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Mathematics
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Mathematics(fromGreekmthma,knowledge,study,learning)isthestudyof
topicssuchasquantity(numbers),[2]structure,[3]space,[2]andchange.[4][5][6]Thereisa
rangeofviewsamongmathematiciansandphilosophersastotheexactscopeanddefinition
ofmathematics.[7][8]
Mathematiciansseekoutpatterns[9][10]andusethemtoformulatenewconjectures.
Mathematiciansresolvethetruthorfalsityofconjecturesbymathematicalproof.When
mathematicalstructuresaregoodmodelsofrealphenomena,thenmathematicalreasoning
canprovideinsightorpredictionsaboutnature.Throughtheuseofabstractionandlogic,
mathematicsdevelopedfromcounting,calculation,measurement,andthesystematicstudy
oftheshapesandmotionsofphysicalobjects.Practicalmathematicshasbeenahuman
activityforasfarbackaswrittenrecordsexist.Theresearchrequiredtosolvemathematical
problemscantakeyearsorevencenturiesofsustainedinquiry.

Euclid(holdingcalipers),Greek
mathematician,3rdcenturyBC,as
imaginedbyRaphaelinthisdetail
fromTheSchoolofAthens. [1]

RigorousargumentsfirstappearedinGreekmathematics,mostnotablyinEuclid'sElements.
SincethepioneeringworkofGiuseppePeano(18581932),DavidHilbert(18621943),and
othersonaxiomaticsystemsinthelate19thcentury,ithasbecomecustomarytoviewmathematicalresearchasestablishingtruth
byrigorousdeductionfromappropriatelychosenaxiomsanddefinitions.Mathematicsdevelopedatarelativelyslowpaceuntilthe
Renaissance,whenmathematicalinnovationsinteractingwithnewscientificdiscoveriesledtoarapidincreaseintherateof
mathematicaldiscoverythathascontinuedtothepresentday.[11]
GalileoGalilei(15641642)said,"Theuniversecannotbereaduntilwehavelearnedthelanguageandbecomefamiliarwiththe
charactersinwhichitiswritten.Itiswritteninmathematicallanguage,andthelettersaretriangles,circlesandothergeometrical
figures,withoutwhichmeansitishumanlyimpossibletocomprehendasingleword.Withoutthese,oneiswanderingaboutina
darklabyrinth."[12]CarlFriedrichGauss(17771855)referredtomathematicsas"theQueenoftheSciences".[13]BenjaminPeirce
(18091880)calledmathematics"thesciencethatdrawsnecessaryconclusions".[14]DavidHilbertsaidofmathematics:"Wearenot
speakinghereofarbitrarinessinanysense.Mathematicsisnotlikeagamewhosetasksaredeterminedbyarbitrarilystipulated
rules.Rather,itisaconceptualsystempossessinginternalnecessitythatcanonlybesoandbynomeansotherwise."[15]Albert
Einstein(18791955)statedthat"asfarasthelawsofmathematicsrefertoreality,theyarenotcertainandasfarastheyare
certain,theydonotrefertoreality."[16]
Mathematicsisessentialinmanyfields,includingnaturalscience,engineering,medicine,financeandthesocialsciences.Applied
mathematicshasledtoentirelynewmathematicaldisciplines,suchasstatisticsandgametheory.Mathematiciansalsoengagein
puremathematics,ormathematicsforitsownsake,withouthavinganyapplicationinmind.Thereisnoclearlineseparatingpure
andappliedmathematics,andpracticalapplicationsforwhatbeganaspuremathematicsareoftendiscovered.[17]

Contents
1 History
1.1 Etymology
2 Definitionsofmathematics
2.1 Mathematicsasscience
3 Inspiration,pureandappliedmathematics,andaesthetics
4 Notation,language,andrigor
5 Fieldsofmathematics
5.1 Foundationsandphilosophy
5.2 Puremathematics
5.3 Appliedmathematics
6 Mathematicalawards
7 Seealso
8 Notes
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9 References
10 Furtherreading
11 Externallinks

History
Thehistoryofmathematicscanbeseenasaneverincreasingseriesofabstractions.Thefirstabstraction,whichissharedbymany
animals,[18]wasprobablythatofnumbers:therealizationthatacollectionoftwoapplesandacollectionoftwooranges(for
example)havesomethingincommon,namelyquantityoftheirmembers.
Asevidencedbytalliesfoundonbone,inadditiontorecognizing
howtocountphysicalobjects,prehistoricpeoplesmayhavealso
recognizedhowtocountabstractquantities,liketimedays,
seasons,years.[19]
Evidenceformorecomplexmathematicsdoesnotappearuntil
around3000BC,whentheBabyloniansandEgyptiansbeganusing
arithmetic,algebraandgeometryfortaxationandotherfinancial
calculations,forbuildingandconstruction,andforastronomy.[20]
Theearliestusesofmathematicswereintrading,landmeasurement,
paintingandweavingpatternsandtherecordingoftime.
Mayannumerals
Greekmathematician
Pythagoras
(c.570c.495BC),
commonlycreditedwith
discoveringthePythagorean
theorem

InBabylonianmathematicselementaryarithmetic(addition,
subtraction,multiplicationanddivision)firstappearsinthe
archaeologicalrecord.Numeracypredatedwritingandnumeralsystemshavebeenmanyand
diverse,withthefirstknownwrittennumeralscreatedbyEgyptiansinMiddleKingdomtextssuch
astheRhindMathematicalPapyrus.
Between600and300BCtheAncientGreeksbeganasystematicstudyofmathematicsinitsown
rightwithGreekmathematics.[21]

DuringtheGoldenAgeofIslam,especiallyduringthe9thand10thcenturies,mathematicssaw
manyimportantinnovationsbuildingonGreekmathematics:mostofthemincludethecontributions
fromPersianmathematicianssuchasAlKhwarismi,OmarKhayyamandSharafalDnals.
Mathematicshassincebeengreatlyextended,andtherehasbeenafruitfulinteractionbetween
mathematicsandscience,tothebenefitofboth.Mathematicaldiscoveriescontinuetobemade
today.AccordingtoMikhailB.Sevryuk,intheJanuary2006issueoftheBulletinoftheAmerican
MathematicalSociety,"ThenumberofpapersandbooksincludedintheMathematicalReviews
databasesince1940(thefirstyearofoperationofMR)isnowmorethan1.9million,andmorethan
75thousanditemsareaddedtothedatabaseeachyear.Theoverwhelmingmajorityofworksinthis
oceancontainnewmathematicaltheoremsandtheirproofs."[22]

Etymology

PersianmathematicianAl
Khwarizmi(c.780c.850
),theinventorofthe
Algebra.

