstrategieshavebeentried.Some
of these modes used the participation of the private sector, donors, or peoples
participation.
A summary of the evaluation of Egypts experience in dealing with squatter
settlementsfollows:
1 ServicingInformalAreas
Thisinterventionmodeprovidesphysicalinfrastructureandbasicpublicservices
tosquattersettlements.Theapproachfocusesonthephysicalimprovementof
squattersettlementsbyimprovingaccesstothearea,pavingandlightingmain
roads, installing or upgrading infrastructure (water, sanitation, electricity), and
organizingstreetmarketsandmicrobusstops.(2)Abdelhalim(2010)states,The
Egyptiangovernmenthasadoptedthismodesincethe1990s.Itisbasedonthe
argument that physical interventions provide the bare minimum of humane

(1) Ahmad Allam, shidid Yahya, Mahdi Majid, Renew of Neighborhoods, 1st ed. Cairo: Egyptian Anglo
Library.TranslatefromArabicversion,1997.

(2) Ignacio A. Navarro and Geoffrey K. Turnbull, (2010). The Legacy Effect of Squatter Settlements on
UrbanRedevelopment.WorkingPaperNo.2010/3/25.UNUWIDER.

145

livingconditionsthatareofhigherprioritythanothertypesofdevelopment.(3)
The government has implemented this approach on many of squatter
settlements, including Ezbet Bekhit in an earlier stage. The criticism of this
approach is that it gives legal legitimacy to the inhabitants of squatter
settlements, providing infrastructure like electricity and water is an indirect
recognitionofthegovernmentinestablishingthepopulation,andwillencourage
thegrowthofsquattersettlementsinthefuture.(4)
2 SectorialUpgrading
Sectorialupgradesareinitiativesinwhichthegovernmentortheprivatesector
workstoimproveconditionsinsquattersettlements.Theyareoftenaimedata
categoryoraspecificsectorsuchashealth,education,orpoverty.Accordingto
Abdelhalim(2010),Thesemaybetheinitiativescomingfromministries,donor
agencies, the private sector or large NGOs. Examples are the upgrading of
schools in poor and informal areas as part of the 100 schools project
implemented by the NGO Heliopolis Services under the auspices of Suzan
Mubarak;(5)UpgradingofyouthcentersinpoorneighborhoodsbytheCocaCola
Company; and the upgrading of infrastructure and community facilities in
Manshiet Nasser through the EgyptianGerman development cooperation PDP,

(3) Abdelhalim, Khaled.ParticipatoryUpgradingofInformalAreas:ADecisionMakersGuideforAction.


May2010,p.6.

(5) Suzanne Mubarak, wife of the Egyptian President, provided many housing projects for supporting
poverty.
(4) Dependingonanalysisresult.

146

GTZ.(6)Figure(64)showsoneofthesocialandeconomicprojectsthatpromote
the role of women through an EgyptianGerman development project
implemented(PDP)inManshietNasser,includingEzbetBekhit.

Figure(64):ProjectsEmpoweringWomeninManshietNasserbyPDP(7)

Theseinitiativestookplaceindifferenttimes,buthavebecomefocused
since 1990 after the occurrence of humanitarian disasters in squatter
settlements,suchashappenedinEzbetBekhit.(8)Thecriticismofthisapproachis
that it focuses on the development of social sectors only, such as the
recreationaloreducationalsector,withoutpayingattentiontothedevelopment
of the current status of housing. It also depends on public pressure and the
ability of the public to transfer the problems and suffering, and their needs to
theinternationalmediainordertospurreactionfromphilanthropicfoundations,
the private sector, and donor countries. Another criticism is that support of
theseinitiativescomesfromdonors;therefore,thepopulationhasnotensured

(6) Abdelhalim,2010,p.7.

(7) Ibid,p.52.

(8) AmnestyInternational.BuriedAliveTrappedbyPovertyandNeglectinCairosInformalSettlements
HousingIsaHumanRight,2009.

147

the sustainability of these projects because they are subject to the terms and
provisionsofthedonors.
3 PlanningandPartialAdjustment
This approach relies on the progressive development of informal settlements
through widening main streets and creating vacant lots. The idea is based on
drawingfutureregulationlinesandrebuildingdilapidatedhousingaccordingto
new regulations. Often this approach is used with the settlements that are
severely degraded. Thus, the eligible housing units are those that are liable to
collapseatanytime,thatcanthenbereconstructedtothenewregulations.(9)
Thismethodhasnotbeenappliedinanyoftheselectedcasestudies,but
ismentionedheretodiscusstheinterventionusedinthedevelopmentofurban
guidelines of squatter settlements. Figure (65) illustrates the application of
regulationlinesfortheprogressivedevelopmentofsquattersettlements.

Figure(65):ApplicationofRegulationLinesinSquatterSettlements(10)

(9) Afifi, Ahmad, Studies in Urban Planning, University of Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, 1998. Arabic
version.

(10) ResearcherdependingonAfifi,Ahmad,Ibid.

148

Abdelhalim (2010) states about the partial adjustment approach: It is


particularly applicable to areas where housing conditions are good but
residential density is high and space for public facilities is scarce.(11) The
criticism of this approach is that it takes a long time to implement, and
regulationlinesmaychangeandbeoutdatedbythetimereconstructionofthe
housingunitsiscompleted.
4 OnsiteRedevelopmentofInformalAreas
The idea of this intervention is based on the gradual changing of the physical
structures in squatter settlements, replacing them with modern constructions
and allowing the residents to reside in the same place. This approach was not
appliedinthesettlementsthathavebeenselectedeither.However,Abdelhalim
(2010) points out, There are few pilot projects of this type in Egypt
implemented by leading NGOs that are capable of mobilizing government
supportandguardtheinterestofresidentstostayinthesamelocation,suchas
theHadayekZeinhomprojectortheOldAgouzaproject.(12)
Although this approach provides an opportunity for residents to stay in
thesameplaceafteritisdeveloped,thecriticismofthismethodisthatitdoes
not take into account market forces. The upgrading of squatter settlements
means high value of the land, rentals, and public services. The increase in the
market value of the property tempts people to abandon their homes through

(11) Abdelhalim,(2010) ,p.7.

(12) Ibid.

149

sale or lease.(13) Also, the market value of real estate encourages investors to
ownpropertyandthusraisestherentalvalue.Inthiscase,marketforcesdrive
theindigenouspeopleoutsideofthosesettlements.(14)
5 RedevelopmentandRelocation
Thisapproachconsistsofthecompletedemolitionofsquattersettlementsand
relocation of the residents to alternative housing. Abdelhalim (2010) explains,
This mode is [applied] to squatter settlements that are hazardous to their
residents, as in the case of relocation of some residents of Doweiqa living
underneaththeMokattamHillsto6thofOctoberCityfollowingtherockslidein
October2008.(15) Currently,thisapproachisappliedtothesettlementsofparts
ofEzbetBekhitthatconstituteagreatdangertothepopulation.Someresidents
inhighrisksitesarebeingrelocatedtotheSuzanneMubarakHousingnearthe
settlement. However, some residents have been unable to obtain alternative
accommodation because of administrative bureaucracy. The criticism of this
mode is that it deals with the issue of squatter settlements as a housing crisis
only,withtheabsenceofeconomicandsocialfactors.(16)

(13) C.N_ILUZUN,Residentialtransformationofsquattersettlements:Urbanredevelopmentprojectsin
Ankara,JournalofHousingandtheBuiltEnvironment,DepartmentofCityandRegionalPlanning,Ankara,
Turkey,2005.

(14) The National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education with funding from the National
AssociationofHomeBuilders,HousingMarketImpactsofInclusionaryZoning,February2008.

(15) Abdelhalim,2010,p.7.

(16) Gans,HerbertJ.TheHumanImplicationsofCurrentRedevelopmentandRelocation.Journalofthe
AmericanPlanningAssociation.www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t782043358.

150

Most of the residents of squatter settlements are associated with their


work, whether they are craftsmen, farmers, or labors. Providing housing for
these people without consideration of finding work opportunities for them is
makingtheworkersreturntothesquattersettlements.(17)

Figure(66)showsexamplesofaffordablehousesnearEzbetBekhit.The

housinghereisnotcombatablewithlowincomeresidents.

Figure(66):AlternativeHousinginelDoweiqa,ManshietNasser(18)

(17) MustaphaOyewoleBELLO,Thefocushasalwaysbeenonsquatterorinformalsettlementsandnot
ontheurbanpoor,ortheirinaccessibilityofland,WorkingWeek2009SurveyorsKeyRoleinAccelerated
DevelopmentEilat,38May2009.

(18) Khaled Abdelhalim,Participatory Upgrading of Informal Areas,A Decisionmakers Guide for Action,
Cairo,May2010.p.7

151

6 UnregulatedStyles
The unregulated approach is random interference or intervention by the
government in applying the laws of a municipality or government regulations.
The application of this approach is often the removal of the buildings in these
settlements, as has been done in Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes and most of the
settlements built at the expense of agricultural land in accordance with the
ResolutionNo. 1 (1996), whichcriminalizes building on agricultural land.(19) The
Egyptian government still uses this approach with Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes,
which has led to clashes between the population and the implementing
agencies,andcontributestoincreasedaggressionamongthepopulation.(20)
In Ezbet Bekhit, this unregulated approach has been applied to many
governmental solutions, such as whether support for housing is to come from
the private sector, participation, or donors. In Ezbet Alsfih and Alhoyes, this
approachhasbeenappliedapproachtoonlytheremovalofthebuildings.Thisis
due to several factors, such as public pressure calling for utilities and services,
the settlement site in central Cairo, the arrival of the inhabitants voted to the
international media, and the critical status of the situation in Ezbet Bekhit
comparedwithEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyes.(21)Thecriticismofthisapproachisthe

(19) Resolution No. (1) Of the Council of Ministers on 11/5/1996 which criminalizes the bulldozing of
agriculturallandorconstruction.
(20) www.dakahliaikhwan.com/viewarticle.php?id=3061
(21) Depending on the results of comparative analysis and Ahmad Allam, shidid Yahya, Mahdi Majid,
Renewofneighborhoods,1edition,Cairo:EgyptianAngloLibrary.TranslatefromArabicversion,1997.

