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KAWAHAYAN

Bamboo Architecture in the Philippines

Paulo P. Borres
March 2015

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Bamboos are large grasses. Bamboos are not trees, and their stems do
not get thicker with age. It is the fastest growing plant on the planet. Studies also
show that selectively harvested bamboo can sequester more carbon than
comparable fast growing trees. It also showed potential as an option to be
included in afforestation or reforestation schemes because of its ability to grow in
denuded land.1 According to Darrel DeBoer, an architect practicing in Alameda,
California, and Karl Bareis, cofounder of the International Bamboo Association,
which is now the World Bamboo Organization, bamboo is notable for its strength,
hardness and rate of growth. In fact, studies show that it has greater
compressive strength than concrete and about the same strength-to-weight ratio
of steel in tension.2 Today, designers and architects are constantly experimenting
with new uses of bamboo, however, and rediscovering old uses of the material in
construction. Some of the prominent bamboo architects, locally and globally, are
Oscar Hidalgo, Vo Trong Nghia, Simon Velez, Francisco Maosa and
Encarnacion Tan.
Innovation in the construction sector should be done, following various
disaster preparedness programs, and thus to create a more sustainable
1 n.a. Bamboo and Rattan FAQs. International Network for Bamboo and
Rattan. 2015. Web. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
http://www.inbar.int/knowledge/bamboo-and-rattan-faqs/ >
2 Boehland, Jessica. Bamboo in Construction: Is the Grass Always Greener?.
BuildingGreen.com. 2006. Web. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
https://www2.buildinggreen.com/article/bamboo-construction-grass-alwaysgreener-0 >

infrastructure that can withstand high degree earthquakes and typhoons. Being
located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, The Philippines is prone to various types of
natural hazards due to its geographical and physical environment. In fact,
according to the Asian Risk Reduction Centre (ADRC) in 2011, the country
experiences an average of 20 earthquakes per day and an average of 20
typhoons or tropical cyclones visit the country every year, with 5 of them
considered the most destructive.3
Thus, utilizing bamboo for the construction is a great step towards the
Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations for environmental
sustainability. Since bamboo infrastructure is also earthquake resistant, its a
great leap as a disaster preparedness program in the country especially on
earthquake prone areas, identified to be; Surigao Del Sur, La Union, Benguet,
Pangasinan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Ifugao, Davao Oriental, Nueva Vizcaya and
Nueva Ecija, based on the Centre for Environmental Geomatics - Manila
Observatory, 2005.4 Similar effort has been done abroad and one example would
be a project in Ethiopia which employed a simple and adaptable technology like
the Bamboo Shelter under the Danish Refugee Council project. It is part of the
7,200 so-called transitional shelters that UNHCR and partners have constructed

3 Orallo, A. Study on Earthquake Risk and Vulnerability Management and


Lessons Learned. Asian Risk Reduction Centre. 2011. Book. Retrieved March
1, 2015. < http://www.adrc.asia/aboutus/vrdata/ finalreport/ 2011A_PHL_
Anna_FRR.pdf >
4 Garibay, A. E. Luis. Et al. Land tenure and natural disasters: Addressing
Land Tenure in Countries Prone to Natural Disasters. Food and Agriculture
Organization. 2010. Book. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
<http://www.fao.org/docrep/ 013/i1855e/i1855e.pdf >

in 2012 in five refugee camps in the Dollo Ado area, in Ethiopia. 5 Due to the
lightweight and favorable elastic properties of bamboo, buildings made from it are
very good at resisting earthquakes. In one incident in Costa Rica, all 30 houses
in the epicentre of a 7.6 magnitude earthquake survived without any damage.

Without proper mitigation to the possible impacts of climate change


induced natural disasters, countries like the Philippines is expose from
experiencing worse volatile condition and poverty state. The vulnerability of the
people against from typhoons and are often the result of mismanage
development processes, such as rapid and unplanned urbanization and the
inefficient extraction and use of natural resources (Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change, 2012).Thus, it is important to equip the community against
possible destructions brought by natural disasters. As poor people will be worse
hit by the effects of climate change, action plans for adaptation need to be
tailored to their situation (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change, 2007).
Architects and engineers should start to venture and invest on alternative
building materials, which are cheap and sustainable without sacrificing the quality
of the infrastructure. In the Philippines, the solution might just be found on its
backyard, which is no other than the use of bamboo for construction. In fact,

5 Ado, R. Refugees in Ethiopia choose their own housing and create jobs.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2013. Web. Retrieved March
1, 2015. <http://www.unhcr.org/5162b0639.html >
6 Alter, Lloyd. Bamboo Houses Stand Up To Earthquakes. Treehugger.com.
2013. Web. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <http://www.treehugger.com/greenarchitecture/bamboo-houses-stand-up-to-earthquakes.html >

Anthropologist Dr. Fernando N. Zialcita has said that the bamboo tradition in the
Philippines is at least 2,300 years old. Identified areas where the tradition of
building with bamboo is still prevalent are in Pangasinan, Laguna, Rizal, Bulacan,
Aklan, Tarlac, Palawan, Iloilo, Antique and Capiz. 7 Today, different organizations
are now pushing for the revival of using bamboo as a means of sustainable
construction material, most predominant in countries like in India, China,
Vietnam, Colombia and Costa Rica.
Bamboo is an ideal construction material for many reasons. According to
the China Bamboo Research Centre, the tensile strength of bamboo is 3 or 4
times as high as steel. Various structural engineering tests also showed that
bamboo has higher compressive strength than many mixtures of concrete. The
very dense fibres in each bamboo also give the plant extreme flexibility, allowing
it to bend without snapping.8 Jules Janssen, one of the most recognized bamboo
experts in the world; propose that bamboo house is a good place to stay during a
hurricane or an earthquake, provided the house has been built with proper care.
This attribute of bamboo is credited from its great capacity for seismic shock
absorption, which makes it particularly useful in earthquake-prone areas. 9
7 Tan, R.E. 100 Things About Building with Bamboo. n.p. 2012. Book.
Retrieved March 1, 2015.
8 Gutu, T. A Study on the Mechanical Strength Properties of Bamboo to
Enhance Its Diversification on Its Utilization.International Journal of Innovative
Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE). 2013. Journal. Retrieved March
1, 2015. < http://www.ijitee.org/attachments/File/v2i5/E0690042413.pdf >
9 Janssen. J.J. Designing and Building with Bamboo. International Network for
Bamboo and Rattan. 2000. Book. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
www.inbar.int/downloads/inbar_technical_report_no20.pdf?7c424b>

