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Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

ISSN: 2321-1776

Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 STUDY OF SLOPE STABILITY OF ASH DYKE RAISINGS

STUDY OF SLOPE STABILITY OF ASH DYKE RAISINGS UNDER STATIC CONDITION

Nazimali N. Chinwala Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Parul Institute of Engg. & Tech., Waghodia, India

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

Author is very thankful to Essar Engineering Services - Hazira for providing software facility for stability analysis of slopes.

ABSTRACT

There are more than 85 thermal power plants in India; of which majority are coal based producing approximately 100 million tons of coal ash yearly. With increased utilization of generated ash through usage in concrete, brick making and other embankment constructions, the utilization of the ash has increased considerably. However, the percentage of utilization is still insufficient and for most of the power plants ash is deposited in form of ash-pond in the vicinity of power plant as waste material covering several acres of valuable land. Moreover, for new power plants the land acquisition is a major issue and with limited area, rapid vertical expansions of Ash-dykes are inevitable. Present paper describes static analysis carried out on the ash-dyke sections with various raising stages. Based on the state of the art practice in the India, starter dyke section and subsequent raising geometry is selected. Using the in-situ test data performed on the existing ash-dykes, geotechnical properties of the deposited ash ponds are selected to perform the static analysis of the ash-dyke sections. A series of stability runs are carried out to map the factor of safeties at various stages of ash-dyke raising. Sensitivity analysis is carryout out to examine the influence of the geotechnical properties of the deposited ash in the ash-dyke. Present study helps the geotechnical professionals to choose better geometries of ash-dykes during planning stage to ensure sustainable performance.

KEY WORDS: Ash-dyke; static; slope stability; factor of safety; Sensitivity analysis.

slope stability; factor of safety; Sensitivity analysis. A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access
slope stability; factor of safety; Sensitivity analysis. A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access

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Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

ISSN: 2321-1776

Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 INTRODUCTION In India, in step with progressively increasing

INTRODUCTION

In India, in step with progressively increasing the capacity of coal-fired thermal power plants, the amount of fly ash generated is increasing very fast. Increase in number of coal based thermal power plant is also responsible for high amount of generation of flyash. Table 1 below shows data related to its generation and use in different year. The utilization of fly ash in India varies between 40-50% and rests are disposed and are restored. Fly ash storage require huge amount of land area. So to reduce the land wastage, it is stored using ash dyke construction. Ash dyke is an important structure, located few kilometres away from the hydraulic power stations for storing the coal ashes. Ash dyke construction is continuous process and it is raised each step through dyke construction.

Table 1: Fly ash generation and use in India

 

Generation

   

Year

(Metric

tons)

Use

(Metric tons)

% Use of generation

1993-94

40

1.2

3

2004-05

112

42

38

2006-07

130

60

46

2011-12

170

170

100% use mandated

2031-32

600

-

Not yet planned; innovation essential

Ash dyke construction is a great challenge for civil engineers as the failure of ash dyke has an adverse effect on surrounding environment as well as it can affect the smooth functioning of power stations. It also causes havoc among the surrounding people about safety of their life. It causes economic losses. It pollutes the surrounding river water which is dangerous for aquatic life as well as human being. So ash dyke should be constructed with proper safety and precautions. Gandhi S. R. and Mathew G. V. (1996) presented an investigation on the filter requirements for ash dykes. Very uniform sand with different particle size was used as filter. The relationship between d 50 of filter and penetration of fly ash through different size sand filter as well as fly ash by passed verses time and amount of fly ash trapped at various depth was presented and filter criteria were proposed based on experiments conducted on clogging and bypassing of fly ash through the filter. Gupta K. K., Raju V.S., and Manoj Datta (1999) published a paper “Gradation, Compaction and Strength of Coal Ash” in which they reviewed the engineering properties of coal ash. The engineering properties of bottom ash and pond ash (inflow point) are similar to those of sands whereas the engineering properties of fly ash and pond ash

whereas the engineering properties of fly ash and pond ash A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed
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Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

ISSN: 2321-1776

Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 (outflow point) are similar to those of silty

(outflow point) are similar to those of silty soils. Gandhi S. R. (2005) published a paper “Design and Maintenance of Ash Pond for Fly Ash Disposal” in which he explained various methods of raising the dyke by describing its advantage and disadvantage. He also suggested that ash dyke should be supervised regularly and necessary remedial measures should be taken and highlighted important issues related to design, construction, operation and maintenance of ash pond.

