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NAME: SUDHIR ASUTKAR

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Drive FALL 2015


MASTER OF BUSINNESS ADMINISTRATIONSEMESTER III
SUBJECT CODE & NAME: MB0050 Research
Methodology
ROLL NUMBER: 1408026142
NAME: SUDHIR ASUTKAR

Q.1 Research is a sequential method of enquiry directed towards a clear


implicit or explicit objective. Describe in detail the steps to be carried out in a
typical research study.
Answer:Meaning of Research: Research simply means a search for facts answers to
questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized
inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful
facts and to correct the misconceived facts.
Listing the steps: With due concern for the economical completion of the research
study, the design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus attention
on the following:
Formulating the objective of the study
Designing the methods of data collection
Selecting the sample
Collecting the data
Processing and analyzing the data
Reporting the findings.
Explanation of the steps in a research study: In a descriptive / diagnostic study the
first step is to specify the objectives with sufficient precision to ensure that the data
collected are relevant. If this is not done carefully, the study may not provide the desired
information. Then comes the question of selecting the methods by which the data are to
be obtained. While designing data-collection procedure, adequate safeguards against
bias and unreliability must be ensured. Whichever method is selected, questions must be
well examined and be made unambiguous; interviewers must be instructed not to
express their own opinion; observers must be trained so that they uniformly record a
given item of behaviourWhile designing data-collection procedure, adequate safeguards
against bias and unreliability must be ensured. Whichever method is selected, questions
must be well examined and be made unambiguous; interviewers must be instructed not
to express their own opinion; observers must be trained so that they uniformly record a
given item of behaviour.

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Q.2 What are descriptive research designs? Explain the different kinds of
descriptive research designs.
Answer:Meaning :- The objective of descriptive research studies is to provide a comprehensive
and detailed explanation of the phenomena under study. The intended objective might be
to give a detailed sketch or profile of the respondent population being studied The
intended objective might be to give a detailed sketch or profile of the respondent
population being studied.
Kinds of descriptive research designs :A. Cross-sectional studies:- This involves a slice of the population. Just as in
scientific experiments one takes a cross-section of the leaf of the cheek cells to
study the cell structure under the microscope, similarly one takes a current
subdivision of the population and studies the nature of the relevant variables
being investigated one takes a current subdivision of the population and studies
the nature of the relevant variables being investigated.
There are two essential characteristics of cross-sectional studies:

The cross-sectional study is carried out at a single moment in time and thus
the applicability is most relevant for a specific period.
Secondly, these studies are carried out on a section of respondents from the
population units under study. This sample is under consideration and under
investigation only for the time coordinate of the study.
B. Longitudinal studies :- A single sample of the identified population that is
studied over a longer period of time is termed as a longitudinal study design. A
panel of consumers specifically chosen to study their grocery purchase pattern is
an example of a longitudinal design. There are certain distinguishing features of
the same.
The study involves the selection of a representative panel, or a group of
individuals that typically represent the population under study.
The second feature involves the repeated measurement of the group over
fixed intervals of time. This measurement is specifically made for the variables
under study.
A distinguishing and mandatory feature of the design is that once the sample
is selected, it needs to stay constant over the period of the study.

Q.3 The procedure of testing hypothesis requires a researcher to adopt


several steps. Describe in brief all such steps.
Answer:Meaning of hypothesis :- A hypothesis is an assumption or a statement that may or
may not be true. The hypothesis is tested on the basis of information obtained from a