Bamboo as a construction material is considered as well as cost-effective,


especially in areas where it is cultivated and is readily available. The use of
bamboo in construction is labour driven. According to Architect Rosario
Encarnacion Tan, conventional construction costs are approximately 65 percent
for material and 35 percent for labour. With bamboo, the ratio is reversed; 65
percent for labour and 35 percent for materials. Transporting lightweight bamboo
is less costly than transporting its heavier alternatives. 10 Aside from this, a
bamboo resource is less than of a problem because its eminent how fast
bamboo growth is. The Guinness World Records reported that bamboo grow at a
rate of 0.00003 km/h (0.00002 mph), that is 35 inches per day. Bamboo is best
harvested for construction after 3-6 years of its growth. 11
The wider environmental impacts are primarily driven by the extent to
which bamboo products are used as a substitute for hardwood and slow-growing
timber. Greater use of bamboo as an alternative to hardwoods should contribute
to a slowing in the depletion of tropical forests, with corresponding benefits for
bio-diversity, conservation and carbon sequestration (FAO, 2006). A concept that
already has been proven effectively in Costa Rica. The National Bamboo Project
of Costa Rica idea was to replace the use of wood with an alternative costeffective and seismically sound building material. Surprisingly, the project
garnered a successful rate and up to now 700 low-cost houses has been built
10 Tan, R.E. 100 Things About Building with Bamboo. n.p. 2012. Book.
Retrieved March 1, 2015.
11 n.a. Fastest Growing Plant. guinnessworldrecords.com. 2001. Web.
Retrieved March 1, 2015. < http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/worldrecords/fastest-growing-plant/>

and 200 hectares of bamboo have been cultivated, and helped to resolve the
deforestation rate in Costa Rica. It has also adopted the sustainable use of
bamboo as a construction material for an indigenous housing program. 12The
light-weight and versatility of harvested bamboo also lends itself to innovations to
cope with increased floods, such as raised housing in Ecuador and Peru and
floating garden in Bangladesh (Oxfam, 2010).
Besides its mechanical properties as a construction material, bamboo also
sequesters carbon from the atmosphere. It minimizes CO2 gases and generates
up to 35% more oxygen than an equivalent stand of trees. 1 hectare (2.2 acres)
of bamboo sequesters up to 62 tons of CO2/year, whereas 1 hectare of young
forest sequesters 15 tons of CO2/year (J.Janssen, Technical University
Eindhoven, 2000).13This means that bamboo in a plantation can regularly be
chopped down and used to build houses and other structures, where the carbon
remains sequestered for an average of 80 years (Casta Oeda, 2006).

14

Despite the ecological and economic benefits brought by bamboo, natural


deterioration or structural integrity still sometimes is an issue that questions the
use unconventional building material like that of bamboo. Fortunately, some
12 Soto, A. National Bamboo Project of Costa Rica. unesco.org. n.d. Web.
Retrieved March 1, 2015. < http://www. unesco.org/most/centram1.htm >
13 Sands, D. Carbon Sequestration. bambooliving.com. n.d. Web. Retrieved
March 1, 2015. < http://www.bambooliving.com/index.php/whybamboo/carbon-sequestration>
14 Li, T. What Can Bamboo Do About CO2?. Institute for Advanced
Development Studies. 2013. Web. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
http://inesad.edu.bo/developmentroast/2013/05/what-can-bamboo-do-aboutco2/>

architects worldwide are now starting to realize the potential of this grass to open
the arena for a more sustainable architecture. From a material stigmatized as the
poor mans timber, bamboo is now is currently slowly being elevated to the
status of the timber of the 21st century and from poor man timber to common
man timber.

15

Opening the access of information for the public about the

advantages of using bamboo can help to elevate the perception of the people on
this undervalued building material. The technology is mature enough, and thus
its about time for the public to consider it as a suitable building material that can
be used to build permanent infrastructures. Bamboo is vogue as a green,
sustainable resource that is used for almost everything.

16

It has the ability to

provide economic and ecological benefits to developing countries and offer


people a new kind of living.
Bringing the technology in the Philippines is not impossible, not to
mention, the abundance of bamboo resources the country has. According to the
report of the International Network for Rattan and Bamboo, the Philippines were
the fifth largest bamboo exporter in the world. Although, based on data from the
Philippine Bamboo Foundation, it was disclosed that only 52,000 hectares of land
in the country is planted with bamboo. And this might bring a problem to the

15 Wooldridge, M. Booming bamboo: The next super-material?. BBC News


Magazine. 2012. Web. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-17568088>
16 Sawyers, H. Can American Farms Make Bamboo the Next Big Cash
Crop?. popularmechanics.com.2009. Web. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
http://www.popularmechanics.com/home/lawn-garden/howto/a4430/4323342/ >

country to meet the demand of the international market for bamboo which is
expected to grow from $7 billion in 2015 to $15-20 billion in 2017.

17

As bamboos popularity increases as an alternative eco-friendly building


material, it also provides people a sustainable way of making a living that will not
harm the environment. It is a natural tool with which to encourage sustainable
development. Sustainable development means improving human welfare without
degrading environment18
Background of the study
Bamboo as a construction material has been utilized to its full extent all over the
world. It is a fast growing, wide spread, renewable, versatile, low-or-no cost, and
environment-enhancing resource with a potential as a building material.
Unfortunately, its potential has not been yet fully realized in the Philippines
despite the fact that bamboo grows abundantly in the country with over 62
species and as a country recognized as one of the top exporters of bamboo
products in the world. Due to the perception as poor mans timber, it created a
hindrance of why many Filipinos exclude bamboo as for different architectural
projects.
As bamboos popularity increases as an alternative eco-friendly building
material, it also provides people a sustainable way of making a living that will not
17 Reyes, E. Bam warns PH bamboo industry losing status in world market.
Interaksyon.com.2015. Web. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
http://www.interaksyon.com/article/105922/bam-warns-ph-bamboo-industrylosing-status-in-world-market >
18 Belcher, B. The Role of Bamboo in Development. International Network for
Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR). 1996. Book. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
https://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/35934/1/106735_v4.pdf>

harm the environment. It is a natural tool with which to encourage sustainable


development. Sustainable development means improving human welfare without
degrading environment.
It could be a viable substitute of wood and several other traditional
materials for housing and the construction sector. As what Filipino Architect
Francisco Bobby Maosa remarked, Bamboo is the only plant that cancope
with growing demand for present and future housing, unless weencourage
willingness and acceptance by the people, it cannot prove its worth. The project
is an info website that promotes the use of bamboo as a building material for
interested individuals who are planning to start an architectural project by
providing them enough information about the advantages and benefits of the
alternative material, bamboo.

Statement of the Problem


Bamboo has not yet been fully maximized in the Philippines as an alternative
building material in replacement of endangered hardwoods, as a housing and a
climate change mitigation solution due to the depiction that its poor mans
timber.
1. What are the advantages of using bamboo over conventional building
material for construction?
2. What are the factors that make bamboo an effective construction
material?

