You are on page 1of 541

of

^y^

Med^ae^^,
'*

LIBRARY

^^2f/-f;"jto,
Co'^3''^^

THE

ANCIENT

EMPIRES

OF

HERODOTOS

%i\

EAST

I.-III.

EX

"T.

THE

BASIL'S

LIBRIS

SCHuLASTlCATE

THE

EMPIEES

ANCIENT
THE

EAST

HEEODOTOS

I.-III.

OF

WITH

INTRODUCTIONS,

NOTES,

AND

APPENDICES

BY
.

A. H.
OF

DEPUTY-PROFESSOR

SAYCE
PHILOLOGY,

COMPARATIVE

HONORARY

LL.D.,

/e.

FX

SCHULASnCATi.

//

e^
ILontion

MACMILLAN

^'fe-/^-:"^:"z_^

L!PP!S

ST. BASIL'S
No.

OXFORD

DUBLIN

AND
1883

{Allrightsreserved.]

CO.

pf"

Printed

by

R.

"

R.

Clark,

Edinburgh.

TABLE

CONTENTS.

OF

Preface
.....

Introduction

Book

I.

The

The

Historical

The

Language

Credibility

Herodotos

op

Empires

of

of

East

the

Book

Book

II.

III.

The

Land

The

Persian

I.

Appendix

Egypt

of

Empire

Egypt
-.

II.

Appendix

Appendix

III.

Appendix

IV=

Appendix

V.

Dynastic

Tables

Babylonia

The

and

Phcenicians

Lydia

The

Empire

Persian

Index
.....

Assyria

ERRATA.

Page
"

207,

8.
20.

For

27.

For

337,

"

For

note

331, line

read

not

rot.

read

in

inscription

"

Semitised

369-71.

Sin, the
time

brought

Accad,

is the

discovered
of

son

of

the

conquered

was

the

of the

princes
The

of

reign

the

by Khammuragas
There

the

and

Greek

by

and

Nabonidos
had
the

help

after

the

goes

on

that

are

bade

Kuras,

he

In
of

their

the

and

disgrace,

differences
most

marks.
proper
most

the

to

clumsy

between

careful

Any
names

desirable

corrector

of

and

long
for

and

press

than

objects,

the

none

to
at

reform

Avill

the

can

alone

we

o.

As

or

approximate

of

is

may

English

in

able

are

in

the

the

his

army

literation
trans-

Greek

spelling,
rigid

use,

misuse

to

he

Astyages,

English

to

be

con-

always

mark

the

accents,

the

to

of

right reproduction

possibly help
spelling.

of

kings

came,

correct

present

case

of

land."

expected

at

overlook
to

with

current

be

it

own

as

He

the

captured

long

as

with

553.

and

give

to

which

elsewhere,

B.C.

when

his

to

printer

sometimes

all, and

he

Ekbatana.

barbarians

march

to

made

But

alphabet

Nor

short

been

in

"

applied

himself,

The

year

be

and

country,

third

treasures

names.

which

however,

has

Gaza

'

the

Harran,

by

barbarians;

his

reformed

no

by

the

took

of

at

of

fusion
con-

Assyrians

kingdom

me

which

to

by Kyros

servant,

young

spreading

impossible.

endeavour,
is better

proper

and

devices

his

the

In

the

to

from

their

themselves,

attempt

an

pages

oriental

sisTelicy'isunfortunately
attentive

wide

two

king

through
by

restored

with

spake

not.'

Anzan,

barbarians,

following

national

of

the

of the

Greek

spoken,

allies, exist

king

closely
been

the

"

came

Moon-god

was

Astyages

Merodach

term

Media

summoned
or

the

the

the

"Manda,"
had

been

of
to

of

have

known

name

writers

Istuvegu

And

hast

overthrew

king

of

that

very

have

to

Astyages

"

were

the

temple

he

say

the

soldiers

"

thou

that

the

overthrow
to

whom

the

of

Kurdistan

of

by

must

Medes

or

Persian

-that

destroyed

Eim-Agu,
show

follow

not

calls

It

Mada

east

probably

states

been

mentioned

just

barbarian,"

whether

with

however,

the

Society of

Khammuragas.

words

tribes
"

manda,

before

the

discoveries

did

Naram-

doubtful

identified

recent

seem,

"barbarians."

or

between

heterogeneous

and

Babylonia

mayido/'

tsab

Agade

of

years

of

than

more

be

to

of Naram-Sin.

Nabonidos

of

cylinder

"

is

date

3200

Proceedings

It is

by Khammuragas,

of

been

the

7th, 1882).

the

asserts

have

to

in

Cudur-Mabug,

name

that

shows

ISTabonidos

of

Agade,

Nov.

of

son

conquest

upon

Sesetsu.

reading.

Pinches

(see

Archmology,

who
the

of

Sargon

Eri-Acu,
.

remains

written

Abu-Habba

from
true

cylinder

Nabonidos

Biblical

438.

lately

into

recently

"

"

Also

Scstura.

into.

"

An

361.

N.B.

read

Sestesura

contribute

diacritical
of
to

Greek
that

PEEFACE.

The

main

been

thrown

by

to

in

emphasize

the

history

history

and

has

Babylonia,

early

the

by

culture,

the

Orient

not

and

continually

previous

which

deals

the

where

in

and

Herodotos,

upon

the
science

the

it

meaning
of

with
I

East.

the

of

language,

gTammatical

or

and

history
not

word

construction

have
exact

has

of

is the

been

the

it

cleared

signification

point

bears

except
up

by

difficulty

of

some

language

as

found

day,

volume,

present

far

and

existing

our

what

the

by

philology

myself

and

not

correcting

so

upon

of

of

day

with

in

once

religion

did

The
than

]Dart

nations

stock

only

name

or

or

old

or

us.

touched

where

the

exactly

see

rather

history

have

take

to

site

conception

growing

fact

brought

that

of

are

new

is well

have

with

which

and

the

important

the

the

Assyria,

on

contemporaries

some

then,

and

researches

our

accordingly,
of

revealing

now

every

his

progress
of

Egypt,

our

life, of

studies

misconception,

knowledge
to

and

In

possess.

in

tlie

the

of

raj)id

excavations

of

that

exploration

made

knowledge

inner

Herodotos

active

the

same

decipherment

revolutionised

have

and

The

the

been

Minor,

us

continuation

the

recognition

given

languages

which

could

the

and

have

Asia

Hittites,

history,

in

the

at

perceived,

East.

years

that

and

but

inscriptions,

and

Syria,

Carchemish,

played

the

Assyrian

and,

"

History

of

Herodotos

ancient

late

of

discoveries

unexpected

of

made

Father

has

light

what

Levant,

the

are

the

show

the

"

which

fact,

of

is to

of

and

Greece

civilisation

and

Egyptian

books

civilisation

and

been

work

present

earlier

discoveries

Greek

that

the

the

upon

recent

time,

of

object

passage.

PKEFACE.

Those
and

who

would

be saved

or
dictionary,

have

rather

of

have

the

as

edition

subjectfor

with

the

standard
three

on
justified

it tries to

civilised

select circle of

duty

of those
to

matters

speak
in the

and

by

who

have

travelled

it for

about

it

myself

new

facts

over

him.

will

by

print

with

been

accuratelyof
or

the

the

an

more

the

event,

discuss

with

or

topographical
question,without
spot.

much

doubt

having

if the

up
some

notes

and

hitherto

not

have

which

on

the

Indeed, with

the

hardly a country
books

which

it

have

is to write

advantage a

studied

or

impressed

more

impossibleit
any

can

worked

the

ground

travelled,the
how

place,I

have

is

first three

conviction

to Oriental

Then, thirdly,I

Persia, there

I have

in

the

becomes

contributed

enacted.

was

in these

And

which

part of the

Herodotos

him

both

the

neither

material

have

to

and

togetheris

have

second

the

of

elsewhere.

site mentioned

by

deal

found

be

and

have

small

themselves

the

In

which

of

very

the

of

most

it therefore

claim

exception of Babylonia

would

science; while

considerable

visited.

beyond

student

can

made

of the ancient

some
periodicals,

name

good

to

into

way

history described

not

alreadysaid,

as

away

speciallydevoted

present volume, and

their

hidden

is

existence

have

records

attempt, and

to

undertake

appendices

competition

into
Its

sented
pre-

results of the researches

learned

desire

marian,
gram-

historynow

enter

of all,as

publicthe

even

at first hand

portion of
made

of his

Eawlinson.

First

ordinaryclassical

the

nor

the

the task of bringing them


subscribers,

the

which

leisure

books

Prof.

numerous

scarcelyknown

one

of

Dislocated

in

are

historian,

the

as

of

other

to

turn

of
dissecting-knife

professto

not

grounds.

world.

must

Herodotos

present time in the monumental

materials
are

does

the

grammar

do.

to

work

placebefore

to the

up

the

of the first three

reader

the

is with

avalanches

what

them,

upon

to

difficulties commentators

and

simple texts,

It

had

of reference

learn what

to

poured down

that I have

to

in

Herodotos.

than

The

desire

discovered

learningthey
editions

who

the trouble

historical

personallyon

great antiquityof Egyptian

xi

PREFACE.

civilisation
who

actuallysailed

has not

the

to

the way,

on

mind

of anyone

examined

and

the Mle

up

he passes

of monuments

the groups

home

reallybrought

be

can

by

one

one

the successive

and

stages of culture they imply.


For

of monumentar

relation

refer

Commentaire

d'un

Fragment

the

on

would

Herodotos

to
"

monographs

recent

Maspero's interesting

to

le seconde

sur

covery
dis-

"

d'Herodote

Livre

de r Association

in the Annuaire

1878

(pp. 124-137), and

1877
lout's

and

^gyptens

for the first time, the

the

"

in

perses

of the

pp. 276-7

Lydia

the

Babylon,

is

MonatsUdtter

"

on

may

treated
for

is little

Revue

de

in

than

more

Linguistiqueet

de

Philologie

letter

own

the

Academy,

and

their

the

on

Oct. 16, 1880,

extension

of the

I^or

certaines

concernant

my

statement
re-

Observations

"

Monuments

Herodotus.

Hovelacque's

d'Herodote

Hittites

The

Bemerkungen,"
net

be

consulted.

by

B.

1879,

and

result

is to show

"

Beneke

Nos.

as

far

as

in the
Hittites,"

Die
of

natural

The
in

4-8, 10-12,

Herodot's

Saiigethierein

Herodotos

babylonische

VI I. 2, 1881
of the Societyof Biblical Archaeology,

(pp. 248-308),

The

den

applied

are

Herodot's

Eawlinson's

in

Empire"

for the

article

my

Transactions

Die

"

(pp. 243-68), and

Persian

; while

Herodotos

all, Wiedemann's

I. bis auf Alexander

BruU's

be referred to

may

compar^e, VII., 1875

"

of

Passage (I. 131-141)

Eise

II.
^gyptologiqiie,

Bemte

and, above

Egypt.

arguments

the student

Institutions

"

Le

(1878), though convincinglydisproving Oppert's


of

un

Paris

de

of scientific criticism

methods

restoration
topographical

sur

the

Eevil-

(more especiallypp. 81-100), in which,

of ancient

Nachrichten"

Persia

in

Psammetich

von

Grossen," Leipzig,1880

to the records

"

(pp. 49-82);

III., 1880

Geschichte

(pp. 124-174); Eugene

les Mercenaires

et

(pp. 185-193),

Chronique d^motique

de la

Extrait

Premier

"

Amasis

Eoi

"

(pp. 15-21), 1876

1875

France,

en

grecq:ms

Etudes

V Encouragement des

pour

the

of

Wissenschaftliclie

under

Geschichte,"

history

"

Die

the

titles of

botanischen

mineralogischenBemerkungen."
Oriental

that the

research

in

its

greater part of what

bearing
he

upon

professes

PREFACE.

