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Digital circuit: Circuit in which the signal used can have fixed number of discrete states. It
consists of logic gates, electronic devices. Mobile phone, digital watch, calculators, computers, video
games etc are example of digital circuits.
Advantages of digital circuits:

Less susceptible to noise or degradation in quality than analog circuits.


Easy to perform error detection and correction with digital signals.

It shows the communication between circuits and hardware within a computer.


It is representation of signals and sequences of a digital circuit through numbers.
Digital logic is typically embedded in most electronic devices.

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Digital logic:

Digital Signal/ Logic signal: It is a physical signal which is used for representation of a sequence of
discrete values. They can be represented as:

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Truth values:- true (T) and false (F)


Boolean values:-1 and 0.
Voltage:- represented as high (H) or low (L)
For switch:- on/off OR open/close etc

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Operations on Logic Signals:

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A and B two signals are input set for a given circuit and produces a output signal C, which depends
on A and B.

C can be result of AND, OR ,NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR function between A and B.

Logic gates: These are use to perform logic operations on logical inputs and produces a single
logical output. If A is a digital signals then A could be either TRUE (a logical 1) or FALSE (a logical 0).

And Gate: The output of AND gate is TRUE only if both the inputs to the AND
gate is TRUE. Truth table for And gate:
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Input
A
False
False
True
True

Output
B
C
False False
True False
False False
True True

Also C= A.B

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Symbol for And gate:

OR gate: The output of or gate is true if one or both the inputs to the gate are true (1). Truth
table for OR gate:
Output
C
False
True
True
True

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Input
A
False
False
True
True

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B
False
True
False
True

Symbol for OR gate:

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Also C=A+B

Not gate: It represents negation i.e false for true and true for false. If A is input signal and B
is output t signal then Truth table for Not gate:
Input
A
0
1

Output
B
1
0

Symbol for Not gate:


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`
Also B=~A
Nand gate: It is an AND gate with an inverter on the output

Symbol for Nand gate:

or

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Also C= .

Output
C
1
1
1
0

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Input
A B
0 0
0 1
1 0
1 1

NOR gate: It is an OR gate with an inverter on the output.


Input

Output

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Symbol for NoR gate:


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Also C=

XOR gate: It is used as an exclusive or. The output is true if one, and only one, of the inputs
to the gate is true.
Input

Output
B

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or

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Also C=

XNOR gate: It is inverse of XOR. The output is high if both of the inputs to the gate are the
same.

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= AB+BA

Input

Output

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or

= AB+ AB

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Also C=

Number system:

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Note: NOR gates alone or alternatively NAND gates alone can be used to reproduce the functions
of all the other logic gates so they are called Universal gates.

In digital logic number can be represented in various forms:


Base

Representation of numbers is using

Binary number

0 (zero) and 1 (one)

Decimal numbers

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0 to 9

Octal numbers

0 to 7

Hexadecimal

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0 to 9 digits and A to Z alphabets

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Number System

Complements: They are used in digital computer for simplifying the subtraction operation and for
logic manipulation.
Codes in digital logic:
Binary Codes: In such case signal will have 2 values (0/1) and circuit elements will have two stable
states.
Note:- A Bit is a binary digit.
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Decimal Codes: Binary codes for decimal number require a minimum of 4 bits. There are 5 type of
decimal codes:

BCD
Excess-3
84-2-1
2421

Error detection code: value of parity bit is used for error detection

Reflected Code: In such code only 1 bit changes as we proceed from 1 number to another.

Boolean Laws:

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T1 : Commutative Law
(a) A + B = B + A
(b) A B = B A
T2 : Associate Law
(a) (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)
(b) (A B) C = A (B C)
T3 : Distributive Law
(a) A (B + C) = A B + A C
(b) A + (B C) = (A + B) (A + C)
T4 : Identity Law
(a) A + A = A
(b) A A = A
T5 :

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Alphanumeric code: This code consist 10 decimal digits and 26 letter of alphabets.

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(a)
(b)
T6 : Redundance Law
(a) A + A B = A
(b) A (A + B) = A
T7 :
(a) 0 + A = A
(b) 0 A = 0
T8 :
(a) 1 + A = 1
(b) 1 A = A
T9 :
(a)
T10 :

(b)

(a)
(b)
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T11 : De Morgan's Theorem


(a)
(b)

Methods to solve Boolean expression:


Boolean algebra: area of mathematics using which Boolean expression are solved.

Karnaugh map (K map): A Karnaugh Map is a grid-like representation of a truth table. A Karnaugh

map has zero and one entries at different positions. Each position in a grid corresponds to a truth
table entry.

A
0
0

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For example:

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Logic circuits are of two types:

Combinational: It consists of logic gates whose outputs at any time are determined directly
from the present input without regards to previous inputs.
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Sequential: it consists of memory elements in addition to logic gates. Their output is

function of input and the state of the memory elements. And this is function of previous
input.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

Examples of combinational circuits:

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Adders: These are used for addition of bits. There are two type of adder:
Half adder: This circuit consists of two binary inputs (two bits that used need to add) and two

binary outputs (sum and carry).


