Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Factors causing failures in Cement Concrete Pavements

These are recognized mainly by the formation of structural cracking. Failures are mainly
due to two factors.

Deficiency of pavement materials

Structural inadequacy of the pavement system
Deficiency of pavement materials

Following are the chief causes which would give rise to the different defects or failures of
cement concrete pavements.
1. Soft aggregates
2. Poor workmanship in joint construction
3. Poor joint filler and sealer material
4. Poor surface finish
5. Improper and insufficient curing
The various defects that creep in due to the above are


1. Disintegration of cement concrete

2. Formation of cracking
3. Spalling of joints
4. Poor riding surface
5. Slippery surface
6. Formation of shrinkage cracks
7. Ingress of surface water and further progressive failures
Structural inadequacy of the pavement system
Inadequate subgrade support pavement thickness would be a major cause of developing
structural cracking in pavements. Following are the causes and types of failures which develop.
1. Inadequate pavement thickness
2. Inadequate subgrade support and poor subgrade soil
3. Incorrect spacings of joints
Above would give rise to the failures of the following types

Cracking of slab corners

Cracking of pavements longitudinally
Settlement of slabs
Widening of joints
Mud pumping

Scaling of cement concrete

Scaling is observed in cement concrete pavement showing overall deterioration of the
concrete. The scaling is mainly attributed to the deficiency in the mix or presence of some

chemical impurities which damage the mix. Further due to the excessive vibration given to mix,
the cement mortar comes to the top during construction and thus with use, the cement motor gets
abraded exposing the aggregates of the mix. This makes the pavement surface rough and shabby
in appearance.

Shrinkage cracks
During the curing operation of cement concrete pavement immediately after the
construction, the shrinkage cracks normally develop. The placement of cracks are in longitudinal
as well as in transverse direction.
Spalling of joints
When pre-formed filler materials are placed during casting of pavement slabs, the
placement is somehow dislocated and filler is thus placed at an angle. The concreting is
completed without noticing this faulty alignment of the filler material. Thus this forms an
overhang of a concrete layer on the top side and the joint later on shows excessive cracking and
Warping cracks
If the joints are not well designed to accommodate the warping of slabs at edges, this
results in development of excessive stresses due to warping and the slab develops cracking at the
edges in an irregular pattern. Hinge joints are generally provided for relieving the slabs of
warping stresses. There is no structural defect due to the warping cracks if proper reinforcement
is provided at the longitudinal and transverse joints as it takes care of the structural adequacy.
Mud pumping
Its recognized when the slurry ejects out through the joints and cracks of cement
concrete pavement caused during the downward movement of slab under the heavy wheel loads.
Following are the factors which cause the mud pumping.
1. Extent of slab deflection

2. Type of subgrade soil

3. Amount of free water
Pumping is noticed just after the rains in cement concrete pavements that are placed on
clayey soil subgrade. Due to the application of repeated loads, initial spaces are developed
underneath the pavement. Since the soil is also of fine grained type, it holds water and forms the
soil slurry or soil suspension in water or the mud.
Subsequent application of heavy wheel loads causes the pavement slab to deflect at
critical locations and also forces out part of the mud each time, through the spaces in pavement
joints, cracks or edge. When more and more mud is ejected out, there is a substantial loss in fine
grained soil from subgrade, resulting in considerable loss of subgrade support at these locations.
With continued traffic movements, there is progressive increase in the wheel load stress in the
pavement slab due to reduction in subgrade support, consequently cracks are developed and the
pavement ultimately fails. The pavement cracking due to mud pumping is generally a
progressive type of failure in rigid pavements.
Structural cracking
Inadequate pavement thickness for the amount and type of vehicles is the prime reason
for the structural cracking. Largely, the pavements are found to crack at the corners and edges.
Longitudinal and transverse cracks are also found to exist. It becomes quite difficult to
differentiate the type of cracks. Generally, if it could be decided that the crack in the vicinity of
joints or corners are not due to spalling or mud pumping, then the cracks are attributed to the
structural inadequacy. The cracking in the interior regions are mainly due to the temperature