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Aluminum 2024-T3

Subcategory: 2000 Series Aluminum Alloy; Aluminum Alloy; Metal; Nonferrous


Metal
Close Analogs:
Composition Notes:
A Zr + Ti limit of 0.20 percent maximum may be used with this alloy designation
for extruded and forged products only, but only when the supplier or producer
and the purchaser have mutually so agreed. Agreement may be indicated, for
example, by reference to a standard, by letter, by order note, or other means
which allow the Zr + Ti limit.
Aluminum content reported is calculated as remainder.
Composition information provided by the Aluminum Association and is not for
design.
Key Words: Aluminium 2024-T3; UNS A92024; ISO AlCu4Mg1; NF A-U4G1
(France); DIN AlCuMg2; AA2024-T3, ASME SB211; CSA CG42 (Canada)
Component

Wt. %

Component

Wt. %

Component

Wt. %

Al

90.7 - 94.7

Mg

1.2 - 1.8

Si

Max 0.5

Cr

Max 0.1

Mn

0.3 - 0.9

Ti

Max 0.15

Cu

3.8 - 4.9

Other, each

Max 0.05

Zn

Max 0.25

Fe

Max 0.5

Other, total

Max 0.15

Material Notes:
General 2024 characteristics and uses (from Alcoa): Good machinability and surface finish
capabilities. A high strength material of adequate workability. Has largely superceded 2017 for
structural applications.
Uses: Aircraft fittings, gears and shafts, bolts, clock parts, computer parts, couplings, fuse parts,
hydraulic valve bodies, missile parts, munitions, nuts, pistons, rectifier parts, worm gears,
fastening devices, veterinary and orthopedic equipment, structures.
Data points with the AA note have been provided by the Aluminum Association, Inc. and are
NOT FOR DESIGN.
Physical Properties
Density

Metric

English

Comments

2.78 g/cc

0.1 lb/in

AA; Typical

120

120

AA; Typical; 500 g load;


10 mm ball

Mechanical Properties
Hardness, Brinell

Hardness, Knoop

150

150

Converted from Brinell


Hardness Value

Hardness, Rockwell A

46.8

46.8

Converted from Brinell


Hardness Value

Hardness, Rockwell B

75

75

Converted from Brinell


Hardness Value

137

137

Converted from Brinell


Hardness Value

Ultimate Tensile Strength

483 MPa

70000 psi

AA; Typical

Tensile Yield Strength

345 MPa

50000 psi

AA; Typical

18 %

18 %

AA; Typical; 1/16 in. (1.6


mm) Thickness

Modulus of Elasticity

73.1 GPa

10600 ksi

AA; Typical; Average of


tension and compression.
Compression modulus is
about 2% greater than
tensile modulus.

Notched Tensile Strength

379 MPa

55000 psi

2.5 cm width x 0.16 cm


thick side-notched
specimen, Kt = 17.

Ultimate Bearing Strength

855 MPa

124000 psi

Edge distance/pin
diameter = 2.0

Bearing Yield Strength

524 MPa

76000 psi

Edge distance/pin
diameter = 2.0

0.33

0.33

138 MPa

20000 psi

AA; 500,000,000 cycles


completely reversed
stress; RR Moore
machine/specimen

70 %

70 %

0-100 Scale of Aluminum


Alloys

Shear Modulus

28 GPa

4060 ksi

Shear Strength

283 MPa

41000 psi

AA; Typical

5.82e-006 ohm- 5.82e-006 ohm-cm


cm

AA; Typical at 68F

Hardness, Vickers

Elongation at Break

Poisson's Ratio
Fatigue Strength

Machinability

Electrical Properties
Electrical Resistivity

Thermal Properties
CTE, linear 68F

23.2 m/m-C

12.9 in/in-F

AA; Typical; Average over


68-212F range.

CTE, linear 250C

24.7 m/m-C

13.7 in/in-F

Average over the range


20-300C

0.875 J/g-C

0.209 BTU/lb-F

Specific Heat Capacity

Thermal Conductivity
Melting Point

121 W/m-K 840 BTU-in/hr-ft-F

AA; Typical at 77F

502 - 638 C

935 - 1180 F

AA; Typical range based


on typical composition for
wrought products 1/4 inch
thickness or greater.
Eutectic melting is not
eliminated by
homogenization.