3. What are the factors that create hindrance on why Filipinos still not choose
bamboo as a building material?
Research Objectives
The project seeks to;
1. Identify the competitiveness of bamboo as a construction material, in
comparison to concrete, steel and hardwood;
2. Identify the mechanical properties of bamboo that makes it suitable as a
building material; and
3. Identify the factors that prevent Filipinos form choosing bamboo as an
alternative material?
Theoretical Framework
The researcher plans to use two theories for the project; Diffusion
of Innovation Theory and Social Judgment Theory.
Diffusion of Innovation Theory is described as a process by which
an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the
members of a social system. It is developed by E.M. Rogers in 1962, is one of
the oldest social science theories. Diffusion is a special type of communication
concerned with the spread of messages that are perceived as new ideas. Surry
and Farquhar (1997) explain that disciplines ranging from agriculture to
marketing have used Diffusion of Innovation Theory to increase the adoption of
innovative products and ideas. The theory seeks to explain how innovations are
taken up in a population. Diffusion of Innovations offers three valuable insights
into the process of social change: the qualities that make an innovation spread,

the importance of peer-peer conversations and peer networks and an


understanding of the needs of different user segments. Thus to elevate the use of
bamboo in construction is an innovation that young architects should adhere to
cater the call for sustainable development and lessen the use of hardwood that
cause deforestation.
Next is Social Judgment Theory. The theory suggests that knowing a
persons attitudes on subjects can provide you with clues about how to approach
a persuasive effort. It focuses on peoples assessment of persuasive messages
(Sherif & Hovland, 1961; Sherif, Sherif, & Nebergall, 1965).Social judgment
theory proposes that people make evaluations (judgments) about the content of
messages based on their anchors, or stance, on a particular topic messages
(Sherif & Hovland, 1961; Sherif et al., 1965).Other than an individuals anchor,
each persons attitudes can be placed into three categories; latitude of
acceptance, latitude of rejection and latitude of non-commitment. As stated,
young architects will only accept the idea if they are persuaded enough by
satisfying their personal needs and need for eco-friendly architecture.

Scope and Limitations


The project only aims to promote bamboo for architecture and design on
its target audience who are interested individuals who are seeking for cheap
unconventional material for different architectural projects. It is limited from
further information covered by the field of architects, engineers and construction
firms. The researcher also is restricted from using information and photographs

of projects that used bamboo for construction outside the country, unless the
organization involved allows the proponent to use it. In addition, the project also
aims to engage different bamboo enthusiasts, local and globally, to send their
own input of contents to support the promotion of bamboo in the Philippines.

CHAPTER 2
Review of Related Literature
1. Adams, C. Bamboo Architecture and Construction with Oscar Hidalgo.
networkearth.org. 1998. Web. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
<http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/bamboo.html >
Sixty four percent of over 1600 species of bamboos can be found in
Southeast Asia. Different species have different wall thickness, with some
species being entirely solid. It has an exterior waterproof film which occurs on the
softer interior portion as well. Bamboo is particularly strong at the node, where
there is an inner disc called septum which connects the outside walls,
strengthening the stalk and separating in into compartments. For structural
bamboo, it is important not to penetrate the septum as it is the crucial part of the
bamboo for strength. For construction, the best age for bamboos to be harvested
is during the 3-6 years of its growth. It is also important to cut bamboo just above
the node at the base. Bamboos tensile strength has been essential in the
development of bridges across the world. Chinese invented suspension bamboo
bridges to cross rivers. Bamboo bridges were also constructed in India, and by
the Incas in South America. Meanwhile, tension bridges were made in Colombia,
with a tensile strengths of up to 3,200 kg/cm 2. It also has a long history of use in

buildings, being common to the vernacular architecture in Southeast Asia, China


and Central and South America and has been extensively all over Indonesia,
especially in the Celebes Islands. Bamboo is unique in that it is strong in both
tension and compression. While tensile strength remains the same throughout
the age of the bamboo plant, the plant fibre strength increases as it gets older.
Despite all this, the biggest problem of bamboo in architecture is the perception
that it is considered poor peoples housing.
Bamboo has a long history used for construction throughout the world.
With its abundance, proper management and information dissemination, it is just
a matter of time until we see the wonder grass as sustainable construction
material.
2. Gutu, T. A Study on the Mechanical Strength Properties of Bamboo to
Enhance Its Diversification on Its Utilization. International Journal of
Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering.2013.Journal. Retrieved
February 15, 2015.<http://www.ijitee.org/attachments/File/v2i5
/E0690042413.pdf>
Research shows that the tensile strength of bamboo is about that of wood
and the compression strength is about 10% higher than that of wood. By
counting their strength per unit weight, the tensile strength of bamboo is 3 or 4
times as high as steel, according to the China Bamboo Research Centre.
Bamboo strength properties are suitable for use as an additional material and its
strength properties are more than most of soft woods and some of the hard
woods. The properties of bamboo are suitable to be a good material when it was
used for countries like the Bamboo Corridor built in Europe, Madrian Airport in
Spain built using bamboo material and so many bridges in China are built using

bamboo material. Literature review of other researchers showed that most of


developed countries are now more into bamboo than wood because of its many
advantages over other materials and prototype which had been made shows that
bamboo deserves to be used as an additional material to wood in Zimbabwe.
Through various tests and research conducted, bamboo has proven as an
effective material for construction through its strength to withstand tension like
most available material in the market.
3. Janssen, J.A. Designing and Building with Bamboo. International Network for
Bamboo and Rattan (INBR). 2000. Book. Retrieved February 15, 2015. <
www.inbar.int/downloads/inbar_technical_report_no20.pdf?7c424b >
Bamboos capacity for regeneration and environment friendliness project it
as tomorrows timber. Bamboos Cellulose acts as reinforcement, similar to
steel bars in reinforced concrete or glass fiber in fiber-reinforced plastic. These
fibers are concentrated near the outside. The stiffness (the resistance against
bending) that this distribution pattern creates is ten percent more than the one
that a more even distribution pattern could offer an excellent example of the
structural design acumen of Mother Nature. In the case of a disaster like a
hurricane or an earthquake, stresses in steel will come into the area of failure,
but not in timber and bamboo. This means that steel structures will suffer much
damage, while most structures of timber or bamboo will remain in good condition.
A bamboo house is a good place to stay during a hurricane or an earthquake
(provided the house has been built with proper care). The diagram shows that, as
far as strength is concerned, concrete is the worst, followed by timber (the less
dark bars in the diagram are calculated as the strength divided by the mass per

volume or the density). Steel is the best and bamboo the second best. In terms of
stiffness, the fourth place is for concrete, third for timber, second for steel and the
first place is for bamboo (the darker bars in this diagram are calculated as the Emodulus divided by the mass per volume or the density).

Bamboo can compete by means stiffness and strength by volume against


other construction materials. Furthermore, it is also a good material to mitigate
the impact of climate change and other natural disaster like earthquake and
hurricane.
4. Xiao, Y., Inoue M., Paudel S.K. Modern Bamboo Structures: Proceedings of
the FirstInternational Conference. Taylor & Francis. 2008. Book. Retrieved
February 15, 2015. < bambucapacitacioneszuarq.mex.tl/dl_5190.html>
Bamboo for constructions are easy to build, resilient to wind and
earthquakes, and readily repairable in the event of damage. Despite of this,
bamboo has been largely restricted to temporary structures and lower grades
buildings due to limited natural durability, difficulties in joining, a lack of structural
design data and exclusion from building codes. The majority of bamboo
construction relates to rural community needs in developing countries. As such,

domestic housing predominates and, in accordance with their rural origins, these
buildings are often simple in design and construction relying on a living tradition
of local skills and methods. Bamboo housing is not a new concept. It is estimated
that more than a billion people live in bamboo houses mostly in developing
worlds. Various species of bamboo revealed that it is strong enough to be used
as a building material. Another important character eristic of bamboo is, because
of its strong fibres, it first cracks unlike timber which breaks of bending fails. This
quality gives an opportunity to repair or replace failure part of house. Its elasticity
is better than wood for seismic resistant housing and as has been proved in the
case of several small houses.
Despite the availability of bamboo for construction, factors still exists that
questions the capacity of it, like cultural and technical problems. Yet, bamboo has
still proven itself worthy as it is seismic resistant due to its strong fibers.

