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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

and PSO algorithm

Jong-Yul Kim a,, Kyeong-Jun Mun b, Hyung-Su Kim c, June Ho Park a

a

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, South Korea

c

Namhae College, Gyeongnam, South Korea

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 2 December 2008

Received in revised form 15 February 2011

Accepted 1 June 2011

Available online 2 July 2011

Keywords:

Particle swarm optimization

Heuristic

Optimal power ow

PC cluster system

Parallel processing

a b s t r a c t

In recent studies, PSO algorithm is applied to solve OPF problem. However, population based optimization method requires higher computing time to nd optimal point. This shortcoming is overcome by a

straightforward parallelization of PSO algorithm. The developed parallel PSO algorithm is implemented

on a PC-cluster system with 8 Intel Pentium IV 2 GHz processors. The proposed approach has been tested

on the test systems. The results showed that computing time of parallelized PSO algorithm can be

reduced by parallel processing without losing the quality of solution.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Optimal Power Flow (OPF) is a useful tool in planning and operation of a power system. The OPF problem can be described as the

optimal allocation of power system controls to satisfy the specic

objective function such as fuel cost, power loss, and bus voltage

deviation. The control variables include the generator real powers,

the generator bus voltages, the tap ratios of transformer and the

reactive power generations of VAR sources. Therefore, the OPF

problem is a large-scale highly constrained nonlinear non-convex

optimization problem [1]. Recently, many heuristic optimization

methods in [24] to overcome the limitations of the mathematical

programming approaches have been investigated. Particle Swarm

Optimization (PSO) is a newly proposed population based heuristic

optimization algorithm [5]. Compared with other heuristic optimization methods, PSO has comparable or even superior search performance for some hard optimization problems in real power

systems [68]. However, population based optimal research methods such as GA, EP and PSO require relatively higher computing

time than conventional optimization techniques. In parallel processing, problems are divided into several sub problems, and allocated to each processor. This can reduce computing time and

enhance computation efciency [9]. In this paper, parallel PSO

algorithm is proposed to improve the computing time and also

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 55 280 1336; fax: +82 55 280 1339.

E-mail address: jykim@keri.re.kr (J.-Y. Kim).

0142-0615/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2011.06.026

PC-cluster system is developed to implement parallel PSO algorithm. To verify the usefulness of the proposed algorithm, parallel

PSO algorithm has been tested and compared with standard PSO

algorithm having with single processor. The standard IEEE 30 and

118-bus power systems have been employed to carry out the simulation study.

2. Optimal power ow problem formulation

The OPF problem can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem as follows:

Minimize f x; u

subject to gx; u 0

hx; u 6 0

1

2

3

variables.

In this paper, the objective function of OPF is minimization of

fuel cost for all generators which can be formulated as follows:

Min f Pgi

Ng

X

ai bi P gi ci P2gi

i1

where f(Pgi) is the total fuel cost ($/h) of all generators; Pgi is the

active power output generated by the ith generator; ai, bi, ci are fuel

cost coefcients; and Ng is the total number of generators. The

1458

J.-Y. Kim et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 33 (2011) 14571461

which are formulated as follows:

Pgi Pdi V i

Nb

X

V j Y ij coshi hj uij 0 i 1; . . . ; Ng

j1

Q gi Q di V i

Nb

X

V j Y ij sinhi hj uij 0 i 1; . . . ; Ng

j1

where Pgi and Qgi are the active and reactive power generations at

bus i; Pdi and Qdi are the active and reactive power demands at

bus i; Vi and Vj are the voltage magnitude at bus i and j respectively;

hi and hj are the voltage angles at buses i and j respectively; uij is the

admittance angle; Yij is the admittance magnitude; and Nb is the total number of buses.

The OPF inequality constraints, h(x, u), represent limits of control variables and state variables. The system operation constraints

consist of the transmission line loadings, load bus voltages, reactive power generations of generator, and active power generation

of slack generator. These variables should be within the set lower

and upper limits.

