Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Chemistry

30

Unit 5:
Solutions and
Solubility
TEACHER

Components of a Solution

A solution is composed of two or more pure substances mixed together, one of


which is a solvent and the other a solute.

A cup of instant coffee is the solution, the hot water is the solvent, and the
instant coffee is the solute.

A saturated solution is a solution that contains the maximum amount of solute


dissolved in a solvent. A supersaturated solution is a solution where conditions
have been changed to allow more solute to dissolve than would at room
temperature (this is done by heating the solvent or solution).

When the solvent and solutes are liquids we can use the terms miscible and
immiscible. Miscible means that the two liquids will mix together, and
immiscible means that the two liquids will not dissolve in one another.

Remember, the solvent and solute can be solid, liquid OR gas. There are
special names for solutions where the solute and solvent are both solids and
when the solute is a liquid, and the solvent is a solid.
o Solid-in-solid alloys (e.g., brass = zinc + copper, sterling silver = silver
+ copper).
o Liquid-in-solid amalgams (e.g., older dental fillings = mercury + silver).

Factors that may affect solubility are temperature and pressure:


o Temperature: Gases: Temp , solubility
Solids and liquids: Temp , solubility
o Pressure: Gases: Pressure , solubility
Solids and liquids: unaffected

Like dissolves like. That is polar covalent molecules usually dissolve in other
polar covalent molecules and non-polar covalent molecules dissolve in nonpolar covalent molecules.

RECALL: Polarity can be determined by subtracting electronegativities. A polar


molecule is one where one (or more) atom in the molecule has a stronger pull on the
electrons than another atom, so the electrons move closer to the atom with the
stronger pull (higher electronegativity). This creates a dipole, where the atom with the
stronger pull has a slightly negative charge and the atom with the lower
electronegativity (less pull) has a slightly positive charge.

Water as a Solvent:

Solutions in which water is


the solvent are called
aqueous solutions.

Most covalent liquids are


only able to dissolve other
covalent compounds; water
can dissolve both ionic and
covalent compounds.

The attraction of water dipoles for ions pulls ions out of a crystalline lattice and into
aqueous solution.
Aqueous Solutions:

Sometimes when we mix two dissolved salts together, we end up with a


precipitate. This is because a new ionic compound is formed that is insoluble in
water.
We can use solubility charts or solubility tables to determine if a solid
will be formed.

Ion
NO3
ClO4
Cl
I
BrSO42CO32PO43OH
S2Na+
K+
NH4+

Solubility
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
soluble
insoluble
insoluble
insoluble
insoluble
soluble
soluble
soluble

Exceptions
none
none
except Ag+, Hg22+, *Pb2+
except Ag+, Hg22+, *Pb2+
except Ag+, Hg22+, *Pb2+
except Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Ag+
except Group IA and NH4+
except Group IA and NH4+
except Group IA, *Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+
except Group IA, IIA and NH4+
none
none
none
* = slightly soluble

Ex. If we mix sodium ions with hydroxide ions will a precipitate form?
No
Ex. If we dissolved sodium hydroxide in calcium chloride, will a precipitate form?
2NaOH + CaCl2 2NaCl + Ca(OH)2
NaCl is soluble, Ca(OH)2 is not soluble so a precipitate will form.
Ex. Calcium nitrate with sodium carbonate
Ca(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaNO3

Calcium Carbonate is insoluble so a precipitate will form, sodium nitrate is soluble


See Components of Solutions Assign

Concentration

Concentration refers to the amount of solute dissolved in a specific amount of


solvent.

Concentrated and dilute are qualitative terms we use to describe concentration.


Dilute means there is not a lot of solute in the solution and concentrated means
there is a lot of solute in the solution.

Common concentrations are molarity, molality, ppm, and ppb.

Molarity
This is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre of solution.
The formula for molarity is as follows:

c=

n = # moles of solute

n
V

V = volume of solution in litres


c = concentration in moles per litre (M)

Ex. If a teaspoon (5.0mL) of a 0.50 M solution of NaCl was evaporated, how many
moles of sodium chloride would be left? What mass of NaCl would be left?
c=

n
n=cV
V
n=( 0.50 M ) ( 0.0050 L )

convert mass :0.0025 mol x

= 0.0025 mol

58.4428 g
=0.15 g
1 mol

Ex. Antifreeze is a solution of ethylene glycol, C2H6O2, in water. If 4.50 L of antifreeze


contains 2.00 kg of ethylene glycol, what is the concentration of the solution?