5. Kakkad, M.D. Comparative Study of Bamboo (Ikra) Housing System with


Modern Construction Practices. Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya
Engineering College. 2011. Web. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
<www.researchgate.net/ publictopics.PublicPostFileLoader.html?id>
Earthquakes are not common phenomena in most parts of the world.
However, where earthquakes are common, people have incorporated the critical
elements of quake resistance in their indigenous construction method. It seems
that indigenous organic materials for construction like timber or bamboo might be
safer in large earthquakes than new structures of reinforced concrete, which
proven itself already in a number of recent earthquakes, including the Izmit and
Dzce Earthquakes in Turkey of 1999, the Bhuj earthquake in India of 2001, and

the Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan of 2005. As bamboo is very flexible material


and also light weight material, the seismic force in bamboo system is very less
compared to modern housing systems. Seismic force on the bamboo housing
system is 12.97% and 11.72% of reinforced brick masonry and confined brick
masonry systems respectively.
Research shows that bamboo is used as main structural element because
bamboo is ductile material & its performance is improved under earthquake
event, tested by real life scenarios.
6. Minke, G. Birkhuser Generalstandingorder : Building with Bamboo: Design
and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture. Birkhuser. 2012. Book.
Retrieved February 15, 2015.
The construction of Zeri Pavilion at the World Expo 2000 in Hanover and
the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, designed by Simon Velez, marked a turning
point that attracts European engineers and architects to the excellent
construction properties of bamboo. It demonstrate that bamboo is slowly making
its way to be recognized around the world as a high performance building
material that is suitable for sustainable building with a small ecological footprint.
Its light and forms structures that have a low mass-to-flexibility ratio compared
with those of wood makes bamboo a good material for construction, and the
reason why it offers earthquake-resistant solutions. The external layer of the shell
offers very high resistance to tension equalling than that of steel. It grows rapidly
and is usable as a construction material after 3-6 years. According to the
regulations ISO 22156 and ISO 22157-2, In Coffee Triangle of Colombia, 78.3
tons of bamboo is produced each year per hectare; compared with only 17.5 tons

per hectare of woods. In dry material, 36 tons of bamboo is produced, compared


with only 10.8 tons of wood. As a result, bamboo yield is 3.3 times than that of
wood. But one should take note that structural behaviour of bamboo can vary
greatly, depending on the species, the growing site, its age, the moisture content
and the part of the stalk that is used. It is also sensitive to attack from insects and
fungus and must be impregnated or treated against them. Its round section and
its tendency to crack also complicate the execution of joints and supports. It is
advisable to use bamboo that grow in high altitudes and with drier soil because
they normally have nodes and spaced more closely together and are therefore
stronger. To avoid fungal attack, the relative moisture content must not be over
20%.
Because of its fast growth, competitiveness against other materials, ecofriendly implications, and with proper treatment, bamboo made itself climb as one
of the top contemporary building material in the world. It also has been used in
different architectural creation for world events.

7. Hussain Mir; S. Bamboo as a Cost effective Structural Material in Buildings.


International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research.2013.Web.
Retrieved February 15, 2015. < http://www.tn.gov.in/tsunami/digitallibrary/
ebooks- web/36%20Bamboo_%20A_%20Material_%20For_%20Cost_
%20eff.pdf >
One third of the world urban population lives in slums. Nearly 25 percent
of the world population cannot afford to have their own homes due to a very low
income. Use of bamboo in building construction working can reduce raw material
costs to a huge extent. It is not only suitable for low cost housing but also

mitigate climate change implications. Bamboo Living Homes surpass the


toughest hurricane codes in the USA, and in 1995 withstood three back to back
hurricanes with 173mph winds. On another instance, in April 1991, twenty
bamboo houses built for the National Bamboo Foundation in Costa Rica suffered
no structural damage from a 7.5 Richter scale earthquake, despite being directly
over the epicentre. It has been the backbone of much of the worlds rural life and
will remain so as the population increases. Bamboo will continue to play an
important part in the development of enterprises and the transformation of rural
environments, in all regions of the developing world where it grows. The study
also suggests that if today you plant three or four structural bamboo plants, then
in four or five years later you will have mature clumps, and in eight years you will
have enough mature material to build a comfortable, low cost house.
A study suggests that bamboo might offer the solution for low cost housing
for rural areas without sacrificing the quality of living and safety against natural
catastrophes.
8. Law, V. Group sends bamboo homes to Chinas quake zone. The Christian
Science Monitor. 2008. Web. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
< http://www.csmonitor.com/ Environment/Living-Green/2008/0529/groupsends-bamboo-homes-to-china-quake-zone>
A Beijing-based nongovernmental organization, the International Network
for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), is pushing a home-grown, quake-resistant
housing solution: bamboo, also to revive this inexpensive, environmentally
friendly, quake-resistant native material. Building experts in China who have
been testing bamboo give it the seal of approval for building in the seismic zone.

In Zhejiang Province, where bamboo is plentiful, local officials have been


encouraging architects to design recreational infrastructure using bamboo. Chen
Xu, formerly a Chinese Academy of Forestry researcher, who tested the bamboo
panels used in the INBAR models, says that bamboo can be an excellent
engineering material. The technology is mature. He believes the bamboo and
plywood with a steel frame should be good for earthquakes. Another proof of the
resiliency of bamboo houses against earthquakes happened in 1991 Costa Rica.
Concrete structures crumbled in the earthquake that registered 7.7 on the Richter
scale, but the 20 or so bamboo houses nearby remained standing and
undamaged.
Different organizations throughout the world already have begun pushing
towards the use bamboo for housing and recreational infrastructure projects,
especially in natural disaster prone areas like that of in Costa Rica and in China.
9. n.a. Bamboo will replace other materials in architecture says Vo Trong
Nghia. Dezeen Magazine. 2013. Web. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
<http://www.dezeen.com/2014/07/16/vo-trong-nghia-interview-materialsarchitecture-bamboo/>
Vo Trong Nghia Architects unveiled designs for the Vietnamese pavilion at
Milan Expo 2015, which will be constructed from bamboo. Bamboo, which is an
extremely fast-growing species of giant grass, grows abundantly, quickly and
cheaply in Vietnam, where canes cost as little as a dollar each. Nghia have used
bamboo structurally to form arches and domes, to a proposal to solve Vietnam's
housing crisis with cheap, steel-framed homes clad in bamboo. Nghia's low-cost
housing proposal uses bamboo as a cladding material, rather than as a structural

solution. Although it is difficult to choose an appropriate contractor because there