Xll

tell

to

the

of

us

collection

Greek

of

Ealston

After

would

be

like

mind

than

the

and

wars

most

the

of

Coll.,

April

There

is

(Paris
volume

of

The

author

toire

pas

universelle
de

tenir

Toutes
en

(p.

livre

traitait

de

qu'il
les

quelques

de

I'Egypte
ne

et

il

histoire

son

lui

en

il

ne

nous

de

generals,

SAYCE.

ne

que

les
nous

nous

ni

crois

joliment
Pheron

que

ni

9'aurait

ete

un

Ramses,

Herodote
d'eux

nous

jour,
les
nous

dans

les

racontes,

grand

du

de

Je

dommage.

disent,

Thoutmos

apprend

pas

Rhampsinite.

firent

rues

la foi

sur

serait

nous

ne

plupart

bouffons,

vent

sou

que

ce

la

perdu

et

Protee,

En

originaux.

aurions

monuments

diront
les

si

apprennent

nous

textes

guides.

ses

connu,

Les

plus

auraient

appris

revanche,

qu'il

of

his-

instruit,

dynasties
pages,

une

pas
bien

au

developpements

donnes.
du

donne

qui

and

H.

decesrecitsetrangers,

populaires.

justly

Meme

fourth

xxxiii.

rien

eut

aujourd'hui

than

egy^otieiis
the

forms

n'ecrivait

"H

d'Egypte.

n'aurait

Contes

LiU6ratures

says

Herodotos:

otos
Herod-

on

interesting

or

which

Les

human

the

revolutions.-^

commentary

no

1882),

of

1883.

admirable

Maspero's

questioned

Oxfoed,

instructive

more

the

to

travellers

be

A.
Queen's

charm

kings

or

importance.

history

of

descriptions

Liebrecht

may

the

its

and

mediaeval

it

for

era

and

great

as

and

value

higher

and

lend
those

to

our

Felix

folklore

the

of

interest

highest

Polo

accurate

treaties

by

the

of

invaluable,

are

have
before

the

skirts

they

we

century

that

do

they

of

not

are

record

really

among

the

folklore

is

Persia,

current

on

treatment

Marco

or

they

fifth

stories

as

Maundeville

whether

the

of

old

Herodotos

of

only

work

of

the

comparative

all, it is these

pages

of

in

and

dragomen

student

almost

Mediterranean

examination
a

the

Por

constitute

the

half-caste

and

stories,

popular

or

and

Babylonia,

Egypt,

marchen,"

"

empire.

they

as

of

loungers

Persian

of

history

ce

on

les
monde

qu'on

Memphis."

nous

Kheops,
reel.
disait

INTKODUCTION.

it

Whether
imbibed

had

the

like

and,
down

like

accusations

for

whom

he

him

of

errors

author

to

East

of

whom

they

of

Persian

the

consulted

whose

capital,

and

who

information

the

high
as

rank
to

he

in
the

the

at

retailed.

the

of

had

obliged

Greek

of

depend

The

very

attack

credibility

upon

of

his

that

the

very
of

the

physician
almost

the

of

within
of

position
the

ascertaining

true

naturally concluded
Court,

and

better

informed

so

far

there
than

Persian

dragomen
that

the

latter

opinion

writings.

had

the

as

ignorant

that

whatever

matters

history

fact, however,
shows

literary world,
and

was

extended

never

to

of

Persia,

naming

of

his

Herodotos,

Persian

generation

on

Knidos,

for

wars,

even

writer

and

tacitly accused

exalt,

at

which

criticism

the

statements

contemporaries

archives

worthy

character

his

had

by Ktesias,

opportunities

long

travels

Herodotos

considered

and

to

Born

birthplace

lived

was

false

Mnemon.

exceptional

his

much

so

hostile

without

question by

be

to

the

parchment

tourist

mere

in

done

had

declared

had

While

partiality

Persian

Thukydides

corrected

due.

the

with

Hardly

before

he

greatness,

of

history
met

advocates

generation

Athenian

Herodotos

called

thus

history,

who

critic

the

his

his

again,

laugh

to

whether

or

"

and

younger
of

historian

were

he

the

carcase

away

Attic

deeds

him

gave

facts

be

the

Halikarnassos,

Ktesias

that

which

were

of

dishonesty.

king Artaxerxes

Persian

sight

first

passed

categorically

was

the

the

credulity,

whether,

or

"

remember

historical

wrote

whose

nationality

the

to

from

of

history

Greek

Greece,

round

its

sophists,

ready

was

which

age

and

philosophers

literary friends

the

an

upon

Eestoration,'

the

prejudices

desired

nor

and

the

the

it is that

certain

in

fell

the

upon

him

had

vultures

cared

of

demands
lost

have

of

court

made

aroused

gathered
neither

the

at

West

the

Athens

for

sceptical teaching

otherwise

would

of

the

who

in

residence

"

that

wits

the

Herodotos.

of

Herodotos

of

work

was

writer

Credibility

Historical

The

But

there
the

for

Ktesias
held

might
attack

INTRODUCTION.

xiv

Kt^sias

of

and

more

produced

its desired

into

contempt

more

Ephoros superseded it
even
notwithstanding,
it

disprove the

to

composed
to

prove

intentional distortions of fact.

and

patientresearch
of the

history of

oriental

Nubia, Asia Minor

which

but

The

truth.
but

of the inner
Herodotos

and

which

in most

he

sought
history were
"

of

that with

all this

wonderful

few

that

excerpts of his

disposalfor
the majorityof his

at

which

our

by year explorationin
been graduallyadding to
enabling us to reconstruct

generationwhich

scientificcriticism

few

years

records

of these countries and

of

princesand
and

us,

the
and

their
in

only the
who

statesmen
we

our

trained

desires to discover

lie before

now

ago

done

have

and

has been

the

know

more

life of ancient

outer

could

"lied

more

declares

Assyria and Babylonia, Egypt


Greece
have yieldedup
itself,
prehistoric

scrutinyof

have

world, and

contemporaneous

names

Strabo,^

yet further,and

went

only wonderful

paid

civilisation.
and

to the

of
principles

were

from

at home

ancient

knowledge

monuments

to have

read, and perhaps yet

Josephos^

and

of

books

wrote

Theopompos,

father

"

veracityof Herodotos
critics ignored and
despised. Year

Greek

the

the

historical

testingthe
East

preserved.
half- century has placed materials

last

rhetoric

been

have

critic Ktesias
The

of
It is

escapedthe wreck

has

his work

to be

continued

Herodotos

fell

day, and, Bauer

Malignityof Herodotos, in

misstatements

the

that

the Pseudo-Plutarch

the

on

later

treatise

florid

Harpokration

Herodotos

of

assertions;"while

of his

the

challengedhis veracity;
authors
acknowledged him

Greek

"all"

of

and

Manetho

statements

Cicero,"* and Lucian,


that

readers

of Herodotos

of Alexandria
antiquarianphilologists

specialattention.

no

work

neglect;

or

the

among
the

result ; the

even

travelled

Babylonia or ancient Egypt than


though he had spoken the languages
more
widely over them than he did.

of Herodotos
be
can
now
question of the trustworthiness
judged on better grounds than internal evidence or the testimonyof
far the statements
We
have means
for decidinghow
classicalwriters.
in regard to events
which happened before his time and
of Herodotos
The

in the

he

decision

is

have

enquirewhy

shall see,

the

shall therefore

Etym,

Suidas,

visited

foreigncountries

s.v,

Fr.

xi. pp.

Mag.,

s.v.

to

on

the

AeovTOKS/mos; and

'ApiroKpaTiuv.

Unfortunately,
as

correct.

are

whole

against our

this

"*

De

is, whether
"

Leg. i. 1

^_

"

..

; De
^^

....

29.

740, 771, etc.

**

Con.

Ap. i. 3.

author, and
the mistakes

Div.

ii. 56.

we
we

of

INTRODUCTION.

Herodotos

due

are

travelled,or

whether,

only fallible but

not

For
what

the sake

circumstances

the

to

it will be

of briefness

written

he

and

wrote

persuaded,he

was

to
best,first,

how

see

secondly,how
how
far his
and thirdly,

be trusted ;

can

which

was

dishonest.

object the historywas

of Herodotos

under

Pseudo-Plutarch

the

as

xv

and

far the

with

honesty
bear

statements

the test of facts.

(1.)Herodotos
record

the

between
write

famous

historyof the
What

and

the

first

In other

words, he wished

of the

War, and
is

us

which

causes

episodical,
taking the

modern

book.

beginning of

the

with

as

barbarian.

Persian

of

excursuses

well

as

the

object in writingwas to
especiallythe struggle

the past, more

of

else he tells

with

Asia

and

that his

himself

us

events

the Greek

to it.

tells

The

the

rise of the

led

Persian

up

notes
placeof the foot-

historyof Lydia
between

contest

to

is

nected
con-

and

Europe

empire ; the
dealingwith

of

account

finds a placein a work


of
a power
Babylonianecessarily
which
it formed
so
important an element ; and the long episodesupon
by their bearing upon the Persian
Egypt and Skythia are justified

War, which

could

swept away

the last

Greece, and

the

frontier

safe

north, and

the

on

have

been

Greece

flung upon

energeticDareios, not
into his

Phoenicia

and Phoenician

first causes

of the

But

the

with

ingenuityof
the simple account

They

have

in the

choice

Herodotos
less

taken

divined

plainlyon

many

let other
travels had

have

fleet

held

by

and

West.

East

has

was

him

of

course

gives of

the

influenced

by

notes, and, like travellers of

people

know

taken

him

that
over

he
the

had
scene

our

done
of the

own
so.

would

skilful and
We

to have

not

are

been

been

objectof

the

satisfied
his work.

be denied
treatment

appear

that
of

it,

more

had

travelled and

day, was

anxious

to

happened,

his

Herodotos

the face of his book.

been

prime factor

which

motives

digressionupon

no

objectsas well,and it cannot


in his
subject,and especially
been

it not

of the

other

of his

must

Had

strengthof Persia

Phoenician

Herodotos

designs

war.

introduced

commentators

Persian

of the

cowardly Xerxes.

quarrelbetween

and

Egypt, too, exercised

and

were

Persia

fear.

weak

traders

had

prosecute its

direction

has

Egypt

the

the

since the

in the war,

or

it to

made

under

of the

work,

between

Skythians had

course

Herodotos

only surprisedthat

stood

486, the whole

revolt in B.C.

for its opportune

or

the

which

allowed

hindrance

without

important bearing on

most

of the

chastisement

against Hellas

until the conquest of

about
come
fitly
civilised kingdom

not

As

it

great war.

Then, again,

INTRODUCTION.

xvi

had

he

had

that

done

what

shall see,

we

he

to have

which

was

golden mean."

him

brought upon

it is that

Hence

into the

in order

preach

to

Athenian

that

Kirchhoff^

At

and Persia.

the

after its first

Canon

Rawlinson

"additions"

or

used,

"

criticism

twice

what

are

at

authorityfrom

which

i. 1.

to be

soon

the shadows

"

left his
off

his

history

Greece

work,

plan.

of

peace

as

And

revised

we

not

by its

its first composition.

rate

any

been

work

Eurymedon

the

as

that the

having

of

ing
commemorat-

the

on

definite

the

work

always from the very first


already been published. It is

my
had

this

why

80,
(iii.

republic in
his

Uchei' die

to be

Polykrates or

without

enacted

of

made.

been

declares

of
publication

secure.

has

was

break

to

spite

It

protest against a carping

is

also

work, and
he is

des
Eritstehungszeit

possiblethat

when

vi.

43)

that

of

the

incredulityof

"certain

been

the

that had
Greeks," he is alludingto objections

most

long hostilitiesbetween

marks

understand

have

should

of

equallyclear

or
publication,

additions

recommended

envy

be rendered
must
pointsout that in iv. 30 Trpoa-OyJKai
and that the phrase
"supplements,"not "digressions,"

difficult to

Herodotos

which

Herodotos

according to

affected,"impliesthat the book


otherwise

himself

compact known

the

it is

evident

it bears

but

the

close

"the

brought destruction

gnomic poet

yet ended

deeds''^

time

same

author

there

to

that

not

or

carefully
arranged

it,is
so,

Kypros,

it

the murder

intended

was

that

spite of chronological
difficulties,

plain

have
it

doom

pride of Xerxes

preceded by dreams

wonderful

brought

Kimon, which

only

in

Salamis

at

it

not

while

great and

"the

have

made

War

of the Persian

and

has

and

of moderation

be

were

could

in

it is that
to

the

conception of
justproportionaroused the

and
legislator

court

to follow.