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sample. Instead of asking, for example, what the mean assessed value of an apartment
in a multistoried building is, one may be interested in knowing whether or not the
assessed value equals some particular value, say Rs. 80 Lakh is tested on the basis of
information obtained from a sample. Instead of asking, for example, what the mean
assessed value of an apartment in a multistoried building is, one may be interested in
knowing whether or not the assessed value equals some particular value, say Rs. 80
Lakh.
Steps in Testing Hypothesis as follows:1) Setting up of a hypothesis :- This first step is to establish the hypothesis to be
tested. As it is know, these statistical hypothesis are generally assumptions about
the value of the population parameter; the hypothesis specifies a single value or a
range of values for two different hypothesis rather than constructing a single
hypothesis. These two hypotheses are generally referred to as (1) the null
hypotheses denoted by Ho and (2) alternative hypothesis denoted by H1 single
value or a range of values for two different hypothesis rather than constructing a
single hypothesis. These two hypotheses are generally referred to as (1) the null
hypotheses denoted by Ho and (2) alternative hypothesis denoted by H1.
2) Setting up of suitable significance level:- The level of significance denoted
the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. The value of
varies from problem to problem, but usually it is taken as either 5 per cent or 1
per cent rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. The value of varies from
problem to problem, but usually it is taken as either 5 per cent.
3) Determination of test statistic:- The next step is to determine a suitable test
statistic and its distribution. As would be seen later, the test statistic could be t, Z,
x2 or F, depending upon various assumptions. would be seen later, the test
statistic could be t, Z, x2 or F, depending upon various assumptions.
4) Determination of critical region:- Before a sample is drawn from the
population, it is very important to specify the values of test statistic that will lead
to rejection or acceptance of the null hypothesis. The one that leads to the
rejection of null hypothesis is called the critical region.
5) Computing the value of test-statistic:- The next step is to compute the value
of the test statistic based upon a random sample of size n. Once the value of test
statistic is computed, one needs to examine whether the sample results fall in the
critical region or in the acceptance region.
6) Making decision:- The hypothesis may be rejected or accepted depending upon
whether the value of the test statistic falls in the rejection or the acceptance
region. Management decisions are based upon the statistical decision of either
rejecting or accepting the null hypothesis. or accepted depending upon whether
the value of the test statistic falls in the rejection or the acceptance region.
Management decisions are based upon the statistical decision of either rejecting
or accepting the null hypothesis.

Q.4

Distinguish between:

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i. Schedules and Questionnaires


ii. Open ended and closed ended questions
b. Explain the questionnaire design process.
Answer :a i) Schedules and Questionnaires :Sr.
No.
1.

2.

Questionnaire

Schedule

Questionnaire is generally sent


through mail to informants to be
answered as specified in a covering
letter, but otherwise without further
assistance from the sender.
Data
collection
is
cheap
and
economical as the money is spent in
preparation of questionnaire and in
mailing the same to respondents.

A schedule is generally filled by the


research worker or enumerator, who
can interpret the questions when
necessary.
Data collection is more expensive as
money is spent on enumerators and in
imparting trainings to them. Money is
also spent in preparing schedules.

ii) Open ended and closed ended questions :Sr.


No.
1.

Open-ended Questions

Close-ended Questions

An open-ended question can be used


to explore deviant responses to the
close-ended questions.

2.

Open-ended questions allow the


respondent to express an opinion
without being influenced by the
researcher (Foddy, 1993: 127).

3.

Example:How do you see your future?

A closed question or a closed-ended


question is a form of question which
can normally be answered using a
simple "yes" or "no", a specific simple
piece of information, or a selection
from multiple choices.
Close-ended questions can be used
for clarifying facts, verifying
information already given or
controlling a conversation, among
other things.
Example:Question: Do you know your weight?
Answer: Yes.

b. Explain the questionnaire design process:Explanation of questionnaire design process as follows:-

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i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)