Solidus

502 C

935 F

AA; Typical

Liquidus

638 C

1180 F

AA; Typical

Annealing Temperature

413 C

775 F

Solution Temperature

256 C

493 F

Processing Properties

http://asm.matweb.com/search/SpecificMaterial.asp?bassnum=MA2024T3

There is an assumption by some that because an airplane is a light-sport airplane (LSA) that it
is a compromise and can't fulfill the function expectation of a "real" airplane. It is assumed that
it will be lighter, smaller, and slower. Of course that isn't necessarily true, especially in the case
of Bob Barrow's latest design, the new Bearhawk LSA

"From the moment you climb aboard the Bearhawk LSA, you feel like you are sitting in a real
substantial, solid airplane."

Payload

The prototype Bearhawk LSA came in at 728 lbs. empty weight, with an aluminum prop and no
electrics. Barrows estimates that 750 pounds is a realistic empty weight for a builder who works
hard to keep the airplane light. With the LSA maximum gross weight of 1320 lbs. (in the utility
category), this 2-place LSA has a very respectable useful load. Barrows has said that the
airplane is really designed for a max gross weight of 1500 lbs (in utility category), so there is a
built-in margin of safety for those who do not have to fly under the LSA rules.
Performance
The Bearhawk LSA can take off in as little as 200 feet and climb at 1500 ft. per minute and then
level off and cruise at 120 mph sipping only 5 gph.
Rugged Construction
The Bearhawk LSA utilizes the traditional 4130 Chromalloy tube and fabric along with allaluminum, flush riveted wings.
The Bearhawk LSA can stay aloft for a very long time. Barrows reports an economy cruise
speed of about 110 mph sipping only 4 GPH with the Continental C-85 engine. With a 30 gallon
tank that gives you over 7 hours in the air. Not many vehicles can do 110 mph only consuming
25 miles per gallon. If you want to get there a bit faster, you can push it up in cruise to 120 mph
burning about 5 GPH.
Also, with a nice roomy cockpit, you can cruise in comfort. The cabin width is a spacious 31
wide and 97 long. The Bearhawk LSA can be flown with the windows open for taking those
perfect aerial photos.

For More Info and Sales:

Bearhawk Aircraft
PO Box 9018
Austin, TX 78766
877-528-4776
www.bearhawkaircraft.com

What is a Bearhawk?

TRUE FOUR PLACE UTILITY


This is a truly usable airplane! Cockpit dimensions are slightly larger than the much loved
Cessna 172, and include a large cargo area which has its own huge cargo door for access.
CARRY FOUR PEOPLE, FULL FUEL, AND 250

LBS
The useful load (depending on engine and builder finish out) ranges from 1100-1500 lbs. The 50
gallon main fuel tanks can be filled and four full sized adults carried with room left over for 250
lbs of baggage or cargo.
CARGO BAY WITH LARGE DOORS
The back seat can be removed resulting in a HUGE cargo area with unobstructed access. Not
only does the back seat have its own door, but the back door combines with the cargo door to
allow a six foot loading area. In addition, the back seat can be flipped around and mounted with
the seat facing aft. This moves the CG of the rear seat passengers 8 or 9 inches forward.
FLYING FOR 19 YEARS WITH 1400+ SETS OF PLANS SOLD
Professional engineer Bob Barrows originally designed the Bearhawk to carry aircraft engines
for his engine rebuilding business in 1995. He offered plans for sale and over 1400 sets of plans
have been sold. There are over 100 Bearhawks now flying in the USA and around the world.
OVER 1000 HOURS OF FLIGHT TIME
The two prototype Bearhawks (180 hp & 260 hp) have accumulated well over 1000 hours of
flight time. There are at least two Bearhawks built by builders with over 700 hours on them.