He

unfinished.

belief in

he considered

doctrine

by facts ; hence
expeditionof Xerxes has
that

Greek

when

Lydian

Hekatseos,as

artistic Greek

exceeded

verified

the events

old

overweening power
destined disaster,
just as

the

who

preferred,
a theological
theory,

; the

the

introduced

is

the

at the moment

Kroesos

upon

do better.

others

the

of the

Whatever

of heaven
ve/xecrts

and

himself

term

hereditaryguilt,and

awaits

jealousyof

"

and
specialobjectof his dislike,
him.
effacing
But, above all,Herodotos

if the

combination

been

well in

only too

philosophical,
or,

could

thought he

seems

he succeeded
had

men
failingof literary

common

not

quoting.
herodotischcn

the

to

The

Otanes

raised

criticism

most

natural

had

on

passed

really

on

first

the

explanationof

2d edition,1878.
Geschichtsiverkcs,

xviii

the

INTRODUCTION.

and

strength of a comparison between


the metaphor of the springput into

and

makes

he

remain

him
bks.

supposes

that

calls the

reallyits

was

been

various

whole,

the

composition of

final redaction.

which

Xerxes

have

must

read

was

that

written

Egypt

on

history,which
a

(to the
the

of the

when

The

it; but

revised

evidence
satisfactory

the

work,

Assyrian portion of the historyof Ktesias


composed with the view of confutingthe statements
had

been

similar to that

on

Egyptian volume
togetherwith
Assyria. The
hands

of

Herodotos

or

work,

two

without

about
read

he

work

assumes

of

that

Xerxes

the history of the

(bks.

before
thrown

far

so

vii.-ix. )

was

been

We

must,

on

Assyria

the whole
from

of his

his

Assyrian
Babylonian empire,

to

the

on

the earlier

chronologyof

his

death

into

it be

known

what

after

no

the
its

Assyrian history. It is even


possiblethat
this and other fragmentswhich went
to form

Entstehungszeit des herodotischen

1878.
Geschichtswerkes,
^
Bauer's
hypothesis,

have

Herodotos.

publishingit,let

is

Nevertheless

Hence
generalhistoryto private circles of friends.
Ktesias in the form of a counter
Assyrianhistory.

Die

there

Assyrianmatters

on

introduced

bore

expunged by

and

his

it almost

to

he embodied

related

which

Assyrian

seems

written
actually

volume, perhaps,fell

whole

have

of

name

that while

portion which

passage

said
may

had

into his great

friends,who,

had

author

Egypt, and

that

only

the

that Herodotos

assume
therefore,

volume

under

current

episodes

make

separate volume.

Herodotos

to the

been

well have

after

soon

of such

the references

the

which

expedition of

of fact.

(or redacted)his book,

it formed

that

Thurii,the

445,

B.C.

had

connected

in

the

existence

incorporatedinto

he

which

"

the

Lydian,

book)

element

an

historyin parts.

never

he

5th

history of

certainty.^The Assyrianhistorycannot

Herodotos

Persian

people in
Egyptian history.^

goes far to prove

was

the

the

"

believes

Herodotos

piecedtogetherinto

contains

visit

part of the

that

assumes

Athenian

doubt

his

this second

second

histories

the

was

the

He

were

middle

It
to

compositionof the
Bauer's theory no

the

These

Athens.

part in

second

as

times.

first part

(vii.
162),

written.

of individual
by him a number
Egyptian, the Skythian,the Libyan, and
at

of Perikles

of Gelon

During

428.

had

written

oration

the mouth

till B.C.

to have

funeral

accepted by Bauer, ^ who, however,

are

Kirchhoft'

what

History

77-ix.

v.

dates

Kirchhoff's

there

the

as

it

otea

bks.

'^

by Bacliof, Quccstiuncula

(Eisenach, 1880).
See

reply of

i.-vi.,is successfullyover-

campaign
written

the

i. 106, note

1.

Herod.-

INTRODUCTION.

detached

The
harmonious
upon

must

Herodotos

notes.

thus

suppose

themselves

have

been

have

gone

about, penciland

parts, which

whole,

xix

we

must

were

based

received

replieshe

and

descendants

the

of great

which

eyesight and

own

observation

to

monuments

the Greeks

forged Kadmeian

like the

Kroesos

to

with

intercourse

who

those

writers*;

Phoenician

taken

done

rather

or
Egyptian priests,

to

had
had

related to those who

were

tradition ]

to

of

testimony of

his

oracles

to

Greek

to

part in the events

so, like Thersander

poets

like those

personal

described,or

dragomen;

and

Arkhias

Persian

to

Arkhilokhos

"

tions
inscrip-

and

eyewitnesses

to

half-caste

Greek

to

Thermopylae ;
at Thebes

ones

or

largeblocks

the

relics
offeringsand famous
the Spartans at Tegea, or the

the

fell at

priests,

introduced,

was

the

appeals to

; to

who

he

visited,and

the fetters of

preservedin temples,like

delivered

He

excited his wonder.

measure

Greek

dragomen,

whom

to

men

buildingshe

measuring the size of the


stone

questionsfrom

his

to

in great

measuringtemples,noting down

tape in hand, examining the relics preservedin


the

into

woven

and

(i.12), Solon

of Keos
135), Alkaeos (v.95), Simonides
(v. 113),Sappho (ii.
(v.102,
vii. 228), Anakreon
121), Pindar (iii.
38), Lysistratos(viii.
(iii.
96),

ufEskhylos(ii.
156),Phrynikhos (vi.21),Aristeas (iv.13),Homer
Hesiod
117, iv. 32, v. 67, ii. 53), Olen (iv.35),Musseos and
(ii.
(vii.
6, \i\\. 20, 77, 96,
geographers. Among
ones,

such

the stem

as

dedicated

43)

ix.

the

and

"

he

monuments

of twisted

engraved with Greek


example of the Kadmeian

even

where

therefore

he

had

careful in

evidence
epigraphic

to deal

preservedin temples,like
^

iii. 115, iv. 16.

ix. 16.

See i. 1, i. 95, i. 214.

iv. 88.

Phit.

Vit.

it is

stood

the

tripod

which

is

tablet of Mandrokles

columns

erected

the

forgeriesand

exactlyknow

probable that

what

by

apxoua

in

Dareios
The
that

official

he used

Karnean

(Athen. xiv. p. 635

Argos

registers

the latter gave

and

victors

Olympian

3) ; the Ustof
also the

Besides

of Elis (Paus. v. 4, 4) ;
ypd/ut,,aaTa

the hst of

Comp.

now

genuine texts

it was.

dvaypa^al of Sparta."^If

iv. 87.

Ages.

which

inscribed

be
must
inscriptions
; and we
the strengthof supposed
statements
on

iii.55.

19.

many

and

Greek

do not

we

of this kind

monuments

with

acceptinghis
where

were

and

distinguishbetween

not

historians

and
Platasa,

the

Bakis

Assyrian {i.e. Persian)characters.^


at Thebes, however, shows
inscriptions

and

could

on

victors at

Apollo by
in the Hippodrome at Constantinople
; or
the temple of Here
at Samos;^ or the two

Herodotos

saw

serpents

the Greek

to

earlier Greek

to

and

(Paus. v. 8,
Sparta
registersof

victors at

e); the

Sikyon (Plut.

De

Mus.

p.

INTRODUCTION.

XX

tlie

length of

each

well

king'sreignas

his name,

as

the fact that Herodotos

places900

(ii.
145) instead

which, accordingto his

of 630,

dates

142),would
(ii.

from

Herakles

be the time

to Leonidas

of the oral tradition from


ascribed

Musseos

to

years between

and

Bakis

time

are

deal of the folklore which


borrowed
and

himself;

states

lends

the

as

philosopherspresuppose

while

Herodotos

both

he

Persian

and

of the

official list.

other

any

in his translations

understood

the Persian

Ktesias.^

speak

That

both

; but

in

fact,who

the

as

Minor

It is

Greek

they

and

Persian

is of

made

was

literature.

which

In

and

Persian

by

Phoenician

Herodotos

translations
authorities

1134); and

derived

may
in

the

in

the Jews
case

any

there

the Greeks

that of the Athenian

Spain for

was

could

he
have

not

is also borne
Minor

in

"

way

carried

been

clerks,

mere

"

by

able to

other

no

in life

books, as

well

as

arelions
to be

the value
(Polyb. xii. 12, 1).
assigned to the list of Olympian victors

Hellenic

Mahaffy

see

Studies, ii. 1
^

in

the

of
the

1.

his

they

of

164

were

Oriental

other

Journal

(1881), pp.

See i. 1, note

of Greek

documents, from

the fact that

on

that

masters

translations

of official

of

perform the

to

Greek

poets,

sake

for the

students

always speaks

he

of

their conquerors

their

the Arab

; and

his statements

and

been

have

must

explain why
plural. The

For

an

the mistakes

there have

station

from

livelihood,like the dragomen in Egypt, out

between
interpreters

undertaken

the account

Herodotos

and

linguistic
acquirements. To learn the languageof
and if the trouble were
undergone
was
unpatriotic,
found
gain "banausic."
PossiblySemitic settlers were
office of

language of

that

their

same

the

in Asia

states

that

ignorant of

is taken

evident

course

high

no

literature,

so

that he

found

of the Greek

probably of

"

evidence

same

early

be concluded

not

were

prove

been

have

must

government

were

The

That

expressly

Oriental

his own,

words

language.

he

quiteclear,too, that

language than

good

doctrines of the

of Phoenician

or

for

charm.

writers

it might
subject,

of Persian

persons

could the Persian


on

great

so

satrapiesgiven in the third book


there is nothing else to show
But

acquaintedwith
makes

well

"

Persian

generations

tradition

to

Phoenician

in Asia

countrymen

English of the day


is ordinarily
supposed.

as

"

his

and

Persian

the

"

trade,

born

was

so

acquaintancewith

an

reckoning

probablyformed part
largely,
though,as the oracles

his pages

style as

Ionic

of

oracles

indebted

to

Persian

from

mode

own

Herakles

writing,it is possiblethat a
Delphi had been made before his

doubt

no

and

explain

in

were

the oracles of

Herodotos

The

he drew

written

compilationof
(seei. 47). We

himself

requiredfor the twenty-one

(vii.
204).
which

they may

hand,

of Hellenic
sq.

INTEODUCTION.

part of

formed

education,and

Greek's

the

xxi

the texts

were

Herodotos
based.
had
was
teachingof ypd/xixara
to heart,and
an
a good deal of their compositions

the

quoted by

name

and

"

makes

Herodotos

is the

doubt

no

mitted
com-

apt quotation

world

than

only Greek

in the

prose-writer

only for the sake of disparagement


the poets of his
his acquaintancewith

that

show

ancient

the

it is that while Hekataeos

Hence

modern.

less esteemed

be

likelyto

not

was

in

which

upon

"

of

good knowledge of standard poetry was as much the mark


of a cultivated
gentleman as it was in the English societyof the last
somewhat
It is therefore
strange that Sophokles, the
century.
A

nation.

fashionable

tragedian of
there

as
especially

honour.^

tragedieshad

no

them.

of

part

passages

from

did

Nor

it the

relation

literature

was

wished

to

himself

familiar

materials

supplant.
with

his

own

acceptingonly wdiat
and

Hekatseos

names

him

appear
Hekatoeos

The

Plut.
poem

See

their

names.

no

iii. 119,

has

on

in his

poem

And

for his
has

the

"v
note

HevT

one

every

ledge
know-

prose

be

chief

gained by showing

aim

He

he

to

was

their

use

tries to

impressupon
prose-writers
; he boasts of

older

115,
eyewitnesses(iii.
confute

can

him

16),

iv.
or

make

indebtedyet it is certain that he is largely

without

cf. Hanna,

"Beziehungen des Sophokles zu He(Briinn,1875), and Nieberding,


Herodot
(Neustadt,
Sophokles und
1875). The lynx eyes of commentators
Sohave
discovered
plagiarisms from
119.
and
iii.
On
the
ii.
in
35
phokles
other hand, Sophokles seems
really to
"

;
to

his rivals whom

to

he tliinks he

eiri irevr-qKovTa.

6, and

whom

predecessorsin

were

Mat

from

information,and
drawn

of Herodotos

Bakis.

his

be known.

heard

only when

rodot"
"

more

consequentlyunable

and

His

Op. ii. p. 785 A, edit. Reiske.


