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4-7086_SAT_Vocab_FC_Box Lid Wrap_Layout 1 7/30/12 2:34 PM Page 1

BARRON’S

SAT*

VOCABULARY

FLASH CARDS

500 FLASH CARDS TO HELP YOU

ACHIEVE A HIGHER SCORE

*SAT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

BARRON’S

4_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_00_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_00 8/14/12 5:51 PM Pag SCORE 

HIGHER WITH BARRON’S

xxx

Introduction

Welcome!

Considerthissetof500flashcardsjustthefirststeponyourroadto buildingacollege- levelvocabulary.Designedasastudyaidforthe SAT,thesetenablesyoutoreview wordsyoumayalreadyknow,and tomaster unfamiliarwordsthatwillhelpyouontheSAT,incollege,

andforyearstocome.

Barron’s SAT Vocabulary Flash Cards presents500SAT

high-frequencyvocabularywords,providingadefinitionand

pronunciationguideforeachwordandusingeachwordinasentence.

Organizedalphabeticallyandnumbered,thewordsrangefrom abate to zealot.AllhaveappearedaskeywordsinSATreadingpassages andcriticalreadingandsentencecompletionquestions.

4_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_00_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_00 8/14/12 5:51 PM Pag

Introduction

The cards are yours. Use them in whatever way works best for you.

Practice pronouncing a word, following our pronunciation guide; then check your pronunciation by going to websites like dictionary.com and clicking on the speaker icon beside the word. You can work through the words in alphabetical order, using this introduction card to mark your place. Keep a few cards on the metal ring that comes with the set and flip through them while you’re waiting for the bus. Shuffle a stack of loose cards, and then cut the cards: see whether you know the word that comes up next. Turn that idea into a vocabulary game and play it with your friends: the one who knows the word gets to keep the card; when the stack runs out, the one with the most cards wins.

© Copyright 2011 by

ISBN: 978-1-4380-7086-5

Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.

250 Wireless Boulevard

All rights reserved.

Hauppauge, NY 11788

www.barronseduc.com

Make Your Own

Flash Cards

Once you have begun to build your vocabulary using flash cards, you will find that it’s a hard habit to break. When you run out of our cards, try making your own. Here’s how. Be brief, but include all the information you need. Don’t worry about pronunciation for now. On one side write the word. On the other side write concise definitions—two or three words at most—for each major meaning of the word you want to learn. To fix the word in your mind, use it in a short phrase. Then write down that phrase.

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page iv Sample Flash Card

theoretical;

ABSTRACT

not concrete

“abstract notion”

You can also use our illustrative sentences as models and make up a new sentence of your own. If you do, use vivid examples and be concrete: “To someone starving, hunger is not an abstract concept; it is all too real.”

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page v xxx

Pronunciation Guide

ə

as in bug

Ŏ, ŏ

as in pot

ə

as in banana, believe, ŌŌ, ōō

as in who

bikini, bonanza,

ȮI, ȯi

as in boy, poi

buccaneer

AU, au

as in how

Ā, ā

as in day

AW, aw

as in paw

Ă, ă

as in cat

AH, ah

as in pod

Ē, ē

as in me

AHR, ahr as in par

Ĕ, ĕ

as in bed

Ĕr, ĕr

as in pair

Ī, ī

as in pie

CH, ch

as in chip, creature

Ĭ, ĭ

as in pig

J, j

as in jam, gem, judge Ō, ō

as in go

Ŋ, ŋ

as in pang

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page vi S, s

as in sin, cent, scent TH, th

as in think

SH, sh

as in sheep, passion,

TH, th

as in then

nation

ZH, zh

as in leisure

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 1

1 abate

abate

verb

(ə BĀT)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 2

grow less in intensity

or degree

Rather than leave immediately and be drenched, they waited for the storm to abate.

SYNONYMS: subside; moderate; decrease 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 3

2 abridge

abridge

verb

(ə BRĬJ)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 4

reduce (a text) in length

Because Webster’s dictionary had grown so large and unwieldy, the publishers decided to abridge it and bring out a condensed version.

SYNONYMS: condense; shorten; digest 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 5

3 abstemious

abstemious

adjective

(ăb STĒ mē əs)

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sparing in eating and drinking

Vegans are abstemious: they neither use nor consume animal products, abstaining from eating eggs and meat.

SYNONYMS: temperate; restrained; moderate 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 7

4 abstract

abstract

adjective

(ăb STRĂKT)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 8

not concrete

To John, who had never missed a meal, hunger was an abstract concept, one he understood only in theory.

SYNONYMS: theoretical; conceptual; intangible; academic

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 9

5 abstruse

abstruse

adjective

(ăb STRŌŌS)

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difficult to understand

Baffled by the abstruse philosophical texts assigned in class, Dave asked Lexy to explain Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason.

SYNONYMS: obscure; profound; incomprehensible; esoteric

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6 accessible

accessible

adjective

(ăk SĔ sə bəl)

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able to be reached

We asked our guide whether the ruins were accessible on foot.

SYNONYMS: approachable; obtainable 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash

Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 13

7 acclaim

acclaim

verb

(ə KLĀM)

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announce with great approval

Announcing the Olympic Games, the

sportscasters acclaimed every American victory and grumbled about every American defeat.

SYNONYMS: applaud; praise

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8 accolade

accolade

noun

(Ă kə lād)

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expression of approval

In Hollywood, an “Oscar” is the highest accolade.

SYNONYMS: award; praise; honor; tribute 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 17

9 acknowledge

acknowledge

verb

(ăk NAH lĭj)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 18

recognize, possibly reluctantly,

the status or rights of

Although Iris acknowledged that the Beatles’

tunes sounded old-fashioned, she still preferred them to the gangsta rap her brothers played.

SYNONYMS: admit; concede; grant 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 19

10 acquiesce

acquiesce

verb

(ă kwē ĔS)

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agree without protesting

Although she appeared to acquiesce to her employer’s suggestions, I could tell she had reservations about the changes he wanted made.

SYNONYMS: assent; comply; submit 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 21

11 acrid

acrid

adjective

(Ă krəd)

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sharply bitter in taste or odor

A pistol shot rang out; the acrid odor of burnt gunpowder filled the room.

SYNONYMS: pungent; sharp; harsh; bitter 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 23

12 acrimonious

acrimonious

adjective

(ă krə MŌ nē əs)

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bitter in words or manner

It was a very negative campaign: the rival candidates attacked each other using highly acrimonious terms.

SYNONYMS: hostile; bitter; unfriendly; spiteful 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 25

13 adherent

adherent

noun

(ăd HĬR ənt)

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someone who follows a leader

or supports a cause

As news of the scandal spread, the senator’s one-time adherents quickly deserted him.