is almost no contractor with experience of bamboo construction so, in order to
realize the space as envisioned, it is essential to educate workers and build the
construction together. He also noted the ability of bamboo to bend. Using bent
bamboos, the structure obtains unique shape and beauty. With proper treatment
soaking in mud and smoking it bamboo becomes as durable as timber.
Thanks to its rapid-growing ability, Architect Vo Trong Nghia predicted that
bamboo and laminated bamboo or engineered bamboo will replace other
materials and become the green steel of the 21st century.
Architects like Vo Trong Nghia leads the way for innovating architectural
design using natural available material like bamboo for housing in Vietnam.
10. n.a. Blooming Bamboo Home. Dezeen Magazine. 2013. Web. Retrieved
February 15, 2015.< http://www.dezeen.com/2014/07/16/vo-trong-nghiainterview-materials-architecture-bamboo/ >
Vietnamese studio H&P Architects has built a prototype bamboo house
designed to withstand floods up to three meters above ground. The group used
tightly-packed rows of bamboo cane to build the walls, floors and roof of the
Blooming Bamboo Home, along with bamboo wattle, fiberboard and coconut
leaves. It has been designed as a house, but could also be used as a school
classroom, medical facility or community center. One solution to houses and
homes for millions of these people is the goal of the BB (Blooming Bamboo)
home. The designed house is strong enough to suffer from phenomena like
1.5m-high flood. Currently, H&P Architects is experimenting the model to suffer
3m-high flood. The space is multifunctional such as House, Educational, Medical

and Community Centre and can be spread if necessary. The vernacular structure
can be assembled in as little as 25 days and adapted to suit varying local
climates and sites and the total cost of the house is only 2500$.. Therefore, the
house can warm people in the most severe conditions and help them control
activities in the future, also remarkably contribute to ecological development as
well as economic stabilization.
Bamboos are starting to be recognize by architectural firms as a solution
for the scarcity in housing in impoverish areas because it is cheap, easily
assembled and can serve as protection against natural disasters.
11. Best, E. Bamboo Houses to the Rescue. Pacific Standard Magazine. 2010.
Web. Retrieved February 15, 2015. < http://www.psmag.com/books-andculture/bamboo-houses-to-the-rescue-16347 >
History suggests that bamboo may protect people from disasters like
typhoons and earthquakes. When three typhoons swept into the Cook Islands in
2005, one producing winds of 173 mph, they devoured everything in their path
everything, that is, except a group of bamboo houses on the beach. Back in
1991, A 7.5 earthquake in Limn, Costa Rica, destroyed homes built with
concrete and rebar, but all 20 of the more-flexible bamboo houses at the
earthquake's epicentre remained standing. This paved way for the establishment
of Bamboo National Housing Project in Costa Rica in 1986. Also to demonstrate
the ability of bamboo to provide durable, seismically sound housing while
contributing to reforestation. It was then adopted by the Costa Rican government
in the mid-1990s that helped create more than 2,000 houses in rural areas,
including the indigenous communities of Terraba, Rey Curre and Boruca, before

the turn of the century. Like poverty, bamboo is especially prolific in the tropics;
perhaps what makes the concept of bamboo as a material for low-income
housing most appealing is this symmetry.
Bamboo cultivation and construction of permanent bamboo housing can
protect people in disaster-prone areas. The use of bamboo as an alternative to
wood can also help in reforestation of denuded lands.
12. Soto, A.S.D. Bamboo Housing National Project Costa Rica. United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. n.d. Web. Retrieved
February 15, 2015. < http://www.unesco.org/most/centram1.htm >
The National Bamboo Project was started in 1986 to replace the use of
wood with an alternative cost-effective and seismically sound building material
and to prevent further deforestation. Bamboo has also helped to solve other
problems such as unemployment and deforestation, particularly protecting some
river basins. It also fostered the sustainable use of bamboo as a raw material for
an indigenous housing programme and for the industrialization and marketing of
by-products, thus giving low-income families the means of obtaining proper
housing. The bamboo cultivated areas capture and store carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere, contributing to preventing negative impacts of the green-house
effect at the global level. Since then, the project has achieved the construction of
703 houses in rural areas, among them the indigenous communities of Terraba,
Rey Curre and Boruca. After a few years of implementation, the project has been
widely accepted not only by Costa Ricans, but also by other Central American
countries.

The National Bamboo Project is Costa Rican is one of the pioneers of


bamboo housing programs that maximizes the full potential of bamboo for
sustainable development.
13. Henrikson R. Bamboo Architecture: In Competition and Exhibition.
CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2011. Book. Retrieved
February 15, 2015. <www.algaecompetition.com/
PDF.cfm/BambooArchitecture.pdf >
According to a study conducted, the average family home, built from wood
from trees, and takes about one acre of forest (0.4 hectares). The same home
built from bamboo, takes only the size of the house itself, because bamboo
grows so fast and so dense. This means we save 20 times the earths surface
area to grow our houses. Some species grow stronger and harder than oak in
just 5 years. Through the initiative of a group of architects, The International
Bamboo Building Design Competition was launched in 2006 as a call out to the
worlds architects, builders, designers and students to envision and design new
bamboo buildings, to develop new award winning designs for bamboo buildings,
and raise awareness of the use of certified structural bamboo for building code
approved structures.
Movements have started to promote the use of bamboo for architectural
marvels. Building with bamboo also helps to lessen the use of trees that takes
more time to grow and helps in rebuilding our forests.
14. Xiaobing, Y. Bamboo: Structure and Culture: Utilizing Bamboo in the
Industrial Context with Reference to its Structural and Cultural
Dimensions. VDM Verlag Dr. Mller. 2008. Book. Retrieved February 15,
2015. < webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/dissts/Duisburg/Yu2007.pdf >

Studies show that compared to concrete, steel and wood bamboo has
excellent mechanical properties with reference to material efficiency for strength
(working stress per volume unit) and stiffness (E modulus per volume unit). But,
According to Janssen (1988) the untreated bamboo culms can just have a
maximum of 10-15 years of lifetime if they are kept under cover and in a not very
humid climate. In direct contact with atmosphere they can only last 1- 3 years.
One popular organic treatment for bamboos is through smoking. They are put
into the smoke with a temperature of about 120C for some time so the insects
are killed. It is believed that this way will increase the durability of culms. During
the process the bamboo culms can be broken and the color will get black. This
method is popular in Japan. In the chemical methods, chemical preservatives like
CCA (copper-chrome-arsenic composition) or cheaper ones like boric acid and
borax are used to keep bamboo culms from being attacked by insects. Bamboos
cultural

dimension

sometimes

is

negatively

interpreted

as

handwork,

uneconomic, imprecise, and underdeveloped because it is connected with the


traditional crafts working process.

It is significant to treat bamboo first before using in construction to prolong


its lifetime also, to maximize the mechanical properties of bamboo.
15. Sands, D. Why Bamboo. Bamboo Living. n.d. Web. Retrieved February 15,
2015. <http://www.bambooliving.com/index.php/why-bamboo >
Research presents few reasons why bamboo offers eco-friendly
alternative to building with timber, namely; strength, warranty for termites, carbon
sequestration and advantages of bamboo than trees. Studies prove that bamboo
is as strong as mild steel with the compression strength of concrete. Amazingly,
one inch of bamboo can hold up to 7 1/2 tons of weight. Bamboo houses properly
treated with borates should easily last 75 to 100at least 50 years. Unlike most
organic insecticides that attack the nervous system, borates are a systemic
poison that destroys the digestive tract of the organism.