ThewordmathematicscomesfromtheGreek(mthma),which,intheancientGreek
language,means"thatwhichislearnt",[23]"whatonegetstoknow",hencealso"study"and
"science",andinmodernGreekjust"lesson".Thewordmthmaisderivedfrom
(manthano),whilethemodernGreekequivalentis(mathaino),bothofwhichmean"tolearn".InGreece,thewordfor
"mathematics"cametohavethenarrowerandmoretechnicalmeaning"mathematicalstudy"eveninClassicaltimes.[24]Its
adjectiveis(mathmatiks),meaning"relatedtolearning"or"studious",whichlikewisefurthercametomean
"mathematical".Inparticular,(mathmatiktkhn),Latin:arsmathematica,meant"themathematicalart".

InLatin,andinEnglishuntilaround1700,thetermmathematicsmorecommonlymeant"astrology"(orsometimes"astronomy")
ratherthan"mathematics"themeaninggraduallychangedtoitspresentonefromabout1500to1800.Thishasresultedinseveral
mistranslations:aparticularlynotoriousoneisSaintAugustine'swarningthatChristiansshouldbewareofmathematicimeaning
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astrologers,whichissometimesmistranslatedasacondemnationofmathematicians.[25]
TheapparentpluralforminEnglish,liketheFrenchpluralformlesmathmatiques(andthelesscommonlyusedsingularderivative
lamathmatique),goesbacktotheLatinneuterpluralmathematica(Cicero),basedontheGreekplural(ta
mathmatik),usedbyAristotle(384322BC),andmeaningroughly"allthingsmathematical"althoughitisplausiblethatEnglish
borrowedonlytheadjectivemathematic(al)andformedthenounmathematicsanew,afterthepatternofphysicsandmetaphysics,
whichwereinheritedfromtheGreek.[26]InEnglish,thenounmathematicstakessingularverbforms.Itisoftenshortenedtomaths
or,inEnglishspeakingNorthAmerica,math.[27]

Definitionsofmathematics
Aristotledefinedmathematicsas"thescienceofquantity",andthisdefinitionprevaileduntilthe
18thcentury.[28]Startinginthe19thcentury,whenthestudyofmathematicsincreasedinrigorand
begantoaddressabstracttopicssuchasgrouptheoryandprojectivegeometry,whichhavenoclear
cutrelationtoquantityandmeasurement,mathematiciansandphilosophersbegantoproposea
varietyofnewdefinitions.[29]Someofthesedefinitionsemphasizethedeductivecharacterofmuch
ofmathematics,someemphasizeitsabstractness,someemphasizecertaintopicswithin
mathematics.Today,noconsensusonthedefinitionofmathematicsprevails,evenamong
professionals.[7]Thereisnotevenconsensusonwhethermathematicsisanartorascience.[8]A
greatmanyprofessionalmathematicianstakenointerestinadefinitionofmathematics,orconsider
itundefinable.[7]Somejustsay,"Mathematicsiswhatmathematiciansdo."[7]
Threeleadingtypesofdefinitionofmathematicsarecalledlogicist,intuitionist,andformalist,each
reflectingadifferentphilosophicalschoolofthought.[30]Allhavesevereproblems,nonehas
widespreadacceptance,andnoreconciliationseemspossible.[30]

LeonardoFibonacci,the
Italianmathematicianwho
establishedtheHinduArabic
numeralsystemtothe
WesternWorld

AnearlydefinitionofmathematicsintermsoflogicwasBenjaminPeirce's"thesciencethatdraws
necessaryconclusions"(1870).[31]InthePrincipiaMathematica,BertrandRussellandAlfredNorth
Whiteheadadvancedthephilosophicalprogramknownaslogicism,andattemptedtoprovethatall
mathematicalconcepts,statements,andprinciplescanbedefinedandprovenentirelyintermsofsymboliclogic.Alogicist
definitionofmathematicsisRussell's"AllMathematicsisSymbolicLogic"(1903).[32]

Intuitionistdefinitions,developingfromthephilosophyofmathematicianL.E.J.Brouwer,identifymathematicswithcertainmental
phenomena.Anexampleofanintuitionistdefinitionis"Mathematicsisthementalactivitywhichconsistsincarryingoutconstructs
oneaftertheother."[30]Apeculiarityofintuitionismisthatitrejectssomemathematicalideasconsideredvalidaccordingtoother
definitions.Inparticular,whileotherphilosophiesofmathematicsallowobjectsthatcanbeproventoexisteventhoughtheycannot
beconstructed,intuitionismallowsonlymathematicalobjectsthatonecanactuallyconstruct.
Formalistdefinitionsidentifymathematicswithitssymbolsandtherulesforoperatingonthem.HaskellCurrydefinedmathematics
simplyas"thescienceofformalsystems".[33]Aformalsystemisasetofsymbols,ortokens,andsomerulestellinghowthetokens
maybecombinedintoformulas.Informalsystems,thewordaxiomhasaspecialmeaning,differentfromtheordinarymeaningof
"aselfevidenttruth".Informalsystems,anaxiomisacombinationoftokensthatisincludedinagivenformalsystemwithout
needingtobederivedusingtherulesofthesystem.

Mathematicsasscience
Gaussreferredtomathematicsas"theQueenoftheSciences".[13]IntheoriginalLatinReginaScientiarum,aswellasinGerman
KniginderWissenschaften,thewordcorrespondingtosciencemeansa"fieldofknowledge",andthiswastheoriginalmeaningof
"science"inEnglish,alsomathematicsisinthissenseafieldofknowledge.Thespecializationrestrictingthemeaningof"science"
tonaturalsciencefollowstheriseofBaconianscience,whichcontrasted"naturalscience"toscholasticism,theAristoteleanmethod
ofinquiringfromfirstprinciples.Theroleofempiricalexperimentationandobservationisnegligibleinmathematics,comparedto
naturalsciencessuchasbiology,chemistry,orphysics.AlbertEinsteinstatedthat"asfarasthelawsofmathematicsrefertoreality,
theyarenotcertainandasfarastheyarecertain,theydonotrefertoreality."[16]Morerecently,MarcusduSautoyhascalled
mathematics"theQueenofScience...themaindrivingforcebehindscientificdiscovery".[34]

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Manyphilosophersbelievethatmathematicsisnotexperimentallyfalsifiable,andthusnotascience
accordingtothedefinitionofKarlPopper.[35]However,inthe1930sGdel'sincompleteness
theoremsconvincedmanymathematiciansthatmathematicscannotbereducedtologicalone,and
KarlPopperconcludedthat"mostmathematicaltheoriesare,likethoseofphysicsandbiology,
hypotheticodeductive:puremathematicsthereforeturnsouttobemuchclosertothenatural
scienceswhosehypothesesareconjectures,thanitseemedevenrecently."[36]Otherthinkers,notably
ImreLakatos,haveappliedaversionoffalsificationismtomathematicsitself.