SYNONYMS: supporter; follower; advocate; believer 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 27

14 adroit

adroit

adjective

(ə DRȮIT)

having skill or resourcefulness

in coping with situations

I had to admire the adroit excuses that Dexter found to get out of doing any chores he disliked.

SYNONYMS: skillful; clever; resourceful; adept 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 29

15 adulation

adulation

noun

(ă jə LĀ shən)

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excessive admiration

The conceited movie star relished the adulation he received from his groupies.

SYNONYMS: idolization; hero worship; flattery 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 31

16 adversary

adversary

noun

(ĂD və(r) sĕr ē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 32

one who resists or opposes

The young wrestler struggled to defeat his terrible adversary.

SYNONYMS: opponent; enemy

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 33

17 adversity

adversity

noun

(ăd Və(R) sə tē)

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force negatively affecting

one’s well-being

Dirt poor and out of work, he did not give up but continued struggling to overcome adversity.

SYNONYMS: misfortune; hardship; affliction; poverty

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18 advocate

advocate

verb

(ĂD və kāt)

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speak in favor of

Seeking the end of slavery, the abolitionists advocated freedom for the slaves.

SYNONYMS: support; urge; recommend 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 37

19 aesthetic

aesthetic

adjective

(ĕs THĔ tĭk)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 38

dealing with or capable of

appreciating the beautiful

The beauty of Tiffany’s stained glass appealed to Esther’s aesthetic sense.

SYNONYM: artistic

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 39

20 affable

affable

adjective

(Ă fə bəl)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 40

easy to talk to; warmly friendly

Accustomed to cold, impersonal supervisors, Nicholas was amazed at how affable his new manager was.

SYNONYMS: genial; sociable; easygoing; approachable

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 41

21 affirmation

affirmation

noun

(ă fər MĀ shən)

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positive statement

Despite Tom’s affirmations of innocence, Aunt Polly suspected he had eaten the pie.

SYNONYMS: assertion; avowal; declaration 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 43

22 alacrity

alacrity

noun

(ə LĂ krə tē)

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cheerful readiness to respond

Eager to get away to the mountains, Phil and Dave packed up their ski gear and climbed into the van with alacrity.

SYNONYMS: eagerness; promptness; enthusiasm 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 45

23 alleviate

alleviate

verb

(ə LĒ vē āt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 46

make more bearable

When Johnny came down with a bad case of poison oak, the doctor recommended calamine lotion to alleviate the itching.

SYNONYMS: relieve; lessen; mitigate; ease; lighten 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 47

24 allusion

allusion

noun

(ə LŌŌ zhən)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 48

indirect or hinted reference

When Amanda said to the ticket scalper,

“One hundred bucks? What do you want, a pound of flesh?” she was making an

allusion to Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice.

SYNONYMS: mention; citation; reference 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 49

25 aloof

aloof

adjective

(ə LŌŌF)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 50

emotionally or physically

distant

Shy by nature, she remained aloof while the rest of the group chattered away.

SYNONYMS: standoffish; detached; reserved; remote 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 51

26 altruistic

altruistic

adjective

(ăl trōō ĬS tĭk)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 52

unselfishly concerned for

the well-being of others

By providing college scholarships for economically disadvantaged youths, Eugene Lang performed a truly altruistic deed.

SYNONYMS: unselfish; philanthropic; selfless 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 53

27 ambiguous

ambiguous

adjective

(ăm BĬ gyə wəs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 54

having several possible

meanings, and therefore

unclear

Since both interpretations seemed possible, the judges could not decide which way to interpret a particularly ambiguous passage in the law.

SYNONYMS: vague; uncertain; misleading 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 55

28 ambivalence

ambivalence

noun

(ăm BĬ və lən(t)s)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 56

state of having conflicting

emotional attitudes

Torn between loving her parents one minute and hating them the next, she was confused by the ambivalence of her feelings.

SYNONYMS: indecision; uncertainty 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 57

29 amorphous

amorphous

adjective

(ə MAWR fəs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 58

lacking shape or definition

As soon as we have decided on our itinerary, we shall send you a copy; right now, our plans are still amorphous.

SYNONYMS: formless; shapeless; vague; nebulous 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 59

30 anachronism

anachronism

noun

(ə NĂ krə nĭzm)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 60

something out of place

chronologically, not in its

proper historical period

In Back to the Future, when Marty McFly is transported into the past, his skateboard is an anachronism. So is his Calvin Klein underwear.

SYNONYMS: incongruity

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 61

31 analogous

analogous

adjective

(ə NĂ lə gəs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 62

showing a likeness or

similarity

There’s an old adage that watching government in action is analogous to watching sausage being made. Neither process is pretty.

SYNONYMS: comparable; similar; equivalent 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash

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32 anarchy

anarchy

noun

(Ă nər kē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 64

political and social disorder;

state of being without a

governing body or leader

Denying that she advocated total anarchy, Katya maintained she wished only to change our government, not to destroy it utterly.

SYNONYMS: disorder; chaos; lawlessness 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 65

33 anecdote

anecdote

noun

(Ă nĭk dōt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 66

short account of a supposedly

interesting or amusing

incident

The boss prefaced his speech by telling a pointless anecdote about an encounter he’d had with former President Bush.

SYNONYMS: story; tale; yarn

34 animosity

animosity

noun

(ă nə MAH sə tē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 68

active ill will

Martha showed her animosity toward her classmates by sending them hate messages on Formspring and Twitter.

SYNONYMS: hatred; hostility; enmity 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 69

35 anomaly

anomaly

noun

(ə NAH mə lē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 70

something not easily

classified or that deviates

from the norm

Most birds can fly. The ostrich, which cannot fly, is therefore an anomaly.

SYNONYMS: irregularity; abnormality 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 71

36 antagonism

antagonism

noun

(ăn TĂ gə nĭ zəm)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 72

active resistance

Barry showed his antagonism toward his new stepmother by ignoring her whenever she tried talking to him.

SYNONYMS: resentment; opposition; hostility 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 73

37 antipathy

antipathy

noun

(ăn TĬ pə thē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 74

deep-seated dislike

Like most Boston Red Sox fans, Matt Damon and Ben Affleck feel a strong antipathy toward the New York Yankees, Boston’s bitter rivals.

SYNONYMS: hatred; enmity; aversion 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 75

38 apathy

apathy

noun

(Ă pə thē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 76

lack of concern, especially

about things that others

find important

A firm believer in democratic government, she could not understand the apathy of people who never bothered to vote.

SYNONYMS: indifference; impassiveness 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 77

39 appease

appease

verb

(ə PĒZ)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 78

cause to grow calm or subside

Tom and Jody tried to appease their crying baby by offering him one toy after another.

