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Vascular

system
Flordeliza M. De Jesus, MD

Circulation
Circulation is an orderly movement in a circuit.
Blood circulation is the movement of blood through the blood vessels of the
body induced by the pumping action of the heart

Types of circulation
Systemic (greater) circulation
Pulmonic (lesser) circulation

Systemic circulation is the transport of blood through all parts of the body (except
the lungs) from the left ventricle back to the right atrium.

The main trunks involved in systemic circulation are the aorta carrying blood away
from the heart, and the superior and inferior vena cavae returning the blood to the
heart

Pulmonic circulation is the transport of blood from the right side of the heart to the
lungs where blood is oxygenated, and then back to the left side of the heart.

The main trunks involved in pulmonary circulation are the pulmonary trunk that
carries the blood away from the (right ventricle) heart, and the pulmonary veins
returning the blood to the (left atrium) heart

Portal circulation

The transport of blood from the capillaries of the abdominal part of the
alimentary canal, (lower part of the esophagus, stomach, intestines down to the
upper half of the anal canal) including the pancreas and spleen; to the capillaries of
the liver.

Blood vessels
Arteries and vein
What are arteries?
Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
What are veins?
Veins are blood vessels that transport the blood to the heart
Arteries and veins

Arteries
Veins
Color
Pinkish/ lighter
Dark
Wall thickness
Thicker
Thin
Lumen
Patent, rounded
Collapse
Contents
Usually empty
Usually contains clotted

blood

Functions of circulation
Carries blood
Exchanges nutrients, waste products and gases with tissues
Transport substances like hormones, component of immune system,
nutrients, etc.
Helps regulate blood pressure
Directs blood flow to tissues. Blood vessels direct blood to tissues when
increase blood flow is required to maintain homeostasis

The great blood vessels

The blood vessels that arise and blood vessels that terminate into the heart

Arising from the left ventricle is the ascending aorta.

Arising from the right ventricle is the pulmonary trunk

Terminating into the right atrium are the superior and inferior vena cava

Pulmonary veins terminating into the left antrium

Branches of the arch of aorta
Brachiocephalic, left common carotid and left subclavian arteries

Blood vessels of the head and neck

Common carotid arteries and external and external carotid arteries and their
branches

Branches of the external carotid artery
Branches in the neck
Superior thyroid, Facial, lingual, ascending pharyngeal, occipital,
posterior auricular

Terminal branches
Superficial temporal artery
Maxillary artery

Blood vessels of the Neck

Branches of the subclavian artery (subclavian artery is divided into 3 parts by the
scalene anterior)

1st part
Vertebral, internal mammary, thyrocervical
2nd part
Costocervical
3rdpart
Usually no branch


Vertebral artery
- branch of the 1st part of the subclavian artery
- ascends to the cranial cavity along the transverse foramen of the 6th 1st
cervical vertebrae
- enters the foramen magnum and, at the base of the pons unites with each
other and forms the basilar artery
- basilar artery bifurcates into right and left posterior cerebral arteries

Internal thoracic artery
- branch of the 1st part of subclavian artery
- descends along the lateral border of the sternum on the posterior surface
of the anterior thoracic wall, accompanied by 2 venae comitantes
- gives off branches to the upper 6 anterior intercostal spaces (1st -6th
anterior intercostal arteries)
- after giving off the 6th anterior intercostal artery it bifurcates into 2
terminal branches, the superior epigastric, and musculophrenic arteries.
- The superior epigastric descends into the anterior abdominal wall, enters
the rectus sheath where it anastomosis with the inferior epigastric artery
- The musculophrenic artery gives off the 7th 11th anterior intercostal
arteries
- The venae comitantes of the internal thoracic (mammary) artery drain
into the corresponding innominate vein

Thyrocervical artery
- a branch of the 1st part of subclavian artery
- three branches
o inferior thyroid artery
o superficial cervical
o suprascapular artery

Costocervical artery
- a branch of the 2nd part of the subclavian artery
- two branches
o superior intercostal
o deep cervical

Blood vessles of the Upper Extremity

Axillary artery
- distal continuation of the subclavian artery
- it extends from the outer border of the 1st rib down to the lower border of
the teres major muscle
- divided into 3 part/segments by the pectoralis minor
- branches of the 1st part supreme thoracic or highest thoracic artery
- branches of the 2nd part thoracoacromoal and lateral thoracic

branches of the 3rd part subscapular, posterior humeral circumflex and


anterior humeral circumflex



Axillary vein
- formed at the level of the lower border of the teres major muscle by the
union of the vena comitantes of the brachial artery and the basilic vein
- receives the veins corresponding to the branches of the axillary artery
and, receives the cephalic vein before it becomes the subclavian vein