CarlFriedrichGauss,known
astheprinceof
mathematicians

Analternativeviewisthatcertainscientificfields(suchastheoreticalphysics)aremathematicswith
axiomsthatareintendedtocorrespondtoreality.ThetheoreticalphysicistJ.M.Zimanproposedthat
scienceispublicknowledge,andthusincludesmathematics.[37]Mathematicssharesmuchin
commonwithmanyfieldsinthephysicalsciences,notablytheexplorationofthelogical
consequencesofassumptions.Intuitionandexperimentationalsoplayaroleintheformulationof
conjecturesinbothmathematicsandthe(other)sciences.Experimentalmathematicscontinuesto
growinimportancewithinmathematics,andcomputationandsimulationareplayinganincreasing
roleinboththesciencesandmathematics.

Theopinionsofmathematiciansonthismatterarevaried.Manymathematiciansfeelthattocalltheirareaascienceistodownplay
theimportanceofitsaestheticside,anditshistoryinthetraditionalsevenliberalartsothersfeelthattoignoreitsconnectiontothe
sciencesistoturnablindeyetothefactthattheinterfacebetweenmathematicsanditsapplicationsinscienceandengineeringhas
drivenmuchdevelopmentinmathematics.Onewaythisdifferenceofviewpointplaysoutisinthephilosophicaldebateasto
whethermathematicsiscreated(asinart)ordiscovered(asinscience).Itiscommontoseeuniversitiesdividedintosectionsthat
includeadivisionofScienceandMathematics,indicatingthatthefieldsareseenasbeingalliedbutthattheydonotcoincide.In
practice,mathematiciansaretypicallygroupedwithscientistsatthegrosslevelbutseparatedatfinerlevels.Thisisoneofmany
issuesconsideredinthephilosophyofmathematics.

Inspiration,pureandappliedmathematics,andaesthetics
Mathematicsarisesfrommanydifferentkindsofproblems.Atfirstthese
werefoundincommerce,landmeasurement,architectureandlater
astronomytoday,allsciencessuggestproblemsstudiedbymathematicians,
andmanyproblemsarisewithinmathematicsitself.Forexample,the
physicistRichardFeynmaninventedthepathintegralformulationof
quantummechanicsusingacombinationofmathematicalreasoningand
physicalinsight,andtoday'sstringtheory,astilldevelopingscientifictheory
whichattemptstounifythefourfundamentalforcesofnature,continuesto
inspirenewmathematics.[38]
Somemathematicsisrelevantonlyintheareathatinspiredit,andisapplied
tosolvefurtherproblemsinthatarea.Butoftenmathematicsinspiredbyone
IsaacNewton(left)andGottfriedWilhelmLeibniz
areaprovesusefulinmanyareas,andjoinsthegeneralstockofmathematical
(right),developersofinfinitesimalcalculus
concepts.Adistinctionisoftenmadebetweenpuremathematicsandapplied
mathematics.Howeverpuremathematicstopicsoftenturnouttohave
applications,e.g.numbertheoryincryptography.Thisremarkablefact,thateventhe"purest"mathematicsoftenturnsouttohave
practicalapplications,iswhatEugeneWignerhascalled"theunreasonableeffectivenessofmathematics".[39]Asinmostareasof
study,theexplosionofknowledgeinthescientificagehasledtospecialization:therearenowhundredsofspecializedareasin
mathematicsandthelatestMathematicsSubjectClassificationrunsto46pages.[40]Severalareasofappliedmathematicshave
mergedwithrelatedtraditionsoutsideofmathematicsandbecomedisciplinesintheirownright,includingstatistics,operations
research,andcomputerscience.
Forthosewhoaremathematicallyinclined,thereisoftenadefiniteaestheticaspecttomuchofmathematics.Manymathematicians
talkabouttheeleganceofmathematics,itsintrinsicaestheticsandinnerbeauty.Simplicityandgeneralityarevalued.Thereis
beautyinasimpleandelegantproof,suchasEuclid'sproofthatthereareinfinitelymanyprimenumbers,andinanelegant
numericalmethodthatspeedscalculation,suchasthefastFouriertransform.G.H.HardyinAMathematician'sApologyexpressed
thebeliefthattheseaestheticconsiderationsare,inthemselves,sufficienttojustifythestudyofpuremathematics.Heidentified
criteriasuchassignificance,unexpectedness,inevitability,andeconomyasfactorsthatcontributetoamathematicalaesthetic.[41]
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Mathematiciansoftenstrivetofindproofsthatareparticularlyelegant,proofsfrom"TheBook"ofGodaccordingtoPaul
Erds.[42][43]Thepopularityofrecreationalmathematicsisanothersignofthepleasuremanyfindinsolvingmathematical
questions.

Notation,language,andrigor
Mostofthemathematicalnotationinusetodaywasnotinventeduntilthe16thcentury.[44]Before
that,mathematicswaswrittenoutinwords,limitingmathematicaldiscovery.[45]Euler(17071783)
wasresponsibleformanyofthenotationsinusetoday.Modernnotationmakesmathematicsmuch
easierfortheprofessional,butbeginnersoftenfinditdaunting.Itiscompressed:afewsymbols
containagreatdealofinformation.Likemusicalnotation,modernmathematicalnotationhasastrict
syntaxandencodesinformationthatwouldbedifficulttowriteinanyotherway.
Mathematicallanguagecanbedifficulttounderstandforbeginners.Commonwordssuchasorand
onlyhavemoreprecisemeaningsthanineverydayspeech.Moreover,wordssuchasopenandfield
havespecializedmathematicalmeanings.Technicaltermssuchashomeomorphismandintegrable
haveprecisemeaningsinmathematics.Additionally,shorthandphrasessuchasifffor"ifandonly
if"belongtomathematicaljargon.Thereisareasonforspecialnotationandtechnicalvocabulary:
mathematicsrequiresmoreprecisionthaneverydayspeech.Mathematiciansrefertothisprecisionof
languageandlogicas"rigor".

