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Community Ecology and Biodiversity

J.K. Abraham, 2007

Biodiversity

What does this word mean?

Biodiversity •   What does this word mean? J.K. Abraham, 2007

J.K. Abraham, 2007

Biodiversity •   What does this word mean? J.K. Abraham, 2007

Biodiversity

The variety of biological units in a specified area within a specified Cme (i.e. the variety of life).

What are some possible measures of biological diversity?

Biodiversity

The variety of biological units in a specified area within a specified Cme (i.e. the variety of life).

What are some possible measures of biological diversity?

Number of species ( Species Richness) Evenness of species Number of func<onal groups (species that perform similar ecosystem func<ons) Gene<c diversity (varia<on in alleles)

Biodiversity

Major paHerns of biodiversity

Where are the most diverse places on earth?

Biodiversity

Major paHerns of biodiversity

Where are the most diverse places on earth?

“Biological hotspots”

Major paHerns of biodiversity –   Where are the most diverse places on earth? •  

Biodiversity

Major paHerns of biodiversity

Where are the most diverse places on earth?

“Biological hotspots”

Major paHerns of biodiversity –   Where are the most diverse places on earth? •  
California Kelp System
California Kelp System
California Kelp System
California Kelp System
California Kelp System
California Kelp System
California Kelp System
California Kelp System

Worldwide distribu<on of kelp

Worldwide distribu<on of kelp = areas of cold water upwelling
Worldwide distribu<on of kelp = areas of cold water upwelling

= areas of cold water upwelling

Abio<c Influences on Kelp Abundance

Sea temperature

Higher sea temperatures lead to:

Lower reproduc<ve success Lower nitrogen concentra<ons in water Kelp fronds break down faster in warm water

Wave ac<on

Storms can dislodge kelp from substrate

Direct Effects
Direct Effects

Direct Effects

Direct Effects
Direct Effects
Direct Effects
Interac<ve Effects?
Interac<ve Effects?

Interac<ve Effects?

Interac<ve Effects?
Interac<ve Effects?
Interac<ve Effects?

Worldwide distribu<on of kelp

Worldwide distribu<on of kelp = areas of cold water upwelling

= areas of cold water upwelling

Worldwide distribu<on of kelp = areas of cold water upwelling

Tasmania

Tasmania

Tasmanian Kelp Decline

Over past 30 years, kelp forests have declined by 95-99% in Tasmania

120 km 2 to an esCmated 0.5-1 km 2

Threatens local economy

Fisheries

Primary producer in ecosystem Oxygenates water Provides 3-dimensional environment for marine animals

Scuba industry Medicinal uses

hHp:// www.geol.utas.edu.au / kelpwatch / facts_d.html

Tasmanian Kelp Decline

Over past 30 years, kelp forests have declined by 95-99% in Tasmania

120 km 2 to an esCmated 0.5-1 km 2

Threatens local economy

Fisheries

Primary producer in ecosystem Oxygenates water Provides 3-dimensional environment for marine animals

Scuba industry Medicinal uses

hHp:// www.geol.utas.edu.au / kelpwatch / facts_d.html

Aboriginal Tasmanian use of kelp

Aboriginal Tasmanian use of kelp hHp:// www.craYaustralia.org.au /library/ review.php id=
Aboriginal Tasmanian use of kelp hHp:// www.craYaustralia.org.au /library/ review.php id=
Aboriginal Tasmanian use of kelp hHp:// www.craYaustralia.org.au /library/ review.php id=

hHp:// www.craYaustralia.org.au /library/ review.php id= colin_marCn_baskets_and_belonging

What is causing the Tasmanian kelp decline and why? What can we do about it?

Sea surface temperature in southeastern Tasmania

Sea surface temperature in southeastern Tasmania

Sea surface temperature in southeastern Tasmania

Sea surface temperature in southeastern Tasmania Sea urchins need water at least this warm to reproduce

Sea urchins need water at least this warm to reproduce

When could urchins permanently establish in southeastern Tasmania? A.   1960s B.   1980s C.

When could urchins permanently establish in southeastern Tasmania?

urchins permanently establish in southeastern Tasmania? A.   1960s B.   1980s C.   1990s D.

A. 1960s B. 1980s C. 1990s D. 2000s

Sea urchins need water at least this warm to reproduce successfully

When could urchins permanently establish in southeastern Tasmania?

A.   1960s B.   1980s C.   1990s D.   2000s
A.   1960s
B.   1980s
C.   1990s
D.   2000s

Sea urchins need water at least this warm to reproduce

Sea urchin range expansion

1960’s
1960’s
Sea urchin range expansion 1960’s

Sea urchin range expansion

Why do we see this paHern of urchin range expansion?

1960’s 2005
1960’s
2005

Tasmanian Kelp System

Tasmanian Kelp System No oSers ! Top predator in system is spiny lobster .

No oSers! Top predator in system is spiny lobster.

Tasmanian Kelp System No oSers ! Top predator in system is spiny lobster .
Status of predators oYen affects primary producers

Status of predators oYen affects primary producers

What does this graph tell us about changes in the lobster popula<on over <me?