'Upodor^ rev^ev
began : 'fidrjv

So0o/cX77serewj/

education

poet about

They

one.

was

ridiculous.

he
particularly
^

written

was

towards

There

he

of

like Musseos

lettingthe fact
to
superiority

without

the reader

named,

reputationof learningas

same

different

very

and

them,

Herodotos

of

school

of the

knowledge

worthies
prehistoric

The

said to have

even

be

once

allusions to Herodotos

of conscious

formed

talkingbring with

was

not

the fashionthe fact that Sophokles was


able
precisely
His
day which explainsthe silence of Herodotos.

not

learned

quote

is

should

it is

But

poet of the
he had

day,

evidences

are

part of the poet, who

the

to

the

that

in

Egyptian

scruple on

the w^ork

allude to Herodotos
age

referred

above

genuine, but also


the Egyptians are
misery is described
and

1211

to

perhaps

allaythe
Fr.

of the Nile
the

snow.

of

more

the writer

only in the
to, assuming it
not

where

the

attacked

passto be

habits

and

of

human

in (Ed.

well

is made

mention
games

sq.,

as

matters

Col. 337 sq.


in i^r. 380, where

as

of

the

pangs

967, where
is ascribed

invention

of

of

hunger, and

the

inundation

to the

melting of

xxii

he

INTRODUCTION.

desired

not
society,

of

Herodotos
supersede.-^

to

decrepitand decaying one

securingthe

centuries

of

passport

to

Herodotos
older

circulation
own

our

authors

their

subject,
supposed to
the

by

well known

be

in vi. 55

reference

competitionwith

into

allowed

laid
This

ii. 15, 17, iv. 36, 42, where

like

passages

been

have

to be

to the

Herodotos,

criticism of

under

by

writers

audience,are

of

case

v/hile

verified

on

the

sneered

therefore

of

just

contribution

exj^ectationis

are

of

age

in the

treatment

who
genealogy-makers,
and

the

to suffer

soon

other

to his

the

author, so

suffered at the hands

was

similar

suppressed.

been

has

himself

expect

works

whose
have

names

to

us

older

an

mode

in the earlier

Egypt, or

it to

growing

the surest

reading public in
noveltyand contemptuous

Herodotos

prepares

"

and

young

just as

in ancient

Hekatseos

treatment

which

and

retribution
other

The

Greek

the

among

; and

ascribe

to

the affectation of

writers.
"

book

was

era,

fame

was

Herodotos

of

for

wrote

by

same

at ;

did not

or

come

compassionately

still read.

Among the
Argos, Eudemos

who

writers
of

had

preceded Herodotos

Akusilaos

were

of

Eugeon of Samos, Hekatseos


and Dionysios of Miletos,Kharon
of Lampsakos, Xanthos
of Sardes,
Demokles
of Phygela,Bion and Deiokhos
of Prokonnesos, Amelesagoras
or
Melesagoras of Khalkedon, Pherekydes of Leros, and Skylax of
in the ancient world
Karyanda. ^ Hekatseos we know he used ; even
it

notorious

was

of
"

Persian

of his

own,*

while

den

Grossen

"

Hellanikos
have

must

406) in his
Schol.

on

82

(1880), pp.
survived

battle

and

him,

he

as

of

Arginussoe(B.C.
Atthis, and, accordingto the
Sophokles {Phil. 201) and
x.

das

"

( Wiener
use

Herodot's

und

Hellanikos'

Studien, i. 1879), decides


of the

detected.

one

by

the

other

can

]}.
J.

"

that
be

from

are

so

no

two

sonal

from

source

he

Prtcp,Ev. x. 3.
remarks, the descriptions
with

Avriters could

make

which

ap. Euscb.

discordant

not

The

reignof Kyros
the original
idea

independently,and
did

tions
descrip-

the

Herodotos

Porphyr.

the

crocodile.^

the

Wiedemann

As

sq.

Herodotos

after

Aegyp-

Porphyry (ap. Euseb. Prcep. Ev.


b), read and copied Herodotos.
Ueber
Bass, in his monograph,

no

that author

probably the

was

466

Yerhaltniss

from

suggested to

I. bis auf Alexander

written

to the

alluded

"

stolen

"

Eugoeon

"Geschirhte

Psammeticli

von

had

have

Xerxes, may

See Wiedemann,

tens

he

phoenix,the hippopotamus, and


which extended
History" of Dionysios,

of

that

or

the

to that

Pares, Eugseon

his

actual

have
show

facts that

hit upon
that

statements

them

Herodotos
from

per-

observation, as he professesto have

done.

Dionysios is said to have stated that


brought the alphabet to Greece.
This
to be the reason
seems
why Herodotos insists at such
length and with
an
experience that it
appeal to his own
was
(v.58-61).
brought by Kadmos
Danaos

INTRODUCTION.

which

dragged into

is

Khar6n

taken

from

of Kroesos

to

On

other

worked

with

up

historypresupposes

with

the

Whether
is

he

intentional

an

contradiction

is included

which

laid

of the

Ephoros expresslyasserts that the latter


^
We
must
starting-pointof his history.

writer

"

of

Lydian

the

succession

it must

be noted

kingdom

of Sardes

deals

the lonians.

narrative

much

as

Xanthos, the

Greeks, and

of Etruria

well

as

His

gave

the

the
and

name

doubtful.

more

with

colonisation

the

of

account

he

derived

dynasties; but

the Mermnadie

between

wars

hand, the
seems

doubt

no

Lydian kings
begins with the period when
practically

first brought into close contact

was

native

Spartan magistrates

explorerby

he
^

and

of the

dates

of his

Skylax,again,subsequently
Periplus,must have lain at the

documents

of

threat

(ttltv^)
; Pityusa,

originalname

the

them

the

of

mentions

use

fir

Halikarnas-

point of
"

from

Lampsa-

on

the

vi. 55, where

notes

contribution

the

the

like

in

into

borrowed

to

list of the

to

from

known
seen

"

the

the far East.

about

Lydian historian,under

that it

been

materials

disposalof Herodotos, who


his voyage
(iv.44), and
his information

have

hand, Kharon's

other

Thrakian.

specialwork

been

Lampsakos

certainlyalluded
genealogers. The

almost

among

other

the

His

otherwise

down

either have

must

have

to

seem

fabulist

the

troduced
ground as Herodotos, but also inthe
piecesof folklore,
as, for examjile,

source.

Kharon, having

according to
^
city.

same

digressionon ^sop (ii.


134),
of
its
out
to be
place,seems

made

Herodotos

would

cut

same

common

not

historian,who

and

had

the

historythe

kos, however, does

seems

much

Astyages^which

of
or

sian

the narrative

only traversed

not

into his

him

The

as-ainst Eusfseon, who

directed

dream

Polykrates.

of

derived his account

xxiii

On

mostly

the other

given by Herodotos
of Xanthos,* and

"gave Herodotos

the

forget that although


in the age of Herodotos,
there were
no
publishersor printing-presses
unknown
not altogether
;^ Perikles at Athens was
publiclibraries were
^

Tertnll. Be

Arian.

46.

Pint.

Virt.

IIul.

Deiokos

De

Kj'zikoshad

of

See iii. 100, note

See i.
Fr.

thinks
Xanthos

made

p.

the

A.

same

{Frg. 10, ed. Miill.)

statement

"^

rodotos
255

94,

note

5.

that

if

Herodotos

he

would

have

Rawlinson
had

used

noticed

"the

in
peculiar physical appearances
described
of Lydia
interior
by
Lydian v/riter. But the Lydia of
"

not

extend

to

the

plains

The

Magnesia.
Demokles,

who

case

As

Athens

the

In these

the

tion

He-

and

is different

did not
the
and

with

in

work

Asia

which

the

Minor

it is

plain

use.

library of Peisistratos at
of Polykratesat Samos,

that

libraries

of the

of

speciallyon

Phenomena

Herodotos

far, beins:

so

Sardes

wrote

(Strab.i, p. 85),a

Professor

102,

did

Volcanic

2.

ed.

confined

not

Ave

may

see

an

illustra-

Asiatisingtendencies of
tyrants. Libraries had long existed

the
in

xxiv

INTRODUCTION.

surrounded

materials,which

taken

Athenian
since

side

alluded

occurrence

Spartan

the

137) in

of

took

place two

finished

not

were

little said

treated

been
"

;"^

his later years

but

affected
West, scarcely

(2.)Classical
the

after

this at

it

as

last

the

betrayalof
133(vii.

the

Athens,

earthquake at

death

of

which

to

he

the

beginning of the
the Propylsea(v.77),which
he saw
Professor Mahaffy remarks
that the
affairs of Magna Grsecia,which
had
Antiokhos

and

Rhegium
be

remembered
the

by

was

the

that

the

to

mentioned,

and

Athenians

holds

than

of

Syracuse,is

his work
the

that

Thurii

in

historyof

the

at

did not

great war,

within

come

of his work.

the scope

popular

Kirchhoff

the

it must

this is

the

to

his

later

Zopyros

certain,is

againstthe compositionof

strong argument

of

by Hippys

of

is

431.

about

Herodotos

by

desertion

drew

not

of which

where

B.C.

shape

Artaxerxes,

years

and

till

final

of

the Delian

shortlyafter
Peloponnesian War, ^

their

Herodotos

death

430.^

B.C.

returned

which

ambassadors

Korinthian

and

the autumn

Herodotos

date

to, the

from

cheaper than

rate

any

subsequent to

(iii.
160). No event
does
not
imply the

vi. 68

at

were

for the

426, the latest possibledate

B.C.

of

sources

have

must

books

and

by literary
men,
travelling.
the
Such, then, were

verdict

scholars
of

Pseudo-

have

long

antiquitywhich

Plutarch,

and

since

determined

found

to

expressionin

the

reverse

the

treatise

of the charge of
acquit Herodotos
conscious
dishonesty. Mr. Blakesley,indeed, has brought powerful
arguments to show that Thukydides and others considered Herodotos
of the XoyoTrotoi,
whose
aim was
not
to instruct but to please,
one
and

tried

has

Herodotos
or

in

was

De

even

substantiate

to
no

Foe.

way

Professor

the

by

Pseudo
but

considered;"*
Wiedemann,
Herodotos

has

make

to

it

while

to

ventures

has

been

that

and

the

"

contrary view
Groeca

Kappadokia, from
one

in the

British
while

which

Louvre

Museum,
others

Kaisariyeh by

as

have
Mr.

and

now

we

two

the

have

know,

claytablets,
other

been

in the

brought,
procured at
For the
Ramsay.
been

^
^

not

bhxme

(Prov.

i.),and,

that

Marco

Polo

that

the

the

attack

been

sufficiently
an
Egyptologist,Dr.
charge brought against

Babylonia,Assyria,Phoenicia, Jerusalem
XXV.

than

to prove

for

the

that

and

agreeing with

suggest

"perhaps

reserved

plain

undeserved,

not

was

it

judgment

Mahaffy, too,

Plutarch

their

trustworthy writer

more

opinion,nevertheless

current

made

both

to

cf.

"

which,
(/xw/xog)

Paley, Bihliograpliia

(1881).
Thukyd. ii. "7.
Thuk.

ii. 8.

as

compared

with

He-

rodotus, vi. 98.


^

Hidory

ii. p. 26.

of Classical Greek Literature,


^

Ibid. p. 38.

xxvi

INTRODUCTION.
It prepares

ments.

leads

him

sometimes

real
from

also

us

make

to

ignorance,and

the

affectation

an

of

writes, Herodotos

he

to

misleading. Thus,

case

every

wliich

knowledge

sometimes
assertions,

erroneous

is in

which

in

way

for

judge

to

have

must

ceal
con-

been

able to converse
freelywith Egyptians,Phoenicians
linguist,
(iii.108), Carthaginians (iv.43), Babylonians
(ii.44), Arabians
(iv.103), Kolkhians
(i.181-183), Skythians (iv.5, 24), Taurians
marvellous

(v. 10),Karians

(ii.104), Thrakians
Yet

Persians.

total

he

he ventures

Kolkhis, and

them

pronounces

by

the side of his other

of

birds

could

what

The

find

we

by

the

doubt

elsewhere

context

the

and
have

must

to

"

the

in

of

portion of

See ii. 3, note

ii. 29.

been

Herodotos

be
as

inserted

Herodotos

question

had

his

numberless

wishes

bracketed
I believe

copyist.

the
to

elsewhere,

him
a

Helio-

told

into"
him

at

in

able
consider-

believe

to
true

that,

he did

Thebes,

was

Herodotos

to

test what

His

no

serious

for

Memphis.

fact

what,

most

readers

in order

not

It is
of

veracityof
his

had

readers.

pohs alone, and not


enough to Memphis
"turn

ments,
monu-

confessingthe

convict

the

native's

every

authorities
of

is

againstpronouncing

Upper as well as Lower


Egypt. It is
one
passage,^he never
actuallysays that

/cat, which
a

further

it affects the credit and

9.

by

can

he will not

himself

his

or

time,

to

remarks,

literarydishonestyof

work.

his

In ii. 3 I have

Qrj^as re

termed

we

on

closely

time

constantlyin

was

"

except perhaps in

have

deitywhich

have

enquiries

more

From

traveller could

whether

made

AViedemann

as

taking notes, but instead


deceives
history deliberately

visited

and,

when

days, would

is

Greek

ignorance.

character,inasmuch

words

narrative.