Block digram:

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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TRUTH TABLE

Full Adder: It takes three inputs (two bits that user need to add plus one carry bit) and produces
two outputs(sum and carry).

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

TRUTH TABLE
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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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Substractor: These are used for substraction of bits. There are two type of substractor:
Half Substractor: This circuit consists of two binary inputs (two bits that used need to substract)

and two binary outputs (difference and borrow).


TRUTH TABLE
10

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Full Substracor: This circuit consists of three binary inputs (two bits that used need to substract

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TRUTH TABLE

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and one borrow) and two binary outputs (difference and borrow).

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

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Binary parallel Adder: It produces arithmetic sum of 2 binary numbers in parallel. It consists of full
adder connected in cascade. It work on the carry propagation concept.

Decimal adder: It need minimum of 9 inputs in decimal form and produces 5 outputs of BCD form.
BCD Adder: used to add two BCD digits and produces a sum digit also in BCD.
Magnitude Comparator: Used to compare two numbers
Decoder: Converts binary information from n inputs to a max of 2^n unique information. For

example:

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Code converters
BCD to seven segment decoders
Nixie tube decoders
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Relay actuator

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Demultiplexers: A decoder with enable function is demux. It receive information on a signal line

1 : 2 demultiplexer
1 : 4 demultiplexer
1 : 16 demultiplexer
1 : 32 demultiplexer

BLOCK DIAGRAM

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transmit this information on one of 2^n possible output lines. The selection of output is controlled
by bit values of n selection lines.For example:

TRUTH TABLE

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Encoders: it produces a reverse operation from that of a decoder. An encoder has 2^n or less input
lines and n output lines. For example:

Priority encoders
Decimal to BCD encoder
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Octal to binary encoder


Hexadecimal to binary encoder

BLOCK DIAGRAM

2 : 1 multiplexer
4 : 1 multiplexer
16 : 1 multiplexer
32 : 1 multiplexer

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

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Multiplexers: It selects binary information from one of the many input lines(max 2^n) and directs it
to a single output line. It has n select lines whose combination determine which input is seleted. For
example:

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BLOCK DIAGRAM
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Sequential circuits:

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TRUTH TABLE

Basic Flip Flop circuits: a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and used to store

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state information. It is also called bistable multivibrator. The circuit can have one or more control
inputs and will have one or two outputs. It is the basic storage element in sequential logic. It is
constructed from 2 nand and 2 nor gates.
Type of flip flop:

Clocked RS flip flop: Basic flip flop plus clock is Clocked RS flip flop.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
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TRUTH TABLE

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D flip flop: It is an RS flip flop with an inverted in the R input.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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TRUTH TABLE

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TRUTH TABLE

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JK flip flop: It is refinement of RS flip flop. It is same as SR flip flop but contain feedback from the
output of second to input of first.

T flip flop: It is an JK flip flop with an inverted in the K input.


SYMBOL DIAGRAM

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BLOCK DIAGRAM
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TRUTH TABLE

Registers: It is a group of binary storage cell (flip flop) suitable for holding binary information.

Serial Input Serial Output


Serial Input Parallel Output
Parallel Input 0053erial Output
Parallel Input Parallel Output

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Shift registers: Store binary information either to left or right. There are four mode of opearation of
a shift register.

Counters: counter is a device which is used to count number of times a particular event or process
has occurred. There are 2 type of counters:

Rippel counter
Synchronous counter

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Ripple counter: the flip flop output transition serves a source for triggering other flip flop.

LOGICAL DIAGRAM

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Type of ripple counter:

binary ripple counter


BCD ripple counter

Synchronous counter: The input pulse are applied to all the clock pulse input of flip flops.
2-BIT SYNCHRONOUS UP COUNTER
The JA and KA inputs of FF-A are tied to logic 1. So FF-A will work as a toggle flip-flop. The JB and
KBinputs are connected to QA.

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LOGICAL DIAGRAM

Type of Synchronous counter:

Binary Synchronous counter.


Binary up down counter
BCD Counter

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Classification of counters

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Depending on the way in which the counting progresses, the synchronous or asynchronous counters
are classified as follows:

Up counters
Down counters
Up/Down counters

Modulus Counter (MOD-N Counter):

The 2-bit ripple counter is called as MOD-4 counter and 3-bit ripple counter is called as MOD-8
counter. So in general, an n-bit ripple counter is called as modulo-N counter. Where,MOD number =
2^n
TYPE OF MODULUS:
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2-bit up or down (MOD-4)


3-bit up or down (MOD-8)
4-bit up or down (MOD-16)

Application of the counters:

Frequency counters
Digital clock
Time measurement
A to D converter
Frequency divider circuits
Digital triangular wave generator

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