Moles of C2H6O2

= 2.00 103 g C2H6O2

c=

Standard solution:

n
V

1 mol C2 H 6 O 2
62.07g C 2 H 6O 2

32.2 mol
4.50 L

= 7.16 mol/L

= 32.2 mol C2H6O2

A standard solution is a solution of a known concentration. This means it has a


precise mass of solute in a specific volume of solution.

Standard solutions are used in experiments where the concentration of a solution


must be known.

We use volumetric flasks to prepare standard solutions as they have a small


margin of error when compared to other pieces of lab equipment. Volumetric
flasks come in a variety of sizes (volumes).

To prepare a standard solution we follow the following steps:


1. Calculate the required mass of solute needed using the volume and concentration
you want to end up with.
2. Weigh out the mass of the solute needed and add it to a volumetric flask of the
appropriate size.
3. Dissolve the solid in pure water using less than half of the final solution volume.
4. Once the solute is dissolved, add the rest of the water. Be sure to use a
medicine dropper for the final few milliliters of water. Use the calibration
line to set the meniscus in the appropriate spot.
Ex. Describe the preparation of 2.000 L of a standard aqueous solution containing
0.1000 mol/L potassium nitrate.
n

= Vc

= 2.000 L 0.1000 mol/L = 0.2000 mol

mass of KNO3

= 0.2000 mol KNO3

101.1g KNO3
1 mol KNO3

= 20.22 g KNO3

To prepare the solution we place 20.22 g of KNO3 in a 2.000 L volumetric flask. About half the
required amount of water is added. When all the potassium nitrate is dissolved, the solution is
diluted with the remaining water.

Dilution Calculations:

When making a solution in chemistry laboratories you usually only have access to
substances with high concentration solutions (called stock solutions) and are then
required to dilute the stock solutions. A calculation needs to be completed in
order to determine the amount of distilled water that needs to be added to a
certain volume of stock solution in order to create the desired concentration.
Since the number of moles of solute in a solution does not change when you
dilute it, the equation for dilution is as follows:
V1 C1 = V2 C2
before

after

Ex. Water is added to 200.mL of 2.40M ammonia cleaning solution (NH 3), until the final
volume is 1.00L. Find the molar concentration of the final diluted solution.
Vi Ci = Vf Cf
(0.200L)(2.40M) = (1.00L)(Cf)
Cf = 0.480M

Ex . What volume of concentrated sulphuric acid (containing 18.0 M H 2SO4) is required


to prepare 5.00 L of 0.150 M aqueous sulphuric acid solution by dilution with water?
V1 = ?

V2 = 5.00 L

c1 = 18.0 mol/L

V1

c2 = 0.150 mol/L

V2 c2
c1

(5.00 L)(0.150
18.0

mol
L

mol
)
L

= 0.0417 L = 41.7 mL

Ion Concentration:
Consider a 0.20M aqueous solution of sodium carbonate. The sodium carbonate will
be completely dissociated into ions:

Na2CO3(s)

2 Na+(aq) + CO32-(aq)

The concentration of the sodium ions can be calculated using the conversion factors
from the balanced equation (similar to mol- mol stoichiometry). Remember:
concentration is represented by using square brackets.

[Na+] = 0.20 mol/L Na2CO3

[CO32-]

2 mol Na
1 mol Na 2CO3

= 0.20 mol/L Na2CO3

= 0.40 mol/L [Na+]

1 mol CO32
1 mol Na 2CO3

= 0.20 mol/L [CO32-]

Ex. What are the concentrations of the ions in an aqueous solution containing 0.15
mol/L iron(III) nitrate?

Fe3+(aq) + 3 NO3(aq)

Fe(NO3)3(s)

[Fe3+] = 0.15 mol/L Fe(NO3)3

[NO3]

1 mol Fe3
1 mol Fe( NO3 )3

= 0.15 mol/L Fe(NO3)3

= 0.15 mol/L Fe3+

3 mol NO3
1 mol Fe( NO3 )3

= 0.45 mol/L NO3

Ex. 250mL of 0.30M K2SO4 and 250mL of 0.80M MgCl2 are mixed and no reaction
results. What is the concentration of each substance in the final solution, and the
concentration of each individual ion?
[K2SO4]:
Cf=

Cf=

CiV i
Vf

[MgCl2]:

( 0.30 M )(250 mL)


(500 mL)

Cf=

Cf = 0.15M
[K+]=0.30M

Cf=

CiV i
Vf

(0.80 M )(250 mL)


(500 mL)
Cf = 0.40M

[SO42-]=0.15M

[Mg2+]=0.40M

[Cl-]= 0.80M

Ppm & ppb:

Usually in chemistry we work with molarity when discussing concentration. When


working with very dilute solutions (solutions with low concentrations) it is more
convenient to work with ppm or ppb.