Osiris ;

be

therefore,if after this

that he had

doubt

look

we

perpetuallymeeting his eyes


fact is mentioned
by Herodotos

was

name

father

wonder,
these

of

name

been

caught the

his

if

chirping
callingthe

further

less have

is confirmed
in

the

begin to

all,much

be put

may

Egyptian resembled
him

and

Egypt

he

scruplethe
only religious
and

at

both

verdict which

"

of

alludes to a god whose


name
Egypt,
god in
says, for religiousreasons.-^ The

he

mention,

mouth,

that

country

speaking of

shown

languages

be alike

to

assertion

visited the

have

of its inhabitants.

when

the

(ii.57). When, however, we find


and black-skinned,we
woolly-haired

Kolkhians

into

(i.171-172), and
belonging to any

explain words

to

acquaintancewith

an

assumes

he

Kaunians

mistakes
and
languages he generallymakes
simply displays
them
for
of
when
pretation
(as,
ignorance
example,
giving an interof the Persian kings,vi. 98). In ii. 104, 105,
of the names

of these
his

when

and

reason

so

near

to
was

for

INTRODUCTION.
in
in

so

words, but lie does his best

many

142-143) resorts
place(ii.

one

order

effect his

to

that the

345

the

same

older historian

whom

evidence

that

Herodotos

Fayum.

Had

he

Thebes,
to

the

he

would

he have

his

dragoman

But
city" of Elephantine.'^

if he

were

have

been

be

Hekataeos

deliberate falsehood

wonderful

equally far.

This

is the

he

declares

in ii. 29, where

than

praise

buildingsof

the Nile

visited

only
that

the

due, probably,

made

had

the

is clear

such

should

too

for

excuse

he

rise at

Thebes, and

that Herodotos

needful

supplantedit was

least

at

lavished

which

"

contrasts

higher

"

"the

to

the

the

as

"

There

gravelyrepeatedthe story

misunderstandingof

saw

time

same

Nile

have

over

generations

two

ignorantvanity of

the

not

understand

to

for the first time.^

silent

been

the

the

ascended

he

so

reader

Herodotos

at

with

names
never

done

would

wisdom

now

labyrinthand

nor

and

legerdemainin

Thebes

statues

and

and
impression,

of verbal

at

seen

Memphis,

at

"

kind

341

the

convey

gives the

had
the

as

to

he

Hekatseos

precedingchaptersshow
his own
superiormodesty

the

to

Here

object.

statues

previouslywere

upon

xxvii

the

"

came

as

an

eyewitnessas far as the cityof Elephantine." In callingElephantine


a city,
however, instead of an island,he betrays the real facts of the
case, and

which

it may

omits

ii. 29, note


So

be

the

the

Angelican

clause,represents the

(prima mami) [b],

MS.

of Herodotos

originaltext

(see

7).

flagrantan

extended

that

hoped

travels

of

example
to

which

dishonestyexcites

Herodotos

distrust of the

our

claim.

implicitlylays

The

suspicionsaroused

of
by his extraordinarily
inappropriatedescription

the

confirmed, and

Kolkhians

what

Herodotos

has

derived

from

proud.

At

was

not

was

so

evidence
used
his

are

that

of the

tell

to

others
any

Herodotos

Eretrians

time

us

we

of the
from

"

whether

eyewitnesses

Black

Sea

of whom

he

Bunbury remarks,^ there

Mr.

as

ever

travelled

far

as

that

"

doubt

"

"

those

to

part of the

eastern

rate,

at Arderikka

inclined

are

as

is

no

Susa, the expression

they remained

there

up

to

of the
that used
as
being the very same
Bark{3eans in Baktria (iv.204), a country which
be disposed
few would
to maintain
visited by him.
was
Moreover, the difhculties connected
with the description
of the royal road from
Sardes to Susa ^ can
only
be

own

(vi.119)
"

the

explained on

doing so
polls were
ties."
Thebans.

that

was

**

the

considered

There

is

no

suppositionthat

best

reference

was

borrowed

Helio-

See notes

authori-

See ii. 29, note

History of Ancient

people of
the

it

to

the

234-235.

2, 5, and

from

another

the passage.

on

7.

Geography, i. -^^.
4

y.

52.

xxviii

INTRODUCTION.

work.

Not
with

frontier

to this

the

to

the

to

of the

part

road

could
56

with

It may

As

have

allowed
the

that

no

by Kyros,
Herodotos

is pretty evident
must

conclude

will

explainhis
countries

does

thus

assigned
the river

point
alone

thus

which

at

fullyequal

leaving the whole


Tigris,unaccounted

the

to

Armenia

"is

equallyat variance
of the Satrapies."-^
description

had

does

lowest

"

the

describe

not

that he

to

who

Herodotos

as

distance

Tigris being

its waters

that

thought

the

"

Euphrates

one

the

the

as

extension

enormous

Armenia,

it in

assigned to

added

the

given

be taken

through Assyria,from

Mosul

to

sistent
day'sjourney incon-

Gyndes

with

variance

march

crossed

extension

extent

have

rivulets

well

the

Matiene,

neighbourhood of

the

be

would

; the

route

S]3ace, from

while

the

and

each

if the

but

up,

altogetherat

parasangs

intermediate

for;"

is

given for
"

summing

Armenia

Armenia

Gyndes
the

the final

between

given to

tlie numbers

only are

actuallycrossed

had

been

the

Gyndes

dissipatedinto

360

in i. 189-190.^
other

any

road

to the

East, and

it

travelled

along this particular


one, Ave
visited Assyria and
that he never
Babylonia. This
ing
comparativesilence about such important and interestnever

Syria and

as

much

Assyria Proper. Yet, just as

in

as

to produce the impression


Upper Egypt, he has endeavoured
that he had
visited Babylonia and
conversed
Khaldean
there with
and
his endeavour
has been
successful as to deceive the
so
priests,
One
he
majorityof his commentators.
passage, in fact,i. 183, where

the

of

case

it to be inferred

wishes

Babylon

because it had

of

it is the

would
the

have

been

his

prevaricationas
Egypt. It is true he
but

that he did

does

natural

as
temple itself,

to

the

see

is

by Xerxes,

well

his

from

the

statue.

e'Aeyovol

XakSatoL

there," since
afford him

whether
in

the

he
same

the

But

Bunbury,

time

same

did not

see

to

at

when

it himself

by

mean

he says

See note

did

on

not

length,leavingit
the

they told me
they used to say;"

But

been

that the Persian

chapter,"as

of the doubt.

i. p. 253.

said he

unluckilyHerodotos

intended

they might signify"as

the benefit

prevarication

it contained, since it had

the

image
vii.
(Arrian, 1 7) at
as

if he had

detection

accordinglydescribes the temple


that he had
examined
understood
carefully

doubtful, however,

at

as

The

words.

this,and

be

of Bel

golden statue

flagranta piece
about
the 341
statement
in
images he saw
that he was
not
assert
in Babylonia,
positively

inference

destroyedby Xerxes
king had carried away
know

removed

easilyescaped

more

not

in

It is

words

when
and

I
we

w?

was
can

chapter 193

tlie passage.

INTRODUCTION.
will not

tliat he
"

knowing

would

mention

w^ell that
believe

not

his words

though
read

to

far

may

to

Apart

relatingto
made
by a

the

stones

in

from

the

spot

Babylonia,^who

does

by Dareios,^and

to

fancies

self-convicted of
No

The

one,

of

name

for his

Gyges was
Assyrian power

the

Assyria w^as

Ktesias

had

good

and

have

of

which,

hardly have
"

in

been

immense

site of

have

older

would

so

Babylonian with
used

by those

by Herodotos

have

when

from

down

of
his

working

come

Assur-bani-palor

called

the

less

writers

and
history,

have

Assyrian
Babylonians of

the

by
much

derived

Greek

country,^

the district he undertakes

successors,

been

in the

up

from

and
Sardanapalos,

of

Lydia

and

Ionia.

for

reason

conclusion

not

been

two

"

seldom

influencingthe fortunes

was

have

speaks of

done

never

his

vassal of

Assyrian history; and if we


incorporatedin his work, its

(3.)The

falls but

confused

Assyrian

when

the

himself

the real

the

Opis,^and
Arderikka, a placeprobably quiteas
walls of Babylon had been destroyed

had

period. It must
antiquarianresearches among
time

We

who

know

not

indeed, who

the Persian

materials

writer

"

of

impression,even

author.

misstatements

having visited

never

the age of Nebuchadrezzar

the

not

"

as

luxuriance

false

another

could

rain

that

have
or
BabyloniaAssyria,'^

empire.

the

siegesundergone by Babylon, could

visitor

describe.

of

plants,
Babylonia

sesame

far

so

gone

convey

historical

the

millet and

stated

Herodotos

imaginary cuttingsnear
imaginary,^who asserts that the

to

not

been

describes

stands

the

again trying to
be quoted from

that

see

Khaldea.

"

is

had

who
had

what

vegetationthere,he

size of

the

those

xxix

of errors
in his
accusing Herodotos
judge from the specimens of it
may
disappearanceis no great loss.
driven

are

we

to,

accordingly,is

that

Mr.

a
mere
Blakesley is right in consideringHerodotos
AoyoVoto?. He
a
pilfered
freelyand without acknowledgment ; he assumed
knowledge
he did not possess ; he professedto derive information
from
personal
which
from
the very sources
reallycame
experienceand eyewitnesses

See i,
i.

192, note

186,

4 ; iii. 159, note


^

1.

note

igg^

^ote

7.

sense

8.

own

in wliicli Herodotos
work
"

'

i. 185, note

5.

iii. 159, note

7.

the

i.
In

193,

ii. 150

legend

derived

from"
.

he

from
an

1, note

8.

note

Herodotos

i. 178.
confesses

that

Sardanapaloswas
(X67c^)quoted
passage
X67tos or "proser" (see

tells of
"a

earlier

1). A670S

is here

used

in the

tradition

uses

36), and

v.

it of liis
does

"_ "report."
clearlynot justifiedin drawing

"^^^^^

is

(ii.38,

or

not

Stein
from

the passage the inference tliat Herodotos


had
visited Assyria before he travelled
in

Egypt.

ruin
could

in the
have

Nineveh
time
been

hll his note-books

was

of
no

an

uninhabited

Herodotos, so there
dragoman there to

with

folklore.

INTRODUCTION.

XXX

he seeks
which

disparageand supersede;

to

are

narratives

supported by good authority,but

they were

his

of

turn

With

such

becomes

questionhow

historical

first

must

we

did

had

certainlyextended

the

Mediterranean.

possible
;

sea

as

He

had

far

as

need

they could

his travels ; if

and

Dodona,

Athos

is

have

been

rival those

proof that

no

its sacred

he

had

He

kept

from

the shores

Egypt by

an

steamer, had

Lloyd
acquaintanceof

the
Kyrene, and had made
Delos.
^gean, includingof course
and probably also,as the legend
"

born

was

of Asia

coast

western

at

portionof

as

the

near

pilgrimageas

of Thrake

the

tourist

chief

resided

returning

in

islands

Magna

life asserts, in

Kaikos,

from

Grsecia,

Samos.*

known

and

of the

to

The

him.

Lydia

He

and

probably with

its
the

well.^

as

Except
brought

the

of

Egypt as Lake
Syria,touchingat

acquainted with

was

extent

apparentlystayed at

naturallywell

and

Ephesos

had

of his

was

Halikarnassos,and

capitalSardes, with
Troad

Minor

He

that he

in

sailed

Austrian

to

penetrated far inland.

ever

far south

as

answer

Skylax,they

or

shrines,making

been

work.

proved

of the

Herodotos

the

face, it

show

to

ashamed

his

to

be

can

of Hekatseos

Greek,

true

because

accept his

order

evidence

good

he introduces

the

and

he

along the shores of Palestine and


and
Ivhodes,^like a modern
Tyre, Beyrut,^Kypros,"-^
had
IMoeris,

in

In

countries

probably coastingalong

Byzantion.

to

of

tenor

the greater part of the civilised

and

visited Greece

there
not

over

have

the

and

they suited

his statements

trust

can

not

Like

we

because

general

travels

story,not

unveracitystaringus

we

which

those

of

topographicalmatters.

or

all,he

After

not.

the

between
distinguish

visited,and

have

far

into

of

evidences,then,

authority in
it

fitted

and

mind,

to extensive

early philosophers
;

versions
particular

selects

or

lays claim

of the

those

mythical as

as

he

Egypt, and

in

into

Egypt

and

but

with

contact

Syria,as
his

at

well

voyages

Tyre

any

as

at

but

and

Sardes, he

necessarily
Greek-speakingpopulation; in

Sardes, he
doubtless

were

had

was

not

depend upon
performed in Greek
to

men
dragoboats.

in
Egypt, Syria, and Lydia apart, therefore,he had no difficulty
picking up information, and no need of consultingany but Greek
be termed
the Greek
As regardswhat
authorities.
portionof his
may

the Samians

ii. 44, ii. 106.

i. 199.