152

random application of the laws and regulations and that alternative housing
solutionsarenotprovidedtotheresidentsofsquattersettlements.
7 ParticipatoryApproachtoUpgrading
This approach depends on the residents participating in the development and
upgrading of the squatter settlements by encouraging the establishment of
developmentprojects,theuseofworkersinconstruction,andthesupportofthe
local population. This model provides effective solutions to the squatter
settlements because it gives an opportunity for residents to stay in the same
placeandalsoprovidesthemwithcareeropportunities.(22)
The principle of participation reduces the financial burden on
governmentsintheMiddleEast,andatthesametimehelpstounifytheefforts
to resolve the problem of squatter settlements. In addition, Abdelhalim (2010)
pointsoutthatparticipatoryupgradingbringsaboutanintegrateddevelopment
approach, whereby it is more possible to coordinate local development efforts
andachieveahigherimpactontheimprovementoflivingconditionsofresidents
and the upgrading of their locality. For example, packaging a project for
improvingthesolidwastecollectionsystemtogetherwithanawarenessraising
campaignatschoolsaswellasamicrocreditschemepromotingsmallbusiness
foryouthinrecyclingwilldefinitelyhaveabetterimpactonthelocalcommunity

(22) Formoreinformationreferto:
1.

Andr Alexander, Leh Old Town, Ladakh A Participatory Approach to Urban,Conservation,


CommunitybasedUpgradingandCapacitybuilding,2005.

2.

TSIONLEMMA,RICHARDSLIUZASandMONIKAKUFFER,Aparticipatoryapproachtomonitoring
slumconditions:anexamplefromEthiopia,April,2006.

153

than each individual project alone. An integrated development approach,


however, requires coordination among sectorial agencies and among
governmentalandnongovernmentalandprivatesectorpartners.(23)
This model is used in some informal settlements in Egypt with the
support of the civil institutions and international donor agencies. At present,
thereareeffortsforinternationalandgovernmentalorganizationstoapplythis
approachinEzbetBekhit,aswellasthewholeofManshietNasser.(24)

Figure (67) shows the application of the partnership approach through

the cooperation of the private sector, the government, and the population for
thedevelopmentofsquattersettlements.

Figure(67):ParticipationFactors(25)
The EgyptianGerman development project in Manshiet Nasser was
implemented by the Ministry of Economic Development (MoED) as the lead

(23) Abdelhalim,2010,p.8.

(24) Ministry of Urban Development. Report on Study Tour to Egypt and Lessons, Learned on
ApproachestoInformalSettlements.2006.

(25) Abdelhalim,2010,p.48.

154

executing agency, the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), and the (KfW)
Entwicklungsbank(GermanDevelopmentBank),withfinancialassistancebythe
GermanFederalMinistryforEconomicCooperationandDevelopment(BMZ).(26)
Figure (68) shows the committees involved in the development, where the
debate between each committee is to know the needs as requirements, as to
reach consensus among all parties. The committees often involve non
government organizations, public service management, natural leaders, local
residents,andlocalbusinesses.

Figure(68):ModelofPartnershipandParticipation(27)

(26) Formoreinformationreferto:

1.

The Participatory Development Programme in Urban Areas (PDP), funding organization:


GermanfederalministryforEconomic(BMZ)term20042011.

2.

Zeinab NourEddine TagEldeen, Participatory Urban Upgrading: The Case of Ezbet Bekhit,
Cairo, Master of Science Thesis in the Subject of Built Environment Analysis, Division of
UrbanStudies,DepartmentofInfrastructureRoyalInstituteofTechnology,2003.

(27) Abdelhalim,2010,p.48.

155

The criticism of this model is that it focuses on the development


strategiesandpopularparticipationwithoutstudiesofthesiteregardingnatural
hazards and whether the site is convenient for the population. For example, a
large part of the settlement of Manshiet Nasser is not suitable for housing
constructionbecauseitispronetorockslides.Thecasestudyshowsthat,incase
ofarockslidesuchasoccurredin2008,residentsofEzbetBekhitwouldneedto
evacuate immediately and would require the provision of appropriate housing
alternativesforthem.(28)

Table (33) shows a summary of the evaluation of Egypts experience in

dealingwithsquattersettlements.Evaluationisonthebasisofboththepositive
and negative factors. The negative factors are excluded from the subsequent
phaseofdevelopingthemainguidelinesforsquattersettlementsinEgypt.

(28) AmnestyInternational,BuriedAliveTrappedbyPovertyandNeglectinCairosInformalSettlements
HousingIsaHumanRight,2009.

156

Table(33):EvaluateofEgyptsExperienceinDealingWithSquatterSettlements
Egypts
experience

Evaluation

Approach
Servicing
informalareas

Positives

Negatives

Developmentofinexpensive.
Dependsonmaterialsfinanced
bythegovernment,sothere
arenoconditionsfromthe
donor.

Sectorial
upgrading

Planningand
partial
adjustment

Reducestheburdenofthe
government.
Enhancestheparticipationof
theprivatesector.
Enhancestheparticipationof
donorsandcharities.
Developmentofinexpensive
housing.

Focusesonthephysical
improvement.
Oftenfocusesoncriticalfacilitiesand
infrastructure.
Promotessquattingbecausethe
governmentprovidesinfrastructure.
Oftenfocusesonrecreational
facilities,healthoreducation.
Unsustainableprojectsbecausethey
aresubjecttodonorconditions.
Thedevelopmentofpartialwithhigh
priority.
Needsalongtime.

Freedomofresidenceinthe
Onsite
sameplace.
redevelopment

Theimpactofmarketforcesonreal
estate.

andrelocation

Absenceofeconomicandsocial
factors.

Takesadvantageofthe
featuresofthesite.
Redevelopment Providesreadyhousing.

Evacuatespeoplefromtheir
environment.

Unregulated
styles

Removesthedegradedbuilt
environment.

Participatory
approach

Consistentwitheconomicand
socialfactors.
Stimulatestheprivatesector.
Promotestheprincipleof
participation.
Reducesfinancialburdens.

Doesnotprovideanyalternative
housing.
Wasteshousingstock.
Randomapplication.
Absenceofanalysisofnaturalfactors.
Absenceofanalysisofphysical
factors.

Source:ResearcherbasedonAbdelhalim(2010);andSoliman(2004).

157

EvaluationofExistingConditions
EvaluatetheExistingofUrban,Economic,andSocialEnvironmentsintheCaseStudies
Theevaluationofthesquattersettlementsthathavebeenselectedisbasedon
knowledge of the relationship between the constructional status and social and
economic situations of the population, the adequacy of these conditions for the
population,andthepositivefactorsinshapingthebuiltenvironment.Theevaluationof
the actual situation and experience in both cases will help to draw the positives and
exclude the negatives for developing basic guidelines for dealing with squatter
settlementsthatwillmeettheneedsofthepopulationandfitwitheconomicandsocial
conditions. Evaluation of the actual situation will be implemented in three phases:
evaluation of the actual physical conditions in terms of the urban fabric, blocks, and
housing;andevaluationofthesocialandeconomicsituationsintermsofsuitabilitywith
urbanpatternandenvironmentalconditions.(29)
1 EvaluationoftheActualUrbanEnvironment
Evaluationoftheactualurbanenvironmentofthecasestudiesdependsonthe
relationship between the formation of the urban pattern and the social and
economiccharacteristics;thesuitabilityofthesepatternsforthepopulation;and
the compatibility of these patterns with the standards of planning in Egypt.
Evaluation starts from the level of the urban fabric, and covers the most
commonblocks,plotsofland,andhousing.

(29) Will be measuring how positive of urban, social, and economic situation of the inhabitants in
squatter settlements that have been selected by comparing current situation with Egyptian standards
planning,orglobalstandardsincaseofabsencethestandardsinEgypt.

158

11 Evaluate urban abric: In both case studies, the existing urban fabric is not
subjecttothefoundationsofspecificplanning.Theurbanfabricisirregular
and is not suitable for vehicles. There are no paved roads or pathways
dedicated to pedestrians. There is no discharge of sewage and most of the
streets turn into contaminated swamps during the rains. Utilities are
generallyoperatedwithoutstandardsandthepopulationsuffersfromlackof
water and sanitation. Electricity is available because it is relatively easy to
providethere. Atuahene(2004)pointsoutthattheprovisionsforadequate
foodandclothingaredifficulttomeasure.Yet,thefactthatinformalhousing
conditions are linked with a woefully inadequate supply of basic services,
includingcleandrinkingwater,(30)indicatesthatfoodsupplieslikelyarenot
adequateandcleanilessisprobablylacking.Thelackofthesebasicservices
are primary causes of many injuries, psychological stresses, and both
communicableandchronicdiseases.(31)
The study found that public pressure and the population affect the
possibilityofconnectingutilitiesinsquattersettlements. Utilitiesneedtobe
developedinlinewiththepopulationandontheEgyptianstandardsofper
capitaservices.