A part refers to a gram.

A concentration of 1ppb is equivalent to 1g of solute dissolved in 1,000,000,000g


of solvent.

The allowable concentration of toxic chemicals is usually measured in ppm or


ppb.

For example the allowable concentration of mercury in air is 82ppb, this means
82 g Hg
there are 1 billion grams of air . The allowable concentration of copper in drinking
water is 1ppm, this means

1 g Cu
1 million grams of water

To do ppm or ppb calculations we assume that 1g of water has a volume of 1mL.

Ex. Change 2.00M KNO3 to ppm.


2.00 M =

2.0 mol KNO 3


1 L solution

Convert 2.00mol KNO3 to mass:

change to

grams KNO 3
1 million grams of solution

2.0 mol KNO3

101.10332 g KNO3
1mol KNO 3

= 202g KNO3

1L solution = 1000mL = 1000g


202 g KNO 3
1000
20200 g

=
=20200 ppm
1000 g solution 1000 1000000 g

Ex. The concentration of gold in the ocean is 0.005ppb. What would be the molarity of
gold in a sample of ocean water.
0.005 ppb=

0.005 g Au 1000000
0.000000005 g Au
=
1000000000 g solution 1000000
1000 gsolution

1000g solution = 1000mL solution = 1 L solution


Determine moles Au:

0.000000005 g Au

1 mol Au
=3 1011 mol Au
196.9665694 g Au

3 1011 mol Au
[Au]=
= 3 x 10-11M
1 L solution

See Concentration and Dilution Assignment

The Solubility Product Constant:

All salts have different solubilities. Even insoluble salts will dissolve in water to
some extent.

When a salt is dissolved in water, some of the salt dissolves and some may not.
The amount of salt that dissociates into ions is different for every salt.

Ksp is a number that represents how much of the salt will dissociate into ions.

Ksp is equal to the product of the concentration terms each raised to the power of
the coefficients of the substance in the dissociation equation.

Ksp values @ 25oC can be found on the table on the next page.

The equilibrium constant Ksp called the solubility constant indicates how soluble a
substance is.
o If the Ksp is low, the solid is not very soluble.
o If the Ksp is high, the solid is soluble.

An expression for the solubility product constant, Ksp, of calcium phosphate would be as
follows:
Balanced Equation: Ca3(PO4)2(s) 3 Ca2+(aq) + 2 PO43-(aq)
Ksp is equal to the product of the concentrations of the products, each raised to
the power of the coefficient in the balanced equation, over the concentration of
the reactant to the power of the coefficient.
When using Ksp we do not include the concentrations of solids, liquids or gases, as
they are not dissolved. Therefore, the concentration of the reactant should not be
included, as it is a solid.
Ksp = [Ca2+]3[PO43-]2

Example: Calculate the solubility product constant for calcium fluoride at 20oC given
that it`s solubility is 1.6 102 g/L.
First write the chemical equation:
CaF2 Ca2+ + 2FThen convert to molarity (the number of moles of CaF2 that dissolved in 1L):
mm CaF2 = 78.08g/mol

1.6 10 g 1mol

=2.0 104 M
1L
78.1 g

=x

Find Ksp using solubility constant expression:


Ksp = [Ca2+][F-]2 = (x) (2x)2 = (2.0 x 10-4 )(4.0 x 10-4 )2 = 3.2 x 10-11

Solubility Product Constants near 25 oC


Formula
Al(OH)3
AlPO4
BaCO3
BaCrO4
BaF2
Ba(OH)2
BaSO4
BaSO3
BaS2O3
BiOCl
BiOOH
CdCO3
Cd(OH)2
CdC2O4
CdS
CaCO3
CaCrO4
CaF2
CaHPO4
Ca(OH)2
CaC2O4
Ca3(PO4)2
CaSO4
CaSO3
Cr(OH)2
Cr(OH)3
CoCO3
Co(OH)2
Co(OH)3
CoS
CuCl
CuCN
CuI
Cu3(AsO4)2
CuCO3
CuCrO4
Cu[Fe(CN)6
]
Formula
Cu(OH)2
CuS
FeCO3
Fe(OH)2
FeS
FeAsO4