Brachial artery
- begins at the level of the lower border of the teres major as the distal
continuation of the axillary artery
- branches
o its 1st and largest branch is the profunda brachii
o superior ulnar collateral
o inferior ulnar collateral
Terminal branches

Radial and ulnar arteries


Radial and ulnar arteries their branches give rise to the superficial
and deep palmar arterial arches

Brachial artery is accompanied by 2 venae comitantes which converge superiorly
and join the basilic vein at the level of the lower border of the teres major to
form the axillary vein

Blood vessels of the thorax

Arteries

Internal thoracic artery and branches supply the anterior chest wall

Branches of the thoracic aorta


Parietal branches supplying the posterior wall of thorax



3rd 11th posterior intercostal arteries



1st and 2nd posterior intercostal spaces are supplied by
branches of the costocervical artery, the superior
intercostal arteries.



Superior phrenic artery



Subcostal artery


Visceral branches



Esophageal
Mediastinal
Bronchial

Pericardial
Veins

Azygos and hemiazygos veins

Blood vessels of the Abdomen


Arteries

Abdominal aorta and its branches



Abdominal aorta is the distal continuation of the thoracic aorta at the level of
the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm which is in front of the body of the 12th thoracic
vertebra.

Branches:

Visceral Branches


Unpaired branches
Celiac trunk supplies the segment of the gut derived from the
foregut




Left gastric




Splenic




Hepatic



Superior mesenteric artery dupplies the segment of the gut
derived from the midgut




Inferior pancreaticoduodenal




Intestinal branches jejunal and ilial




Right colic




Middle colic




Ileocecal anterior and posterior cecal
Inferior mesenteric supplies the segments of he gut from the
hindgut




Left colic




Sigmoidal




Superior rectal (hemorhoidal)


Paired branches



Middle suprarenal



Renal



Gonadal (testicular or ovarian)


Parietal branches

Paired branches


Inferior phrenic


Lumbar arteries (4 pairs)

Unpaired branch


Median sacral


Terminal branches


Left and right common iliac arteries



The left and right common iliac, each bifurcates into external and internal
iliac artery


Internal iliac artery descends to the pelvic cavity and supplies the pelvic wall
and pelvic viscera

External iliac artery supplies the lower extremity

Veins in the abdomen

Inferior vena cava and tributaries

Portal vein and tributaries

Azygos and hemiazygos veins


Inferior vena cava is formed at the level of L5 vertebra below and to the right
side of the abdominal aorta.
The union of the left and right common iliac veins forms the inferior vena
cava.

Tributaries

Median sacral vein (unpaired)

Lower 2 lumbar veins

Right gonadal

Renal

Right suprarenal
Right inferior phrenic

The left renal vein receives the termination (drainage) of the
left gonadal, left suprarenal and left inferior phrenic
veins.

Portal vein is the venous drainage of the abdominal portion of the alimentary
canal including the pancreas and spleen.
The union of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins forms the portal vein.
It drains the blood into the liver.
Venous drainage of the liver hepatic vein

Azygos vein
- Is formed in the abdomen by the union of the right subcostal vein and the
right upper 2 lumbar veins
Hemiazygos vein
- is also formed in the abdomen by the union of the left subcostal vein and
the left upper 2 lumbar veins.

Blood vessels of the lower extremities


Arteries


External iliac artery descends to the lower extremities passing under the
inguinal ligament.

It becomes the femoral artery after passing under the inguinal ligament.



Femoral artery
The femoral artery supplies the structures of the anterior and posterior thigh
including the hip joint and the knee joint.

The femoral artery is accompanied by the femoral vein is continuous
superiorly as the external iliac vein above the inguinal ligament.

The femoral vein is the termination of the long saphenous vein

The femoral artery and vein terminate at the posterior aspect of the knee
joint (popliteal fossa) after passing through the opening called adductor hiatus.

It now becomes the popliteal artery.



Popliteal artery
The popliteal artery terminates by giving off its terminal branches at
the level of the lower border of the popliteus muscle.
The terminal branches are the posterior tibial and anterior tibial
arteries. These branches supply the leg and the dorsum and plantar aspect of
thr2
The popliteal artery is accompanied by a vein, the popliteal vein .
The popliteal vein receives the termination of the short saphenous
vein.