(30) Atuahene,Bernadette.LegalTitletoLandasanInterventionAgainstUrbanPovertyinDeveloping
Nations.36GeorgeWashingtonInternationalReview,1109,112324,2004.

(31)Soliman,2004,p.15.

159

Thepopulationtakesadvantageofthemaximumamountofspaceto
buildtheirhousesattheexpenseofroads.Therefore,mostoftheroadsdid
notexceed10meters(32feet)inwidthandsomewerenarrower.Therefore,
firetrucksandambulancescannotentersomeareas.Urbanfabricthatbuilt
attheexpenseofagriculturalareascannotbeevaluatedbecauseitisnotyet
completed.However,theoverallstyleofthesettlementislinear,roadsare
closer to the systematic pattern, and the settlement included a number of
vacantlots.
In the existing situation of the squatter settlements in the case
studies,theurbanfabric,facilities,utilities,andsocialservicesdonotmeet
the global standards of the Universal Declarations article 21, which states
that: everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his
country.(32) Fonseca (2002) explains that even if the State were willing to
provideservicestoinformals,theirinabilitytokeeptabsonpeopleexisting
outside of the legal regime effectively precludes them from doing so. The
factthaturbaninformalshavealmostnocontactwiththeState,unlessthey
commit a serious crime, underscores their deprivation of services.(33) As
Miller (2006) puts it, if even the police avoid informal settlements, then it

(32) Miller, Brett J. Living Outside the Law: How the Informal Economy Frustrates Enforcement of the
Human Rights Regime for Billions of the Worlds Most Marginalized Citizens. Northwestern University
SchoolofLaw,NorthwesternJournalofInternationalHumanRights,Volume5,Issue1,Fall2006,p.140.
(33) Fonseca, Claudia. Inequality Near and Far: Adoption as Seen From the Brazilian Favelas. 36 Law
andSocietyReview,2002,p. 401.

160

can come as no surprise that social services rarely visit such dwellings
either.(34)
Squattersettlementscanbenefitfromthedevelopmentoftheroads
inlinewithsafetystandardswhichallowtheallocationofwatersources(i.e.,
fire hydrants) for emergencies in the narrow roads. Other improvements
includepavingthestreets,convertingsomeroadstobeonedirectiononly,
and allocating certain spaces as parking lots for vehicles or childrens
playgrounds.
12Evaluateblocks:Blocksareshapedwithoutcontrolsorplanningstandards,
as they begin when housing units combine to form a block. Based on the
analysis,themostcommontypesofblocksareculdesacs,whilethelinear
modesarefoundparticularlyinagriculturalsettlements.Mostoftheblocks
containspacesorincludeanoutletstreet.Theexistingsituationoftheblocks
are in line with the social aspects. However, they need to be developed so
the spaces encourage the strengthening of social relations and social
participation,orusedasplaygroundsforchildren.
Figure (69) illustrates the patterns of common blocks in squatter
settlements,whereeachpatternestablishedbythepopulationisequivalent
toastandardpatternafterdevelopment.

(34) Miller(2006).

161

Culdesac

Square

Regular

Linear

Figure(69):BlockPatternsandEquivalentPatternsinthePlanning(35)
The blocks that contain spaces or culdesacs maintain privacy for
eachsocialgroup,sotheresidentsofagroupdemonstratethesamesocial
characteristics.
The population preferences of the blocks patterns most common in
squattersettlementsmustbetakenintoaccount.Itisnecessarytomaintain
these patterns with the development of the built environment in order to
achievesustainabilityofthepopulation.(36)
13 Evaluate housing: Plots in squatter settlements are distributed randomly
according to the exploitation of the area. Areas of plots range from 50250
squaremeters(5382,691squarefeet).Oftenmultistoryresidentialunitsare

(35) Researcherredrawingofblocksbasedonchapter5.

(36) Basedondataanalysisinchapter5.

162

spreadamongsmallplots. Mostoftheunitshavedeterioratedandlackthe
minimumhealthandsafetystandards.Theaverageareaofthehousingunits
in settlements range from 50100 square meters (5381,076 square feet).
Someunitsdonothavetoilets,soresidentsaredependentonpublictoilets
orsharedtoilets.
The existing situation of housing in the squatter settlements in the
case studies violates the requirements of construction in Egypt in terms of
construction without permits, urban spaces, and a lack of bathrooms and
kitchens. In addition, the built environment does not accommodate the
current population density based on the criteria of neighborhoods in
Egypt.(37)
Despitethedeterioratingsituationofhousinginsquattersettlements,
the evaluation shows that the most common housing units in such
settlements can be developed to fit the standards of construction while at
thesametimesimulatingthecurrentconditionsofthepopulation.(38)Table
(34) shows the characteristics of the current housing units in squatter
settlementsandcomparesthemwiththestandardsofconstructioninEgypt.
There are no significant differences between the current situation and the
standards of construction. This indicates the possibility of developing such

(37) AhmadAllam,Ghaith,Mahmoud,Planningneighboringresidential,Cairo,Arabicversion,1995.

(38) Basedondataanalysisinchapter5.

163

housing units in accordance with official standards, while maintaining the


propertiesoftheresidentialunits.
Table(34):ComparingtheActualAituationWiththeStandards
Items

Room**
Kitchen
Bathroom
Hall
Avg.areaperperson
Avg.roomsperdwelling
Avg.personsperroom

Averagein
squatter
settlements
11.35
3.12
2
2.6
12.6
2.8
1.44

RegulationRatio*
Min.area Max.area
2.7
1.5
1.5
3

10
3
2.25
7.5
15
3.5
1.5

Source: Calculating the average by the researcher depending on: Zeinab NourEddine Tag
Eldeen,Ibid,p.38.&WalidYousef,urbancommunityinthecityofMansura,Ibid,p.181.
*Note:Areaisinsquaremeters.
**Note: There is no specific information on the two case studies about room, kitchen,
bathroom,andhallarea.Ithasbeenreplacedbytheinformationonthesquattersettlement
inEgyptingeneralthrough:EgyptionBuildingRagulations,LowNo.106,1976(dimensions
are in meters and square meters); and Soliman, A. in G. Dix et al. Housing in Alexandria,
reportsubmittedtoODA,Liveropool,LiverpoolUniversityPress,1992.

Table (35) summarizes the actual urban environment in squatter


settlementsandtheevaluationofpositiveandnegativeaspects.(39)

(39)Thepreviousanalysisinchapter5.Withthebenefitof:
1.

Planningtheneighborhood:standardsforhealthfulhousing,AmericanPublicHealthAssociation.
CommitteeontheHygieneofHousing,Chicago:PublicAdministrationService,1960.

2.

Ghaith&Allam,Planningneighboringresidential,Cairo,Arabicversion,1995.CentralAgencyfor
PublicMobilizationandStatistics.

164

Table(35):EvaluationoftheActualUrbanEnvironment

Utilities

Actualsituationintwocases
Electricityoftenreachestothesitelegally
dependingonthepublicpressure.

Theexistingsituationofutilitiesis
substandard.

56.5%ofthepopulationinsquatter
settlementsdependsonwatertaps.

Lackofsewagesysteminsquatter
settlementsisamajorcauseforthe
spreadofdiseases.

56.5%ofthepopulationinsquatter
settlementsnotconnectedtoasewage.
Electricityisthebestutilityinsquatter
settlementsduetotheeasedelivery
comparedwithothers.

Blocks

FabricFeatures

Wastedisposalconstitutesanextraburdento
thepopulationwheretheyspend$610per
month.

Housingandplots

Evaluation

Theformationoftheurbanfabricissuitable
tothesocialandeconomicconditions.
Spacesarespreadintheagriculturaltissue,
butlessinthedeserttissue.

Developmentofthenetwork,
sanitation,andutilitiesreducethe
burdenonthepopulationbothin
thetransferofwaterorthecosts
forthedisposalofcontaminated
water.

Thecurrentsituationfitswiththe
circumstancesofthepedestrian
environment.

Roadsareverynarrowandjaggedranges
from210meters.

Narrowroadsareappropriatetothe
population.Mostusesimplemeans
suchasbicycleorbus.Buttheydo
notconformtosafetystandards(fire
trucks,ambulances).

Culdesacblocksarethemostcommon,and
linearintheagriculturalareainparticular.

Culdesacblockspromotesocial
relationshipsamongresidents.

Blocksareformedsoastoenhancesocial
convergenceinthepopulation.

Spacesbetweentheblocksare
opportunitiestocreatesmall
playgroundsandrecreationalareas.

Themostcommonlandareaisfrom50250
sq.m.

Theexistingsituationofhousingis
substandard.

53.4%ofhousingareafrom50100sq.m.

Socialandeconomicconditions
controlthehousingtype,space,
andnumberoffloors.

Numberoffloorsrangesfromonefloorto
morethanfivefloors,dependingon
populationdensityandtheneedsofthe
family.

Somehouseshaveinadequate
healthstandardsintermsof
lighting,ventilation,andprovided
toilets.

*Source:Thepreviousanalysisinchapter5.Withthebenefitof:Planningtheneighborhood:standards
forhealthfulhousing,AmericanPublicHealthAssociation.CommitteeontheHygieneofHousing,Chicago
:PublicAdministrationService,1960.andGhaith&Allam,Planningneighboringresidential,Cairo,Arabic
version,1995.CentralAgencyforPublicMobilizationandStatistics.

165

2 EvaluationoftheActualSocialSituation
The evaluate of the actual social situation of the inhabitants in the squatter
settlements selected is through the appropriateness of the existing social
situationwiththeplanningstandardsinEgyptortheglobalstandardsinthecase
oftheabsenceoflocalstandards.Positiveandnegativefactorsareevaluatedin
terms of population density, household size, overcrowding, literacy, and social
stability.Table(36)summarizestheevaluationofthesocialsituationofsquatter
settlements.