Si 6 Si 6 Smax

i

i 1; 2; . . . ; Nl

V min

6 V i 6 V max

i

i

i 1; 2; . . . ; Nb

max

Q min

gi 6 Q gi 6 Q gi

i 1; 2; . . . ; Ng

max

Pmin

gs 6 P gs 6 P gs

7

8

9

10

of generators, transformers tap ratio, and shunt capacitors are restricted by lower and upper limits as follows:

Pmin

gi

6 Pgi 6

Pmax

gi

i 1; 2; . . . ; Ng 1

max

V min

gi 6 V gi 6 V gi

t min

6 t i 6 t max

i

i

min

shi

6 shi 6

i 1; 2; . . . ; Ng

i 1; 2; . . . ; Nt

max

shi

i 1; 2; . . . ; Nsh

11

12

13

14

3.1. PC cluster system

After mid 1980, high performance computers have been needed

according to the development of large scale science and engineering. Since supercomputers are expensive, cluster systems replaced

supercomputers because it has the availability of inexpensive high

performance PCs, and high speed networks, and development of

integrated circuits. PC cluster system provides higher availability

as well as greater performance by lower cost with interconnecting

several PCs or workstations. PC cluster system is very competitive

with parallel machine in terms of a ratio of cost to performance because clustering is one of the types of parallel or distributed processing system, which is composed of a collection of

interconnected low cost PCs working together as single and integrated computing resources. Also, it is easy to add nodes that construct the PC cluster. A basic construction diagram for PC cluster is

shown in Fig. 1.

The performance of the PC cluster system depends on the quality of message passing system, libraries, and compilers for parallel

programming and performance of individual nodes. Therefore, it is

obtain better performance. The PC cluster system implemented

in this paper is composed of eight nodes based on fast Ethernet

with Ethernet switch. For operating system, master node uses

Windows 2000 server, and slave nodes use Windows 2000 pro.

To connect each node, fast Ethernet card and switching hub were

used. In data communication, MPI library was used, which is effective for parallel application by using message-passing method

through TCP/IP over Internet. Symantec PC anywhere was used

for remote control of each node, and MS visual C++ 6.0 was used

for compilers of parallel programming. Table 1 shows the picture

and the specication of the PC cluster system developed in this

paper.

3.2. Parallel computing of PSO algorithm

The PSO is basically developed through the simulation of bird

ocking in two-dimensional space. In PSO, each particle i

(i = 1, . . . , N) in the population is characterized by three vectors

(xi, vi, pi) which represent their temporal position, velocity, and

the best position. The tness of each particle is given by the function value f(xi). Each particle stores its best position pi called personal best, p-best, which gives the best tness in memory. They

can also consult their neighbors best position. Most simply, the

neighbor is the whole population (fully connected topology), and

therefore, the neighbors best is the best position among personal

bests of the whole population. Hence, the position pg is called global best. Now each particle i moves around the search space, and

renews its velocity using its past experience (personal best) and

the populations experience (global best) as follows:

v i xv i c1 r1 pi xi c2 r2 pg xi

15

are the uniform random numbers within the range [0, 1]. If vi is larger than a predened velocity vmax called maximum velocity, it is

set to vmax. Similarly, if it is smaller than vmax, it is xed to vmax.

The parameter x is called inertia weight [10], which controls the

exploration (global search)exploitation (local search) tradeoff.

xfin

16

motion:

xi xi v i

17

The population size is one of the key factors that will affect the

search performance of the PSO algorithm for seeking the optimal

solution. The larger population size can guarantee the higher

chance of obtaining the optimal solution. However, it is obvious

that more computing time is needed. To reduce the computing

time with same quality of solution, parallel PSO algorithm is proposed and paralleled by the PC cluster system. The most important

issue of parallelizing PSO algorithm is exchange model of evolution

information. Different ways will result in different performances.