LeonhardEuler,whocreated
andpopularizedmuchofthe
mathematicalnotationused
today

Mathematicalproofisfundamentallyamatterofrigor.Mathematicianswanttheirtheoremsto
followfromaxiomsbymeansofsystematicreasoning.Thisistoavoidmistaken"theorems",based
onfallibleintuitions,ofwhichmanyinstanceshaveoccurredinthehistoryofthesubject.[46]Thelevelofrigorexpectedin
mathematicshasvariedovertime:theGreeksexpecteddetailedarguments,butatthetimeofIsaacNewtonthemethodsemployed
werelessrigorous.ProblemsinherentinthedefinitionsusedbyNewtonwouldleadtoaresurgenceofcarefulanalysisandformal
proofinthe19thcentury.Misunderstandingtherigorisacauseforsomeofthecommonmisconceptionsofmathematics.Today,
mathematicianscontinuetoargueamongthemselvesaboutcomputerassistedproofs.Sincelargecomputationsarehardtoverify,
suchproofsmaynotbesufficientlyrigorous.[47]

Axiomsintraditionalthoughtwere"selfevidenttruths",butthatconceptionisproblematic.[48]Ataformallevel,anaxiomisjusta
stringofsymbols,whichhasanintrinsicmeaningonlyinthecontextofallderivableformulasofanaxiomaticsystem.Itwasthe
goalofHilbert'sprogramtoputallofmathematicsonafirmaxiomaticbasis,butaccordingtoGdel'sincompletenesstheorem
every(sufficientlypowerful)axiomaticsystemhasundecidableformulasandsoafinalaxiomatizationofmathematicsis
impossible.Nonethelessmathematicsisoftenimaginedtobe(asfarasitsformalcontent)nothingbutsettheoryinsome
axiomatization,inthesensethateverymathematicalstatementorproofcouldbecastintoformulaswithinsettheory.[49]

Fieldsofmathematics
Mathematicscan,broadlyspeaking,besubdividedintothestudyofquantity,structure,
space,andchange(i.e.arithmetic,algebra,geometry,andanalysis).Inadditiontothese
mainconcerns,therearealsosubdivisionsdedicatedtoexploringlinksfromtheheartof
mathematicstootherfields:tologic,tosettheory(foundations),totheempirical
mathematicsofthevarioussciences(appliedmathematics),andmorerecentlytothe
rigorousstudyofuncertainty.Whilesomeareasmightseemunrelated,theLanglands
programhasfoundconnectionsbetweenareaspreviouslythoughtunconnected,suchas
Galoisgroups,Riemannsurfacesandnumbertheory.

Foundationsandphilosophy

Anabacus,asimplecalculatingtool
usedsinceancienttimes

Inordertoclarifythefoundationsofmathematics,thefieldsofmathematicallogicandsettheoryweredeveloped.Mathematical
logicincludesthemathematicalstudyoflogicandtheapplicationsofformallogictootherareasofmathematicssettheoryisthe
branchofmathematicsthatstudiessetsorcollectionsofobjects.Categorytheory,whichdealsinanabstractwaywithmathematical
structuresandrelationshipsbetweenthem,isstillindevelopment.Thephrase"crisisoffoundations"describesthesearchfora

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rigorousfoundationformathematicsthattookplacefromapproximately1900to1930.[50]Somedisagreementaboutthe
foundationsofmathematicscontinuestothepresentday.Thecrisisoffoundationswasstimulatedbyanumberofcontroversiesat
thetime,includingthecontroversyoverCantor'ssettheoryandtheBrouwerHilbertcontroversy.
Mathematicallogicisconcernedwithsettingmathematicswithinarigorousaxiomaticframework,andstudyingtheimplicationsof
suchaframework.Assuch,itishometoGdel'sincompletenesstheoremswhich(informally)implythatanyeffectiveformal
systemthatcontainsbasicarithmetic,ifsound(meaningthatalltheoremsthatcanbeprovenaretrue),isnecessarilyincomplete
(meaningthattherearetruetheoremswhichcannotbeprovedinthatsystem).Whateverfinitecollectionofnumbertheoretical
axiomsistakenasafoundation,Gdelshowedhowtoconstructaformalstatementthatisatruenumbertheoreticalfact,butwhich
doesnotfollowfromthoseaxioms.Therefore,noformalsystemisacompleteaxiomatizationoffullnumbertheory.Modernlogic
isdividedintorecursiontheory,modeltheory,andprooftheory,andiscloselylinkedtotheoreticalcomputerscience,aswellasto
categorytheory.Inthecontextofrecursiontheory,theimpossibilityofafullaxiomatizationofnumbertheorycanalsobeformally
demonstratedasaconsequenceoftheMRDPtheorem.
Theoreticalcomputerscienceincludescomputabilitytheory,computationalcomplexitytheory,andinformationtheory.
Computabilitytheoryexaminesthelimitationsofvarioustheoreticalmodelsofthecomputer,includingthemostwellknown
modeltheTuringmachine.Complexitytheoryisthestudyoftractabilitybycomputersomeproblems,althoughtheoretically
solvablebycomputer,aresoexpensiveintermsoftimeorspacethatsolvingthemislikelytoremainpracticallyunfeasible,even
withtherapidadvancementofcomputerhardware.Afamousproblemisthe"P=NP?"problem,oneoftheMillenniumPrize
Problems.[51]Finally,informationtheoryisconcernedwiththeamountofdatathatcanbestoredonagivenmedium,andhence
dealswithconceptssuchascompressionandentropy.

Mathematicallogic

Settheory

Categorytheory

Theoryofcomputation

Puremathematics
Quantity
Thestudyofquantitystartswithnumbers,firstthefamiliarnaturalnumbersandintegers("wholenumbers")andarithmetical
operationsonthem,whicharecharacterizedinarithmetic.Thedeeperpropertiesofintegersarestudiedinnumbertheory,from
whichcomesuchpopularresultsasFermat'sLastTheorem.ThetwinprimeconjectureandGoldbach'sconjecturearetwounsolved
problemsinnumbertheory.
Asthenumbersystemisfurtherdeveloped,theintegersarerecognizedasasubsetoftherationalnumbers("fractions").These,in
turn,arecontainedwithintherealnumbers,whichareusedtorepresentcontinuousquantities.Realnumbersaregeneralizedto
complexnumbers.Thesearethefirststepsofahierarchyofnumbersthatgoesontoincludequaternionsandoctonions.
Considerationofthenaturalnumbersalsoleadstothetransfinitenumbers,whichformalizetheconceptof"infinity".Accordingto
thefundamentaltheoremofalgebraallsolutionsofequationsinoneunknownwithcomplexcoefficientsarecomplexnumbers,
regardlessofdegree.Anotherareaofstudyisthesizeofsets,whichisdescribedwiththecardinalnumbers.Theseincludethealeph
numbers,whichallowmeaningfulcomparisonofthesizeofinfinitelylargesets.

