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This is a report I wrote for a project. In this report I summarized the original paper that was written by Klaus-Huber

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DESIGN OF

CAUER

FILTERS

SOURCE:-RESEARCH PAPER

BY KLAUS HUBER

Mohammad Imad Nizami

Roll No: - 141300045

EEE-2nd Year

Subject: - Circuit Theory 2- Assignment

PAGE 0

Table of Contents

Summary

Introduction

Conclusion

Result4

References

..4

PAGE 0

1. Summary

1.i. Introduction

An Cauer filter (also known as an Elliptical filter, named after Wilhelm Cauer,

or as a Zolotarev filter, after Yegor Zolotarev) is a signal processing filter with

equalized ripple behavior in both the passband and the stopband. The amount of

ripple in each band is independently adjustable, and no other filter of equal order

can have a faster transition in gain between the passband and the stopband, for

the given values of ripple. Alternatively, one may give up the ability to adjust

independently the passband and stopband ripple, and instead design a filter

which is maximally insensitive to component variations.

For the design of low-pass filters usually the following de-sign parameters are

given. The maximal attenuation in the pass band max, the minimum attenuation

in the stop band min, and the normalized (circle) frequency s, at which the stop

band starts. We assume that the pass band extends from = 0 to = 1.

For given degree n, Elliptic- or Cauer filters achieve the best approximation in the

frequency domain.

For elliptic filters the following equations hold, if the attenuation is measured in

decibels.

max =

10 log10 (1+

s =

1

k

The design triple (max, min, s), is easily transferred to the triple (, g, k). Given

such a triple one usually first determines the degree n which is able to fulfill the

specification. The degree is found by rounding the following expression to the

next integer:

2

K ( 1g

K (g)

(1)

1k

K

K (k )

The function K(k) is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind

K (k) =

d

1k 2 sin2 ( )

The value of K(k) is most easily found using the arithmetic geometric mean M by

PAGE 1

K (k) =

1, 1k

2. M

Where the arithmetic geometric mean M (a, b) of the two numbers a and b is

given by the limit of the recursion ai+1 = (ai+bi)/2, bi+1 =ai-bi with starting

values a0=a, b0=b. The values of k and g lie in the interval [0, 1].

As n is obtained from equation (1) by rounding, the designer is usually given

some freedom to improve the original triple (max, min, s). To this end, in this

letter we give simple design equations g= fn (k) and k = fn1 (g), which relate k

and g in an easily computable way such that

2

K ( 1f n(x )2 )

1 x

K

K (x)

K (f n (x ))

(2)

Holds

We assume that n is fixed. Then, given two values from the triple ( max, min, s)

or from the equivalent triple (, g, k) we want to be able to compute the

remaining third value. The only non-trivial dependence is the relation between k

and g. In this section we set g= fn (k) and

k= fn1 (g) and determine fn(x) and

its inverse.

First we note that for a composite number n=n1n2 the following holds

(3)

2

K ( 1f n2 (x )2)

K (f n 2 (x ))

(x)

f n2

1f n 1 ( 2)

K (f n1 ( f n 2 ( x ) ) )

K

1 x

K

K (x)

= n2

1f n 2( 2)

K

K (f n 2 ( x ) )

= n1

PAGE 2

Second we find that the inverse function of fn(x) is given by

1

f n (x)

1f ( 1x )

2

(4)

1x2

and v=

1f (x)

to get

2

K ( 1u

K (u)

1v

K

K (v )

get

f n (u)

2 2

1f n (1u )

=n

f n (u)

1f ( x )

for which we

the function fn(x). We therefore consider two cases. The case n=2, and then the

case of odd n. The case n=2 is given by the so-called Landen-Gauss

transformation. We get

g = f2 (k) =

(5)

1 1k

1+ 1k

and

2g

1

k = f n (k) = 1+g

( n1 ) K

2K

4k

g = fn(k) = kn { cd n .cd n ..cd

n

( ) ( )

)}

(6)

In the formula K = K(k), The function cd(x) = cd(x, k) is the quotient of the

elliptic function cn(x, k) and the elliptic function dn(x, k) which is easy to

compute. In fact most modern scientific libraries and computer algebra packages

have these functions available. Equation (6) can be put into another form and

can be extended for even n. We eventually get

K

3k

LK

g = fn(k) = kn { sn n . sn n .. sn n

( ) ( )

Where L =.

( )}

n1 for n even

n2 for n odd

(7)

PAGE 3

Equation (7) for odd n follows immediately from equation (6) using cd(x) = sn

(x+K). The formula for even n is obtained from the odd case using well-known

properties of elliptic functions, namely

sn

K

( ,k) =

2

1k

where

'

k = 1k

'

sn

2

(( 1+k ' ) x , k 2 2 ) = ( 1+k ' ) . sn(x ,k)cd(x ,k) ,

(1+k )

'

1k

K 1+k ' )

1+k '

2 .K (k)

2. Conclusion

PAGE 4

Although Cauer filters are a well-established part in filter design, there are useful

mathematical relationships which are not widely-known in the filter community

.In this report, simple formulas have been given which relate the parameters for

the design of elliptic filters. Apart from theoretical considerations the results

given facilitate the design of filters in hard- or software and in particular make it

easier to construct universal filters whose parameters can be set easily.

3. Result

The designing of a Cauer filter, as stated in this paper, is derived from a low pas

filter. Also for designing a Cauer filter, one should know simple formulas which

relate to the parameters of Cauer. Foreknowledge on the working of filters and

some engineering mathematical formulas is required.

The gain of a Cauer filter is given by

G=

0

,/

2 2

1+ Rn

is the selectivity factor

4. References

1. Research paper published by Klaus Huber (from Sciencedirect.com)

2. Google for images

3. Wikipedia for additional information

4. Engineering mathematics for the mathematical formula

PAGE 5

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