The proposed conguration is a kind of parallel algorithm based

on coarse grain model, in which the population is divided into

some sub-populations evolving independently.

Each sub-population exchanges require information only between two neighboring sub-populations connected by arrowed

lines as shown in Fig. 2. Each sub-population is allocated in each

processor that involves in parallel computing. With each processor

that can communicate with the neighboring sub-populations, the

best solution of each processor is transferred to the neighboring

processors by migration operation every generation. The owchart

J.-Y. Kim et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 33 (2011) 14571461

1459

Table 1

Specication of PC cluster system.

Item

Specication

CPU

Mother board

Chipset

RAM

HDD

NIC

Network switch

Operating system

MPI library

Compiler

LeoTech P4XFA

VIA P4X266A

DDR SD RAM 256 MB

Samsung 40 GB 5600 rpm

3Com 3CSOHO 100-TX

3Com 3C16465C Switch

Window 2000 Server/Window 2000 Pro

MPICH 1.2.5

Visual C++ 6.0

Fig. 3. Flow chart of parallel PSO algorithm.

presented in Fig. 3.

In optimal power ow problem to allocate power system controls optimally, we should determine the unit active power outputs, generator-bus voltage magnitudes, transformer tap ratios,

shunt capacitor capacities. To get the effective solution of optimal

power ow by the proposed parallel PSO, we should design PSO

appropriately for the optimal power ow problem. To solve the

OPF problem by PSO, we select unit active power outputs, generator-bus voltage magnitudes, transformer tap ratios, and shunt

capacitors as control variables in PSO position vector as follows:

S2 Pg1 ; . . . ; Pgn ; V g1 ; . . . ; V gn ; t 1 ; . . . ; t n ; sh1 ; . . . ; shn

..

.

Sp Pg1 ; . . . ; Pgn ; V g1 ; . . . ; V gn ; t 1 ; . . . ; t n ; sh1 ; . . . ; shn

where Pgi is the active power output of the ith generator, Vgi the

voltage magnitude of the ith generator bus, ti the transformer tap

ratios of the ith transformer, shi the no. of bank of the ith shunt

capacitor and p is the no. of position vector.

In the evaluation procedures of PSO, tness value can be obtained by the following equations. As shown in Eq. (18), tness is

composed of fuel cost of the generator and several constraints for

the power system operations.

J.-Y. Kim et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 33 (2011) 14571461

Fitness PNg

i1 F i P gi

PN c

j1

18

xj Penj

where Fi(Pgi) is the fuel cost function of the ith generator, xj the

coefcient of the jth constraint, Penj the penalty function of the

jth constraint, Ng the no. of generators, Nc the no. of constraints

and a is the constant value.

4. Test results

Two test systems, IEEE 30 and 118-bus systems are used to verify the proposed algorithm with emphasis on the validity of the

calculation results and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

The simulation parameters of PSO algorithm are listed in Table 2.

4.1. IEEE 30-bus system

Table 3

Minimum solution found by Parallel PSO-OPF in IEEE 30-bus system.

Parallel PSO-OPF solution

P1

P2

P5

P8

P11

P13

t412

t69

sh10

sh12

sh15

sh20

177.13

48.82

21.40

21.30

11.82

12.00

1.096

0.908

0.034

0.0302

0.0293

0.0455

V1

V2

V5

V8

V11

V13

t610

t2827

sh21

sh23

sh24

1.08

1.06

1.03

1.03

1.07

1.05

0.984

0.982

0.0484

0.0370

0.05

Table 4

Summary of searching performance in IEEE 30-bus system.

The IEEE 30-bus system has a total of 24 control variables as follows: ve unit active power outputs, six generator-bus voltage

magnitudes, four transformer-tap settings, and nine shunt capacitors. Transformers are in-phase transformers with assumed tapping range of 0.91.1 pu and shunt capacitors are in the range of

00.05 pu. The lower voltage magnitude limits at all buses are

0.95 pu, and the upper limits are 1.1 pu for generator buses and

1.05 pu for the remaining buses including the reference bus.