Stein

13

sq.

far

as

notes

that

the

ii, 182.
account

168

in vi.

betrays an attempt to excuse


conduct
possiblethe disgraceful

as

of

at Lade.

26,
;.iii.

iv. 43, 88, 152


85

;
^

39
;

sq., 64
v.

112

ix. 106.
See ii. 10, vii. 43.

See also i. 70 ; ii.


sq.,
;

60,

120

sq. ;

vi. 22 sq. ; viii.

INTRODUCTION.

His

of

account

stands

on

drawn

first-hand

who

spoke

different

alreadyalleged(p.xxiii)it
that he made
able
his

and

manners

be

he may

and

authorities

could

he

authorityof

the

us

his

No

Samos

to be

as

witness

at

he did not

doubt

special

under

well

for

as

first hand,
of the best

use

exercise

of

language,

Eugseon

-^gean

was

Karian

of

he shows

the

he

friends

their

historyof

experienceby

own

tells
and

of the

both

Karia

he

what

coasts

Of

and

laid the

Herodotos

find.

the

on

of the Kaunians

as

well have

supplemented

to have

Minor

history of Lydia, if

the relatives

questioning. With

consider

may

The

traditions.

or

soil,and

(seep. xxiii).For

contribution
we

documents

well
traditions,
as

and
acquaintance,

of Asia

language from his own, but for reasons


probable that this was not the case, and

Karian

on

acceptedwithout

Greece

is

that
credibility

coast

rested

have

personalexperience;

lived

boyhood

may

from

speak

to

of Greek

use

footing.

must

sources,

the

statements

the western

on

different

somewhat

from

persons

nations

the

his

allow

we
history,accordingly,
may
for them.
is usuallyclaimed

xxxi

much

criticism

gives references to the


dealing with the latter,and as he never
between
books he employed, we
which
cannot
matter
comes
distinguish
and
that which
does not.
from reallytrustworthysources
No doubt,
in

too, his

observation

own

have

made

these

are

mistakes

It is very
he

was

and

to which

tourist,unable

furnished

with

left to the mercies


the

of

but

Greek

barbarian.

would

carry

and
visits,

he
to

with

away

depend

little Herodotos

Like

the

the Kalians

Maltese

the natives

and

Apis,

in

upon

now

it

as

Bulak

times,

museum,

bilingualinscriptionin

subject.

are

In

natives.

Egypt

He

was

the inferior servants

little bakshish

them
dignifies
not

But

of

by showing

with

the

name

speak the language of

know

what

strange idea he

character of the
of the

customs

the

ments
monu-

country, if he

told

between
interpreters
A

heard.

or

by his guides and ciceroni. How


higher societyof Egypt may be gathered

was

in modern

and

historyand
and

manners

he

the traveller.
the

of the

of the

saw

acted

gain

Herodotos

him

the

what

on

to

possibly

language of the country,

cultivated

to

Egyptian priestdid
Every traveller will

the

the

very

to the East.

come

dragomen^

allowed

were

Greeks.
inquisitive

to

priests
;

had

introductions

no

read

authors

we

speak

to

of half-caste

temples,who

them

when

he may

had

he

ancient

most

different,
however,

mere

exact, and

very

repeatingwhat

in

drawbacks

not

was

bronze
has
hiero-

glyphics and
statingthat
"

Peram

the

Karian,
it

was

the

liieroglyphies

dedicated

dragoman."

and
Egyptian name,
may
with
the
Karian
pared
name

an

to

Apis by

Peram

is not
be

com-

Piromis

in

xxxii

INTRODUCTION.

from

his

did not
be

assertions

supposed
he

the

reader

describe

to

reallydid

Hekatseos

used

only

Of

what

he

saw

but

we

course

fair accuracy;

himself, or
had

what

he

the

of the

causes

suspicionthat he may have treated


treated him, admitting a legend on any or
through the

what

notes

made

statements

intention

the second

on

that there

deceive.

to

It is

book
about

are

seldom

can

to

only

that

see

in which

justthe

we

with

same

Nile

read

to

majorityof

the

trace

the

known

now

are

can

raises

Ktesias

necessary

Egyptian matters

many

towards

simply because

evidence

It is

tell

merely making

not

predecessors as

no

written.

by Herodotos

and
false,

to be

they had

he may

himself

rise of the

his

the

it contradicted

is

and
cups,-'-

bronze

Moreover, his attitude

seen.

questionlike

Egyptians

with

see

he

believe
on

the

bread.^

wheaten

eat

what

that

deliberate

his notices of

Babylonia,

of
it ; and
his knowledge even
Assyria as he erroneouslyterms
Persian
and
history,
religion,
language is equallydefective.
manners,
Here, however, his shortcomings are redeemed
by the use of official
or

the description
of the royal
or
documents, like the list of the satrapies,
road

How

clerk who

government

have

contained

been

history.
is

these

sign of

no

unless

it

and

were

cases, where

evidence, we
ancient
for

us

The

143,

to obtain

into

Greek,

which

he

his

brought
they are
must

the

to

And
a

knowledge
which

not

proved

be false

adopt

to

towards

them

possess, and

is

the

pertainingto

note

8).

modern
; in other

them

monumental

attitude

his

or

of mind
it

internal
of the

impossible

Herodotos

in

the East.

long controversy

inscriptionof

where

only
which

relyupon
by

cealment
con-

information,still

his

monuments

can

well informed

so

the

Consequently it
we

position,

regards Persian

he did not

native

for his

/BacnStKfidepal
Persia,as of Babylonia

of

by the
light that

they may

or

social

As

"

derived

he

of

been

royal archives

in his account

authority.

to

have

from

himself,and there

Persian

to

enquire.

them

consulted

sceptics.Egyptology and Assyriologyhave made


ever
again to accept the unsupported assertions of

matters

the

books

expect him

from

sources

confirmed

are

has

them

understand

not

affectation of

diminish

research

one

access

empire.

of the

statements

of the

cannot

had

Egypt, the

further

translated

him

being acquaintedwith Persians


Zopyros the son of Megabyzos.^

of the

"

enabled

it is useless to

his

Ktesias,who

XiKai^

had

in

therefore,we
history,
as

have

may

did
certainly

He

into his hands

came

birth at Halikarnassos

His
a

Susa.

to

Hahkarnassos

which

(seeii.

has

raged

over

the

of
credibility

ii. 37.

ii. 36.

[^i igQ.

Diod.

Sic, ii. 32.

INTRODUCTION.

XXXIV

of Stein.^
been

It

Doric

in Samos

Mr.

Halikarnassos

one,

called in to

was

C. T, Newton

nassians

need

no

decree

of this

occur

in it

when

Doric

are

Doric

for the

like

names

dialect

found

are

is

merely quoted by
155); while dveMvtaL
survived

in the

only

Herodotos

in

discoveryby

Ionic
The

place.

that

only Dorisms

It is

we

which

from

time

similarlyonly in

traces

any

Herodotos, since

the

yafiopoi

by ^skhylos (Suppl.613), but


the

from

alone

of

temporary
con-

in the age of the

was,

UawaTios, survivals

MSS.

Halikar-

Ionic,has shown

town.

used

for dveivrai

Doric

in

The

that
'^Ayts,
'Apccreas,
Aevrvxi^^rjs,

is not
y-qfjbopoi

Ionic

which

his native

still spoken in the

his residence

tyrant Lygdamis, the

that

and
AXiKapvaT{e(j)v)

was

of proper

case

of

'

the

is written

hypothesis,and

the language of
historian,

colony,and

have

must

by the assembly of the

with

along

dialect

of Ionic.

use

issued

Herodotos, which

of
have

of

Doric

being a

explain his

Salmakiteans

and

his native

formerlysupposed that

was

Doric

165)
(ii.

of the

is

dialect

Greek

Sicily(vii.

old Ionic

reallyan

spoken

of

form

dialects into the

literar}^
age.^
^

Vol.

i. pp.

li.-lix.

See

also Struve,
ii.

QucesHones de dial. Herodoti, Works,


323

pp.
of

sq.

Dindorf, preface to edition

Herodotos

(Paris, Didot,

Lhardy, Qucestionuni
(Berlin, 1844-6) : Bredow,
de

Criticariiin

1846)

de

(Leipzig,

Uehersiclit

Abicht,

Qumstionum

Dialekt

iiber

den

(Leipzig,1874) ;
Specimen
Preface
to
Stein,

Qicmstioiium de dialecto Herod.,

from

piimitive "Pan-Ionic"]:
Heilmann,
syntaxi Herodotea
infinitivi
(Giessen, 1879) : and especiallyErman,
a

De

"

Herodoti

Herod.

dialecto

Herodotischen

dial.

1844)

Attic

De

Titulorum

Curtius's

Studien

lateinischen

zur

"

in

(1872), pp.

v.

introduction

Lebaigue's
(Paris, Berlin, 1881)

d'Hirodote

Recits

dialecto

griechischenund

Grammatik,

The

251-310.

may

lonicorum

to

also be consulted.
The

uiid sein Geschichtswcrk

inscriptionis published in the


of the Royal Society of
Literature, ix. 2 (1867). Another
longer
of
the
same
text,
date, and
apparently
recordingthe registrationof lauds and

edit.,1877

houses

(Gottingen,1859)

edit,

Herodotos, vol. i. pp. xliv sq.


(Berlin, 1869) ; Herodotos ; sein Lehen
of

Herodotuin

dorf,
lium

"

(Berlin,
1870),2d
Modorum
apiid
Merz:
(Cothen, 1872-3)

Brandt, De

usu

Qusestiones Grammaticse

in dialecto Herodotea

evitato," and

modo

admisso

kiirzung
Metathesis

und

Vocalen

vor

ira

de

"

voca-

modo

concursu

Vocalver-

quantitative

lonischen," in

Cnrtius'

Studien, viii. pp. 127-222 (1878), and ix.,


(1876) [the result of the
pp. 201-244
author's

study being

has

that

not

that

love of "resolved"

usually ascribed

to

it,and

relation of the Herodotean


dialect
common

the New

is that

that

Ionic
vowels

the true

to the Homeric

from a
of sisters sprung
old Ionic which
itself like
came

Transactio7is

that
also

had

been

found

at

forfeited

the

to

Halikarnassos, is
gods,
in Essays on
published by Mr. Newton
Art and
Archaeology(1880), p. 427 sq.,
and

contained

is not

in the list of Ionic

inscriptionsgiven by
particularly
important on
of

Karian

Another

copy

inimber
it.

published in the
ance
helUnique.
^

Some

dcpewKa.

of the

text

de

has

in

been

Correspond-

give aveovraL
aveiavrai.

for ^-w-a

Tre-TTOid-a to ireidu}.

is

preserved

Bulletin

first restored

"E-w-/ca

It

of the

account

names

of the MSS.

Stephanus

Erman.

is to

here.
Cf.
irj/mi

as

INTRODUCTIOK

used

it from

the Old

representedby
between
the

those

in

the

afterwards

them

the

into

of the

those

Ionic,to

the

as

Middle

which

Homer,

stand

tinguish
disIonic

midway

for

Thus,

New.

in

-ov,

instance,

like

//. ii. 325,

only Old

not

by Ahrens,

QQ) ; Od. i.

xv.