Naturalnumbers

Integers

Rationalnumbers

Realnumbers

Complexnumbers

Structure

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Manymathematicalobjects,suchassetsofnumbersandfunctions,exhibitinternalstructureasaconsequenceofoperationsor
relationsthataredefinedontheset.Mathematicsthenstudiespropertiesofthosesetsthatcanbeexpressedintermsofthat
structureforinstancenumbertheorystudiespropertiesofthesetofintegersthatcanbeexpressedintermsofarithmeticoperations.
Moreover,itfrequentlyhappensthatdifferentsuchstructuredsets(orstructures)exhibitsimilarproperties,whichmakesitpossible,
byafurtherstepofabstraction,tostateaxiomsforaclassofstructures,andthenstudyatoncethewholeclassofstructures
satisfyingtheseaxioms.Thusonecanstudygroups,rings,fieldsandotherabstractsystemstogethersuchstudies(forstructures
definedbyalgebraicoperations)constitutethedomainofabstractalgebra.
Byitsgreatgenerality,abstractalgebracanoftenbeappliedtoseeminglyunrelatedproblemsforinstanceanumberofancient
problemsconcerningcompassandstraightedgeconstructionswerefinallysolvedusingGaloistheory,whichinvolvesfieldtheory
andgrouptheory.Anotherexampleofanalgebraictheoryislinearalgebra,whichisthegeneralstudyofvectorspaces,whose
elementscalledvectorshavebothquantityanddirection,andcanbeusedtomodel(relationsbetween)pointsinspace.Thisisone
exampleofthephenomenonthattheoriginallyunrelatedareasofgeometryandalgebrahaveverystronginteractionsinmodern
mathematics.Combinatoricsstudieswaysofenumeratingthenumberofobjectsthatfitagivenstructure.

Combinatorics

Numbertheory

Grouptheory

Graphtheory

Ordertheory

Algebra

Space
Thestudyofspaceoriginateswithgeometryinparticular,Euclideangeometry.Trigonometryisthebranchofmathematicsthat
dealswithrelationshipsbetweenthesidesandtheanglesoftrianglesandwiththetrigonometricfunctionsitcombinesspaceand
numbers,andencompassesthewellknownPythagoreantheorem.Themodernstudyofspacegeneralizestheseideastoinclude
higherdimensionalgeometry,nonEuclideangeometries(whichplayacentralroleingeneralrelativity)andtopology.Quantityand
spacebothplayaroleinanalyticgeometry,differentialgeometry,andalgebraicgeometry.Convexanddiscretegeometrywere
developedtosolveproblemsinnumbertheoryandfunctionalanalysisbutnowarepursuedwithaneyeonapplicationsin
optimizationandcomputerscience.Withindifferentialgeometryaretheconceptsoffiberbundlesandcalculusonmanifolds,in
particular,vectorandtensorcalculus.Withinalgebraicgeometryisthedescriptionofgeometricobjectsassolutionsetsof
polynomialequations,combiningtheconceptsofquantityandspace,andalsothestudyoftopologicalgroups,whichcombine
structureandspace.Liegroupsareusedtostudyspace,structure,andchange.Topologyinallitsmanyramificationsmayhavebeen
thegreatestgrowthareain20thcenturymathematicsitincludespointsettopology,settheoretictopology,algebraictopologyand
differentialtopology.Inparticular,instancesofmoderndaytopologyaremetrizabilitytheory,axiomaticsettheory,homotopy
theory,andMorsetheory.TopologyalsoincludesthenowsolvedPoincarconjecture,andthestillunsolvedareasoftheHodge
conjecture.Otherresultsingeometryandtopology,includingthefourcolortheoremandKeplerconjecture,havebeenprovedonly
withthehelpofcomputers.

Geometry

Trigonometry

Differentialgeometry

Topology

Fractalgeometry

Measuretheory

Change
Understandinganddescribingchangeisacommonthemeinthenaturalsciences,andcalculuswasdevelopedasapowerfultoolto
investigateit.Functionsarisehere,asacentralconceptdescribingachangingquantity.Therigorousstudyofrealnumbersand
functionsofarealvariableisknownasrealanalysis,withcomplexanalysistheequivalentfieldforthecomplexnumbers.
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Functionalanalysisfocusesattentionon(typicallyinfinitedimensional)spacesoffunctions.Oneofmanyapplicationsoffunctional
analysisisquantummechanics.Manyproblemsleadnaturallytorelationshipsbetweenaquantityanditsrateofchange,andthese
arestudiedasdifferentialequations.Manyphenomenainnaturecanbedescribedbydynamicalsystemschaostheorymakes
precisethewaysinwhichmanyofthesesystemsexhibitunpredictableyetstilldeterministicbehavior.

Calculus

Vectorcalculus

Differentialequations

Dynamicalsystems

Chaostheory

Complexanalysis

Appliedmathematics
Appliedmathematicsconcernsitselfwithmathematicalmethodsthataretypicallyusedinscience,engineering,business,and
industry.Thus,"appliedmathematics"isamathematicalsciencewithspecializedknowledge.Thetermappliedmathematicsalso
describestheprofessionalspecialtyinwhichmathematiciansworkonpracticalproblemsasaprofessionfocusedonpractical
problems,appliedmathematicsfocusesonthe"formulation,study,anduseofmathematicalmodels"inscience,engineering,and
otherareasofmathematicalpractice.
Inthepast,practicalapplicationshavemotivatedthedevelopmentofmathematicaltheories,whichthenbecamethesubjectofstudy
inpuremathematics,wheremathematicsisdevelopedprimarilyforitsownsake.Thus,theactivityofappliedmathematicsisvitally
connectedwithresearchinpuremathematics.
Statisticsandotherdecisionsciences
Appliedmathematicshassignificantoverlapwiththedisciplineofstatistics,whosetheoryisformulatedmathematically,especially
withprobabilitytheory.Statisticians(workingaspartofaresearchproject)"createdatathatmakessense"withrandomsampling
andwithrandomizedexperiments[52]thedesignofastatisticalsampleorexperimentspecifiestheanalysisofthedata(beforethe
databeavailable).Whenreconsideringdatafromexperimentsandsamplesorwhenanalyzingdatafromobservationalstudies,
statisticians"makesenseofthedata"usingtheartofmodellingandthetheoryofinferencewithmodelselectionandestimation
theestimatedmodelsandconsequentialpredictionsshouldbetestedonnewdata.[53]
Statisticaltheorystudiesdecisionproblemssuchasminimizingtherisk(expectedloss)ofastatisticalaction,suchasusinga
procedurein,forexample,parameterestimation,hypothesistesting,andselectingthebest.Inthesetraditionalareasof
mathematicalstatistics,astatisticaldecisionproblemisformulatedbyminimizinganobjectivefunction,likeexpectedlossorcost,
underspecificconstraints:Forexample,designingasurveyofteninvolvesminimizingthecostofestimatingapopulationmean
withagivenlevelofconfidence.[54]Becauseofitsuseofoptimization,themathematicaltheoryofstatisticssharesconcernswith
otherdecisionsciences,suchasoperationsresearch,controltheory,andmathematicaleconomics.[55]
Computationalmathematics
Computationalmathematicsproposesandstudiesmethodsforsolvingmathematicalproblemsthataretypicallytoolargeforhuman
numericalcapacity.Numericalanalysisstudiesmethodsforproblemsinanalysisusingfunctionalanalysisandapproximation
theorynumericalanalysisincludesthestudyofapproximationanddiscretizationbroadlywithspecialconcernforroundingerrors.
Numericalanalysisand,morebroadly,scientificcomputingalsostudynonanalytictopicsofmathematicalscience,especially
algorithmicmatrixandgraphtheory.Otherareasofcomputationalmathematicsincludecomputeralgebraandsymbolic
computation.