The best cost of PSO algorithm with single processor gives

800.68 $/h, and proposed parallel PSO algorithm with eight processors gives 800.64 $/h. Both of algorithms show almost same quality

solution which is less than the 804.8 $/h reported in [11]. OPF solution found by parallel PSO and corresponding control variables setting are described in Table 3. More detail searching performance of

parallel PSO is presented in Table 4. The computing times for standard and parallel PSO algorithm with eight processors are 8.03 s

and 1.73 s respectively.

To show the effects of the parallel operation by the PC clustering, speedup is evaluated. Speedup is described below:

Method

Processor number

Cost ($/h)

Ref. [10]

PSO

Parallel PSO

1

1

8

804.8

800.68

800.64

8.03

1.73

5

4

Speed up

1460

3

2

1

0

No. of processors

Fig. 4. Speed up according to the processor number in IEEE 30-bus system.

speedup (Sp)

Sp

T

Tp

19

processors.

Fig. 4 shows the speedup as the number of processors increases.

From Fig. 4, it is found that speedup increased as the number of

processors increased almost linearly, but somewhat lowered

because there exists overhead when communication executed

between processors.

4.2. IEEE 118-bus system

algorithm with 8 processors also gives the similar result of

17554.0 $/h. These results are less than the 17860.09 $/h reported

in [12]. Minimum solution found by PSO algorithm in 118 bus system and summary of searching performance are presented in Tables 5 and 6. The computing time is obviously reduced from

1362.26 s to 169.0 s by the parallel PSO algorithm with 8 processors. Fig. 5 shows the speed up as the number of processors

increases. From Fig. 5, it is found that speedup increased as the

number of processors increased almost linearly, but somewhat

Table 5

Minimum solution found by PSO-OPF in IEEE 118-bus system.

9-transformer, 179-branch. It also has a total of 27 control

variables. The lower voltage magnitude limits at all buses are same

with IEEE 30-bus system. The best cost of standard PSO algorithm

Table 2

Simulation parameters.

Parameter

Value

Max iteration

Population

C1

C2

w

50

60

2.0

2.0

0.90.4

P1

P10

P12

P25

P26

P49

P59

P61

P65

P66

P80

P89

P100

P103

290.00

328.88

210.00

241.60

241.61

237.97

195.00

210.01

345.77

315.00

336.16

315.00

230.34

265.00

V1

V10

V12

V25

V26

V49

V59

V61

V65

V66

V80

V89

V100

V103

1.09

1.09

1.07

1.10

1.10

1.07

1.06

1.08

1.01

1.10

1.08

1.10

1.10

1.09

J.-Y. Kim et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 33 (2011) 14571461

Table 6

Summary of searching performance in IEEE 118-bus system.

Method

Processor number

Cost ($/h)

Ref. [11]

PSO

Parallel PSO

1

1

8

17860.09

17560.4

17554.0

1362.26

169.0

Speed up

developed. To verify the performance of the proposed method, parallel PSO algorithm is tested on an IEEE 30 and 118-bus systems.

For repeated evaluating tness function during evolution process,

it needs lots of computing cost by calculating load ow. Therefore,

proposed parallel PSO algorithm can divide the population into

several sub populations to share the burden of calculating the load

ow. As a result, computing time of parallel PSO algorithm can be

further improved.

References

10

6

4

2

0

1461

No. of processors

Fig. 5. Speed up according to the processor number in IEEE 118-bus system.

lowered because there exists overhead when communication executed between processors.

5. Conclusions

In these days, many heuristic optimization methods such as GA,

EP and PSO are developed and applied to OPF problem. However,

heuristic optimization methods require relatively higher computing time which is one of the major obstacles on dealing with the

on-line OPF. In this paper, parallel PSO algorithm based on PCcluster system is proposed and applied to the OPF problem. For

parallel computing, a PC cluster system consisting of 8 PCs is also

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