SYNONYMS: mollify; pacify; placate; soothe 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 79

40 apprehension

apprehension

noun

(ă prĭ HĔN shən)

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fear of future evil

Despite the apprehension many people feel about black bears, these bears are generally more afraid of humans than humans are of them.

SYNONYMS: anxiety; trepidation; dread; nervousness 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 81

41 appropriate

appropriate

verb

(ə PRŌ prē āt)

take possession of for one’s

own use (possibly without the

authority or right to do so)

The ranch owners appropriated the lands that had originally been set aside for the Indians’ use.

SYNONYMS: acquire; annex

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 83

42 arbitrary

arbitrary

adjective

(AHR bə trĕr ē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 84

determined by impulse or

whim; capricious

Baseball is a game of arbitrary calls; umpires constantly make decisions that to someone sitting in the bleachers make no sense.

SYNONYMS: capricious; unreasonable; tyrannical 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 85

43 archaic

archaic

adjective

(ahr KĀ ĭk)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 86

characteristic of an earlier

or more primitive time

The foreign student spoke in correct but rather archaic English, for he had learned it from studying the

English classics, not from everyday conversation.

SYNONYMS: antiquated; ancient; outdated 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 87

44 ardent

ardent

adjective

(AHR dənt)

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characterized by intensity

of feeling

Katya’s ardent enthusiasm inspired her fellow protesters to make even greater efforts on behalf of the cause.

SYNONYMS: intense; passionate; zealous 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 89

45 articulate

articulate

adjective

(ahr TĬ kyə lət)

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expressing oneself clearly

Her articulate PowerPoint presentation was so effective that the company immediately adopted her proposal.

SYNONYMS: clear; distinct; lucid; eloquent 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 91

46 ascendancy

ascendancy

noun

(ə SĔN dən(t) sē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 92

position of dominance;

controlling influence

Leaders of religious cults maintain ascendancy over their followers by methods that can verge on brainwashing.

SYNONYMS: domination; power; superiority 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 93

47 ascetic

ascetic

adjective

(ə SĔ tĭk)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 94

practicing self-denial

The wealthy, self-indulgent young man felt oddly drawn to the strict, ascetic lifestyle practiced by members of some monastic orders.

SYNONYMS: austere; abstinent; self-denying 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 95

48 assiduous

assiduous

adjective

(ə SĬ jə wəs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 96

characterized by careful,

persistent attention (to a task)

John was assiduous in compiling the bibliography for his term paper; he worked at the task for weeks before he was satisfied.

SYNONYMS: diligent; industrious; hardworking; persevering

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 97

49 assuage

assuage

verb

(ə SWĀJ)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 98

lessen in intensity, or put

an end to

Jilted by Jane, Dick tried to assuage his broken heart by eating ice cream. Several gallons later, he had assuaged his hunger but not his pain.

SYNONYMS: ease; satisfy; soothe; relieve 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 99

50 assumption

assumption

noun

(ə SəMP shən)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 100

something taken for granted;

act of taking possession

The young princess made the foolish assumption that the regent would not object to her taking the reins of power.

SYNONYMS: supposition; hypothesis; presupposition 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 101

51 astute

astute

adjective

(ə STŌŌT)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 102

characterized by shrewdness

and clear-sightedness

Shrewdly purchasing valuable plots of land for small sums, John Jacob Astor gained a reputation as an astute investor.

SYNONYMS: shrewd; perceptive; sharp; wise; clever 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 103

52 atrophy

atrophy

verb

(Ă trə fē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 104

waste away

After three months in a cast, your calf muscles are bound to atrophy; you’ll need physical therapy to get back in shape.

SYNONYMS: wither; shrivel; degenerate 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 105

53 attribute

attribute

verb

(ə TRĬ byōōt)

explain by pointing out

a cause

The author attributed Mozart’s success in music to the encouragement he received from his father.

SYNONYMS: ascribe; credit (to); explain 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 107

54 augment

augment

verb

(awg MĔNT)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 108

make larger or more numerous

Armies augment their forces by calling up reinforcements; teachers augment their salaries by taking second jobs.

SYNONYMS: supplement; enlarge; increase; add to 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 109

55 austere

austere

adjective

(aw STĒR)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 110

forbiddingly stern; severely

simple and unornamented

The headmaster’s austere demeanor tended to scare off the more timid students, who never visited his study willingly.

SYNONYMS: strict; severe; stern; plain; stark 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 111

56 autonomous

autonomous

adjective

(aw TAH nə məs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 112

not controlled or governed

by outside forces

Although the University of California at Berkeley is just one part of the state university system, in many ways, Cal Berkeley is autonomous, for it runs several programs that are not subject to outside control.

SYNONYMS: independent; self-governing 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 113

57 banal

banal

adjective

(bə NĂL)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 114

lacking originality

With its worn-out dialogue and predictable plot, the sitcom struck me as numbingly banal.

SYNONYMS: hackneyed; commonplace; trite; timeworn; clichéd

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 115

58 bane

bane

noun

(BĀN)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 116

source of harm or ruin

Lucy’s little brother was the bane of her existence: his sole aim in life seemed to be to make her totally miserable.

SYNONYMS: blight; curse; nuisance 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 117

59 belie

belie

verb

(bĭ LĪ)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 118

give a false impression

His coarse, hard-bitten exterior belied his inner sensitivity.

SYNONYMS: contradict; disagree with 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 119

60 belittle

belittle

verb

(bĭ LĬ təl)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 120

to cause someone or

something to seem less

Barry constantly belittled people, making them feel insignificant and small.

SYNONYMS: disparage; slight; deprecate; put down 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 121

benevolent

adjective

(bə NĔ və lənt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 122

disposed to do good

Mr. Goodman was a benevolent employer who made sure that each of his employees received a turkey at Thanksgiving.

SYNONYMS: generous; charitable; kindly 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 123

62 benign

benign

adjective

(bĭ NĪN)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 124

gentle in disposition;

not malignant

Although her benign smile and gentle bearing made Miss Marple seem to be a sweet little old lady, in reality she was a tough-minded, shrewd observer of human nature.

SYNONYMS: kindly; gracious; favorable; benevolent 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 125

63 bleak

bleak

adjective

(BLĒK)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 126

barren and lacking in warmth

The frigid, inhospitable Aleutian Islands are bleak military outposts. It’s no wonder that soldiers assigned there have a bleak attitude toward their posting.

SYNONYMS: cheerless; dreary; dismal; bare; depressing

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 127

64 bolster

bolster

verb

(BŌLstər)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 128

support or prop up

The debaters accumulated huge file boxes full of evidence to bolster their arguments.

SYNONYMS: reinforce; strengthen 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 129

65 brevity

brevity

noun

(BRĔ və tē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 130

shortness of expression

When you place a phone call from an airplane, brevity is essential; you are charged for every minute.