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Material properties used for the study and analysis, were taken from the published project data of site Rajpura Thermal Power Project, Punjab, and are as shown in Table 2. Typical cross section used for the analysis is shown in Fig. 1:

cross section used for the analysis is shown in Fig. 1: Fig. 1: Typical layout of

Fig. 1: Typical layout of the section

Table 2: Material properties used for the analysis

Material No. & (Color)

Soil Type

C

ø

ɣ

k (m/sec)

(KN/m 2 )

(KN/m 3 )

1

       

1 x 10 -7

(Orange)

Clayey Silt

90

0

18

2

       

1 x 10 -7

(Brown)

Fill Material

35

0

17

3

       

1 x 10 -3

(Gold)

Sand

0

36

17.8

4

       

1 x 10 -5

(Light Blue)

Loose Flyash

0

29

12.2

5

       

1 x 10 -7

(Grey)

Compacted Flyash

0

32

14.2

10 - 7 (Grey) Compacted Flyash 0 32 14.2 A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open
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Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

ISSN: 2321-1776

Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 OBJECTIVES The focus of this research project was

OBJECTIVES

The focus of this research project was to design an optimum ash dyke and use fly ash for construction of ash dykes. More specifically the following two objectives were identified:

1) To design an ash dyke for optimum factor of safety by analyzing the dam section using finite element based software SLIDE 2) To recommend the optimum design for the ash dyke by considering factor of safety in Static condition.

ANALYSIS

For the analysis purpose, a three-stage dyke was considered stage wise by upstream method on the starter dyke with different U/S and D/S slopes under different conditions by finite element based software SLIDE by using Morgenstern-Price Method. Soil properties were assigned and slope stability was carried out for Static condition, and the seepage study along with sensitivity analysis was also carried out. In all the raisings of different slopes for the computation of slip surface, Global Failure of ash dyke is taken into consideration.

STARTER DYKE

For the static stability analysis the starter dyke was taken of three different slopes i.e. D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5) and D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2). The height of starter dyke was kept as 6m. The top width was also kept as 6m. Fig. 2 shows the analysis of Starter dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) slopes and Table 3 shows FOS for different slopes in starter dyke.

and Table 3 shows FOS for different slopes in starter dyke. Fig. 2: Starter Dyke D/S

Fig. 2: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) (FOS = 2.337)

dyke. Fig. 2: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) (FOS = 2.337) A Monthly Double-Blind Peer
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Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

ISSN: 2321-1776

Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 Table 3: FOS for different Slopes of Starter

Table 3: FOS for different Slopes of Starter dyke

Starter Dyke

FOS in Static Condition

Remarks

D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2)

2.337

D/S Slope

D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5)

2.334

D/S Slope

D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2)

2.674

D/S Slope

RAISINGS

Starter Dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) Slopes

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) respectively. Fig. 3 shows typical analysis of Stage III stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. Fig. 3: Starter

Fig. 3: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage I D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage II D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage III D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) (FOS = 2.214)

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5) respectively. Fig. 4 shows typical analysis of Stage III stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. A Monthly Double-Blind
result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. A Monthly Double-Blind

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Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

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Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 Fig. 4:Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage
Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 Fig. 4:Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage

Fig. 4:Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage I D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5), Stage II D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5), Stage III D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5) (FOS = 2.24)

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3) respectively. Fig. 5 shows typical analysis of Stage III stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. Fig. 5: Starter

Fig. 5: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage I D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3), Stage II D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3), Stage III D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3) (FOS = 2.552)

Starter Dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5) Slopes

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) respectively. Fig. 6 shows typical analysis of Stage III

respectively. Fig. 6 shows typical analysis of Stage III A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open
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Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

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Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 stability analysis. The result of Stage I and

stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. Fig. 6: Starter

Fig. 6: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5), Stage I D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage II D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage III D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) (FOS = 2.137)

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5) respectively. Fig. 7 shows typical analysis of Stage III stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. Fig. 7: Starter

Fig. 7: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5), Stage I D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5), Stage II D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5), Stage III D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5) (FOS = 2.255)

U/S (1:2.5), Stage III D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5) (FOS = 2.255) A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed
U/S (1:2.5), Stage III D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5) (FOS = 2.255) A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed

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Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 For starter dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5)

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3) respectively. Fig. 8 shows typical analysis of Stage III stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. Fig. 8: Starter

Fig. 8: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2) U/S (1:1.5), Stage I D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3), Stage II D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3), Stage III D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3) (FOS = 2.475)

Starter Dyke with D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2) Slopes

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) respectively. Fig. 9 shows typical analysis of Stage III stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. A Monthly Double-Blind
result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. A Monthly Double-Blind

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Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 Fig. 9: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2),
Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 Fig. 9: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2),

Fig. 9: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2), Stage I D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage II D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2), Stage III D/S (1:2) U/S (1:2) (FOS = 2.284)

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5) respectively. Fig. 10 shows typical analysis of Stage III stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. Fig. 10: Starter

Fig. 10: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2), Stage I D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5), Stage II D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5), Stage III D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2.5) (FOS = 2.505)

For starter dyke with D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2) slopes different raisings (Stage I, Stage II, and Stage III) were done with slopes D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3) respectively. Fig. 11 shows typical analysis of Stage III

respectively. Fig. 11 shows typical analysis of Stage III A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open
respectively. Fig. 11 shows typical analysis of Stage III A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open

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Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

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Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 stability analysis. The result of Stage I and

stability analysis. The result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4.

result of Stage I and Stage II analysis is shown in Table 4. Fig. 11: Starter

Fig. 11: Starter Dyke D/S (1:2.5) U/S (1:2), Stage I D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3), Stage II D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3), Stage III D/S (1:3) U/S (1:3) (FOS = 2.64)

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

For the sensitivity analysis in static condition, for Starter dyke D/S (1:2) & U/S (1:1.5), Stage I D/S & U/S (1:2.5) slopes the properties of flyash which are taken into consideration for loose flyash (Material 4), and Compacted flyash (Material 5) are given in the Table 5 and the graphs of comparison of unit weights v/s FOS and Phi v/s FOS for different materials are shown in Figures 12 and 13.

Table 5: Ash properties taken into consideration in Sensitivity analysis

properties taken into consideration in Sensitivity analysis A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access
properties taken into consideration in Sensitivity analysis A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access
properties taken into consideration in Sensitivity analysis A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access

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Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 3.2 Loose Ash Compacted Ash 3.0 2.8 2.6
3.2 Loose Ash Compacted Ash 3.0 2.8 2.6 11 12 13 14 15 16 Factor
3.2
Loose Ash
Compacted Ash
3.0
2.8
2.6
11
12
13
14
15
16
Factor of Safety

Unit Weight (kN/m3)

Fig. 12: Comparison of Unit weights v/s FOS for Loose and Compacted ash in Static condition

Loose Ash Compacted Ash 3.5 3.0 2.5 26 28 30 32 34 Factor of Safety
Loose Ash
Compacted
Ash
3.5
3.0
2.5
26
28
30
32
34
Factor of Safety

Phi (deg)

Fig. 13: Comparison of Phi v/s FOS for Loose and Compacted ash in Static condition

CONCLUSION

1) In Static condition the ash dyke constructed using upstream method gives factor of safety above 2.137 for all different types of slopes which are found to be safe.

2) For the Sensitivity analysis in Static condition, for Starter dyke D/S (1:2) & U/S (1:1.5), Stage I D/S & U/S (1:2.5) slopes the value of FOS decreases from 2.86 to 2.8 and 2.92 to 2.8 for loose ash and compacted ash respectively with increase in the unit weight from 10.5 to 16 KN/m 3 in both compacted ash and loose ash. While, the value of FOS increases from 2.78 to 2.92 and 2.81 to 2.89 for loose ash and compacted ash respectively with increase in the value of phi from 26° to 35° for both compacted ash and loose ash.

phi from 26° to 35° for both compacted ash and loose ash. A Monthly Double-Blind Peer
phi from 26° to 35° for both compacted ash and loose ash. A Monthly Double-Blind Peer

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Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 REFERENCES 1. IS 7894 – 1975: “Stability Analysis

REFERENCES

1. IS 7894 – 1975: “Stability Analysis of Earth Dams”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

2. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering ASCE. Vol. 110, No GT6, pp. 701-718.

3. Sherard J. L., Dunnigan L. P., and Talbot J. R. (1984), “Basic Properties of Sand and Gravel Filters”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering ASCE. Vol. 110, No GT6, pp. 684-699.