As a result, it is

impossible for the species to develop immunity and borates will kill any organism
that ingests the chemical. Bamboo, like trees, also sequesters carbon dioxide
from the atmosphere. If the bamboo and wood are made into houses, then the
carbon is effectively stored for the life span of the house. Half the weight of the
bamboo is carbon. The carbon from the atmosphere is thus locked up in the
bamboo fibre itself. Currently, the 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent
produced each year by human activity. Preserve the bamboo with borates and
build buildings with that bamboo and you have sequestered and stored the
carbon for a hundred years. The bamboo plant itself sequesters up to 12 tons of
CO2 per hectare. It releases 35% more oxygen than equivalent areas of trees.

Studies also prove bamboo as a sustainable cropping system for sloping lands,
reducing soil erosion, and delivering sustainable farming systems. The rhizome
mat of bamboo, which continues to live after each harvest, protects the ground
from erosion.
Bamboo houses become a carbon capture and storage system, and this
capacity can be extended if proper treatment is executed on the bamboo plant.
16. Jayanetti, D.L., P.R. Follet. Bamboo in Construction: An Introduction.
International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBR). 1998. Book.
Retrieved February 15,2015. < www.inbar.int/publications/?did=9>
In view of its rapid growth, a ready adaptability to most climatic conditions
and properties superior to most juvenile fast growing wood, bamboo emerges as
a very suitable alternative. But different treatments should be execute first to
protect bamboo from attack by micro-organisms and insects especially if use in
construction. Since bamboo has a low natural resistance from biological
deterioration, traditional methods of preservation do not provide durability of
product or structure in the long term. When compared to traditional methods, the
use of chemicals for the preservative treatment of bamboo is more effective in
providing

protection

against

biological

deterioration.

However,

chemical

preservatives are invariably toxic and due care and attention should be exercised
whenever they are used. It is, also possible to treat bamboo with a combination
of preservative and fire retardant chemicals. Fire presents a potential hazard in
any form of construction, but the risk is especially high in bamboo buildings. But
since fire retardant treatment costs generally high, Boron based retardants offer
a possible solution, with the added advantage of being relatively safe to use.

With

proper

treatments,

bamboo

houses

can

withstand

natural

deterioration and offer a durable and stable housing.


17. Yipin, L. L. Yanxi, K. Buckingham, et al. Bamboo and Climate Change
Mitigation. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBR). 2010.
Book. Retrieved
February
15,
2015.
<
www.inbar.int/downloads/Carbon-Publication_final_
151110. pdf >
Bamboo forests have comparable features to other types of forest
regarding their role in the carbon cycle. They sequester carbon through
photosynthesis, and lock carbon in the fibre of the bamboo and in the soil where
it grows. Conducted studies shows that intensive management of bamboo seems
to be able to increase the carbon storage capacity in above ground biomass.
Innovations should be encouraged to enhance the number of durable bamboo
products with longer life spans which is positive for prospects that carbon in
biomass can be sequestrated for a longer period before they biodegrade. One
example of this a study conducted in a bamboo forests in China where proper
management of the forest was executed. Substantial amount of carbon were
present in the bamboo, and the total amount is expected to increase in the future
primarily because of future afforestation programs. As the importance of bamboo
forests in providing both development needs and adaptation opportunities for
local communities is already recognized, the role that they can play in providing
global carbon sequestration services, suggests that bamboo deserves more
recognition as a plant of considerable importance in meeting the demands of a
planet in need of both prosperity and sustainability.

Bamboo has high productivity and, through proper management


techniques, could sequester higher amounts of carbon, which could create a sink
effect, and thus, further studies and research should be done to this plant.
18. Yoneda, Y. First Full Bamboo School in Philippines Stands Up to Tough
Stormwinds. Inhabitat.com. 2011. Web. Retrieved February 15, 2015. <
http://inhabitat.com/first-full-bamboo-school-in-philippines-stands-up-totough- stormwinds/>
The bamboo school is a prototype at the Nato High School in the Bicol
Peninsula around the south-eastern part of Luzon. Designed by architect Eleena
Jamil of Malaysia as the winning entry in the Millennium Schools competition
organized by Illac Diaz's MyShelter Foundation, the structure was recently
completed in Camarines Sur, and is proud to call itself the first full bamboo
school in the Philippines. One of the main focuses of the design was to minimize
damage caused by the powerful tropical winds that sweep across the eastern
part of the archipelago. And while its possible that some of the bamboo culms
will be overcome by the wind, in most cases, replacing them is much easier than
it would be for wood or steel, which makes sense since the whole point is that the
modular classrooms be easy to build and easy to repair. It also helps immensely
that forests of the green plant grow abundantly and rapidly in the wild in close
proximity to the school. So if rebuilding is ever necessary, the raw materials are
right there in the buildings own backyard.
The use of bamboo has also started in the Philippines, following the
Millennium Development Goals. It is also said that, even if typhoons damage
bamboo infrastructure, there will be probably only a little impairment that will be
found, that can also be repair easily.

19. Walker, C. "MAT-TER Designs Storm-Resistant School for the Philippines.


ArchDaily. 2014. Web. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
<http://www.archdaily.com/502896/mat-ter-designs-storm-resistantschool-for-the-philippines/>
Open Online Academy (OOAc) has challenged architects worldwide to
design disaster-resistant architecture with their online course Designing
Resilient Schools. Architecture firm MAT-TER has responded to this challenge
with a new design for Guiuan National High School in the Philippines, an area hit
especially hard by last years Typhoon Haiyan. The design is a singular, compact
structure designed to better withstand the forces of major storms, doubling as
both a school and a community emergency shelter. The architects of the said
project believe that the aggregation of simple interconnected systems will create
a more resilient architecture and provide a better sense of unity for a learning
environment. Furthermore, the compact structure designed will help to better
withstand the forces of major storms, while serving as both a school and a
community emergency shelter.
Innovative movements push towards the creation of resilient schools and
one solution offered was the use of bamboo, for both school and relocation
shelter.
20. Press, A. DTI to push for a robust and sustainable PH bamboo industry.
Asian Journal. 2012. Web. Retrieved February 15, 2015. <
http://asianjournal.com/
news/dti-to-push-for-a-robust-and-sustainableph-bamboo-industry/ >
Data shows that in 2009, the Philippines ranked 6th worldwide among the
top exporters of bamboo products with a total export value of US$30 million,
according to the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR). Thus,

the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) is moving forward for a robust and
sustainable Philippine bamboo industry by 2016. 40 percent of these bamboo
materials, bamboo furniture and handicrafts were the top dollar earners for the
country. Apart from its use as raw material, bamboo is seen to significantly
contribute to climate change mitigation and environmental disaster management.
The Philippine government committed to reforest at least 500,000 hectares with
bamboo as part of the 1 million hectares of designated areas as the countrys
contribution to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) commitment
of 20 million hectares of new forest by 2020. Furthermore, Executive Order (EO)
879 was issued last May 2010 for the development of the Philippine bamboo
industry that created the Philippine Bamboo Industry Development (PBID)
Council and directed the use of bamboo for at least 25 percent of desk and other
furniture requirements of public elementary and secondary schools and
prioritizing the use of bamboo in furniture, fixtures and other construction
requirements of government facilities.
Philippines is gearing up to increase its production of bamboo to reach the
high demand of market globally. This action of the Department of Trade and
Industry is supported by the released memorandums since 2010.