SYNONYMS: briefness; conciseness; succinctness; terseness

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 131

66 buttress

buttress

verb

(Bə trəs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 132

shore up using an external

support

The attorney came up with several far-fetched arguments in a vain attempt to buttress his weak case.

SYNONYMS: support; reinforce; prop up; bolster; strengthen

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 133

67 cacophonous

cacophonous

adjective

(kă KĂ fə nəs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 134

marked by harsh or discordant

sound

Do orchestra students actually enjoy the cacophonous sounds they make when they are tuning up? How can they stand the racket they make?

SYNONYMS: dissonant; jarring; inharmonious 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 135

68 cajole

cajole

verb

(kə JŌL)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 136

persuade in the face of

reluctance

Diane tried to cajole her father into letting her drive the family car.

SYNONYMS: coax; wheedle

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 137

69 calculated

calculated

adjective

(KĂLkyə lā təd)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 138

deliberately planned

(to achieve a goal,

accomplish a purpose)

Lexy’s choice of clothing to wear to the debate tournament was carefully calculated to impress the judges.

SYNONYMS: intended; considered; deliberate; premeditated

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 139

70 candor

candor

noun

(KĂN dər)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 140

open honesty

When Terri asked Tom how she looked, she was hoping for compliments, not for candor.

SYNONYMS: frankness; openness; truthfulness 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 141

capitulate

verb

(kə PĬ chə lāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 142

give up resisting

Okay, I capitulate! I’ll pick up my bedroom.

Just quit nagging me!

SYNONYMS: surrender; yield; submit 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 143

72 capricious

capricious

adjective

(kə PRĒ shəs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 144

impulsive and unpredictable

The winter storm was capricious: it changed course unpredictably. Jen was capricious, too: she changed boyfriends almost as often as she changed clothes.

SYNONYMS: erratic; fickle; changeable; inconstant 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 145

73 captivate

captivate

verb

(KĂP tə vāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 146

attract and keep someone’s

interest

Bart and Lisa were captivated by their new babysitter’s skill at juggling chainsaws.

SYNONYMS: enthrall; fascinate; charm; enchant; entrance

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 147

74 catalyst

catalyst

noun

(KĂ təl əst)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 148

something that causes an

event or change to occur

Jean-Michel Cousteau, one of the world’s leading ocean explorers, hopes that the Gulf of Mexico oil disaster will become a catalyst for political, industrial, and environmental change.

SYNONYMS: impetus; spur; stimulus 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 149

75 censorious

censorious

adjective

(sĕn SAWR ē əs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 150

highly critical

We live in a morally censorious climate, one that does not readily tolerate weirdness, willfulness, or imperfection.

SYNONYMS: disapproving; overcritical; faultfinding 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 151

censure

verb

(SĔN(T) shər)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 152

harshly criticize

The senator was censured for behavior inappropriate to a member of Congress.

SYNONYMS: blame; rebuke; reprimand; scold 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 153

77 cliché

cliché

noun

(klē SHĀ)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 154

phrase dulled in meaning

by repetition; trite theme;

person who acts in wholly

predictable ways

In writing your SAT essay, avoid using clichés like “sadder but wiser” and “old as the hills.”

SYNONYMS: chestnut; formula; platitude 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 155

78 coercion

coercion

noun

(kō əR zhən)

use of force to compel

someone to obey; threat

of violence or reprisal

The inquisitors used both physical and psychological coercion to force Joan of Arc to deny that God had sent visions to her.

SYNONYMS: force; compulsion; bullying 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 157

79 cogent

cogent

adjective

(KŌ jənt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 158

strongly appealing to reason;

well argued

Katya presented her case with such cogent arguments that the jury had to decide in favor of her client.

SYNONYMS: convincing; persuasive; logical; sound 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 159

80 coherence

coherence

noun

(kō HĬR ən(t)s)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 160

logical consistency; quality

of sticking together

To keep the show going from season to season, the producers of Lost added plot points and characters until the story lost its original coherence; in fact, it became incoherent.

SYNONYMS: consistency; intelligibility; logic 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 161

81 cohesion

cohesion

noun

(kō HĒ zhən)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 162

tendency to keep together

A firm believer in the maxim “Divide and conquer,” the evil emperor, by means of lies and trickery, sought to disrupt the cohesion of the federation of free worlds.

SYNONYMS: unity; union; solidity 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 163

82 collaborate

collaborate

verb

(kə LĂ bə rāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 164

work together

Mystery writers Jonathan and Faye Kellerman generally write alone; occasionally, however, they collaborate on a novel.

SYNONYMS: cooperate; abet

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 165

83 colloquial

colloquial

adjective

(kə LŌ kwē əl)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 166

pertaining to conversational

or common speech

Some of the newer, less formal passages on the SAT have a colloquial tone that is intended to make them more appealing to students.

SYNONYMS: familiar; informal; conversational 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 167

84 commemorate

commemorate

verb

(kə MĔ mə rāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 168

honor the memory of

The statue of the Minute Man commemorates the valiant soldiers who fought in the Revolutionary War.

SYNONYMS: remember; celebrate

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 169

85 compile

compile

verb

(kəm PĪL)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 170

gather or put together

We compiled a list of the words most frequently used on SAT examinations.

SYNONYMS: assemble; accumulate; amass; collect 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 171

86 complacency

complacency

noun

(kəm PLĀ sən(t) sē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 172

satisfaction with one’s

person, possessions, or

accomplishments

You may be in first place right now, but your competitors are catching up fast. This is no time for complacency.

SYNONYMS: smugness; self-satisfaction 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 173

87 complement

complement

verb

(KAHM plə mənt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 174

make something complete

or perfect

The waiter recommended a glass of port to complement the cheese.

SYNONYMS: match; crown; cap

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 175

88 compliance

compliance

noun

(kəm PLĪ ən(t)s)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 176

conformity in fulfilling

requirements; readiness

to yield

The architect realized that his design for the new school had to be in compliance with the local building code.

SYNONYMS: obedience; accordance; acquiescence 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 177

89 composure

composure

noun

(kəm PŌ zhər)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 178

mental calmness

Even the latest crisis at work could not shake Nancy’s composure.

SYNONYMS: equanimity; serenity; self-possession 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 179

90 comprehensive

comprehensive

adjective

(kahm prĭ HĔN(T) sĭv)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 180

completely covering (a field

or subject)

We will spend the final two weeks of school on a comprehensive review of everything we covered in class this semester.

SYNONYMS: inclusive; complete; thorough 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 181

91 concede

concede

verb

(kən SĒD)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 182

acknowledge something to be

true; grant as a privilege

Despite all the evidence Monica had assembled, Mark refused to concede that she was right.