Ksp
1.31033
6.31019
5.1109
1.21010
1.0106
5103
1.11010
8107
1.6106
1.81031
41010
5.21012
2.51014
1.5108
81028
2.8109
7.1104
5.3109
1107
5.5106
2.7109
2.01029
9.1106
6.8108
21016
6.31031
1.41013
1.61015
1.61044
41021
1.2106
3.21020
1.11012
7.61036
1.41010
3.6106
1.31016
Ksp
2.21020
61037
3.21011
8.01016
61019
5.71021

Fe4[Fe(CN)6
]3
Fe(OH)3
FePO4
Pb3(AsO4)2
Pb(N3)2
PbBr2
PbCO3
PbCl2
PbCrO4
PbF2
Pb(OH)2
PbI2
PbSO4
PbS
Li2CO3
LiF
Li3PO4
MgNH4PO4
Mg3(AsO4)2
MgCO3
MgF2
Mg(OH)2
MgC2O4
Mg3(PO4)2
MnCO3
Mn(OH)2
MnS
Hg2Br2
Hg2Cl2
Hg2I2
HgS
Formula
NiCO3
Ni(OH)2
NiS
ScF3
Sc(OH)3
AgC2H3O2
Ag3AsO4
AgN3
AgBr
AgCl
Ag2CrO4
AgCN
AgIO3
AgI
AgNO2
Ag2SO4
Ag2S

3.31041
41038
1.31022
41036
2.5109
4.0105
7.41014
1.6105
2.81013
2.7108
1.21015
7.1109
1.6108
31028
2.5102
3.8103
3.2109
2.51013
21020
3.5108
3.7108
1.81011
8.5105
11025
1.81011
1.91013
31014
5.61023
1.31018
4.51029
21053
Ksp
6.6109
2.01015
31019
4.21018
8.01031
2.0103
1.01022
2.8109
5.01013
1.81010
1.11012
1.21016
3.0108
8.51017
6.0104
1.4105
61051

Ag2SO3
AgSCN
SrCO3
SrCrO4
SrF2
SrSO4
TlBr
TlCl
TlI
Tl(OH)3
Sn(OH)2
SnS
ZnCO3
Zn(OH)2
ZnC2O4
Zn3(PO4)2
ZnS

1.51014
1.01012
1.11010
2.2105
2.5109
3.2107
3.4106
1.7104
6.5108
6.31046
1.41028
11026
1.41011
1.21017
2.7108
9.01033
21025

* Sulfide equilibrium of the type:


MS(s) + H2O(l) M2+(aq) + HS(aq) + OH(aq)

Determining Individual Ion Concentration from Ksp:


Ex. Calculate the concentrations of barium ions and sulphate ions in a saturated
aqueous solution of barium sulphate at 25oC.
BaSO4(s) Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
Ksp = [Ba2+][ SO42-] = 1.1 10-10 from table
Since [Ba2+] = [SO42-],
then Ksp = [Ba2+][ SO42-] can be written as Ksp = x2
where x = [Ba2+] = [SO42-]
Ksp = 1.1 10-10 = x2
x = 1.0 10-5 mol/L
[Ba2+] = [SO42-] = 1.0 10-5 mol/L

Ex. When 10.0 L of a saturated solution of magnesium carbonate, at 22C is


evaporated to dryness, 0.12g of solid magnesium carbonate is obtained. Calculate the
Ksp of magnesium carbonate.
MgCO3(s) Mg2+(aq) + CO32-(aq)
Ksp = [Mg2+][ CO32-]
Calculate the concentration of MgCO3:

Moles of MgCO3 = 0.12 g MgCO3

1 mol MgCO3
84.32g MgCO3

= 1.4 10-3 mol MgCO3

c=

n
V

[MgCO3] =

1.4 10-3 mol


10.0 L

= 1.4 10-4 mol/L

if [MgCO3] = 1.4 10-4 mol/L, then [Mg2+] and [ CO32-] each = 1.4 10-4 mol/L
Ksp = (1.4 10-4 )(1.4 10-4 )
Ksp = (1.4 10-4)2 = 2.0 10-8