Middle

and

mediate
of this inter-

Examples

the

as

passages

contains

however,

in

well

as

diphthong -ov.
first pointed out in Homer

were

in such

found

declension

o-

coalesced

form

and

Homer,

New

as

have
been
must
^-qixov,
intermediate
the older genitivein -oto through an
stage
which
the
semi-vowel
two
o's,
was
lost,leavingonly

from

which

Old

of the

genitiveof

derived

Ionic of

forms, also

few

is known

by Herodotos

dialect

The

xxxv

70,

Ionic

detected

who

Homer,

60.

x.

forms,

New

but

inspectionit will be seen that the


archaic portionof his vocabulary,
in which, for example, the digamma
is preserved,
is comparativelysmall,the grea-terpart of his language
Ionic

forms

being in

well ; and

as

no

of the

closer

from
distinguishable

way

often assumed

on

this is in great

that

Epic dialect

in the summary

the

on

dialect of Herodotos.
due

measure

part of Herodotos

referred

; and

accordingly,

Stein
of words

rather

than

characteristics
of

the

of

language

to

poetry ;

others

while
form

or
antiquity,

either

from

Epic

these

words,

belong to
special
present no

integralpart

an

and

of Homer

and

of

the

structure

employs. The oracles,moreover,


belong to the generationimmediately
from the liexameters
of the
distinguished

in either language,style,
or
Odi/ssey
which
has been
drawn
division,accordingly,

of

matical
gram-

Herodotos

which

quoted by Herodotos, which


precedinghis own, cannot be
Iliad

and

aXXo(j)poveiv^
areovTes,
avyjKovarreiv^ Trapa/SdXXecrdaL^

as

prose

to,

It is

imitation

to conscious

givesa number
he is supposed to have
borrowed
forms
which
of
literature. But, as Mr. Paley has pointed out, many
such

above

the

that of Herodotos

cannot

be

The

metre.

between

maintained

sharp line
the language

nor

are

we

in believing
archaic
that the language of Herodotos
embodied
justified
words
and grammaticalforms which
he had derived
from his study of
The
survivals
archaisms
of Homer
rather
from
Epic poetry.
are
earlier poetry,
of

For

Homer

the
and

relation

of the

Herodotos

Yocalverkiirzung und
lonischen," quoted above

see

Verwandtschaft

Stilesmit

dem

ally Paley, "On

des

of

Merzdorf,
in

Hofer, "Ueber
herodotischen

andespecicomparatively late

homerischen";
the

dialects

Metathesis

"

die

like flies in

amber,

in the

current

language

later date.^

embedded,

composite character of our Iliad


Odyssey in the Transactions
of the
Cambridge FhilosophicalSociety,xi. 2
Mr.
(1869), pp. 379-383.
Paley cornnumber
of
similar
a
large
pares
passages,
words, and grammatical forms used by
and Herodotos; thus a^j/cDs(Herod.
Homer

date and
and

"

INTRODUCTION.

XXXVl

Herodotos

tells

in Ionia

spoken

however,

(i.142);

too

are

to substantiate

scanty,

the

or

his

in

what

us

iv. 61, II. 3, 158), ayiveov

time

four

different

that
inscriptions

the differences

his statement.

show

to

that

us

Enough
the

were

(iii.97, E. 18,

493), dcXTrreoj/rej (vii. 168, II. 7, 310),

have

were

too

have

been

dialects

been

preserved,
to allov/ lis
slight,
theless,
discovered,never-

of
general peculiarities

the

iteratives in -(xkov,

In

three

books

were

and

/xti^.

of Herodotos,

Ionic

the first
find

again, we

The
:
dWotppovrjaai(v. 85, //. 23, 698), dfjL"pL- the followingparallelsto Homer
adverbial eiriKXrjaLv
(v.
dpv(p"as (vi.77, II. 2, 700), dvaKXlvai
(i.19, II. 18, 487), the
"

(iv. 180, II. vi.

16, II. 5, 751), dveluaL

256), dvaKOPTi^eLv (iv. 181,

II. 5, 113),

omission

of du

after rrpiv^ and

fl (i.19, iv. 172), iplXovelvat

(vi.14, II. 15, 236), dr^oures


dvTjKovaTTJcrai

//. 2, 116),

223,
(vii.223, 11. 20, 332), oi dfxcpl(vii.

11, 535), [xerd


d/x0twith the dative

II. 3, 146), diroOufxiov iroLTjcraL

14, II.
ov8(^ (iii.

//. 14, 261), eirl yripaos

22, 60), daLTVfj.6u"s


.

Od.

7, 102

(vii, 168,
(i. 73

cTrdcravTO
.

II. 1, 464), dpiarovs dLaKptdov

(iv.53, //. 12, 103), e6pyee (i.127,


351), "7n.(ppd^eTaL
(vi. 61, Od.

3,

(i. 93, II. 7, 280, Od.


(i.128, Od. 21, 231),

"

to

announce

(i.140, etc., Od. 4,


(i.152 ; //.
"

7, 416; 9, 649; Od. 16, 340), ovk

(i.168,

Od.

(i.201;

dvaroXas

d-n-wp-qro

11, 322), Trpbs-qujre

/cat

cp. II. 12, 209

rjXlov

; Ot^. 13,

15, 444),

240), oXvos dvriKe(fitv)(i.213, //. 2, 71),


KareiXv/JLevou(ii.8, OtZ. 14, 136),
xl/dp-fMU)

II. 18,

203), iKTTJaeai(i.155, //. 9, 402), ed-qevvro


136,
(iii.

direlireiv

151),

re

407), ifyopouvTo
(vi. 84, II. 9,
1), ^cjphrepov

(iii.36,
^(jjdypLa
vi. 11, II. iv.

II.

Ota

Trporepov

(i.87, etc.,

//. 7, 443), eired-qKavTo(vii.125,

//. 10, 30), dvaTrXrjaaLKaKa

(v. 4,

/Z.

8,

(pevyovaat rbv

yepavoi

22,
(ii.

xet/x(j;"'a, etc.

II. 3, 3, where

simile not

it appears in a
in
of the narrative as in Herodotos),

the

body

OVK

dSarjsdXX' ^/j-ireLpos
(ii.49

cp. Od. 2,

(iii.14, 6"fZ. 6, 137),


KeKUKCJ/iievqu
KpoToKl^eLV(ii.60, /Z. 11, 160), Kexo-priKUiS

re

(iii.
27, /Z. 7, 312), Kovpidios(i.135, /Z. 1,

re,

113), Xato-^ta(vii.91, II. 12, 426), X670S

fiaWbjxevos(vii.10, /Z. 9, 322), TreTroXio-rat

(ii.138, 0^^. 5, 239), /card


Kard
8i (ii.141, iii. 36, 126, etc.,
fih
//. 23, 79), 6(xi7]
[eo-ri](ii.171, Od. 16,
423), the repetitionof the subjectby 6 ye
(ii.173, 7?. 3, 409, etc.),iJ.7)xa-fe6/j."vo

(v. 52, /Z. 20, 216),

KaKa

354),

vyir)s

(i.8,

/Z.

oTioKXL

8, 524),

(i. 50, /Z.

v-q-qaas

(iv. 180, II.

15, 491),
9, 358),
iiraXiWoyriTO (i. 118, /Z. 1, 126), irapa(vii.188,

wpoKpoaaaL

74, Od. 18, 85), okcjs


170), dtjXriixoues
(ii.
ore
(ii.108, like the Homeric
re, IVa

etc.),TroXvTpoirir}
(ii.121

e,

Od.

1, 1),

ovpavofjL-qK-qs
"

(iii.15, Od. 17, 499), 5tex"ro

II. 14, 35), TrpoKari^oju(i.14, //. 2, 463),

dissolved"

81, /Z. 4, 431), aavpcoTTJpos


(vii.
a7]/jbduTopes

"person"

(vii.41, /Z. 10, 152), (ppvrpv (i.125, //.

re

Kal

"Avas

(iii.16, II. 7, 316), KctpaX-q


(iii.29, //. 8, 281), irapdevoi

rjideoL(iii.48, 77. 18, 593), Tre'pc

stantivesdvpicfexop-evos (iii.
61,
50), eio-e dyoov (iii.
frequent use of suband
Co?.
dib-rwo-ei
Od.
1,
130),
(iii.
-)"?,
69,
10,
adjectives
-oavvT]
dvd
irdXiv
in
11.
5,
re
(iii.78,
edpa/mov
reduplicated 259),
genitives
-ew,

Also

2, 362).

the

in
in

-rjficjv,

perfects like dpaiprjixivos,


7)p-qpeL"xTo, the
future in -ew, 3d persons pi.in -arai, and
the modification

of verbs

in

To
(as i^vTeov, Copebvres).
add

the

the

omission

^ojOa

for

use

of the

later

-aw

these

into
we

VTT^K

(iii.
116, II. 4, 465, etc.),ej/ros

may

yovaaL

116, ZZ. 2, 845), dvhpas


(iii.

elixevfor iafxev,

temporal augment,
etioda,rjia, rjiaav,^vXaKos and

earia, the

lost

jmaprvs,

aspirate in

and
"7rdX/uL"uos,
eTrlffTLov,

laTlrjfor

fxeraXfievos,

the
ai^ToSio?',

(iii.126,
fxevciv

cp.

/Z.

of

190), and

drawing
the

104).

lots

zeugma

(iii.135, /Z. 19, 242

direpvireiaas

6, 189), virocrds

{II. 10, 303, Od.

reX^aeie

cp. II.

OrZ. 1, 381),

14, 169), ep,4"v"ja(iii.109,

-eov

of the

fidprvposfor (pijXa^and

78
599), trpoadehaL rds ^I'pas(iii.

e-nri-

3, 99), TraXXo-

(iii.128, II. 15,


^ttos

re

; cp. Find.

/cat

epyou

Pyfh. iv.

xxxvii

INTRODUCTION.
dialect

in Ionia

spoken

as

centuries

B.C.

that

"

and

is,in the age

symbol of the aspiratehad


of the

use

aspiratehad been lost in


ephdkystikonexhibits the same

Attic, though it is

Herodotos

have

be

and

editors who

the

fallen into

Mr.

publishedby

frequent in

more

that

so

to

Bredow.

e, 17, or

into

et

Khalkidian

the other

Erman

hand,

colonies

far

as

back

in the middle

the fourth.

makes

and

the middle

of

is written

6(0

full form
who

in

"(0

admit

the

contracted

form

Iposfor

ends

in

when

with

following

only

where

again,does

in the

therefore

be

well

of

Attic

of the
v

and

ov

sequently
Con-

i.

always writing the


Stein and

as

another

Bredow,

precedes.^The

the fourth

before

appear

expunged

instead

yea?

ei'

in

not

of

beginning of

in the

preceded by
as

the

and

singlesyllableuntil we
when
the diphthong

be wrong

must

lepos,

find

we

the editions

from

yrj?. We

also

of

with

meet

Ionic

Stems

to

the other

Atoto-iv,
plurallike ^o-ti/,
by the side of
Nv/xcfiya-Lv,
but the genitivesingularof the o-declension
always

tovtol"s,

ov.

come

in

the fourth

and

stems

'AxiXXeos. Coming

See

their

genitivesin

the Attic

the

text

Halikarnassos
in

to the

eos

ews

tos

and

form

Dindorf,

not

Commentatto

first creeps

the

dial.

Herod.
(1844), p. xi. ; Abicht, Uehersicht iiher d. Her. DialcM, p. 32 ; Stein,

On

in the oldest

well

as

in rejecting
Lhardy justified

substantive
use

in.

singularis TrdAet,

dative

by efx^v,elx^vin

into

de

find

we

of Herodotos

coming

the

until

vos,

get UXovrrjos,HpirjvrJLas

we

verb

of
inscriptions
; the participle
contracted

form

hand, so-called Attic forms like 'Ava^tAewsoccur


From

from

century, when

inscriptions.At

T"tx"L.

t^ov

nassos,
at Halikar-

ravra

of the dative

Geois

Ave

of

should

Herodotos, while

rots

againstDindorf

influence

the

Herodotos,

of

texts

elision

century B.C., and

forms

Abicht

century B.C.,

full except

and

the

fourth

probably through

in

Dindorf

the

into

of

the text

century B.C., that

that of Tliasos

contracted

not

are

its appearance,

and

for

sixth

the

scriptio
in-

lately
inscription
has been
proved

OkXia

of

later

of the fifth century, that of Euboea

the fifth century, and

to

and

coalescence

as

we

older

in

the

it from

Stein

appears

raora

pointsout, the

beginning of
come

in

than

expunged

/"eti/o9

the

which

from

the dialect of Miletos


syllable,
distinguished

one

Halikarnassos

forms

that

inconstancyas

dei ; and

fifth

pronunciation. The

Ionic

Halikarnassian

not
Newton, has atet',

On
as

have

find

long e,

tlie earlier

The

error.

right in defending the


and,

the

express

infer that the

may

We

of Herodotos.

to

come

sixth and

in the

Halikarnassos

at

verb

the Halikarnassian
is

till late in the

"6vto"5

ewv,

"

fourth

the

century

Herodotos, p. liii.; Bredow, Qucestionurn


crUicarum

de dial. Herod.
,

-p. 218.

xxxviii

and

INTRODUCTION.

aj, is met

rj,nob

not

oKov,

which

with

at Halikarnassos.

suggests that the labial found

Attic influence,
and

gutturalof
dialect spoken in his birthplace.
This raises the (juestion
whether
we

the

text

our

of Herodotos

the

in accordance
The

ignorance as

to

he

MSS.

is not

forms

caution.