Socialstability

Literacy

HouseholdSize

Population

Table(36):EvaluationoftheActualSocialSituation
Actualsituationintwocases
Disparitiesinthepopulationofsquatter
settlementsare28,900and1,783people.
Theaveragenumberofresidentsinthe
squattersettlementschosenis15,341.
Averagehouseholdsizeinselectedsquatter
settlementsis4.45persons.
Overcrowdinginsquattersettlementsof
1.44personsperroom.

Totalpercentageofilliteratesinselected
squattersettlementsis37%.
Percentageofilliteratefemalesis55.7%.
Percentageofilliteratemalesis47%.
Residentswhohavelivedinsettlementfor
lessthan15yearsis56.25%.
For1525yearsis35.9%.
Formorethan25yearsis15.7%.

Evaluation
Theaverageofpopulationin
squattersettlementsismore
thanEgyptianresidential
environmentstandards,which
mustnotexceed7,500people.
Averagehouseholdsizeismore
thantheaverageinEgypt4.29
persons.
Overcrowdingiswithinthe
existingstandardsinEgypt.
Illiteracyrateofmorethanthe
overallrateinEgypt29.8%
Developmentshouldinclude
educationalservices,particularly
tosupportwomen.
Supportspopulationstabilization
throughownershipofthe
property.
Stimulatethepopulationtostay
throughemploymentprograms.

*Source: The previous analysis in chapter 5. With the benefit of: Planning the neighborhood:
standardsforhealthfulhousing,AmericanPublicHealthAssociation.CommitteeontheHygieneof
Housing, Chicago: Public Administration Service, 1960; and Ghaith & Allam, Planning neighboring
residential,Cairo,Arabicversion,1995.CentralAgencyforPublicMobilizationandStatistics.

166

3 EvaluationoftheActualEconomicSituation
The evaluate of the economic situation of the inhabitants in the squatter
settlements that have been selected is through the appropriateness of the
existingsituationofeconomicwiththeplanningstandardsinEgyptortheglobal
standards in the case of the absence of local standards. Positive and negative
factors are evaluated in terms of household income, housing tenure,
expenditure on housing, and employment status. Table (37) summarizes the
evaluationofthesocialsituationofthesquattersettlements.

Employmentstatus

Householdincome,spending

Table(37):EvaluationoftheActualEconomicSituation
Actualsituationintwocases
Averagemonthlyincomeofthe
inhabitantsofsquattersettlements
rangesfrom$44$88.
Proportionoftenantsis39.15%ofthe
totalpopulation.
Morethan75%ofthesquatter
settlementspopulationspendsmore
than38%ofincomeforhousing.

68.2%ofthepopulationofsquatter
settlementsworkintheprivatesector.
Majorityofthepopulationareself
employed.
Unskilledoccupationsareprevalentin
squattersettlementssuchas
maintenance,agriculture,paint,sewing,
andlaborworkers.

Evaluation
Averagemonthlyincomeofthe
inhabitantsofsquatter
settlementslessthantheglobal
povertyline($138).
Averagemonthlyincomeofthe
inhabitantsofsquatter
settlementslessthanthe
averageinEgypt($115.21).
Mustreduceproportionof
spendingonhousingof30%.
Developmentofsquatter
settlementsorthecreationof
newresidentialenvironments
ofthepopulationmustinclude
theprivatesectortosupport
thepopulation,employment,
andrehabilitation.

*Source: The previous analysis in chapter 5. With the benefit of: Planning the neighborhood:
standardsforhealthfulhousing,AmericanPublicHealthAssociation.CommitteeontheHygieneof
Housing, Chicago: Public Administration Service, 1960. and Ghaith & Allam, Planning neighboring
residential,Cairo,Arabicversion,1995.CentralAgencyforPublicMobilizationandStatistics.

167

GuidelinesforDealingwithSquatterSettlements
TakingAdvantageofthePositivesintheEvaluationintheCaseStudies
Thedevelopmentofguidelinesfordealingwithsquattersettlementsisbasedon
preserving the positive aspects of the actual urban environment, and social and
economic situations. Improving the negative aspects depends on measuring the
adequacyofthosesituationswithEgyptianstandards,whetherphysical,environmental,
health, or international standards. The guidelines benefit from the experience of the
Egyptiangovernmentindealingwithsquattersettlementsinthatthepositiveaspectsof
thephysical,social,andeconomicsituationshavebeenidentifiedandincorporated.
Figure (70) illustrates the importance of taking advantage of the positive
experienceandtheactualconditionsinbothcasestudiestoprovideeffectiveguidelines
thatarecompatiblewiththesquattersettlementspopulation.

Positive

Evaluateexperience
inbothcases

Takeadvantagefrom
positiveways
Negative
Guidancefor
squattersettlements

Positive

Evaluateconditionin
bothcases

Negative

Finalproductcompatible
withpopulation

Figure(70):ProcesstoTakeAdvantageFromtheSquatterSettlementsCases(40)

(40) Researcherdependingontheprocessofthestudy.

168

1 DecisiontoDeveloptheSquatterSettlements
GuidelinesfortheResponsibilityofGovernmentsintheDevelopment
TherighttodevelopmentisrootedintheUnitedNationsCharter,theUniversal
Declaration of Human Rights and the two International Human Rights
Conventions.(41)AccordingtotheDeclarationontheRighttoDevelopment:
11 The right to development is aninalienable human right by virtue ofwhich
everyhumanpersonandallpeoplesareentitledtoparticipatein,contribute
to,andenjoyeconomic,social,culturalandpoliticaldevelopment,inwhich
allhumanrightsandfundamentalfreedomscanbefullyrealized.(42)
12 Thehumanrighttodevelopmentalsoimpliesthefullrealizationoftheright
of peoples to selfdetermination, which includes, subject to the relevant
provisionsofbothInternationalCovenantsonHumanRights,theexerciseof
their inalienable right to full sovereignty over all their natural wealth and
resources.(43)
2 TheSuitabilityoftheSiteforDevelopment
GuidelinesforGovernmentInterventioninSquatterSettlements
Beforeproceedingwiththedevelopmentofsquattersettlements,theareamust
be evaluated in terms of site safety, public health, and natural hazards. Most
squatter settlements are built in places that are difficult to access or are

(41) Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Right to Development:
Backgroundatwww.unhchr.ch/development/right01.html(lastvisitedMar.10,2006).

(42) Brett J. Miller, Living Outside the Law: How the Informal Economy Frustrates Enforcement of the
Human Rights Regime for Billions of the Worlds Most Marginalized Citizens, Northwestern University
SchoolofLaw,NorthwesternJournalofInternationalHumanRights,Volume5,Issue1,Fall2006,p.133.

(43) Declaration on the Right to Development art. 1, paras. 1, 2, G.A. Res. 41/128 (1986), available at
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/74.htm(lastvisitedMar.10,2006).

169

controlledbythegovernmentplanningagencies.Therefore,constructionofthe
settlementsisoftenattheexpenseofagriculturalland,plains,orhills,orisclose
to water sources. Although the Egyptian government have made efforts to
develop Ezbet Bekhit in the past, it was found through this study that both
settlements are not appropriate to upgrading or developing the physical
situation.EzbetBekhitwasbuiltattheexpenseofthelimestoneminingareaand
is very dangerous because of rockslides. The study suggests immediate
evacuation of the population first, and then planning to establish a physical
environment appropriate for them. Ezbeit Alsfih and Alhoyes was built at the
expenseofagriculturallandsurroundingthecityofMansoura.Thesettlementis
notsuitablefordevelopmentduetoenvironmentalconsiderations.(44)
3 SustainableUrbanEnvironment
GuidelinesfortheGovernmentinProvidingAffordableHousing
Affordable housing or public housing should emulate the urban patterns of
development in the squatter settlements to become suitable for building
standards in Egypt. However, these models should meet the needs and
preferencesofresidentsintermsoftheurbanfabric,urbanblockspattern,and
residentialunits.(45)
Figure (71) shows the guidelines to create a sustainable urban
environmentbasedontheprincipleofmaintainingthecurrentpatternsofurban

(44)Basedondataanalysisinchapter5.
(45) Mohamed Abdel Samie, lessons learned from the informal housing in the context of affordable
housing, research presented in: Supreme Commission for the Development of Riyadh. Seminar on
HousingII,2004.(Arabicversion).

170

squatter settlements and developing settlements that compatible with the


planningstandards.

Informalsettlements

Formalsettlements

Urbanfabric

Urbanfabric

Blocks

Blocks

Housing

Housing

Incompatiblewiththestandards

Incompatiblewiththeinhabitants

Compatiblewithinhabitants

Compatiblewiththestandards

Maintainthepatternsand
adapttothestandards

Sustainableurbanenvironment
Figure(71):GuidelinestoCreateaSustainableUrbanEnvironment(46)
31 Block patterns: The development of urban block patterns should be
silimar to the current situation while also in line with the planning
standards.Table(38) showstheurbanblockpatternsdevelopedforthe
residentialblocksofthesquattersettlementsinthecasestudies.

(46) Researcherbasedon:ElBaradei,AbdelMoneim.Ph.Dthesis,Egypt,1990.