Ex. A saturated solution of ionic calcium hydroxide has a hydroxide ion concentration of
3.010-3mol/L. Calculate the Ksp of calcium hydroxide at the same temperature.
Ca(OH)2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 OH(aq)

1 mol Ca 2
2 mol OH
Calculate [Ca2+] : 3.0 10-3 mol/L OH-

= 1.5 10-3 mol/L Ca2+

Ksp = [Ca2+][ OH-]2 = (1.5 10-3)( 3.0 10-3)2 = 1.4 10-8

See Solubility Product Constant Assignment

The Common Ion Effect:

Remember that when a salt dissolves in water, some of it dissolves and some
may stay as a solid. There is a point at which the salt dissolving reaches
equilibrium. This means that for each formula unit of salt that dissolves, a pair of
ions come together to create a formula unit.

When we dissolve ions in water we know that the product of the concentrations of
the ions, to the power of their coefficients in a balanced equation, is equal to the
Ksp.

As long as the product of the concentration of the ions does not exceed the Ksp
value, no precipitate forms.

Lets look at the following example:


Copper (I) iodide is not very soluble in water (Ksp = 4 1019):

CuI(s) Cu+(aq) + I(aq)

Since Ksp = [Cu+][I-], if the product of the concentrations of Cu + and I- stays


below 4 1019, no precipitate will form, however, if we add extra iodine or

copper ions (the common ion) things will change. Let`s say we added some
iodide ions; this will increase the concentration of iodide and the product of the
copper ions and iodide ions would be higher than the Ksp value. This is not
possible so the concentrations would need to be lowered. In order to lower the
concentration of iodide ions, some copper (I) iodide would need to precipitate
out. This follows Le Chatelier`s Principle because we increased the concentration
of the products (iodide ions) so the reaction shifts to the reactants.
After adding iodide ions to the solution, copper (I) iodide will precipitate out, but
once the reaction reaches equilibrium again, the concentration of copper ions
and iodide will no longer be equal (there will be more iodide ions in solution than
copper ions). This also means the concentration of Cu + will be lower than at the
original equilibrium and the concentration of I - will be higher than at the original
equilibrium.
Overview: If a slightly soluble ionic compound is dissolved in water, you can
force precipitation of that salt by adding a readily soluble ionic compound that
has an ion in common with the slightly soluble salt. This shift is known as the
common ion effect.

8.3 1017

Ex. The Ksp of silver iodide is


. What is the iodide ion concentration of a 1.00 L
saturated solution of AgI to which 0.020 mol of AgNO3 is added?
Ksp =

AgI(aq) Ag+(aq) + I-(aq)

[ Ag ][ I ] 8.3 1017

If the equilibrium concentration of iodide ion from the dissociation is x, then the
equilibrium concentration of silver ion is x + 0.020. Because of the small value of Ksp, x
will be small compared to 0.020. Therefore, the [Ag+] at equilibrium equals x + 0.020 ~
0.020.
Ksp =

[ Ag ][ I ] 8.3 1017

(0.020)(x) =
x=

8.3 1017

4.2 10 15

M = [I ]

Selective Precipitation

Selective precipitation is when you separate ions from two solutes to create a
precipitate.

To calculate selective precipitation we use initial concentrations (Q), instead of the


equilibrium concentrations.

In selective precipitation there are restraints in forming a precipitate; a precipitate


doesn't always form in a solution. It depends on the relationship between K and Q:
o If Q>K a precipitate forms and the reaction proceeds to the left
o If Q<K no precipitate forms and the reaction proceeds to the right
o If Q=K the reaction is at equilibrium

Example: If 40L of 0.0050M KCl is mixed with 60L of 0.0030M Pb(NO3)2. Will the
precipitate PbCl2 (Ksp= 1.6 X 10-5) form?
First we calculate the initial concentrations of Pb2+ and Cl-:
[Pb2+]0= (40L)(.005M)/(40L+ 60L)= .002M
[Cl-]0= (60L)(.003M)/(40L+60L) = .0018M
Calculate value of Q:
Q=[Pb2+][Cl-]2
Q=[.002M][.0018M]2
Q= 6.48 X 10-9 M

Q<K no ppt
Example: If 100L of 0.03M Pb(NO3)2 is mixed with 200L of 0.09M KCl. Does a precipitate
(PbCl2) form? (Ksp = 1.6 X 10-5). What are the equilibrium concentrations of Pb2+ and
Cl-?
Pb2+

2Cl-

----->

PbCl2

[Pb2+]=(100L)(.03M)/(100L+200L) = .01M
[Cl-] = (200L)(.09M)/(100+200L) = .06M
Q=[.01M][.06M]2 ------->

Q=3.6 X 10-5

Because Q>K a precipitate forms.