SYNONYMS: admit; yield

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 183

92 conciliatory

conciliatory

adjective

(kən SĬLyə tawr ē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:16 PM Page 184

gaining goodwill by acting in

a pleasing manner

Tina was still angry despite Tony’s soft and conciliatory words.

SYNONYMS: reconciling; soothing; appeasing; mollifying

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 185

concise

adjective

(kən SĪS)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 186

covering a great deal in

few words

When you send a message on Twitter,

be concise: a tweet cannot be more than 140 characters long.

SYNONYMS: brief; terse; succinct 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 187

94 concur

concur

verb

(kən KəR)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 188

express agreement with an

opinion; happen together

Justice Sotomayor wrote a minority opinion because she did not concur with the reasoning of her fellow justices.

SYNONYMS: agree; assent; coincide 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 189

95 condone

condone

verb

(kən DŌN)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 190

treat as if harmless or

unimportant

Unlike Widow Douglas, who condoned Huck’s minor offenses, Miss Watson did nothing but scold him for his misdeeds.

SYNONYMS: overlook; forgive; excuse; pardon; disregard

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 191

96 conflagration

conflagration

noun

(kahn flə GRĀ shən)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 192

great fire

In the conflagration that followed the 1906

earthquake, much of San Francisco went up in flames.

SYNONYMS: inferno; blaze

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 193

97 confound

confound

verb

(kən FAUND)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 194

throw into confusion

or bewilder

No mystery could confound Sherlock Holmes for long. He easily solved even the most mystifying case.

SYNONYMS: confuse; puzzle; mystify 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 195

98 conjecture

conjecture

verb

(kən JĔK chər)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 196

deduce by guessing

Although there was no official count, the organizers conjectured that more than 10,000

marchers took part in the March for Peace.

SYNONYMS: speculate; surmise; guess 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 197

99 consensus

consensus

noun

(kən SĔN(T) səs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 198

agreement arrived at by a

group as a whole

Every time the garden club members had nearly reached a consensus about what to plant, Mistress Mary, quite contrary, disagreed.

SYNONYMS: concord; unanimity

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constraint

noun

(kən STRĀNT)

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embarrassed awkwardness;

repression of feelings

When the boys first met their new stepmother, they felt some constraint, but eventually they lost that initial awkwardness and talked with her comfortably.

SYNONYMS: limitation; restriction; embarrassment 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 201

101 contend

contend

verb

(kən TĔND)

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argue earnestly; struggle in

rivalry

Sociologist Harry Edwards contends that some colleges exploit young African-American athletes, supporting them as athletes but failing to support them as students.

SYNONYMS: assert; compete

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102 contentious

contentious

adjective

(kən TĔN(T) shəs)

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involving argument

Violently disagreeing with the referees’ ruling, Coach Ben became so contentious that they threw him out of the game.

SYNONYMS: controversial; quarrelsome; belligerent 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 205

103 contract

contract

verb

(kən TRĂKT)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 206

(1) reduce in size; (2) become

affected by (a disease)

Warm metal expands; cold metal contracts.

When Michael served in the Peace Corps in Malaysia, he contracted malaria.

SYNONYMS: (1) compress; shrink (2) incur; be afflicted with

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104 converge

converge

verb

(kən VəRJ)

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tend to meet or come together

In 1995, African-American men from all over the United States converged on Washington, DC, to take part in the historic Million Man March.

SYNONYMS: congregate; approach; unite 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 209

105 conviction

conviction

noun

(kən VĬK shən)

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(1) verdict that someone is

guilty of a crime; (2) strongly

held belief

Even her conviction for murder did not shake Peter’s conviction that Harriet was innocent of the crime.

SYNONYMS: (1) guilty sentence; condemnation; (2) opinion; persuasion

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106 cordial

cordial

adjective

(KŌR jəl)

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warmly friendly; sincerely felt

Our hosts greeted us at the airport with a cordial welcome and a hearty hug.

SYNONYMS: gracious; affable; heartfelt 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 213

107 corroborate

corroborate

verb

(kə RAH bə rāt)

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support with evidence

Though Huck was quite willing to corroborate Tom’s story, Aunt Polly knew better than to believe either of them.

SYNONYMS: confirm; substantiate; back up 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 215

108 credulity

credulity

noun

(krĭ DYŌŌ lə tē)

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tendency to believe too easily

Con artists take advantage of the credulity of inexperienced Internet users to gain access to their credit card information.

SYNONYMS: gullibility; naïveté 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 217

109 criterion

criterion

noun

(krī TĬR ē ən)

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decisive factor

What criterion did you use when you selected this essay as the prizewinner?

SYNONYMS: standard; benchmark; measure 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash

Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 219

110 cryptic

cryptic

adjective

(KRĬP tĭk)

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having a secret meaning

Thoroughly baffled by Holmes’s cryptic remarks, Watson wondered whether Holmes was intentionally concealing his thoughts about the crime.

SYNONYMS: mysterious; hidden; obscure 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 221

111 culpable

culpable

adjective

(KəLpə bəl)

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deserving blame

It was an honest mistake, a well-intentioned mistake, a mistake for which no one was culpable, but it was a mistake all the same.

SYNONYMS: blameworthy; reprehensible 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 223

112 cursory

cursory

adjective

(Kə(R) sə rē)

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hastily done

Because a cursory examination of the ruins indicates the possibility of arson, we believe the insurance agency should undertake a more thorough investigation of the fire’s cause.

SYNONYMS: perfunctory; casual; superficial 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 225

113 debilitate

debilitate

verb

(də BĬ lə tāt)

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sap the strength of

Michael’s severe bout of the flu debilitated him so much that for a week he was too tired to go back to work.

SYNONYMS: weaken; enfeeble; enervate 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 227

114 debunk

debunk

verb

(dē BəNK)

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expose as false or

exaggerated

Pointing out that the candidate had consistently voted against strengthening antipollution legislation, the reporters debunked his claim that he was a fervent environmentalist.

SYNONYMS: discredit; ridicule; lampoon 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 229

decorum

noun

(dĭ KŌR əm)

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appropriateness in behavior;

orderliness and good taste

in manners

Even the best-mannered students have trouble behaving with proper decorum on the last day of school.

SYNONYMS: propriety; correctness; politeness 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 231

116 decry

decry

verb

(dĭ KRĪ)

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express strong disapproval of

The founder of the Children’s Defense Fund, Marian Wright Edelman, strongly decries the lack of financial aid and moral support for children in America today.

SYNONYMS: criticize; condemn

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117 deference

deference

noun

(DĔ fə rən(t)s)

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courteous regard for another’s

wish; respect owed to a

superior

In deference to the minister’s request, please do not take photographs during the wedding service.