Bearhawks have flown to Mexico, all around the bush up in Alaska, and into the rugged
countryside of South Africa, Australia, and Brazil.
WIDE CHOICE OF ENGINES 150 HP TO 260 HP
The Bearhawk delivers outstanding performance (125 160 mph, 1000-2000 fpm climb)
regardless of the engine. The take off and climb is truly impressive making it an ideal airplane
for all types of applications including floats
TUBING FUSELAGE WITH LOTS OF DOORS
The time proven 4130 steel tube fuselage is the accepted standard for both longevity and crash
survivability. For those thinking of serious bush operations, it is also the most easily repaired in
the case of an accident.
ALL METAL WINGS WITH LOTS OF FLAPS
The modified 4412 airfoil combined with big flaps and a long, all metal wing offer the best
combination for short field take off and landings. Depending of course on the pilots skill, the
Bearhawk can operate safely from most any field that is called an airport. Some Bearhawk
owners have put the big tundra tires on their airplanes, and operate on the remote landing spots
used by bush pilots in Alaska.

Bob Barrows Biography

The Bearhawk 4 place and the Patrol were designed by Robert Barrows of
Fincastle, Virginia. Bob has a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical

Engineering. Flying since 1967, Bob has over 4,000 hours of flight time
almost exclusively in tailwheel aircraft.
Bobs aviation achievements include building his first plane a scratch built
Midget Mustang. Next Bob designed and built a single place, high wing, open
cockpit STOL plane he named the Grasshopper which was powered by a 65
HP Continental. Next Bob designed, built, and then flew an open cockpit two
seat acrobatic biplane for aerobatic competition. It was powered by a 260 HP
IO-540 Lycoming. Next Bob restored and flew for a long time a C170. Then
Bob finished and flew an RV3 project which he took over from the original
builder.
Bob used his C170 to deliver aircraft engines which he overhauls for
customers. Finding the C170 marginal for that task, in the early 1990s Bob
began work designing and building his four place Bearhawk. Prototype I was
powered by an Lycoming O360.
In the late 1990s Bob decided to build another Bearhawk but with the O-540
Lycoming of 260 HP for power. It was called Proto II. As Bob says: "You dont
really need the Lycoming 540 to have a good flying Bearhawk, but that much
power sure is exhilarating. "
Bob designed and flew the Patrol in 2002. His prototype Patrol now has over
700 hours on it. While very similar in appearance and construction to the four
place Bearhawk, the Patrol incorporates some new design elements like the
airfoil shaped tail ribs and a special Riblett wing airfoil.
Bob Barrows non-aviation career:
1968-1975 Bob was employed by Chicago Pneumatic designing air tools
1975-1987 Employed by Ingersoll Rand as Manager of Engineering Works
for the IR plant in Roanoke, VA
1975-1985 Bob was also Chief Engineer for a company that built electricity
generating windmills of 200 KW to 800 KW. Bob designed all the mechanical
systems, & the windmill blades (stainless steel).
http://bearhawkaircraft.com/Bearhawk/barrowsbio.html

Specifications:
Top Speed (Vne) 175 mph, IAS
Cruise Speed (260 150 mph (62%), TAS (varies
hp)
with builder,engine,weight)
Cruise Speed (180
hp)
135-140 mph, TAS
Landing Speed
40 mph, IAS
200-500 ft, demonstrated
Takeoff Roll
(depends on engine)
Rate of Climb @
1,500-1,700 fpm (varies with
gross
builder,engine, etc.)
Range @ 65%
est.
650 mi.
Range @ 50% est.
900 mi.
1150-1550 pounds (varies w
Empty Weight
/builder /engine /prop)
2500 pounds (2700 pounds on
Gross weight
floats)
950-1350 pounds (varies w/
Useful Load
builder/ engine/ prop)
50 gallons (standard) 72
Fuel Capacity
gallons (optional, w/aux tanks)
Wing span
33 ft.
Wing Area
180 sq. ft.
Length
23 ft. 6 in.
Cabin Width
42 in.
9 ft 8 in. (firewall to back of
Cabin Length
back of baggage area)

AISI 4130 Alloy Steel (UNS G41300)


Topics Covered
Introduction
Chemical Composition

Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Other Designations
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
Machinability
Forming
Welding
Heat Treatment
Forging
Hot Working
Cold Working
Annealing
Tempering
Hardening
Applications

Introduction
Alloy steels are designated by AISI four-digit numbers. They are more responsive to
mechanical and heat treatments than carbon steels. They comprise different types
of steels with compositions which exceed the limitations of B, C, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si, Cr,
and Va in the carbon steels.
AISI 4130 alloy steel contains chromium and molybdenum as strengthening agents.
It has low carbon content, and hence it can be welded easily. The datasheet given
below provides more details about AISI 4130 alloy steel.