171

Table(38):DevelopmentofUrbanBlocksinSquatterSettlements
Currentstatus

Emulatormodel

Afterdevelopment

1Culdesac:Prevalencerateproposedforthistypeis63%

2Square:Prevalencerateproposedforthistypeis12%

3Linear:Prevalencerateproposedforthistypeis25%

4Linearwithwalkway:Prevalencerateproposedforthistypeis25%
*Source:Modifiedmodelsdevelopedbytheresearcherandtakenfrom:
http://www.cyburbia.org/gallery/showphoto.php/photo/19482
**Redrawn by researcher based on the maps and aerial photos from Participatory Urban
UpgradingManshietNasser/CairoEgypt, B.U.S.UrbanManagementAndEnvironmental
Planning: Project References, 19982001, p. 2, and Hazin, AbdelFattah and Yousef, Walid,
Ibid.

172

32 Block length: Residential blocks lengths should not exceed 250 meters
(820.21feet)inordertofacilitateaccessbetweentheunitsandservices.
Inthecaseofblocklengthsofexceeding250meters,theblocksmustbe
punctuated by internal pedestrian pathways.(47) Figure (72) shows the
developmentofthepedestrianenvironmentwithinblocksthatexceeda
lengthof250meterssoastostrengthentheprincipleofaccessibility.

Figure(72):DevelopmentofaPedestrianEnvironmentintheBlock(48)
33 Housingtypes:Affordablehousingorpublichousingshouldbediversifiedin
terms of area, height, and type of housing, and be similar to the housing
units in squatter communities while also in line with the standards of
construction. Table (39) shows the building heights proposed and the
standardsofconstructioninproportionforeachtype.

(47) LawofUrbanPlanninginEgypt,thelawofthedivisionofland,No.3,1982.
(48) Researcher.

173

Table(39):TheProportionofBuiltupAreatotheTotalArea
Guidelines/standards
Buildingheight:onestory.
Theproportionofbuiltuparea:
100%oftotalplot.
Oftenusedasseparate
residentialunits.

Buildingheight

Buildingheight:twostories.
Theproportionofbuiltuparea:
50%oftotalplot.
Oftenusedformorethanone
family.
Buildingheight:fivestories.
Theproportionofbuiltuparea:
20%oftotalplot.
Oftenusedasapartmentsorin
groups.
Source: Ghaith & Allam. Planning Neighboring Residential, Cairo, Arabic version. 1995, p.
105.

34 Road width: The width of the roads proposed should be from 310 meters
(1032feet),whilehavingpedestrianpathwayswithawidthnotlessthan2
meters(7feet).Inaddition,thewidthoftheroadsshouldbecompatiblewith
buildingheightssothatresidentsfeelcomfortable.(49)
Figure(73)illustratestheguidelinesfortherelationshipbetweenthe
roadandbuildingheightaccordingtointernationalstandards.

(49) For more information see: County of San Bernardino, California, Road Planning and Design
Standards,1993.

174

Figure(73):GuidelinesoftheRoadandBuildingHeight(50)
35 Street pavement: The study shows that most of the streets in the squatter
settlements in the case studies are not paved but instead use asphalt.
Guidelinesproposeminimizingtheuseofasphaltinthestreets,particularly
inthestreetswithwidthoflessthan3meters(10feet),andreplacingitwith
materials taken from the natural environment, such as small stones. Figure
(74)showsexamplesofpavementofthestreetsusingnaturalmaterialssoas
toenhancetheprincipleofenvironmentalsustainability.

Figure(74):PavingUsingNaturalMaterialsAdaptedtotheEnvironment(51)
36 Squares and space: The study shows the importance of squares within
squatter settlements. The alternative housing proposed must include a
hierarchy of square spaces starting from semiprivate spaces within the

(50) ElBaradei,AbdelMoneim.Ph.D.thesis,Egypt,1990.
(51) www.pavingexpert.com

175

blocks, to public squares and the main square. Figure (75) shows the
hierarchyofsquareswithintheurbanenvironmentproposed.

Figure(75):GuidelinesoftheSquaresProposed(52)
4 SustainableSocialandEconomicalEnvironment
GuidelinesfortheGovernmentinProvidingAffordableHousing

41 Population density: The population of the settlements proposed must


complywithplanningstandards.Theactualpopulationofoneofthesquatter
settlements chosen exceeds the residential planning standards. The
population of Ezbet Bakhit is 28,900 people, higher than the official
standards).Ontheotherhand,thepopulationofEzbetAlsfihandAlhoyesis
1,783people,withintheofficialstandards.(53)Thepopulationintheproposed

(52) Researcherdependingon:Ghaith&Allam,p.219.
(53) Basedondataanalysisinchapter5.

176

residential neighborhoods should not exceed 7,500 people for each


neighborhood.
42 Work opportunities: The proposed affordable housing should be close to
possible sources of jobs and services.(54) Amnesty International (2009)
suggests,Considerthedestructiveeffectsofrelocatingpeoplefarfromtheir
source of livelihood and their community where they can find work and
affordcostsoflife.(55)
43 Standard facilities: Guidelines must include the development of standard
facilities, services, and commercial areas on the basis of the proposed
populationof7,500peopleforeachresidentialneighborhood.(56) Table(40)
shows the standard facilities that are proposed and the appropriate
populationdensitywithinthelevelofthepersonandthefamily.
Table(40):AreaStandardsofFacilitiesProposedfor7,500People
Facilities
Schools
Playground
Publicgreenarea
Commercialcenter
Others
Total
Acreper1,000people
Sq.mperfamily
Sq.mperperson

Acres
3.00
7.00
4.00
3.71
2.90
20.62
2.75
58
11

*Source: Ghaith & Allam. Planning Neighboring Residential, Cairo. Arabic version, 1995, p.
147.

(54) Ahsan, Reazul. Informal Housing and Approaches Towards the Lowincome Society in Developing
Countries.UniversityofSouthAustralia,2010.
(55) Amnesty International. Buried Alive Trapped by Poverty and Neglect: In Cairos Informal
SettlementsHousingIsaHumanRight.2009,p.39.

(56) ElBaradei,AbdelMoneim,Ph.D.thesis,Egypt,1990.

177

44Accessibility:Thefacilitiesintheaffordablehousingmustencouragepeople
towalkthroughtheareabridgingthedistancebetweenthehousingunitand
facilitiesasmuchaspossible.(57)Table(41)showsthedistancebetweenthe
standard facilities and residential units in a manner consistent with the
principleofpromotingpedestrianenvironmentinthesettlements.
Table(41):WalkingDistanceProposedtotheFacilitiesintheCommunity
Typeoffacilitie
Maximumwalkingdistance
Daynursery
400m
Kindergarten
400800m
Elementaryschool
400800m
Playground
400800m
Socialactivity
800m
Healthcenter
800m
Middleschool
10001500m
Highschool
15002000m
Mosqueorchurch
15002000m
Commercialcenter
15002000m
Recreationalservices
15003000m
*Source: Ghaith & Allam, Planning neighboring residential, Cairo, Arabic version, 1995.
Egyptianstandards,pp.35,113.

As shown in Figure (76), guidelines for the walking distance to the


mainfacilitiesareappropriateforthepopulationinamannerconsistentwith
theratesofplanninginEgypt.

(57) For more information see: Vermont Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Planning and Design Manual,
Prepared for the Vermont Agency of Transportation by the National Center for Bicycling & Walking,
December2002.

178


Figure(76):GuidelinesofWalkingDistancetotheMainFacilities(58)

5 OtherGuidelines
GuidelinesforParticpationofthePriviteandPublicSectors
51Privatesectorparticipation:Thestudyshowsthatmostoftheresidentsof
squattersettlementsworkascraftsmen,laborers,orfarmers.Therefore,the
private sector must be encouraged to utilize the human resources by
establishing projects that serve those populations, such as maintenance
projects, sewing, recycling waste, and painting. The guidelines include
granting free land to the private sector, renting out land in the long term,
andgrantingloanstoinvestors.
52Publicparticipation:Thepopulationshouldbeinvolvedinthedevelopment
oftheexistingphysicalenvironmentornewurbanenvironments.Inthisway,
the final product will comply with the needs and perferences of the
residents. The participation of the population must be throughout the
developmentprocess,fromtheinitialplan,tothefinalplan,andtheactual
implementation. Figure (77) shows a program of public participation in the
developmentofguidelines,aswellasreviewsandhearingsregardingthem.

(58) Researcherbasedontable(41).

179

Public participation in the development process consists of the following


stages:(59)
a) Anagencypreparesadraftofprojectspecificguidelines.
b) The agency circulates the guidelines to identified interested parties and
announcestheiravailabilityforpubliccomment.
c) Areviewpanelreceivesthewrittencommentsandconductsmeetings.
d) Thereviewpanelpreparesthefinalprojectspecificguidelines.

Figure(77):OpportunitiesforPublicParticipation(60)

(59) CanadianEnvironmentalAssessmentAgency:www.ceaa.gc.ca
(60) Ibid.

180

ChapterSeven:Conclusion
The previous chapter addressed the results of the study and the guidelines in
dealing with squatter settlements. These guidelines are based on the philosophy of
taking advantage of the actual conditions of those settlements to develop standards
consistent with the planning conditions of the population and meet their needs. This
chaptercontainssummariesoftheresultsofthestudyfromthepreviouschapterinthe
form of key points, as well as the final recommendations, based on the results of the
study.Thefinalrecommendationswilladdresstheelementsofthemainissue,whether
theywerecausedbytheproblem,affectedbytheproblem,orpartoftheproblem.The
recommendationswillincludethecommunity,thegovernment,andtheresidentsofthe
squatter settlements. At the end of this chapter there are summaries of the stages of
the study, the difficulties faced by the researcher, and the findings and
recommendations.