SYNONYMS: honor; esteem

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118 definitive

definitive

adjective

(dĭ FĬ nə tĭv)

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most complete; providing

a final answer

Although many programming texts describe themselves as definitive guides to the subject, almost all of them leave out essential pieces of information.

SYNONYMS: exhaustive; conclusive; authoritative 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 237

119 degradation

degradation

noun

(dĕ grə DĀ shən)

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lowering in rank or dignity

Some secretaries object to fetching the boss a cup of coffee because they feel that being asked to do

such nonprofessional tasks is degrading, and they refuse to put up with that sort of degradation.

SYNONYMS: debasement; degeneration; deterioration; decline; humiliation

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 239

120 deleterious

deleterious

adjective

(də lə TĬR ē əs)

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injurious to health

If you believe that smoking is deleterious to your health (and the surgeon general certainly does), then quit!

SYNONYMS: harmful; destructive; detrimental; damaging; pernicious

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121 delineate

delineate

verb

(dĭ LĬ nē āt)

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set forth in detail

Using only a few descriptive phrases, Austen manages to delineate the character of Mr. Collins so deftly that we can predict his every move.

SYNONYMS: describe; outline; portray; depict; sketch 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 243

122 denounce

denounce

verb

(dĭ NOWN(T)S)

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proclaim as evil

The reform candidates denounced the corrupt city officials for having betrayed the public’s trust.

SYNONYMS: condemn; criticize; accuse 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 245

123 depict

depict

verb

(dĭ PĬKT)

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represent using words or

a picture

Some newspaper accounts depicted the movie star as a reclusive prima donna; others portrayed her as a sensitive artist harassed by the media.

SYNONYMS: portray; describe

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124 deplore

deplore

verb

(dĭ PLAWR)

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regret strongly; express

grief over

Although the advice columnist deplored the high rate of divorce nowadays, she realized that not every marriage could be saved.

SYNONYMS: disapprove; lament

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125 depravity

depravity

noun

(dĭ PRĂ və tē)

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extreme corruption

The depravity of Caligula’s behavior came to sicken even those who had willingly participated in his earlier, comparatively innocent orgies.

SYNONYMS: wickedness; immorality; decadence 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 251

126 deprecate

deprecate

verb

(DĔ prĭ kāt)

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express strong disapproval

of; protest against; belittle

Because she was a firm believer in old-fashioned courtesy, Miss Post deprecated the modern tendency to address new acquaintances by their first names.

SYNONYMS: protest; belittle

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deride

verb

(dĭ RĪD)

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laugh at scornfully

The reviewers unanimously derided Hwang’s new play, mocking its pretentious dialogue, flat characters, and simpleminded plot.

SYNONYMS: ridicule; mock; scoff 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 255

128 derivative

derivative

adjective

(dĭ RĬ və tĭv)

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lacking in originality

Although her early poetry was clearly derivative in nature, the critics thought she had promise and eventually would find her own voice.

SYNONYMS: copied; imitative; unoriginal 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 257

129 despondent

despondent

adjective

(dĭ SPAHN dənt)

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showing extreme gloom

or depression

Once cheerful and lighthearted, William became seriously despondent after breaking up with Jan.

SYNONYMS: gloomy; dejected; downcast; discouraged

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130 detachment

detachment

noun

(dĭ TĂCH mənt)

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emotional remoteness

Psychoanalysts must maintain their professional detachment and stay uninvolved with their patients’ personal lives.

SYNONYMS: aloofness; objectivity; distance; disengagement

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131 deterrent

deterrent

noun

(dĭ Tə(R) ənt)

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something that discourages

Does the threat of capital punishment serve as a deterrent to potential killers?

SYNONYMS: curb; disincentive; restraint; check 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 263

132 detrimental

detrimental

adjective

(dĕ trə MĔN təl)

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causing injury or damage

Journalists wondered whether news of the senator’s affair would prove detrimental to his chances of being reelected.

SYNONYMS: harmful; damaging

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133 devious

devious

adjective

(DĒ vē əs)

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not straightforward; departing

from accepted conduct

The Joker’s plan was so devious that his underlings had a hard time following its shifts and dodges.

SYNONYMS: roundabout; cunning

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134 devise

devise

verb

(dĭ VĪZ)

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form in one’s mind (a plan,

method, or invention)

How clever the Joker was, to devise such a cunning, devious plan!

SYNONYMS: invent; think up

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 269

135 didactic

didactic

adjective

(dī DĂK tĭk)

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intended to teach or convey

information

While Joan Walsh Anglund clearly gets across her message about the nature of friendship and the need to share and be flexible, her writing is not the least bit didactic or dogmatic.

SYNONYMS: instructional; moralizing; edifying; preachy

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 271

136 diffidence

diffidence

noun

(DĬ fə dən(t)s)

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lack of confidence

Can people who are naturally inclined to diffidence get over their shyness to become fast-talking, successful television personalities?

SYNONYMS: shyness; reserve; unassertiveness 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 273

diffuse

adjective

(dĭ FYŌŌS)

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spread out; both wordy and

poorly organized

If you pay authors by the word, you’re tempting them to produce diffuse books instead of concise ones.

SYNONYMS: rambling; verbose; dispersed 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 275

138 digression

digression

noun

(dī GRĔ shən)

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departure from the main

subject

Nobody minded when Professor Renoir’s lectures wandered away from their official theme: his digressions were always more fascinating than the topic of the day.

SYNONYMS: divergence; aside; detour 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 277

139 dilemma

dilemma

noun

(də LĔ mə)

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choice of two unsatisfactory

alternatives

“Here am I brought to a very pretty dilemma; I must commit murder or commit matrimony.”

—George Farquhar

SYNONYMS: predicament; problem 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 279

140 diligence

diligence

noun

(DĬ lə jən(t)s)

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steadiness of effort;

persistent hard work

Greatly impressed by the part-time worker’s diligence, her employer offered her a full-time job.

SYNONYMS: industry; assiduousness 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 281

141 diminution

diminution

noun

(dĭ mə NYŌŌ shən)

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reduction in size

Old Jack was as sharp at eighty as he had been at fifty; increasing age had led to no diminution of his mental acuity.

SYNONYMS: decrease; lessening

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142 discerning

discerning

adjective

(dĭ Sə(R) nĭŋ)

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mentally quick and observant

Although the movie star was no genius, she was sufficiently discerning to tell her true friends from the countless phonies who flattered her.

SYNONYMS: perceptive; astute; sharp; insightful 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 285

143 disclose

disclose

verb

(dĭs KLŌZ)

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make known; cause to

be seen

Although competitors offered him bribes, Scott refused to disclose any information about his company’s new product.