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Mathematical
physics

Fluid
dynamics

Numerical
analysis

Optimization

Probability
theory

Statistics

Mathematical
finance

Gametheory

Mathematical
biology

Mathematical
chemistry

Mathematical
economics

Controltheory

Cryptography

Mathematicalawards
ArguablythemostprestigiousawardinmathematicsistheFieldsMedal,[56][57]establishedin1936andawardedeveryfouryears
(exceptaroundWorldWarII)toasmanyasfourindividuals.TheFieldsMedalisoftenconsideredamathematicalequivalenttothe
NobelPrize.
TheWolfPrizeinMathematics,institutedin1978,recognizeslifetimeachievement,andanothermajorinternationalaward,the
AbelPrize,wasintroducedin2003.TheChernMedalwasintroducedin2010torecognizelifetimeachievement.Theseaccolades
areawardedinrecognitionofaparticularbodyofwork,whichmaybeinnovational,orprovideasolutiontoanoutstanding
probleminanestablishedfield.
Afamouslistof23openproblems,called"Hilbert'sproblems",wascompiledin1900byGermanmathematicianDavidHilbert.
Thislistachievedgreatcelebrityamongmathematicians,andatleastnineoftheproblemshavenowbeensolved.Anewlistof
sevenimportantproblems,titledthe"MillenniumPrizeProblems",waspublishedin2000.Asolutiontoeachoftheseproblems
carriesa$1millionreward,andonlyone(theRiemannhypothesis)isduplicatedinHilbert'sproblems.

Seealso
Listsofmathematicstopics
Mathematicsandart
Mathematicseducation
Relationshipbetweenmathematicsandphysics
Science,Technology,Engineering,andMathematics

Notes
1.NolikenessordescriptionofEuclid'sphysicalappearancemadeduringhislifetimesurvivedantiquity.Therefore,Euclid'sdepictionin
worksofartdependsontheartist'simagination(seeEuclid).
2."mathematics,n.".OxfordEnglishDictionary.OxfordUniversityPress.2012.RetrievedJune16,2012."Thescienceofspace,number,
quantity,andarrangement,whosemethodsinvolvelogicalreasoningandusuallytheuseofsymbolicnotation,andwhichincludesgeometry,
arithmetic,algebra,andanalysis."
3.Kneebone,G.T.(1963).MathematicalLogicandtheFoundationsofMathematics:AnIntroductorySurvey.Dover.pp.4.ISBN0486
417123."Mathematics...issimplythestudyofabstractstructures,orformalpatternsofconnectedness."
4.LaTorre,DonaldR.,JohnW.Kenelly,IrisB.Reed,LaurelR.Carpenter,andCynthiaRHarris(2011).CalculusConcepts:AnInformal
ApproachtotheMathematicsofChange.CengageLearning.pp.2.ISBN1439049572."Calculusisthestudyofchangehowthings
change,andhowquicklytheychange."
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5.Ramana(2007).AppliedMathematics.TataMcGrawHillEducation.p.2.10.ISBN0070667535."Themathematicalstudyofchange,
motion,growthordecayiscalculus."
6.Ziegler,GnterM.(2011)."WhatIsMathematics?".AnInvitationtoMathematics:FromCompetitionstoResearch.Springer.pp.7.
ISBN3642195326.
7.Mura,Roberta(Dec1993)."ImagesofMathematicsHeldbyUniversityTeachersofMathematicalSciences".EducationalStudiesin
Mathematics25(4):375385.
8.Tobies,Renate&HelmutNeunzert(2012).IrisRunge:ALifeattheCrossroadsofMathematics,Science,andIndustry.Springer.pp.9.
ISBN3034802293."Itisfirstnecessarytoaskwhatismeantbymathematicsingeneral.Illustriousscholarshavedebatedthismatter
untiltheywereblueintheface,andyetnoconsensushasbeenreachedaboutwhethermathematicsisanaturalscience,abranchofthe
humanities,oranartform."
9.Steen,L.A.(April29,1988).TheScienceofPatternsScience,240:611616.AndsummarizedatAssociationforSupervisionand
CurriculumDevelopment(http://www.ascd.org/publications/curriculumhandbook/409/chapters/TheFutureofMathematicsEducation.aspx),
www.ascd.org.
10.Devlin,Keith,Mathematics:TheScienceofPatterns:TheSearchforOrderinLife,MindandtheUniverse(ScientificAmericanPaperback
Library)1996,ISBN9780716750475
11.Eves
12.MarcusduSautoy,ABriefHistoryofMathematics:1.NewtonandLeibniz(http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00sr3fm),BBCRadio4,
September27,2010.
13.Waltershausen
14.Peirce,p.97.
15.Hilbert,D.(191920),NaturundMathematischesErkennen:Vorlesungen,gehalten19191920inGttingen.NachderAusarbeitungvon
PaulBernays(EditedandwithanEnglishintroductionbyDavidE.Rowe),Basel,Birkhuser(1992).
16.Einstein,p.28.ThequoteisEinstein'sanswertothequestion:"howcanitbethatmathematics,beingafterallaproductofhumanthought
whichisindependentofexperience,issoadmirablyappropriatetotheobjectsofreality?"He,too,isconcernedwithTheUnreasonable
EffectivenessofMathematicsintheNaturalSciences.
17.Peterson
18.Dehaene,StanislasDehaeneLambertz,GhislaineCohen,Laurent(Aug1998)."Abstractrepresentationsofnumbersintheanimaland
humanbrain".TrendsinNeuroscience21(8):355361.doi:10.1016/S01662236(98)012636.PMID9720604.
19.See,forexample,RaymondL.Wilder,EvolutionofMathematicalConceptsanElementaryStudy,passim
20.Kline1990,Chapter1.
21."AHistoryofGreekMathematics:FromThalestoEuclid(https://books.google.com/books?id=drnY3Vjix3kC&pg=PA1&dq&hl=en#v=onep
age&q=&f=false)".ThomasLittleHeath(1981).ISBN0486240738
22.Sevryuk2006,pp.101109.
23."mathematic".OnlineEtymologyDictionary.
24.BothsensescanbefoundinPlato.(http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0057:entry=maqhmatik
o/s).Liddell,HenryGeorgeScott,RobertAGreekEnglishLexiconatthePerseusProject
25.Cipra,BarryA.(1982)."St.Augustinev.TheMathematicians".osu.edu.OhioStateUniversityMathematicsdepartment.Archivedfromthe
originalonJuly16,2014.RetrievedJuly14,2014.
26.TheOxfordDictionaryofEnglishEtymology,OxfordEnglishDictionary,sub"mathematics","mathematic","mathematics"
27."maths,n."(http://oed.com/view/Entry/114982)and"math,n.3"(http://oed.com/view/Entry/114962).OxfordEnglishDictionary,online
version(2012).
28.JamesFranklin,"AristotelianRealism"inPhilosophyofMathematics",ed.A.D.Irvine,p.104(https://books.google.com/books?id=mbn35b
2ghgkC&pg=PA104#v=onepage&q&f=false).Elsevier(2009).
29.Cajori,Florian(1893).AHistoryofMathematics.AmericanMathematicalSociety(1991reprint).pp.2856.ISBN0821821024.
30.Snapper,Ernst(September1979)."TheThreeCrisesinMathematics:Logicism,Intuitionism,andFormalism".MathematicsMagazine52
(4):20716.doi:10.2307/2689412.JSTOR2689412.
31.Peirce,Benjamin(1882).LinearAssociativeAlgebra.p.1.
32.BertrandRussell,ThePrinciplesofMathematics,p.5(https://books.google.com/books?id=kj0a_aV2mxIC&pg=PA5#v=onepage&q&f=fals
e).UniversityPress,Cambridge(1903)
33.Curry,Haskell(1951).OutlinesofaFormalistPhilosophyofMathematics.Elsevier.pp.56.ISBN0444533680.
34.MarcusduSautoy,ABriefHistoryofMathematics:10.NicolasBourbaki(http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00stcgv),BBCRadio4,
October1,2010.
35.Shasha,DennisElliotLazere,CathyA.(1998).OutofTheirMinds:TheLivesandDiscoveriesof15GreatComputerScientists.Springer.
p.228.
36.Popper1995,p.56
37.Ziman
38.Johnson,GeraldW.Lapidus,MichelL.(2002).TheFeynmanIntegralandFeynman'sOperationalCalculus.OxfordUniversityPress.
ISBN0821824139.
39.Wigner,Eugene(1960)."TheUnreasonableEffectivenessofMathematicsintheNaturalSciences".CommunicationsonPureandApplied
Mathematics13(1):114.doi:10.1002/cpa.3160130102.
40."MathematicsSubjectClassification2010"(PDF).RetrievedNovember9,2010.
41.Hardy,G.H.(1940).AMathematician'sApology.CambridgeUniversityPress.ISBN0521427061.
42.Gold,BonnieSimons,RogersA.(2008).ProofandOtherDilemmas:MathematicsandPhilosophy.MAA.
43.Aigner,MartinZiegler,GnterM.(2001).ProofsfromTheBook.Springer.ISBN3540404600.
44."EarliestUsesofVariousMathematicalSymbols".RetrievedSeptember14,2014.
45.Kline,p.140,onDiophantusp.261,onVieta.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics

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46.Seefalseproofforsimpleexamplesofwhatcangowronginaformalproof.
47.IvarsPeterson,TheMathematicalTourist,Freeman,1988,ISBN0716719533.p.4"Afewcomplainthatthecomputerprogramcan'tbe
verifiedproperly",(inreferencetotheHakenAppleproofoftheFourColorTheorem).
48."Themethodof"postulating"whatwewanthasmanyadvantagestheyarethesameastheadvantagesoftheftoverhonesttoil."Bertrand
Russell(1919),IntroductiontoMathematicalPhilosophy,NewYorkandLondon,p71.(http://wwwhistory.mcs.stand.ac.uk/Quotations/Ru
ssell.html)
49.PatrickSuppes,AxiomaticSetTheory,Dover,1972,ISBN0486616304.p.1,"Amongthemanybranchesofmodernmathematicsset
theoryoccupiesauniqueplace:withafewrareexceptionstheentitieswhicharestudiedandanalyzedinmathematicsmayberegardedas
certainparticularsetsorclassesofobjects."
50.LukeHowardHodgkin&LukeHodgkin,AHistoryofMathematics,OxfordUniversityPress,2005.
51.ClayMathematicsInstitute(http://www.webcitation.org/5Qj76uCbF),P=NP,claymath.org
52.Rao,C.R.(1997)StatisticsandTruth:PuttingChancetoWork,WorldScientific.ISBN9810231113
53.Likeothermathematicalsciencessuchasphysicsandcomputerscience,statisticsisanautonomousdisciplineratherthanabranchofapplied
mathematics.Likeresearchphysicistsandcomputerscientists,researchstatisticiansaremathematicalscientists.Manystatisticianshavea
degreeinmathematics,andsomestatisticiansarealsomathematicians.
54.Rao,C.R.(1981)."Foreword".InArthanari,T.S.Dodge,Yadolah.Mathematicalprogramminginstatistics.WileySeriesinProbability
andMathematicalStatistics.NewYork:Wiley.pp.viiviii.ISBN047108073X.MR607328.
55.Whittle(1994,pp.1011and1418):Whittle,Peter(1994)."Almosthome".InKelly,F.P.Probability,statisticsandoptimisation:A
TributetoPeterWhittle(previously"Arealisedpath:TheCambridgeStatisticalLaboratoryupto1993(revised2002)"ed.).Chichester:
JohnWiley.pp.128.ISBN0471948292.
56.Monastyrsky2001:"TheFieldsMedalisnowindisputablythebestknownandmostinfluentialawardinmathematics."
57.Riehm2002,pp.778782.