181

ResultsoftheStudy
"SummaryoftheMainResultsoftheStudy"
Based on the analysis of the actual situation in both squatter settlements case, and
evaluategovernmentsapproaches.Numberofpositiveledtodevelopedguidelinesfor
dealingwithsquattersettlementsandinlinewithurbanstandard.Themostimportant
resultsofEgyptsexperienceindealingwithsquattersettlementsareasfollows:
1 TheRegionalDimensionoftheProblem
Thestudyshowsthatinspiteofthegovernmentseffortstosolvetheproblemof
squatter settlements in Egypt, the phenomenon of the unplanned growth of
settlements remains one of the biggest challenges facing the government. The
studyshowsthatthefocusofdevelopmentinthemajorcitiesattheexpenseof
the villages and small towns has led to the increased migration of the
population. In addition, the lack of supply of affordable housing is one of the
mainreasonsforthelimitedaccessibilityofhousingforthepoor.Thissituation
has contributed to the building of settlements on the outskirts of cities in an
informalmanner.
The study emphasizes the importance of the regional dimension in solving the
problemofsquattersettlementsinthelongtermandpreventingtheirspreadin
thefuture.Themajorityofthepopulationisnearmajorcities;47.54percentof
EgyptspopulationisconcentratedintheareasofCairo,Dakahlia,Albuhera,and
Alexandria.Thebalanceinthedevelopment,thedistributionofservicesinrural

182

areas,andstructuringequalpopulationdensitywithincitiesmustallbepriorities
fortheregionalplansinEgypt.(1)
2 ThePositiveRoleofGovernment
The study shows that the government has made many positive efforts to
improve and develop squatter settlements. Although these settlements were
built on an informal basis, the government has provided many of the facilities,
utilities,andservices,eveniftheyarelimited.Thegovernmenthasalsoprovided
affordablehousingprograms,economichousing,andfundstosupportthepoor.
Despitetheirefforts,thesedevelopmentprogramswerenotsufficienttocover
allsquattersettlementsinEgypt.However,thatdoesnoteliminatethepositive
role of government in trying to resolve the problem. The issue of squatter
settlementscannotbesolvedbythegovernmentalone,butneedscontributions
from several parties, including the private sector, public participation, and
donors.(2)
3 EgyptsExperienceAffectedbyExternalFactors
Thestudyshowstheimpactofexternalfactorsonthedevelopmentofsquatter
settlements in Egypt. The government provided many of the projects and
solutionstothehousinginEzbeitBekit,suchaspartialdevelopment,alternative

(1) See chapter4:dealtatlengthwitharegionaldimension,populationconcentration,andstagesofthe


spreadofsquattersettlements.

(2) See chapter6:comprehensiveassessmentoftheexperienceoftheEgyptiangovernmentindealing


withsquattersettlementsandconcludesthepositivefeatures.

183

housing,and,recently,anEgyptianGermandevelopment(PDP).Meanwhile,the
study did not find any solutions or programs to deal with Ezbeit Alsfih and
Alhoyeswherepeoplestillsufferfromtheindiscriminatedestructionofhousing.
This gives the impression that Egypts experience in dealing with squatter
settlementsisaffectedbytheimportanceofthesettlement,theinfluenceofthe
media,(3)externaldonors,andpublicpressure.
4 EgyptsExperienceIncludesaVarietyofApproaches
ThestudyshowsthatEgypthasusedmanyapproachesindealingwithsquatter
settlements.Someoftheseapproacheshavereliedonthegovernmentsvision,
such as onsite redevelopment of informal areas, partial adjustment, and
servicing informal areas. On the other hand, some approaches benefited from
the participation of the private sector, donors, or popular participation. The
studyshowsthebenefitofevaluatingpastexperienceandtakingadvantageof
positivefeaturestosupportdevelopmentprojectsforsquattersettlements.(4)
5 TheAbsenceofaComprehensiveStrategy
The study shows that despite the diversity of the governments approaches to
dealingwiththesquattersettlements,therewasnocomprehensivestrategyto
deal with all squatter settlements in Egypt. The approaches are applied

(3) HumanRightsWatchaddressedtheissueofpopulationinEzbetBekhitandManshietNasserindetail,
especiallyafterarockslidedisasterin2008.Thathadamajorimpactonthegovernmenttoacceleratethe
paceofdevelopmentinthissettlementinparticular.

(4) See chapter6:evaluatetheexperienceoftheEgyptiangovernment,concludesthepositivefeatures.

184

selectively to each settlement separately, and this has a negative impact on


public resources, government efforts, and human resources. In addition, the
development of some squatter settlements in Egypt and the removal of other
settlementsdonottakeintoaccounttheprincipleofsocialjustice,wheresome
residents gain social welfare, development, and services while the rest of the
settlementsaredeprivedoftheslightestattention.(5)
6 SquatterSettlementsAreNotFullofDrawbacks
Thestudyshowsthatsquattersettlementsdohavesomepositiveaspects.Many
lessons have been learned from the populations ability to form their urban
environments without relying on the government. The study concludes that
manyformationsinurbansquattersettlementsaresimilartoformalsettlements
in terms ofthe types of blocks, housing units, and the urban fabric. Therefore,
planners can take advantage of those models and develop housing to fit the
standardsofformalplanningwhenproposingalternativehousing.Achievingthat
means the formation of new urban environment in accordance with planning
standardsthatatthesametimemeettheneedsofthepopulation.(6)
7 LessonsLearnedFromtheInhabitantsinPopularParticipation
The study shows that the residents of squatter settlements depend on
themselvesintermsofbuildingthephysicalenvironment,selfemployment,and

(5) See chapter5:thecomparativeanalysisofsquattersettlements.

(6) Ibid.

185

selfmanagement.Despitethenegativeaspectsofthosesettlements,thestudy
shows that many lessons have been learned from popular participation.
Therefore, any solutions or future projects that do not support peoples
participationindecisionmakingareincomplete.
8 TheEconomicandSocialDimensionsoftheProblem
The study shows that some of the solutions and projects did not take into
accountthesocialandeconomicdimensionsoftheproblem.(7)Theprovisionof
affordable housing for the poor is one alternative solution to squatter
settlements, but is not enough to solve the problem. Planners must prepare
solutionsthatalsoprovidejobopportunitiesforthepopulation,socialprograms,
activitiesthatsupportpopularparticipation,andaccesstoland.Anyattemptto
resolvetheproblemofsquattersettlementswithoutthisrealizationwillamount
toaneffortinfutility.Thegovernmentsvisionofalternativehousingshouldbe
sustainable living environment, not a place to merely accommodate the
people.(8)

(7) Formoreinformationsee: ReazulAhsan,InformalHousingandApproachestowardstheLowincome


SocietyinDevelopingCountries,UniversityofSouthAustralia,2010.
(8) MustaphaOyewoleBELLO,Thefocushasalwaysbeenonsquatterorinformalsettlementsandnoton
the urban poor, or their inaccessibility of land, Working Week 2009 Surveyors Key Role in Accelerated
DevelopmentEilat,38May2009.

186

Recommendations
"TheFinalRecommendationsofThisStudy"
Therecommendationsofthisstudydealwithissuesrelatedtogovernmentinstitutions,
population of the squatter settlements, the private sector, donors, and research
institutions. After reviewing the results of the study, the evaluation of the current
situation of squatter settlements, and the evaluation of the experience of the
government in dealing with squatter settlements in Egypt, recommendations of the
studyaresummarizedasfollows:
1 BuildingDatabasesofSquatterSettlements
TheapparentlackofdatarelatedtosquattersettlementsinEgyptisoneofthe
mainreasonsthatsolutionsareprovidedthatdonotcorrespondwiththeneeds
of the population. Most of the housing units provided to the population as a
solution are not compatible with the family size, income, and social and
economic conditions of the population. The study recommends building a
comprehensive database of squatter settlements in Egypt that include a
geographic information systems (GIS), including accurate information on the
construction, population, and economic conditions. Yaakup and Healey (1994)
explain: The quality of the planning and decisionmaking process can be
substantially improved when valid data are appropriately and efficiently
handled.(9) From this standpoint, the focus should be on developing solutions
and strategies that are compatible with the conditions of the population and

(9) YaakupAB,HealeyRG,1994,"AGISapproachtospatialmodellingforsquattersettlementplanning
inKualaLumpur,Malaysia"EnvironmentandPlanningB:PlanningandDesign21(1)2134

187

economicconditions.Theconstructionofacomprehensivedatabaseofsquatter
settlementsinEgyptwillhelpinthedevelopmentofacomprehensivestrategic
plan to deal with squatter settlements, and avoid development of individual
plansthatarenotsustainablebecausetheydonotaddressthephysical,social,
and economic needs of the population. The GIS database can be used to
produce various scenarios which take into account the socioeconomic
characteristicsofthesquatters,theconstraintsofthephysicallayoutofexisting
squattersettlements,availabilityofland,andsitesuitabilityofdifferentkindsof
development.Spatialmodelingtechniquesareemployedtoexaminealternative
plansforthesquatterareas.Theseplansareevaluatedbymeansofcostbenefit
analysisincorporatedintotheGISdatabase.(10)
2 PositivesFromtheExperienceoftheGovernment
The study recommends benefiting from the experience of the government in
dealing with squatter settlements, to evaluate the experience, and extract
positiveaspects.Althoughmanyof theseprogramscannotresolvethehousing
problemcompletely,plannerscantakeadvantageofthepositiveaspectsofeach
approach. The experience of the government in dealing with squatter
settlements must be considered along with the evaluation of the current
situation of the squatter settlements. This will lead to the development of
guidelines that stem from the participation ofgovernment and the population,
aswellastherealityofbuiltenvironment.