4. Gandhi S. R. and Mathew G. V. (1996), “Granular Filter for Ash Dykes”, Proceeding, Indian Geotechnical Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 532535.

5. Gandhi S. R., Dey A. K. and Selvam S. (1999), “Blast Densification of Pond Ash”, Fly Ash Disposal and Deposition: Beyond 2000 AD.

6. Sridharan A., Pandian N. S., and Srinivas S. (1999), “Shear Strength Characteristics of Pond Ash for Use as Structural Fills”, Fly Ash Disposal and Deposition: Beyond 2000 AD.

7. Gupta K. K., Raju V. S., and Manoj Datta (1999), “Gradation, Compaction and Strength of Coal Ash”, Fly Ash Disposal and Deposition: Beyond 2000 AD.

8. Gandhi, S. R. (2005), “Design and Maintenance of Ash Pond for Fly Ash Disposal”, Proceeding, Indian Geotechnical Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 8590.

9. Choudhary A. K., Jha J. N. and Verma B. P. (2009), “Construction of an Ash Pond with Waste Recycled Product, Fly Ash and Locally Available Soil - A Case Study”, Proceeding, IGC 2009, Guntur, pp. 565-568.

Study”, Proceeding, IGC – 2009, Guntur, pp. 565-568. A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access
Study”, Proceeding, IGC – 2009, Guntur, pp. 565-568. A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access

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Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570 ISSN: 2321-1776 Table 4: FOS for all slopes in Static

Table 4: FOS for all slopes in Static condition

       

FOS in

 

Starter Dyke

Stage I

Stage II

Stage III

Static

Remarks

Condition

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

     

2.337

D/S Slope

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

   

2.753

Global Failure

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

 

2.526

Global Failure

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

2.214

Global Failure

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

     

2.337

D/S Slope

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

   

2.785

Global Failure

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

 

2.706

Global Failure

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

2.24

Global Failure

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

     

2.337

D/S Slope

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

   

2.841

Global Failure

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

 

2.839

Global Failure

D/S(1:2) U/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

2.552

Global Failure

D/S(1:2)

       

D/S Slope

U/S(1:1.5)

2.334

D/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

     

Global Failure

U/S(1:1.5)

2.645

D/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

   

Global Failure

U/S(1:1.5)

2.43

D/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

 

Global Failure

U/S(1:1.5)

2.137

D/S(1:2)

       

D/S Slope

U/S(1:1.5)

2.334

D/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

     

Global Failure

U/S(1:1.5)

2.691

D/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

   

Global Failure

U/S(1:1.5)

2.609

D/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

 

Global Failure

U/S(1:1.5)

2.255

D/S(1:2)

       

D/S Slope

U/S(1:1.5)

2.334

D/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

     

Global Failure

U/S(1:1.5)

2.744

      Global Failure U/S(1:1.5) 2.744 A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access
      Global Failure U/S(1:1.5) 2.744 A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access

A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories

International Journal in IT and Engineering http://www.ijmr.net.in email id- irjmss@gmail.com

Page 116

IJITE

Vol.03 Issue-03, (March, 2015) Impact Factor- 3.570

ISSN: 2321-1776

D/S(1:2)

         

U/S(1:1.5)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

2.742

Global Failure

D/S(1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

 

Global Failure

U/S(1:1.5)

2.475

D/S(1:2.5)

       

D/S Slope

 

U/S(1:2)

2.674

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

     

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

3.01

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

   

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

2.733

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

D/S & U/S (1:2)

 

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

2.284

D/S(1:2.5)

       

D/S Slope

 

U/S(1:2)

2.674

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

     

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

3.07

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

   

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

2.911

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:2.5)

 

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

2.505

D/S(1:2.5)

       

D/S Slope

 

U/S(1:2)

2.674

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

     

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

3.14

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

   

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

3.091

D/S(1:2.5)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

D/S & U/S (1:3)

 

Global Failure

U/S(1:2)

2.64

U/S (1:3)   Global Failure U/S(1:2) 2.64 A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access
U/S (1:3)   Global Failure U/S(1:2) 2.64 A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access

A Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed Refereed Open Access International e-Journal - Included in the International Serial Directories

International Journal in IT and Engineering http://www.ijmr.net.in email id- irjmss@gmail.com

Page 117