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Convert the research objectives into information areas:- Once these tasks
are done, one can prepare a tabled framework so that the questions which need
to be developed become clear.
Method of administration: - The researcher usually has available to him a
variety of methods for administering the study. The main methods are personal
scheduled, self-administered questionnaire through mail, fax, e-mail and webbased questionnaire.
Content of the questionnaire: - The researcher needs to do an objective
quality check in order to see what research objective / information the question
need would be covering before using any of the framed questions.
Motivating the respondent to answer: - The questionnaire should be
designed in a manner that it involves the respondent and motivates him/her to
give information.
Determining the type of questions: - Available to the researcher are different
kinds of question-response options that are: Open-ended questions and
Closed-ended.
Criteria for question designing: - The questionnaire involves translating the
questions identified into meaningful questions.
Determine the questionnaire structure: - instructions, opening questions,
study questions, classification information.
Physical characteristics of the questionnaire:-The researcher must pay
special attention to the look of the questionnaire.
Pilot testing of the questionnaire: - This is to essentially cover any errors that
might have still remained even after the earlier eight steps.
Administering the questionnaire: - Once all the nine steps have been
completed, final instrument is ready for conduction and the questionnaire needs
to be administered according to the sampling plan.

Q.5 a. What is the analysis of variance? What are the assumptions of the
technique? Give a few examples where this technique could be used.
b. The following data represents the number of units produced by four
operators during three different shifts:
Shift
Operator
A
B
C
D
s
I
10
8
12
13
II
10
12
14
15
III
12
10
11
14
Answer:a.

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Meaning :- A technique used to compare means of two or more samples. This technique
can be used only for numerical data.
Assumption :- It is assumed that each of the samples is drawn from a normal population
and each of these populations has a equal variance. Another assumption that is made is
that all the factors except the one being tested are controlled.
Examples :- the mean cholesterol content of various diet foods, the average mileage of
say five automobiles, the average telephone bill of households belonging to four different
income groups and so on.
b. these populations has a equal variance. Another assumption that is made is that all
the factors except the one being tested are controlled.
Examples :- the mean cholesterol content of various diet foods, the average mileage of
say five automobiles, the average telephone bill of households belonging to four different
income groups and so on.

Q. 6 Explain the Structure of the Research Report. What are the guidelines
for effective report writing?
Answer:Explanation of the Structure of the Research Report:- Whatever the type of report,
the reporting requires a structure format and by and large, the process is standardized.
As stated the major difference amongst the types of reports is that all the elements that
make a research report would be present only in a detailed technical report. Usage of
theoretical and technical jargon would be higher in the technical report and visual
presentation of data would be higher in the management report. The process of report
formulation and presentation is presented. As can be observed, the preliminary section
includes the title page, followed by the letter of authorization, acknowledgements,
executive summary and the table of contents. Then come the background section, which
includes the problem statement, introduction, study background, scope and objectives of
the study and the review of literature. This is followed by the methodology section,
which, as stated earlier, is again specific to the technical report. This is followed by the
findings section and then come the conclusions. The technical report would have a
detailed bibliography at the end.

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Guidelines for effective report writing as follows :Clear report mandate:- While writing the research problem statement and study
background, the writer needs to be absolutely clear in terms of why and how the problem
was formulated.
Clearly designed methodology :- Any research study has its unique orientation and
scope and thus has a specific and customized research design, sampling and data
collection plan.
Clear representation of findings :- Complete honesty and transparency in stating the
treatment of data and editing of missing or contrary data is extremely critical.
Representativeness of study findings :- A good research report is also explicit in
terms of extent and scope of the results obtained, and in terms of the applicability of
findings.

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Command over the medium :- A correct and effective language of communication is


critical in putting ideas and objectives in the vernacular of the reader/decision- maker.
Phrasing protocol :- The use of personal pronoun such as I think.... or in my
opinion... lends a subjectivity and personalization of judgement. Thus, the tone of the
reporting should be neutral.
Simplicity of approach :- Along with grammatically and structurally correct language,
care must be taken to avoid technical jargon as far as possible. Along with grammatically
and structurally correct language, care must be taken to avoid technical jargon as far as
possible.
Report formatting and presentation :- In terms of paper quality, page margins and
font style and size, a professional standard should be maintained. of paper quality, page
margins and font style and size, a professional standard should be maintained.

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