By using selective precipitation, we can calculate the amount of a reagent necessary to


react with the salt.
Example: If a solution contains 1.0 x 10-5 M of Pb2+ and 2.0 x 10-5 M Ag+ and Cl- is
slowly added to the solution, will AgCl (Ksp=1.6 x 10-10) or PbCl2 (Ksp=1.6 x 10-5)

precipitate first? Which will be in excess?


First we plug the given values into the Ksp expression for PbCl2 and solve for the
concentration of Cl-.
1.6 x 10-5 = Ksp =[Pb2+][Cl-]2 = [1.0X10-5 M] [Cl-]2
[Cl-]2= 1.6 M
[Cl-] = 1.3 M
Next we plug in the given values to the Ksp expression for AgCl.
Ksp=1.6 X 10-10 = [Ag+][Cl-]
Ksp = 1.6 X 10-10 = [2.0 X 10-5 ] [Cl-]
[Cl-]= 8 X 10-6 M
AgCl will precipitate first because Cl- concentration @ equilibrium is smaller than PbCl2.

See Common Ion and Selective Precipitation Assignment

Lab: Analyzing for Anions


PURPOSE
In this experiment you will observe and record some characteristic chemical reactions
of several negatively charged ions: SO42-, CO32-, and I- using selected reagents. From a
study of these observations you will be able to develop a method for identifying each of
these anions in the presence of the other ions.
Your work will be typical of the work done by chemists who have developed elaborate
schemes which can be used to identify dozens of cations and anions in a given sample.
Organize a data table in which you can record your observations for the results
obtained by adding each of the reagents to each of the solutions of anions to be
studied.
MATERIALS
Anion obtained

Cation obtained

Na2SO4, sodium sulfate, 0.1 M SO42-

Ba(NO3)2 , barium nitrate, 0.1 M Ba2+

Na2CO3, sodium carbonate, 0.1 M CO32-

AgNO3, silver nitrate, 0.1 M Ag+

NaCI, sodium chloride, 0.1 M CI-

HNO3, nitric acid, 1.0 M H+

Nal, sodium iodide, 0.1 M I-

PROCEDURE
a. The tests can easily be made by putting a few drops of a solution on a plastic film
and adding to this a few drops of one of the reagents. DO NOT use the tip of a dropper
from a stock bottle for stirring. Doing so could contaminate the solution contained in
the bottle. Use a thin glass rod.
b. Test 2-3 drops of each anion solution separately with 1-2 drops of the 0.1 M Ba(NO3)2
reagent. Record the results observed. To each mixture that contains a precipitate add 23 drops of 1.0 M HNO3 and record any changes you observe.
c. Test 2-3 drops of each anion solution separately with 1-2 drops of the 0.1 M AgNO3
reagent. Record the results observed. To each mixture that contains a precipitate add 2
3 drops of 1.0 M HNO3 and record any changes you observe.
d. Prepare new samples of the silver precipitates which formed in step c. Add 23
drops of 6 M aqueous ammonia, NH3(aq), to the precipitates and record any changes
you observe.
e. Test 23 drops of each anion solution separately with 12 drops of 1.0 M HNO3 and
record the results.
f. Examine the pattern of reactions shown by your table of observations. Develop a
scheme by which you could identify either one or a combination of two of the anions in
a single solution. Organize your scheme in such a way that another student could follow
it. You may wish to try it out by making up your own "trial unknowns" containing
various combinations of the anions.
g. Obtain an unknown from your teacher and analyze it for the four anions. Report your
results. Include supporting evidence for your conclusions.
ANALYSIS
1) Write net ionic equations for the precipitation reactions which occurred when
solutions of the anions were mixed with the reagent containing Ba2+ ions.
2) Do the same for the precipitation reactions which occurred in step c with the Ag+
ions.
3) Write equations for the reactions which occurred when the precipitates were acidified
with 1.0 M HNO3 .
4) Write equations for the reactions which occurred when the silver precipitate reacted
with aqueous ammonia to form the complex ion, Ag(NH3)2+.