SYNONYMS: reveal; divulge

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144 discordant

discordant

adjective

(dĭs KAWR dənt)

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disagreeable to the ear;

not in harmony

Nothing is quite so discordant as the sound of a middle school orchestra tuning up.

SYNONYMS: inharmonious; conflicting; disagreeing; dissonant

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 289

145 discount

discount

verb

(DĬS kaunt)

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minimize the significance of

Be prepared to discount what he has to say about his ex-wife; he is still very bitter about the divorce.

SYNONYMS: disregard; ignore

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 291

146 discourse

discourse

verb

(DĬS kawrs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 292

formally discuss a subject

at some length; hold a

conversation

In extemporaneous speaking events (known to high school debaters as “Extemp”), competitors must discourse on a subject with only thirty minutes to prepare their speech.

SYNONYMS: converse; debate; talk 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 293

147 discredit

discredit

verb

(dĭs KRĔ dət)

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destroy confidence in;

hurt the reputation of

Political campaigns are growing increasingly negative as candidates try to discredit one another.

SYNONYMS: defame; detract from; disgrace; disbelieve

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 295

148 discrepancy

discrepancy

noun

(dĭs KRĔ pən sē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 296

inconsistency; disagreement

between facts or claims;

difference

Looking for any inconsistencies in the testimony that might exonerate his client, the defense lawyer pounced on a discrepancy between the two witnesses’ versions of what had occurred.

SYNONYMS: inconsistency; difference; divergence

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 297

149 discriminating

discriminating

adjective

(dĭs KRĬ mə nā tĭŋ)

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able to see subtle differences

(secondary meaning)

A superb interpreter of Picasso, she was sufficiently discriminating to judge the most complex works of modern art.

SYNONYMS: discerning; perceptive; astute 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 299

150 disdain

disdain

verb

(dĭs DĀN)

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view with scorn or contempt

The bookish student disdained fashion models for their apparent lack of intellectual interests.

SYNONYMS: scorn; despise; disparage 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 301

151 disinclination

disinclination

noun

(dĭ sĭn klə NĀ shən)

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slight aversion or lack of

willingness

Some mornings I feel a great disinclination to get out of bed.

SYNONYMS: unwillingness; reluctance 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 303

152 dismiss

dismiss

verb

(dĭs MĬS)

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refuse to accept or consider

Because Tina believed in Tony’s fidelity, she dismissed the notion that he might be having an affair.

SYNONYMS: reject; discard; set aside 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 305

153 disparage

disparage

verb

(dĭ SPĂR ĭj)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 306

sneer at

A doting mother, Emma was more likely to praise her son’s childish finger paintings than to disparage them.

SYNONYMS: belittle; ridicule; mock 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 307

disparity

noun

(dĭ SPĂR ə tē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 308

condition of inequality

Their disparity in rank made no difference at all to the prince and Cinderella.

SYNONYMS: difference; dissimilarity; discrepancy 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 309

155 disperse

disperse

verb

(dĭ SPə(R)S)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 310

cause to break up or spread

widely apart

The police fired tear gas into the crowd to disperse the protesters.

SYNONYMS: scatter; dissolve; dissipate 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 311

156 disposition

disposition

noun

(dĭs pə ZĬ shən)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 312

(1) final arrangement;

(2) temperamental makeup

or mood

Dissatisfied with the disposition of his late mother’s house, which had been left to his sister, Bart loudly cursed Lisa. He always had a nasty disposition.

SYNONYMS: (1) settlement; distribution; (2) character; personality; temperament 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 313

157 disputatious

disputatious

adjective

(dĭs pyə TĀ shəs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 314

fond of arguing

Convinced he knew more than his lawyers, Alan was a disputatious client, always ready to argue about the best way to conduct the case.

SYNONYMS: argumentative; pugnacious; contentious 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 315

158 disseminate

disseminate

verb

(dĭ SĔ mə nāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 316

scatter (as in sowing seeds)

By their use of the Internet, propagandists have been able to disseminate their pet doctrines to new audiences around the globe.

SYNONYMS: distribute; spread; broadcast; circulate 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 317

159 dissent

dissent

verb

(dĭ SĔNT)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 318

withhold agreement

In the recent Supreme Court decision, Justice Sotomayor dissented from the majority opinion.

SYNONYM: disagree

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 319

160 distinction

distinction

noun

(dĭ STĬŊ(K) shən)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 320

(1) state of being worthy

or noble; (2) perception of

a difference

A holder of the Medal of Honor, George served with great distinction during World War II. However, he made a distinction between World War II and Vietnam, which he believed was an immoral war.

SYNONYMS: (1) honor; prominence; approval; (2) differentiation; contrast

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 321

161 divergent

divergent

adjective

(də Və(R) jənt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 322

tending to move or draw apart

After medical school, the two doctors took widely divergent paths, one becoming a wealthy plastic surgeon, the other joining the nonprofit Doctors Without Borders.

SYNONYMS: differing; deviating; contrary 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 323

162 doctrine

doctrine

noun

(DAHK trən)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 324

a teaching or belief, in

general; a particular principle

(religious, legal, etc.)

being taught

He was so committed to the doctrines of his faith that he was unable to evaluate them objectively.

SYNONYMS: dogma; policy

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 325

163 document

document

verb

(DAH kyə mĕnt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 326

create a detailed record;

provide written evidence

to support statements

She kept all the receipts from her business trip in order to document her expenses for the Internal Revenue Service.

SYNONYMS: record; detail; authenticate 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 327

164 dogmatic

dogmatic

adjective

(dawg MĂ tĭk)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 328

positive in asserting one’s

opinion (especially when

it’s unwarranted)

Inflexible and dogmatic, Doug was not a man to be troubled by doubts.

SYNONYMS: opinionated; arbitrary; dictatorial; doctrinal

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 329

165 dormant

dormant

adjective

(DAWR mənt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 330

marked by a lack of activity;

temporarily quiet, as if

sleeping

At fifty her long- dormant ambition to write flared up once more; within a year she had completed the first of her great historical novels.

SYNONYMS: inactive; quiescent; latent 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 331

166 dubious

dubious

adjective

(DŌŌ bē əs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 332

causing doubt to arise;

of doubtful quality

Many critics of the SAT contend that the test is of dubious worth: they doubt the test accurately predicts which students will succeed in college.

SYNONYMS: questionable; doubtful 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 333

167 duplicity

duplicity

noun

(dōō PLĬ sə tē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 334

double-dealing

When Tanya learned that Mark had been two-timing her, she was furious at his duplicity.

SYNONYMS: deceit; deception; dishonesty; hypocrisy 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 335

168 ebullient

ebullient

adjective

(ĭ BəLyənt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 336

overflowing with high spirits;

showing excitement

Nothing could repress Amy’s ebullient nature; she was always bubbling over with enthusiasm.