Chemical Composition
The chemical composition of AISI 4130 alloy steel is listed in the following table.
Element

Content (%)

Iron, Fe

97.03

98.22

Chromium, Cr

0.80

1.10

Manganese, Mn

0.40

0.60
0.330

Carbon, C

0.280

Silicon, Si

0.15

0.30

Molybdenum, Mo

0.15

0.25

Sulfur, S

0.040

Phosphorous, P

0.035

Physical Properties
The following table shows the physical properties of AISI 4130 alloy steel.
Properties

Metric

Imperial

Density

7.85 g/cm3

0.284 lb/in

1432C

2610F

Melting point

Mechanical Properties
The mechanical properties of AISI 4130 alloy steel are outlined in the following
table.
Properties

Metric

Imperial

Tensile strength, ultimate

560 MPa

81200 psi

Tensile strength, yield

460 MPa

66700 psi

190-210

27557-30458

GPa

ksi

140 GPa

20300 ksi

80 GPa

11600 ksi

0.27-0.30

0.27-0.30

21.50%

21.50%

Reduction of area

59.6

59.60%

Hardness, Brinell

217

217

Hardness, Knoop (Converted from Brinell hardness)

240

240

95

95

17

17

228

228

70

70

Modulus of elasticity
Bulk modulus (Typical for steel)
Shear modulus (Typical for steel)
Poissons ratio
Elongation at break (in 50 mm)

Hardness, Rockwell B (Converted from Brinell hardness)


Hardness, Rockwell C (Converted from Brinell hardness, value below normal HRC
range, for comparison purposes only.)
Hardness, Vickers (Converted from Brinell hardness)
Machinability (Annealed and cold drawn. Based on 100% machinability for AISI
1212 steel.)

Thermal Properties
The thermal properties of AISI 4130 alloy steel are outlined in the following table.
Properties
Thermal conductivity (100C)

Metric

Imperial

42.7 W/mK

296 BTU in/hr.ft2. F

Other Designations
Other designations that are equivalent to AISI 4130 alloy steel include the
following.

AMS 6348

AMS 6371

ASTM A331

ASTM A829

DIN 1.7218

AMS 6350

AMS 6373

ASTM A506

MIL S-18729

UNI 25 CrMo 4

AMS 6351

AMS 6374

ASTM A507

MIL S-6758

JIS SCCrM 1

AMS 6360

AMS 6528

ASTM A513

SAE J1397

JIS SCM 2

AMS 6361

AMS 7496

ASTM A519

SAE J404

SS 2225

AMS 6362

ASTM A29

ASTM A646

SAE J412

B.S. CDS 110

AMS 6370

ASTM A322

ASTM A752

AFNOR 25 CD 4 (S)

SAE J770

Fabrication and Heat Treatment


Machinability
AISI 4130 steel can be easily machined using conventional methods. However,
machining becomes difficult when the hardness of the steel is increased.

Forming
Forming of AISI 4130 steel can be performed in the annealed condition.

Welding
Welding of AISI 4130 steel can be performed by all commercial methods.

Heat Treatment
AISI 4130 steel is heated at 871C (1600F) and then quenched in oil. This steel is
usually heat-treated at temperatures ranging from 899 to 927C (1650 to 1700F).

Forging
Forging of AISI 4130 steel can be performed at 954 to 1204C (1750 to 2200F).

Hot Working
Hot working of AISI 4130 steel can be done at 816 to 1093C (1500 to 2000F).

Cold Working
AISI 4130 steel can be cold worked using conventional methods.

Annealing
AISI 4130 steel can be annealed at 843C (1550F) followed by air cooling at
482C (900F).

Tempering
Tempering of AISI 4130 steel can be performed at 399 to 566C (750 to 1050F),
depending on the desired strength level.

Hardening
Hardening of AISI 4130 steel can be done with cold working or heat treatment.

Applications
The following are some of the major applications of AISI 4130 alloy steel:

Aircraft engine mounts

Welded tubing

Date Added: Sep 6, 2012 | Updated: Jan 18, 2016

http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=6742