References
Courant,RichardandH.Robbins,WhatIsMathematics?:AnElementaryApproachtoIdeasandMethods,OxfordUniversityPress,USA
2edition(July18,1996).ISBN0195105192.
Einstein,Albert(1923).SidelightsonRelativity:I.Etherandrelativity.II.Geometryandexperience(translatedbyG.B.Jeffery,D.Sc.,and
W.Perrett,Ph.D).E.P.Dutton&Co.,NewYork.
duSautoy,Marcus,ABriefHistoryofMathematics(http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/maths),BBCRadio4(2010).
Eves,Howard,AnIntroductiontotheHistoryofMathematics,SixthEdition,Saunders,1990,ISBN0030295580.
Kline,Morris,MathematicalThoughtfromAncienttoModernTimes,OxfordUniversityPress,USAPaperbackedition(March1,1990).
ISBN0195061357.
Monastyrsky,Michael(2001)."SomeTrendsinModernMathematicsandtheFieldsMedal"(PDF).CanadianMathematicalSociety.
RetrievedJuly28,2006.
OxfordEnglishDictionary,secondedition,ed.JohnSimpsonandEdmundWeiner,ClarendonPress,1989,ISBN0198611862.
TheOxfordDictionaryofEnglishEtymology,1983reprint.ISBN0198611129.
Pappas,Theoni,TheJoyOfMathematics,WideWorldPublishingRevisededition(June1989).ISBN0933174659.
Peirce,Benjamin(1881).Peirce,CharlesSanders,ed."Linearassociativealgebra".AmericanJournalofMathematics(Corrected,expanded,
andannotatedrevisionwithan1875paperbyB.Peirceandannotationsbyhisson,C.S.Peirce,ofthe1872lithographed.)(JohnsHopkins
University)4(14):97229.doi:10.2307/2369153.JSTOR2369153.Corrected,expanded,andannotatedrevisionwithan1875paperby
B.Peirceandannotationsbyhisson,C.S.Peirce,ofthe1872lithographed.GoogleEprintandasanextract,D.VanNostrand,1882,
GoogleEprint..
Peterson,Ivars,MathematicalTourist,NewandUpdatedSnapshotsofModernMathematics,OwlBooks,2001,ISBN0805071598.
Popper,KarlR.(1995)."Onknowledge".InSearchofaBetterWorld:LecturesandEssaysfromThirtyYears.Routledge.ISBN0415
135486.
Riehm,Carl(August2002)."TheEarlyHistoryoftheFieldsMedal"(PDF).NoticesoftheAMS(AMS)49(7):778782.
Sevryuk,MikhailB.(January2006)."BookReviews"(PDF).BulletinoftheAmericanMathematicalSociety43(1):101109.
doi:10.1090/S0273097905010694.RetrievedJune24,2006.
Waltershausen,WolfgangSartoriusvon(1965)[firstpublished1856].GausszumGedchtniss.SndigReprintVerlagH.R.Wohlwend.
ASINB0000BN5SQ.ISBN3253017028.ASIN3253017028.

Furtherreading
Benson,DonaldC.,TheMomentofProof:MathematicalEpiphanies,OxfordUniversityPress,USANewEdedition(December14,2000).
ISBN0195139194.
Boyer,CarlB.,AHistoryofMathematics,Wiley2ndedition,revisedbyUtaC.Merzbach,(March6,1991).ISBN0471543977.A
concisehistoryofmathematicsfromtheConceptofNumbertocontemporaryMathematics.
Davis,PhilipJ.andHersh,Reuben,TheMathematicalExperience.MarinerBooksReprintedition(January14,1999).ISBN039592968
7.
Gullberg,Jan,MathematicsFromtheBirthofNumbers.W.W.Norton&Company1stedition(October1997).ISBN039304002X.

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Hazewinkel,Michiel(ed.),EncyclopaediaofMathematics.KluwerAcademicPublishers2000.Atranslatedandexpandedversionofa
Sovietmathematicsencyclopedia,inten(expensive)volumes,themostcompleteandauthoritativeworkavailable.Alsoinpaperbackandon
CDROM,andonline(http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/).
Jourdain,PhilipE.B.,TheNatureofMathematics,inTheWorldofMathematics,JamesR.Newman,editor,DoverPublications,2003,
ISBN0486432688.
Maier,Annaliese,AttheThresholdofExactScience:SelectedWritingsofAnnalieseMaieronLateMedievalNaturalPhilosophy,editedby
StevenSargent,Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,1982.

Externallinks
Mathematics(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/369194)atEncyclopdiaBritannica
Mathematics(http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00545hk)onInOurTimeattheBBC.(listennow(http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/console/
p00545hk/In_Our_Time_Mathematics))
FreeMathematicsbooks(http://freebookcentre.net/SpecialCat/FreeMathematicsBooksDownload.html)FreeMathematicsbookscollection.
EncyclopaediaofMathematicsonlineencyclopaediafromSpringer(http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/),Graduatelevelreferencework
withover8,000entries,illuminatingnearly50,000notionsinmathematics.
HyperMathsiteatGeorgiaStateUniversity(http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/Hbase/hmat.html)
FreeScienceLibrary(http://www.freescience.info/mathematics.php)ThemathematicssectionofFreeSciencelibrary
Rusin,Dave:TheMathematicalAtlas(http://web.archive.org/web/20030130131813/http://mathatlas.org:80/).Aguidedtourthroughthe
variousbranchesofmodernmathematics.(CanalsobefoundatNIU.edu(http://web.archive.org/web/20061006114449/http://www.math.niu.
edu:80/%7Erusin/knownmath/index/index.html).)
Polyanin,Andrei:EqWorld:TheWorldofMathematicalEquations(http://eqworld.ipmnet.ru/).Anonlineresourcefocusingonalgebraic,
ordinarydifferential,partialdifferential(mathematicalphysics),integral,andothermathematicalequations.
Cain,George:OnlineMathematicsTextbooks(http://www.math.gatech.edu/~cain/textbooks/onlinebooks.html)availablefreeonline.
Tricki(http://www.tricki.org/),Wikistylesitethatisintendedtodevelopintoalargestoreofusefulmathematicalproblemsolving
techniques.
WolframMathworld(http://mathworld.wolfram.com/)
MathematicalStructures(http://www.math.chapman.edu/~jipsen/structures/doku.php/),listinformationaboutclassesofmathematical
structures.
MathematicianBiographies(http://wwwhistory.mcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/).TheMacTutorHistoryofMathematicsarchiveExtensive
historyandquotesfromallfamousmathematicians.
Metamath(http://metamath.org/).Asiteandalanguage,thatformalizemathematicsfromitsfoundations.
Nrich(http://www.nrich.maths.org/public/index.php),aprizewinningsiteforstudentsfromagefivefromCambridgeUniversity
OpenProblemGarden(http://garden.irmacs.sfu.ca/),awikiofopenproblemsinmathematics
PlanetMath(http://planetmath.org/).Anonlinemathematicsencyclopediaunderconstruction,focusingonmodernmathematics.Usesthe
AttributionShareAlikelicense,allowingarticleexchangewithWikipedia.UsesTeXmarkup.
Somemathematicsapplets,atMIT(http://web.archive.org/web/20060617235118/http://wwwmath.mit.edu:80/daimp/)
Weisstein,Ericetal.:MathWorld:WorldofMathematics(http://www.mathworld.com/).Anonlineencyclopediaofmathematics.
PatrickJones'VideoTutorials(https://www.youtube.com/user/patrickJMT)onMathematics
Citizendium:Theory(mathematics)(http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Theory_(mathematics)).
duSautoy,Marcus,ABriefHistoryofMathematics(http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/maths),BBCRadio4(2010).
MathOverflow(http://mathoverflow.net/)AQ&Asiteforresearchlevelmathematics
Math(https://www.khanacademy.org/math)KhanAcademy
NationalMuseumofMathematics,locatedinNewYorkCity(http://momath.org/)

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