(10) YaakupAB,HealeyRG,Ibid.

188

3 ProvideSmartHousingAlternatives
Thestudyshowstheadvantagesanddisadvantagesoftheenvironmentbuiltfor
addressing the problems of squatter settlements. The study emphasizes the
importanceoftakingadvantageofthepositivefeaturesofsquattersettlements,
aswellasmethodsofshapingthebuiltenvironment,theurbanspaces,andthe
social and economic circumstances of the population. The study recommends
providing smart housing alternatives that are consistent with the physical
conditions,andmeettheneedsofthepopulation.Providinghousingalternatives
without studying the characteristics of the physical, social, and economic
activities of the inhabitants will not contribute to the stability of populations
overthelongterm.
4 EqualPopulationDensityinthePlanningofCities
The study shows that the absence of regional planning in the development of
citieswithmoreequaldistributionofpopulationdensityisthemainreasonsfor
the spread of squatter settlements in Egypt. The total concentration of the
population is 47.54 percent in the center and north of Egypt because of the
proximityofwatersources,economicactivity,andthenetworksofmajorports.
NearlyhalfthepopulationofEgyptisconcentratedinanareanotexceeding20
percent of the area of the country.(11) The study recommends utilizing regional
planning in determining the optimal size of cities so as to prevent any
concentrationofpopulationinspecificcitiesattheexpenseofothercities.

(11) SeeChapter4.

189

5 StrengtheningofPopularParticipation
Thestudyshowsthatmostoftheresidentsinsquattersettlementsworkinthe
privatesectorasartisans,farmers,orlaborers.Thestudyrecommendsafocusof
using human resources for sustainable settlements after the development.
Providing affordable housing without taking into account the social and
economic aspects has led to failure andreturns the population to the squatter
settlementsduetotheavailabilityofjobs.(12)Therefore,thestudyrecommends
the participation of the population in the construction and development, or in
government projects involving the inhabitants of those settlements, such as
waste recycling, construction, and lighting. In addition, it recommends to the
participationofwomenbyprovidingcareeropportunitiesforthemthroughfood
processing,sewing,andhomemaking.
6 FlexibilityinPlanningControls
Thestudyshowsthatamaincontributetothespreadofsquattersettlementsin
Egypt is the regulations and strict building codes. The difficulty in accessing
affordablehousing,thecontrolofinvestorsinthehousingmarket,andthelack
of government support for housing are all factors that have encouraged the
building of settlements without obtaining building permits.(13) The study
recommends flexibility in land use regulations and building codes. This will
encourage the expansion of housing, the diversification in the use of

(12) SeeChapter5:Comparativeanalysisofsocialandeconomicsituation.
(13) SeeChapter4:causesofsquattersettlementinEgypt.

190

construction materials, building multistory units, selfconstruction, and using


affordableconstructiontechniques.
7 StimulatethePrivateSectorinDevelopment
The study shows that although 37 percent of the population in the selected
squatter settlements is illiterate, most of the population has acceptable skills,
whetherinconstruction,industry,maintenance,oragriculture.Theparticipation
of the private sector in management and organization of the labor market will
contributesignificantlytotheemploymentofthepopulationandincreasetheir
income.Thiswillreflectpositivelyonthephysicalenvironment,thepopulation,
andinvestorsintheprivatesector.Thestudyrecommendseffortstostimulate
the private sector in development of the squatter community by establishing
industrial projects, granting free land to investors, and reducing taxes or fees
imposedoninvestors.
8 SupportStudiesonSquatterSettlements
ThestudyrecommendssupportingstudiesonsquattersettlementsinEgyptand
researching the possibility of taking advantage of actual patterns in the
development of alternative models of housing. In addition, the study
recommendsdevelopingtheguidelinesandstandardsthathavebeenproposed
inthisthesistoreachtheurbanenvironmentmodelthatiscompatiblewiththe
residentsofsquattersettlementsandmeetstheirneeds.

191

TheDifficultiesFacedbytheResearcher
"Obstacles,Problems,andCriticalIssuesFacedbytheResearcher"
Theresearcherfacednumerousobstaclesduringtheconductofthisstudy.These
problemscanbesummarizedasfollows:
1 LackofInformation
Although there is some statistical information about the squatter settlements,
the researcher encountered obstacles related to the maps in that most of the
maps were drawn freehand and do not contain a scale. Therefore, the
researcherdependedonaerialmapsfromGoogleandsatellites.Inaddition,the
researcher encountered problems related to the lack of social information as
mostofthesocialstudiesandstatisticscoveringthewholeareaofsettlements,
butdonotcovereachcommunityorsubdistrict.
2 ConflictingInformation
Someoftheinformation,particularlyrelatingtopopulationsocialissuesandare
conflicting.Althoughthereissomestatisticsinformationintherecenttimes,the
researcher found there are differences in the number of residents of the
settlements, population density, and the total area. Therefore, the researcher
dependedonthemeanofrecentstudies.(14)
3 TheAbsenceofaDataBank
Unfortunately, most countries in the Middle East suffer from the absence of a
consolidatedinformationbank.Therefore,theresearcherhadtouseinformation

(14) TheclearestexampleistheentirepopulationofthesettlementofEzbetBekhit.P.94.

192

gathered from different sources that sometimes conflicted. The lack of a


geographic information system (GIS) linked to a database that is updated
periodically is one of the main obstacles faced by researchers in the field of
planningandurbandevelopmentintheMiddleEast.
4 TheRoleofResearchInstitutions
Unfortunately, most universities lack information regarding squatter
settlements. There is some research and a few theses, but they contain
redundant information about the settlements such as causes of the problem,
and describe statistical information. The information does not supply any
solutions or innovative ideas to the issue. The researcher tried to contact
professorsattheUniversityofMansura,buttheinformationobtainedwasless
thananticipated.Inaddition,manyoftheprofessorsdidnotreplytotheemail
request.Ontheotherhand,somegovernmentinstitutionshavecooperatedwell
withtheresearcher.(15)
5 TranslationIssues
Theresearcherencounteredsomedifficultiesrelatedtotranslations,sincesome
of the statistics and research are written in Arabic. The researcher benefited
from new technology such as the translation software Google Translate.
Surprisingly,therearemanystudiesaboutsquattersettlementsinEgyptthatare
writteninEnglish.

(15) Seeacknowledgments.

193

AFTERWORD
Access to affordable housing is an important issue facing governments in the
MiddleEast.Egyptisanexampleoftheinabilityofthegovernmenttodealwithsquatter
settlements,wherethestudyshowsanestimated1,046settlementshousingmorethan
10.7965 million people. The Egyptian government has failed to provide affordable
housing or housing alternatives to the poor. On the other hand, some affordable
housingthatisavailabledoesnotfitwiththepoorintermsofincome,familysize,and
social conditions. Therefore, the government is pushing the population to build their
own houses through the principle of occupation of the land and building without
permits,whichleadstothespreadofsquattersettlements.
This study shows that the prevalence of squatter settlements is an inevitable
consequence of the weakness of regional planning, population concentration in some
cities,andhighhousingpricesandrent.Thisstudyreliesonthephilosophytoutilizing
existingsettlementsintermsofexaminingpatternsofthephysical,economic,andsocial
situations of the inhabitants of those settlements to develop guidelines and planning
standards that meet the needs of the population. The study reviews the theories and
ideasaboutwaystodealwithsquattersettlementsingeneral.Egypthasbeenselected
asanexampleofaMiddleEasterncountrythatstillsuffersfromthespreadofsquatter
settlements. Egypts experience dealing with squatter settlements is reviewed along
withacomparativeanalysisofcasestudiesforcomparingtheactualconditionsofthe
physical,social,andeconomicenvironmentsofthepopulation.

194

Thestudysummarizesthemostimportantproblemsfacingthepopulation,and
identifiesthemostcommonpatternsinsquattersettlementsintermsofplots,blocks,
typesofhousing,numberoffloors,space,familysize,income,andspendingonhousing.
Basedonthisinformation,guidelinesanddevelopmentstandardshavebeendeveloped
thatstemfromthepeoplesneedsandalsofitwiththeireconomicandsocialaspects.
Theresultsreachedbythisstudyshouldbenefitfuturemodelsfordevelopingaffordable
housing because the recommendations are derived from the needs of the population
andtheactualsituationsofthesquattersettlements.
Thestudyfoundthemostimportantresultsareasfollows:
1 The regional dimension of the problem of squatter settlements in Egypt is the
most important aspect and is the key to controlling the problem in the long
term.
2 The Egyptian governments dealing with squatter settlements was not
completelynegative;therearemanypositiveeffortsintermsofsupportforthe
poor,urbandevelopment,andaffordablehousing.
3 Egypts experience in dealing with squatter settlements is affected by external
factors,publicpressure,andthenumberofpeople.
4 Egyptsexperienceindealingwithsquattersettlementshasincludedmanyofthe
approaches and ideas that will help in developing the strategies for squatter
settlements.