CHAPTER 3
Research Methodology
Research Plan

The proponent plans to document at least three of the existing available


bamboo architecture in the country, like Architect Francisco Maosas residence
in Ayala Alabang Village, Architect Encarnacion Tans bamboo house, the
renovated Las Pias St. Joseph Parish, home of the famed Bamboo Organ, The
Risen Lord Chapel in Las Pias, the Mary Hill Retreat in Taytay, Carolina
Bamboo Garden in Antipolo City, Coco Beach Island Resort in Puerto Galera, La
Virgen Milagrosa de Badoc in Ilocos Norte. etc.
The goal of the documentation is to get photographs and content to create
a feature article for the info website of the project. The proponent will also
conduct an interview with people associated with bamboo architecture in the
Philippines, most of which are the same set of people involve on the
documentation. The interview seeks to gather existing bamboo architecture
projects in the country, show this to the projects target user and thus, engage
themselves to use bamboo for their future projects or promote places with
engineered bamboo features.
Primary Research Tools
Interview Questions
1. Tell us about yourself and your bamboo architectural project.
2. How did you get involved in using bamboo?
3. Are you currently affiliated with any bamboo enthusiasts organizations?
4. what is the name of that organization and since when have you been a
member?

5. Why do you think bamboo is a sustainable resource that should be


promoted?
6. What are the ecological benefits of bamboo?
7. What are the advantages of using bamboo as a building material?
8. How do you think Filipinos see bamboo as a building material today?
9. And how do you think should Filipino look at it? Why?
10. What is your vision or future prospect for bamboo architecture in the
Philippines?

CHAPTER 4
Results
The results of the interview showed that on the past, only government
institutes and agencies would undertake research projects on the use of
indigenous materials, like bamboo. This includes the Forest Products Research
and Development Institute (FPRDI), the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA),
Construction Industry Association of the Philippines (CIAP), Materials Science
Research Institute (MSRI), and The National Science and Technology Institute
(NSTI). Today, private and commercial-based small-scaled companies have also
stepped up towards the development of these materials. The Philippine Bamboo
Foundation is also one of the leading organizations for promoting bamboo and
supporting the bamboo industry.
Interviewees have agreed that engineered bamboo and infusing it with the
technology of preservation can provide an effective solution for housing because

its properties can stand equal with the more modern aluminium or plastic. And
although it may lack permanence, the warmth and natural ambience of using
bamboo can never be replicated. It is the fastest growing plant on the planet. It
can easily be cultivated. Architect Manosa quoted "will not. For centuries to
come, the bamboo grass will continue to grow, gracing our fields and gardens so
why not our homes?" In addition, the interviewees add up that it's about time to
explore an alternative building material by incorporating both technology and
science for a greener environment.
Architect Gerry Torres, meanwhile, said that incorporating bamboo for
housing paves way for contemporary living with green architecture that is
sustainable and save the earth's natural resources. Bamboo can be a classy
alternative to better known species of wood-based finishing material like lauan,
molave, supa or narra, whose cost have scaled heights unimaginable even
today, not to mention, that these are all endangered species.
Today, the government's criteria for a sure and economical solution to
Filipinos who dream of owning his own home is that it should be should pass a
grade of permanence, must be fireproof, and that it should be cheap, available
and plentiful. All interviewees have agreed that bamboo might just be that
alternative material. It is a viable material for low-cost and affordable building. It
is very versatile, strong, abundant, pleasant to feel, beautiful to look at in colour,
texture and shape, and manageable. With the right treatment, it can be fireproof
and resistant from pests. By exploiting technology, we can able to extend the life
and use of these materials. Furthermore, up to certain extent, bamboo can

withstand earthquakes than other materials will do, because of the cellulose
fibres in bamboo. These act as reinforcement similar to reinforcing steel bars in
concrete or glass-fibre in polyester-resin. The distribution of these fibres
increases from the inside to the outside. Result of the interview also showed that
bamboo has a good bending and tensile strength than other materials which are
used for construction. Most important is its lightweight, and the hollow form gives
much stiffness which results in less damage during earthquake.
Bamboo grows in all regions of the country, yet, Filipinos still feels alien
when it comes to maximizing its potential. Universities and colleges that offers
architecture does not focus on indigenous materials like bamboo and easily go
bias with the usual concrete and steel. It is depicted as 'poor's man timber' due to
its association with hard hand-made handicrafts. People thought it's a mistake to
use bamboo because it's a weak material and will surely degrade in a short span
of time. Unfortunately, with the coming of superior technology and new building
material from the West, Filipinos tend to forget traditions and culture,
disregarding lessons our ancestors and handed down to us. In India for example,
despite being the second's largest exporter of bamboo, situation of bamboo is not
up to the mark. Many people who live in cities are not still aware about this
plant/material. People still feel that its not a long term solution for building
material and that its a job of a poor man to build/work with bamboo. On the
contrary, furniture made from bamboo is affordable only by rich people at least
upper middle class and above.

But in reality, bamboo, as the principal material of bahay kubo, is


indicative to Filipino's character. The reason why it has been identified with
"Philippine architecture" is that it has adapted itself very well to our climate, our
temperament, and our way of life. And for as long as bamboo grows in our land,
Filipinos should maximize it and produce structures that are culturally rooted in
design, form and feel.
In conclusion, the interviewees urged the public to look into the use of
bamboo. Its a beautiful material with good mechanical and physical properties.
Most important is that, its an eco-friendly material (provided that it is harvested in
eco-friendly manner). It was also noted that bamboo is one of the most vital
construction materials known to be for construction in the Philippines, a third
world country with a tremendous housing problem.

CHAPTER 5
Project Description
The Kawayahan is an informative website about the advantages of using
bamboo as an alternative building material that seeks to reunite Filipinos to
indigenous materials like bamboo for housing and other architectural projects. It
aims to engage interested individuals, couples, organizations to look into the
utilization of bamboo by providing them information about its advantages,

connecting them to architectural firms that uses bamboo and giving examples of
existing modern bamboo houses in the country.

Rationale
Bahay kubo, with bamboo as one of its principal materials, is indicative of
the Filipino character. It is symbolic to Filipino resiliency. Thus, as a media
student, the info webs objective is to communicate the information about the
advantages of using bamboo as an alternative building material to Filipinos and
thus, distribute the need to utilize the use of it as a solution for housing problems
and climate change.
Bamboo will mostly likely be a great alternative to much more expensive building
material like steel and species of hardwoods that most of which are already
endangered. It can offer a possible substitute to timber due to the scarcity of
wood.
Furthermore, bamboo makes a good climate change adaptation material.
In fact, certain organizations has already been developing a bamboo-cement
technology to be used to make sturdy, earthquake- and storm-proof houses for
earthquake-stricken Bohol and Super typhoon Yolanda-hit areas. Its a cheap,
sustainable, and stable and not to mention, abundantly grows in the country.