SYNONYMS: exuberant; effervescent; buoyant; lively; high-spirited

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 337

169 eclectic

eclectic

adjective

(ĕ KLĔK tĭk)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 338

composed of elements drawn

from a variety of sources

The reviewers praised the new restaurant’s eclectic selection of dishes, which ranged from Asian stir-frys to French ragouts and stews.

SYNONYMS: assorted; diverse; heterogeneous 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 339

170 edify

edify

verb

(Ĕ də fī)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 340

instruct in moral matters;

benefit spiritually

Nothing is worse than a novel that seeks to edify the reader; there is no place in literature for heavy-

handed moralizing.

SYNONYMS: enlighten; inform; uplift 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 341

171 egotism

egotism

noun

(Ē gə tĭ zəm)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 342

excessive sense of

self-importance; lack of

consideration for others

“But enough of this chitchat about you and your little problems. Let’s talk about what’s really important: me!” (How’s that for egotism?) SYNONYMS: self-centeredness; egocentricity 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 343

172 elaborate

elaborate

verb

(ĭ LĂ bə rāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 344

expand or work out something

in detail

Tell me more. Please elaborate on your reasons for wanting to attend Harvard.

SYNONYMS: amplify; develop; enlarge 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 345

173 elated

elated

adjective

(ĭ LĀ təd)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 346

in high spirits

Grinning from ear to ear, the downhill skier was clearly elated by her Olympic victory.

SYNONYMS: overjoyed; ecstatic; thrilled; jubilant 4_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 1/14/13 12:25 PM Pa 174  elicit

elicit

verb

(ĭ LĬ sət)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 348

draw out (a response

or reaction)

The photographer made funny faces in an attempt to elicit a smile from his shy subject.

SYNONYMS: extract; evoke; obtain 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 349

175 eloquence

eloquence

noun

(Ĕ lə kwən(t)s)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 350

forceful and persuasive

speech

The crowds were stirred by Martin Luther King’s eloquence.

Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 351

176 elucidate

elucidate

verb

(ĭ LŌŌ sə dāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 352

throw light upon; make clear

According to Sherlock Holmes, the very point that appears to complicate a case is, when duly considered and scientifically handled, the one that is most likely to elucidate it.

SYNONYMS: explain; clarify

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 353

177 elusive

elusive

adjective

(ē LŌŌ sĭv)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 354

hard to grasp or capture

No matter how hard Tom tried to lure the trout into taking the bait, the fish was too elusive for him to catch.

SYNONYMS: evasive; baffling

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 355

178 embellish

embellish

verb

(ĭm BĔ lĭsh)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 356

make more beautiful; make a

story more interesting by adding

(generally fictitious) details

The costume designer embellished the leading lady’s ball gown with yards and yards of ribbon and lace. The producer embellished his account of his Hollywood years with a list of all the starlets who had been madly in love with him.

SYNONYMS: adorn; ornament; decorate; beautify 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 357

179 eminent

eminent

adjective

(Ĕ mə nənt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 358

high in reputation

In Eminent Victorians, Lytton Strachey recounts the lives of four leading figures of the Victorian era, pointing out aspects of their characters that were not in keeping with their high reputations.

SYNONYMS: famous; prominent; renowned; conspicuous

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 359

180 emulate

emulate

verb

(ĔM yə lāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 360

attempt to equal or outdo

In a brief essay, describe a person you admire, someone whose virtues and achievements you would

like to emulate.

SYNONYMS: imitate; copy; rival 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 361

181 endorse

endorse

verb

(ĕn DAWRS)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 362

give support to

Everyone waited to see which one of the rival candidates for the city council the mayor would endorse.

SYNONYMS: approve; back; champion; sponsor 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 363

182 enhance

enhance

verb

(ĭn HĂN(T)S)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 364

make more attractive

or effective

You can enhance your chances of being admitted to the college of your choice by learning to write well.

SYNONYMS: increase; improve; intensify; magnify

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 365

183 enigma

enigma

noun

(ĭ NĬG mə)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 366

puzzling or unexplainable

situation or event

“What do women want?” asked Dr. Sigmund Freud. Their behavior was an enigma to him.

SYNONYMS: puzzle; mystery; riddle 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 367

184 enmity

enmity

noun

(ĔN mə tē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 368

active ill will (generally

mutual)

From the start, the twins appeared to hate one another. No one could account for their enmity.

SYNONYMS: hatred; hostility; antagonism 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 369

185 enumerate

enumerate

verb

(ĭ N(Y)ŌŌ mə rāt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 370

mention one by one

Huck hung his head in shame as Miss Watson enumerated his many faults.

SYNONYMS: spell out; itemize; detail; name; count 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 371

186 ephemeral

ephemeral

adjective

(ĭ FĔM rəl)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 372

lasting only a short time

The mayfly is an ephemeral creature; its adult life lasts little more than a day.

SYNONYMS: short-lived; fleeting; transient 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 373

187 epitome

epitome

noun

(ĭ PĬT tə mē)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 374

perfect example or

embodiment

As he sang, “I am the very model of a modern Major-General,” in The Pirates of Penzance, Major- General Stanley proclaimed himself the epitome of an officer and a gentleman.

SYNONYMS: personification; embodiment; quintessence; model

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 375

188 equitable

equitable

adjective

(Ĕ kwə tə bəl)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 376

dealing fairly with everyone

According to the Constitution, legislative districts have to be roughly equal in size to guarantee that voters have an equitable share of power. “One person, one vote”—it’s only fair.

SYNONYMS: fair; just; impartial; evenhanded; unbiased

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 377

189 equivocal

equivocal

adjective

(ĭ KWĬ və kəl)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 378

intentionally misleading;

open to more than one

interpretation

Rejecting the candidate’s equivocal comments on tax reform, the reporters pressed him to state clearly where he stood on the issue.

SYNONYMS: ambiguous; unclear; evasive; shifty 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 379

190 erroneous

erroneous

adjective

(ĭ RŌ nē əs)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 380

containing a mistake

Reasoning from insufficient data, Sherlock Holmes found he had reached an entirely erroneous conclusion. What an embarrassing mistake!

SYNONYMS: wrong; incorrect; mistaken; invalid 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 381

191 erudite

erudite

adjective

(ĔR yə dīt)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 382

possessing great knowledge

Though his fellow students considered him a gifted scholar, Paul knew he would have to spend many years in serious study before he could consider himself truly erudite.

SYNONYMS: learned; scholarly; well educated 7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 383

192 esoteric

esoteric

adjective

(ĕ sə TĔR ĭk)

7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01_7_7086_SAT_Flash Cards_01 9/29/10 5:17 PM Page 384

known only to the chosen few