195

5 Absence of a comprehensive strategy to deal with squatter settlements means


somesquattersettlementsarebeingdeveloped,whiletherestaredeprivedof
socialjustice.
6 Squattersettlementsarenotfilledwithonlydrawbacks,butcanbenefitfromthe
positiveelementsthatcanbedevelopedtofitwiththeplanningstandards.
7 Therearemanyofthelessonslearnedfrompopularparticipation.Therefore,any
solutions or future projects that do not support peoples participation in
decisionmakingareincomplete.
8 The social and economic dimensions of the problem are important, so the
governments vision of alternative housing should be as a sustainable living
environment,notmerelyplacetoaccommodatethepeople.
Thestudyrecommendstheapplicationofthefollowingitems:
1 Building databases of squatter settlements to be used in the development of
strategiesandsolutions.
2 Evaluating the experience of the government in dealing with squatter
settlementstoextractpositivefactors.
3 Providing smart housing alternatives to coincide with the residents of informal
settlementsintermsofenvironmental,economic,andsocialfactors.
4 Planning population density of cities based on the principle of the spread of
developmentanddistributionfacilities.
5 Strengthening the use of popular participation through the promotion of self
construction,laboruse,andopportunitiesforthemtofindsuitableemployment.
196

6 Flexibility in planning controls by easing restrictions on the poor, to promote


construction using cheap building materials, and encourage the expansion of
housingonthebasisoffamilysizeandneeds.
7 Stimulating the private sector in development by promoting the principle of
interactiveparticipationbetweentheprivatesectorandthepopulation.
8 Supporting studies on squatter settlements in Egypt and researching the
possibilitytotakeadvantageofactualpatternsinthedevelopmentofalternative
models.
Thedifficultiesfacedbytheresearcher:
1 ConflictandlackofsomeinformationaboutthesquattersettlementsinEgypt.
2 Theabsenceofasquattersettlementdatabank.
3 Theabsenceoftheroleofresearchinstitutionsanduniversities.
4 Theproblemsoftranslationofinformationanddata.

197

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204

Appendixes
Appendix(1A)
ThedistributiondetailsofsquattersettlementsinEgypt
No. Region
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
16
20
21
22
23
24

Cairo
Alexandria
Portsaed
Suez
Damietta
Dakahlia
Sharkya
Qalyubia
KafrElSheikh
Karbya
Menoufia
Lake
Ismailia
Giza
BeniSuef
Fayoum
Minya
Assiut
Sohag
Qana
Aswan
RedSea
Matruh
SouthSinai
Total

urbanizationrate

Squatter
settlementNo.

Areasqkm

100
100
100
100
25.2
26.2
21.1
43.7
22.8
32.7
20.1
23.5
48.8
57.5
25.1
23.2
20.8
27.8
21.9
23.3
39.9
81.8
51.3
44.5

79
41
7
14
86
109
70
67
46
47
24
66
17
34
51
28
30
50
34
75
33
21
5
12
1046

28
13
1
2
16
5
17
20
6
13
1
12
5
44
3.9
5
8
6
13
9
3
28
9
61
328.9

Source: Fouad, D., M., Unauthorized Residential Settlements: Causes, Determinants, Environmental
Effects And Suggested Solutions, The 25 Th. Annual Seminar on Population Issues In The Middle East,
Africa&Asia,CairoDemographicCenter,Cairo,1995,P.50;TranslationandconversiontotheUSdollar
bytheresearcher.

205

Appendix(1B)
ThedistributiondetailsofsquattersettlementsinEgypt
No.

Region

Squatter
settlement
pop.

%population

Development
cost
EGP/million

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
16
20
21
22
23
24

Cairo
Alexandria
Portsaed
Suez
Damietta
Dakahlia
Sharkya
Qalyubia
KafrElSheikh
Karbya
Menoufia
Lake
Ismailia
Giza
BeniSuef
Fayoum
Minya
Assiut
Sohag
Qana
Aswan
RedSea
Matruh
SouthSinai
Total

2193000
1113000
71500
43000
179000
648000
291000
938000
209000
558000
32000
404000
149000
2259000
144000
100000
291000
401000
381000
64000
193000
69000
31000
8000
10796500

32
35
8
11
64
56
38
64
34
35
13
43
40
60
32
23
49
25
56
30
30
36
60
29

950
498
28
82.7
73
138
51.4
279.7
73.8
297
5
179
120
924
95
35
57
159
50
693
180
287
28
54
5337.6

Development
cost$/million

172.7
90.5
5.09
15.03
13.2
25.09
9.3
50.8
13.4
54
0.9
32.5
21.8
168
17.2
6.36
10.3
28.9
9.09
126
32.7
52.1
5.09
9.81

$969.86

Source: Fouad, D., M., Unauthorized Residential Settlements: Causes, Determinants, Environmental
Effects And Suggested Solutions, The 25 Th. Annual Seminar on Population Issues In The Middle East,
Africa&Asia,CairoDemographicCenter,Cairo,1995,P.50;TranslationandconversiontotheUSdollar
bytheresearcher.

206

Appendix
A
(2
2)
Themapsho
T
owstheexpaansionofthe
emainbuilt upareasoffGreaterCaiiroaccordinggto
threeperiod
t
ds,pre1860,,18601950,and1950ttothepresent.

Source:Sims,
S
D.TheCaseoffCairo,Egypt.U
UnderstandinggSlums:CaseSStudiesfortheGlobalReportton
HumanSettlem
H
ments,UniversityCollegeLon
ndon/DPU,Lonndon,2003.

207

Appendix(3
A
3)
Themapsho
T
owsthedistrributionofillliteracyinC
Cairo.

Source:Sims,
S
D.TheCaseoffCairo,Egypt.U
UnderstandinggSlums:CaseSStudiesfortheGlobalReportton
HumanSettlem
H
ments,UniversityCollegeLon
ndon/DPU,Lonndon,2003.

208

Appendix(4)
Some emails from the Department of Architecture Faculty of Engineering - Mansura
University-Egypt:
Wed 7/07/10 3:04 AM
Dear Mr. Waleed,
Very sorry for being late to reply,
Regarding informal housing in Mansura I will forward your e mail to our colleague Dr.
Mohamed Shawki as he is much interested and had a similar experience in Mansura.
Wish you all the best
Dr. Lamis Elgizawi
Professor, Department of Architecture-Mansura University

Wed 7/07/10 5:05 AM


Dear Mr. waleed
I want to know exactly what informations you need about mansoura city thank you
Mohammed M. Shawky Abou-liela, Ph.D.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Lecturer - Architecture Department
Faculty Of Engineering-Mansura University

209

CurriculumVitae

Name:

Address:

Education:

Professional
Societies:

Awards:

WaleedAlzamil

School of Planning College of Web:http://www.alzamil.org


Design, Architecture, Art and Email:waleed_zm@hotmail.com
Planning,Cincinnati,OH
CellPhone:(+1)4435546594

MasterofCommunityPlanning(MCP),SchoolofPlanning,Collegeof
Design, Architecture, Art and Planning (Daap), Physical Planning
Specialization,UniversityofCincinnati,Cincinnati,OH,USA:Sep.2009
present.

MasterofPlanningandUrbanDesign(M.Sc.),withaG.P.A(4.81/5.00),
KingSaudUniversity,Riyadh,SaudiArabia:Feb2002June2005.

BachelorofPlanningandUrbanDesign(B.Sc.),withaG.P.A(4.48/5.00)
with"Secondclasshonor"KingSaudUniversity,Riyadh,SaudiArabia:
January1996June2001.

Citizens' Housing and Planning Association (CHAPA) 11/1/2010


present.

International Association of Software Architects (IASA), since


11/2007present.

AmericanPlanningAssociation(APA),since11/2007present.

AmericanAssociationofWebmasters (AAWM)31/8/2009present.

InternationalWebmastersAssociation(IWA)11/11/2008present.

UrbanAffairsAssociation(UAA)2008/12/23present.

Scholarship from Saudi Arabia for postgraduate studies in urban


planningintheUnitedStatessince2008now

210

Experience:

Symposiums:

Secondclasshonor,KingSaudUniversity,Riyadh:2001

Excellence Award urban planning, College of Architecture and


Planning,KingSaudUniversity,Riyadh:2001

Certificate of excellence, College of Architecture & Planning, King


SaudUniversity,Riyadh:2001

Certificate of excellence, College of Architecture & Planning, King


SaudUniversity,Riyadh:2000

Certificate of excellence, College of Architecture & Planning, King


SaudUniversity,Riyadh:1999

WorkingattheCommunityDesignCenter(CDC)sinceSummer2010
on Affordable Housing in Cincinnati Uptown and looking at the
existing housing situation in Cincinnati Uptown as well as future
expectations,Cincinnati,OH.17/7/201017/9/2010

Lecturer inthe department of urban planning, King Saud University,


Riyadh,Sep20012008.

The Director of Technical Affairs of "Naseem" Municipality, Riyadh,


Jun2001Sept2001.
Working at the "TAKWENAT" Office, Riyadh, October 2000
December2000.
Workingatthe"Alrodah"municipality,Riyadh:summer5/6/1999to
30/8/1999.

Symposium Saudi construction first, the Saudi association Science &


development,Riyadh:April2007.(Attendance)

Symposium Back to the future: planning and economic boom,


DepartmentofUrbanPlanning,Collegeofarchitectureandplanning,
King Saud University, Riyadh: March 2006. (Attendance &
organization).

Symposiumhousing2:housingfacilitator,thesupremebodyforthe
developmentofthecityofRiyadh,Riyadh:March2004.(Attendance)

TourismSymposiuminSaudiArabiaingredientsandpossibilities,the
supreme body for tourism and King Saud University, Riyadh: May
211

2003.(Attendance)

Symposium Urban Development in desert areas, the Ministry of


MunicipalandRuralAffairs,Riyadh:October2002.(Attendance)

WeekculturalFourthuniversitiesandhighereducationinstitutionsof
theCounciloftheGulfCooperationCouncil,ummAlQuraUniversity,
Makkah: 610 in October 2001. (King Saud University candidate to
competeinthecontestArtGalleryofengineeringprojects)

Symposium Architecture mosques, Collage of architecture and


planning,KingSaudUniversity,Riyadh:February1999.(Attendance)

212