Project objectives
This project seeks to:

1. Encourage Filipinos to look into consideration of incorporating bamboo


as an alternative building material,
2. Provide essential information on the various advantages of using
bamboo for construction and give examples of existing modern bamboo
architectural projects, and to;
3. Serve as a source of information and connection between bamboo
enthusiasts, architectural firms that utilizes bamboo, bamboo related
institutions and interested individuals, couples, or organizations.

Communication Objectives
This project aims to express that:
1. Encourage Filipinos to look into consideration of incorporating bamboo
as an alternative building material.
a. Bamboo embodies authentic Philippine house and cultural
identity.
b. It can be both modern and classic, and that its natural beauty
can never be equalled.
2. Provide essential information on the various advantages of using
bamboo for construction and give examples of existing modern bamboo
architectural projects, and to;
a. Bamboo can compete with other commercial building material
like steel, concrete and many other hardwoods by means of its
mechanical properties and abundance.

b. It is an earthquake-proof material that is for viable climate


change mitigation projects.
3. Serve as an inspirational platform and connection between bamboo
enthusiasts, architectural firms that utilizes bamboo, bamboo related
institutions and interested individuals, couples, or organizations.
a. There are a lot of organizations and firms who backs up the use
of bamboo for construction.
b. Bamboo has been use and tested before, and with the right
technology and treatment, one can make a modern house made
from it.

Marketing Objectives
The project will be marketed by:
1. Events;
2. Social networking ads; and
3. Website promotional ads

Project Brief
Kawayahan is an info website that offers users a wide range of
information about bamboo and how it can be exploit as an alternative building
material, its advantages and its connection to the cultural identity of Filipinos. It
also gives users photographs of modern bamboo architectural projects like the
Bamboo Clad House in Better Living subdivision, Paranaque City; Coco Beach

Island Resort in Puerto Galera; La Virgen Milagrosa de Badoc in Ilocos Norte;


Mary Immaculate Parish- Natures Church in Las Pias City and the first Bamboo
School in the country- the Nato High School in Camarines Sur. All mentioned
places display a modern intricate design using bamboo, maximizing its properties
for construction that would possibly allow users to get interested on either visiting
the place or most especially, engaging them into a project with architects whose
expertise is the use of bamboos, provided by the website. The goal of the
website to emphasize and promote the beauty of a modern bamboo house,
bahay kubo, when properly engineered and thus reuniting Filipinos into
indigenous material like the bamboo itself.
Content Outline

Home
o (Welcome page)

Why Bamboo?

Structural Integrity

Climate Change adaptation

Ecological Benefits
o About

Author/ Team

(People

who

have

help

me

through

documentation)

Vision and Mission

(Prospect and objective of the website)

my

research

and

FAQ

(Will develop during the beta testing of the website)

Gallery

(Visit at least three of these places and make a feature article about it, with
photographs, and contact of the place)

Bamboo Clad House in Better Living subdivision, Paranaque City

Carolina Bamboo Garden in Antipolo City

Coco Beach Island Resort in Puerto Galera

La Virgen Milagrosa de Badoc in Ilocos Norte

Mary Immaculate Parish- Natures Church in Las Pias City

The Risen Lord Chapel in Las Pias

Bamboo School - Nato High School in Camarines Sur.

Contact

(Easy contact to architects or organization if an individual, or group plans to build


his/her own bamboo related architectural project)

Contact of architects who is involve in bamboo architecture projects

Link to different organizations

Contact of Kawayahan

Social Media account

Audience, Beneficiary and Market Profile


Target Audience

Age: 25 35 years old


Economic Group: Working and Productive Class
Social Class: Lower Middle to Lower Upper Class
Other cultural or behavioural determinant:
People who are in the working class who are interested on any architectural
project that may include housing, school, gazeebo, church etc. who might be
interested with Filipino design and indigenous material.
Target Beneficiaries
Local bamboo industry
Places like church, resorts, eco-garden with modern bamboo house features
Architects whose expertise is using Bamboo
Target Market
Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI)
Construction Industry Association of the Philippines (CIAP)
Materials Science Research Institute (MSRI)
The National Science and Technology Institute (NSTI).
Philippine Bamboo Foundation

Sample Audiences
Anna Manalastas is an accounting officer in a small firm in Antipolo City.
She is 29 years old and is already engage to her 4 years-relationship boyfriend,
Tom Aurallo. Both Anna and Tom lives together in a house that they are renting
near the office of Anna, which costs about Php 4,500 monthly. Tom proposed to

Anna 5 months ago and so, now, they are planning to decide what kind of house
they would want to build. Anna has been passionate with Filipino design and
recalled to her fiance a resort she visited in Puerto Galera. The name of the
place is Coco Beach Island Resort. Its a resort that features fully-furnished
modern bamboo-made rooms and Anna felt in love with the place, especially with
the rooms. She told Tom about her idea about incorporating bamboo but the
problem is, they dont know who to contact and what is difference between a
house made of bamboo and one which is not. Both Anna and Tom earns an
average wage so they are looking for a cheap yet stable housing material.

References
Adams, C. Bamboo Architecture and Construction with Oscar Hidalgo.
networkearth.org.

1998.

Web.

Retrieved

February

15,

<http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/bamboo.html >
Ado, R. Refugees in Ethiopia choose their own housing and create jobs.

2015.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2013. Web. Retrieved


March 1, 2015. <http://www.unhcr.org/5162b0639.html >
Alter, L. Bamboo Houses Stand Up To Earthquakes. Treehugger.com. 2013.
Web. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <http://www.treehugger.com/green
architecture/bamboo-houses-stand-up-to-earthquakes.html >
Belcher, B. The Role of Bamboo in Development. International Network for
Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR). 1996. Book. Retrieved March 1, 2015. <
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Appendices
Appendix A
Interview Questionnaire
1.

Tell us about yourself

2.

How did you get involved in using bamboo?

3.

Are you currently affiliated with any bamboo enthusiasts organizations?

4.

If yes, what is the name of that organization and since when have you

been a member?
5.

Why do you think bamboo is a sustainable resource that should be

promoted?
6.

What are the ecological benefits of bamboo?

7.

What are the advantages of using bamboo as a building material?

8.

How do you think Filipinos see bamboo as a building material today?

9.

And how do you think should Filipino should look at it? Why?

10.

What is your vision or future prospect for bamboo architecture in the

Philippines?

Appendix B
Profile of Interviewees

Vinay Kolte
Rajarshi Shahu College of Engineering
Malabar Nature Conservation Club, Amboli, India
kolte.vinay@gmail.com

Rajnirmal Rajendran
Feel Design Lab
Architecture and civil engineering Firm, India
feel.designlab@gmail.com

Ms. Roni Alano


Executive Assistant of Arch. Francisco "Bobby" Manosa
roni@manosa.com

Architect Gerry Torres


Director for Administration of MCAD
Faculty, School of Design and Arts-Architecture
De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde
glvtorres@yahoo.com
09175778449

Cita V. Lacdan
CBG Coordinator
Carolina Bamboo Garden
carolinabamboogarden@ymail.com
Tel. No. 8470522 to 25
Mobile No. 0922-8248952