What does this graph tell us about changes in the lobster popula<on over <me? Lobster Body

Lobster Body Size (mm)

What is causing reduc<on in lobster size?

What is causing reduc<on in lobster size?

What is causing reduc<on in lobster size?
What is causing reduc<on in lobster size?
What is causing reduc<on in lobster size?
Lobsters must be of certain size to eat adult urchins

Lobsters must be of certain size to eat adult urchins

Body Size MaSers

Body Size MaSers Lobsters must be this big to eat adult urchins Lobster Body Size (mm)
Body Size MaSers Lobsters must be this big to eat adult urchins Lobster Body Size (mm)

Lobsters must be this big to eat adult urchins

Body Size MaSers Lobsters must be this big to eat adult urchins Lobster Body Size (mm)

Lobster Body Size (mm)

Tasmanian Marine Protected Areas (MPA)

Tasmanian Marine Protected Areas (MPA)
Tasmanian Marine Protected Areas (MPA)
Tasmanian Marine Protected Areas (MPA)
Tasmanian Marine Protected Areas (MPA)

What is the effect of lobster fishing on urchins?

Open to fishing
Open to fishing
Protected from fishing
Protected from fishing
What is the effect of lobster fishing on urchins? Open to fishing Protected from fishing
What is the effect of lobster fishing on urchins? Open to fishing Protected from fishing
What is the effect of lobster fishing on urchins? Open to fishing Protected from fishing

What is the effect of lobster fishing on urchins?

Open to fishing
Open to fishing
Protected from fishing
Protected from fishing

1) What hypothesis can you come up with? 2) Describe an experiment to test what impact lobster fishing has on the likelihood of adult urchin survival. 3) Draw graph(s) showing your predic<on of the results from your experiment .

of adult urchin survival . 3)   Draw graph(s) showing your predic<on of the results from
of adult urchin survival . 3)   Draw graph(s) showing your predic<on of the results from
of adult urchin survival . 3)   Draw graph(s) showing your predic<on of the results from

What is the effect of lobster fishing on urchins?

Open to fishing
Open to fishing
Protected from fishing
Protected from fishing

Example experiment:

Released 100 marked adult urchins per site Staked them to the ground Tracked urchin survival for 200 days

100
100
100 100 100
100
100
100

Results from Study

Results from Study

What are the factors affec<ng this system?

What is causing the Tasmanian kelp decline?

Tasmania Kelp Forest Food Web

California Kelp Forest Food Web

Humans Lobsters OHers Sea Star Sea Star Blenny Urchins Urchins Abalone Kelp AbioCc factors (e.g.
Humans
Lobsters
OHers
Sea Star
Sea Star
Blenny
Urchins
Urchins
Abalone
Kelp
AbioCc factors
(e.g. temp,
waves., etc.)
Kelp
A.   You Who is the best? B.   Those Der kids

A. You

Who is the best?

B. Those Der kids

Preparing for Final

Review your old exams!

WHY did you lose points on quesCons?

Didn’t study?

Study!

Didn’t read the quesCon carefully?

Take the Cme to focus on what is being asked. If it says EXPLAIN, EXPLAIN! If I say PLANTS, don’t write about ANIMALS

Didn’t understand what was being asked?

Raise your hand! I will try to rephrase for you if I can.

Review the learning objecCves!

The test will cover a subset of objec<ves. If I spent a whole day on something (cough, cough… natural selec<on…cough), STUDY it.

Get some sleep!

Rest, stress level correlated with short term memory

Preparing for Final

Review your old exams!

WHY did you lose points on quesCons?

Didn’t study?

Study!

Didn’t read the quesCon carefully?

Take the Cme to focus on what is being asked. If it says EXPLAIN, EXPLAIN! If I say PLANTS, don’t write about ANIMALS

Didn’t understand what was being asked?

Raise your hand! I will try to rephrase for you if I can.

Review the learning objecCves!

The final will cover a subset of objec<ves. If I spent a whole day on something (cough, cough… natural selec<on…cough… animal phyla…cough), STUDY it.

Get some sleep!

Rest, stress level correlated with short term memory

Connec<ng Concepts

Consider an atom of carbon

Can trace its path through the carbon cycle

an atom of carbon –   Can trace its path through the carbon cycle Wikipedia.com ;
an atom of carbon –   Can trace its path through the carbon cycle Wikipedia.com ;
an atom of carbon –   Can trace its path through the carbon cycle Wikipedia.com ;
an atom of carbon –   Can trace its path through the carbon cycle Wikipedia.com ;
an atom of carbon –   Can trace its path through the carbon cycle Wikipedia.com ;
an atom of carbon –   Can trace its path through the carbon cycle Wikipedia.com ;

Wikipedia.com; barackobamaeaCngthings.tumblr.com

Connec<ng Concepts

Consider an atom of carbon

Can trace its path through the carbon cycle

1
1
Photosynthesis 2
Photosynthesis
2

ConsumpCon

4 CirculaCon/ RespiraCon 3 Cellular RespiraCon
4
CirculaCon/
RespiraCon
3
Cellular RespiraCon

Thanks!