But

earlier than

is

in two

did not

in Ionia

or

of

more

hand

century of

at

may

uncertain
frequently

the tenth

is not

due

come

to

from

the
in correcting
justified
evidence of the Ionic inscriptions

the other

on

find ottov^

we

are

Herodotos

these

found

in Homer

Herodotos

of dialects

of

and
consistent,

hardly be

introduced

which

the

with

existence

combined

of
necessity

can

that the

of his age.

whether

Here, too,

the

the

time, and

have

used,

or

teach

us

them,
evidence

of

our

; the oldest of them


era, and

our

the

errors

ignorant grammarians bent on restoring


what
In
numerous.
they supposed to be Ionic forms, are necessarily
of having the very words
an
we
inscription
are, at all events, secure
that were
written by the engraver.
a
Where, therefore,
grammatical
form
be
considered
used
Ionia
have
been
in the
to
throughout
may
time of Herodotos
by the concurrent
testimony of the inscriptions
found in various localities,
Ave
ought to have no hesitation in preferring
it to the traditional form
handed
down
in our
texts, supposing this
be different.
form
of the
to
Thus, for example, the contracted
is clearly
of et/xt given here and there in the MSS.
participle
proved
and to have no rightto
to belong to a later period,
by the inscriptions
in the pages

appear

and
But

of Herodotos.

objectsthat a distinction should be


between
the more
popularand negligentlanguageof inscriptions,
the more
careful mode
of expressionadopted by a literary
man.
of the poorer class of people that
it is only on
the tombstones

On
made

or
by copyists,

the other

hand,

Merzdorf

Public decrees
language is likelyto appear.
be composed in as careful a styleas
and officialtexts would
certainly
their importanceand
the work
of a literary
man
; indeed, considering
public character,as well as their comparative brevity,they would
carefully. We do not usuallyfind the
probablybe written still more
either popular or simple.
the law-courts
or
language of Parliament
the literary
such gulfbetween
At the same
time there was
no
language
the case
in
of Herodotos
and the ordinaryspeech of the day, as was
such

negligentkind

the Alexandrian

of

period. Indeed, we

of grammar,
been

tolerated

likelyto

as
1

e.g.

in

occur

singularverb

to

use

mild

publicdocument.^
in

for

as
inscriptions

and

now

then

term, which
Old

in the

forms

and

historyof

come

would
words

upon
not
are

Herodotos.

wardnesses
awkhave

quite
At

i. 26, ii. 66 (raOra 5e yipSfxeva).


ULpSaptKou),
plural{axvf^o-

INTRODUCTION".

the

is doubtless

Stein

time,

same

XXXIX

in

right

protestingagainst the

Modern
languageof Herodotos must be uniform.
writers,who vary the spellingof a few words in their MSS., sliould
not
requirea greater uniformityin the father of history." But it is
also clear that this variation
In a
should be kept within bounds.
reasonable
it due
to suppose
largeproportionof instances it is more
the zeal of grammarians,than to the
of copyists,
to the mistakes
or

assumptionthat

the

"

author

himself.

The

of two

one

into

in

use

Ionic

contraction
and

When

cases.

of

of

until

be

contrary must

"v,

be allowed to amend

then, must
inscriptions,

fourth

century

the

from

proved

belong

to

with

us

MSS.

older one,

side with

by

that both

may

hand,

cannot

we

they do
datives

not

have

an

from

come

the

later forms

sure

that

even

in the
we

the

that

or

had

they were
the

the
this

Hence

this limitation

has
inscriptions

and

singular of

not

proper

altered
names

MoipL, Sett',XfxepdL,or
99.

coalesce
united

under

SimilarlyI

have

his.

in the

considering
the other

merely because

of the

one

Ionic

from

the

the

tions
inscrip-

older

Ionic
which

cannot

reject

venture

to

followinge,
authorityof the MSS.

these

dialects

literarylanguage

with

heretical

critics.^ Stein's

the benefit of the doubt.


have

into

eo

7^, and

et

conditions,the testimonyof

allowed its full weight in the text

been

textual

tlie

than

On

text

derived

not

we

Where
the epigraphic evidence
incomplete,however, I have allowed

the

exist in

it is that

MSS.

from

and

present volume, however

thought by

pen

style

examples in which " does not


when
they are supportedby the
With

in

of the author.

forms

did not

formed

followed.

Herodotos

warranted

are

of
yrjs,

is found

which

the

to

Thus

Herodotos, although unrepresentedby

age of

writers, who

into

come

extant

earlier forms

possess,

we

examples

period later

later form

not

Herodotos.

of

to

did

in either

inscriptions.The co-existence of
it plainthat in literary
documents
Oeots makes
might be used together; while we cannot be

in

like Acolctlv and

earlier and

the

older

expunge

occur

B.C., all

pages

Where, again,they present


side

later form

of yeas
del,of Upas into I/ao?,

into

into w, is

ew

that

the

excised

atet

they show

the text

is
the

ingly
Accord-

defended

I have

Tdora

like

M^/ncpL,

rai'TTj

kept

per] in

ii.

like

on

yeas

y^au.

as

basis,or

different

necessarily
carry

not

(i.114),roiavTa,

etc., and
and

taken

on
etymologicalgrounds.
kept TrXer}in iii. 138. Teue-^,

stands

docs

datives

forms

also

of course,

the

Stein's

has been

text
be

such

adopted in
procedure may be

with

it

evdaira, Toaavra,

impliesonly y^a,
The

footing.

iteratives

not

7ea

iroi^eaKov

(i.
and
inaXieaKe
driXerjs
diraLpieaKOv(i.186),
36),
ddeXcperiv,
Kvv^rj,
(TTeperjv,
xpvaeriv,
and
forms for which
(i.196), are old literary
(ii.35), derid^vaL(ii.132), ederjOrj
there
is
monumental
no
deTjaofMefos
evidence, and
(iii.
44), de-^craadai,
8"r](j6fjLevos
(i.69),and

all of which
d^Lodir]To?,

can

bieadaL in iii.47

occurs

in

proverb.

xl

INTRODUCTION.

rather

throughout,except where corrected by the evidence of


the inscriptions.No
other text
can
compete with it for accuracy,
the second edition of
of Baehr
and critical tact.
Those
completeness,
which was
and of Abicht are altogether
superseded
publishedin 1856
by it. The earlier editions,from the princepsof Aldus, printed in
valuable; students who are
1502, downwards, are only historically
followed

"

"

curious

about

edition).Stein

sq., 2d
with

will find

them

annotations

brought

has

in Baehr

(vol.iv. pp.

editions

two

out

text, in the

the

on

list of them

Egyptian

smaller

part of which

491
one,

he

was

(4th edition,Berlin, 1877),and a larger


critical one
(Berlin,18G9),in which the various readingsof the MSS.
and
well as the fragmentsof lexicography
as
are
given and classified,
contains
have
been
the scholia which
preserved. The introduction
in question,
discusses their relative
and
full account
of the MSS.
a
merit and testimony,
with a protest againstthe attempt to harmonise
all the forms
Stein considers
oldest codices
the two
given by them.
now
extant, the Medicean
(A) of the tenth century, and the Angelican
assisted

(B) of
itself

by

the eleventh

copiedfrom
different

which

century,
an

channel,of

the

was

source,

Vatican

(R),and

basis

Gaisford's

of

account

lacunce and
the

making
wish

which

also

as

is

now

questionof

TTj

the

by

from

Florentine

other

among

Sancroftian

MS.

which

also the ultimate

was

MS.

(C).

the side of another

MSS.,

lost

but

original,

originaltermed ^,
the Parisian
(P),the

lost
of

The

(S).

This

source,

was

latter,though

made

the

text, is of

consult

promises us

the Lexicon
obsolete.

Se

far

Herodoteum

to

Herodotos.

This

is much

of

is based on a text
Schweighaliser
the
Something better is requiredfor settling
Homeric

of the latter to

Hermogenes

aKparco

his introduction.

lexicon

the relation of the

how

StaAeKrw

which

one,

details must

of the indebtedness
determine

be alike derived

comparativelylate date. Stein pronounces


of X to have been "rough
and broken, but of value
text
freer from
of its high antiquity
that of ^^ was
; while
in
He
follows Abicht
errors, but full of interpolations.
Medicean
Those
MS.
the ground work
of his edition.

further

Stein

needed,

the

to

"

the

who

older

he calls X, stood

which

on

Pasha

by Brugsch

laSt

Kai

to

Attic

Herodotean
We

grammar.

right in saying^

was

ov

the

or
dialect,

have
of

yet

to

Hekatseos,

ovSe Kara
fiejJLLyinan^ ypyjcrd/jbevo'?

HpoSoTOV TVOiKiXrj.
For

of Greek

the

placeof

Herodotos

2d
Literature,

edition

in Greek

literature

(1883),vol.
De

Id., p.

399.

ii.

see

Mahaffy's Hidory

HERODOTOS.

Tovrovi
SLa(f)op7]";.

tt}?

TOVTOv

Tov

eVl

r7]vSerrjv OaXaacrav,
Kol

Tov

'^cdpov

KaX60fjLevr]"^
rrj's ^^pvOprj^i

airo

yap

6a\d"jcn]";
a7rcKO/jbevov";

[book

olKrj(7avTa"^

koL

olfceoucn, avTLKa

vvv

Se

jxaKpfjcneiTiOecrOai,airayiveovra'^
^

vavTtXLTjcri

Klyvirria re
(j^oprta
kol
Stj/cat e? "Ap^o?*to

koI

Be
Koravpia^rfjre dWrj ecrairiKvelcrOaL
l^WdSc
tov
airaai
Trj vvv
TOVTOV
ev
^'Apyo";
y^povov irpoel'^e
KoXeo/jLevr)
X^PV cLiriKOfjuevov'^Be tov^ ^oiviKa^ e? Bi-j "Kpyo^"^
tmv

to

and philosophicdevelopment
theological
the
of
country. The styleof the earliest
Greek

writers

is

The

matter.

devoid

oriental

as

short

their

as

either

sentences,

connected

of

conjunctionsor
Semitic,
simple "and," are
character.
in
So,
too, are
Greek,

the

and

obscure

oracular

by
the
a

Herakleitos.
2

The

Indian

"

Red

"

Sea

of Herodotos

is the

Ocean, includingthe Persian

; xvi.

Strabo, i. 2, 35

Periegetes,906
[Steph. Byz. s.
Hom.

Od,

the

3, 4

Pliny, N.

4, 27

Justin,

Solinus, PolyMst.

"Afwros];
Kepheus,

v.

iv. 84.

26

Schol.

to

Egyptian
his
a
Babylonian monarch, who
gave
to the Chaldeans
name
(Hellanikos,Fr.
159, 160, ed. Miiller). Justin says that
the Phoenicians
migrated from their old
of an earthquake,and
homes
account
on
settled by "the
(the
Assyrian Lake"
Sea of Nedjif). Strabo placesPhoenician
cities in the islands of Tyros and Arados
But the
{Bahrein),in the Persian Gulf.
probably gave rise to
similarityof name
of the
the whole
legend,the true name
island of Tyros being Tylos (according
to Ptolemy and
Pliny),while Tyre was
properly Tsur,
Arados

"the

was

rock."

philologicalevidence
primitive seat of the
Arabia,

on

the

The

cian
Phoeni-

really Arvad.

tradition,however, rested

on

western

The

fact,since

shows

Euphrates (see Hommel,


bei den
der Saiigethiere

Phoenix
S.

that

Semites
side
"Die

the
in

was

of

the

Namen

SUdsemitischen

"

westward,

they

called

the lowlands," in contradistinction

or

made

i.

Proep. Ev.

(Euseb.

the

Kanaan

says that the


Africa
called

in

{Ep. ad Rom.

Phoenicia

is called Canaan

Phoenician
themselves

Op.
on

iii.p. 932).
coin of
a

Laodikeia, and in Isaiah xxiii.


"merchant

the
a

This

(A. V.,

11

city").
is

true,
strictly
legends quoted by

historical

culture

of

(Euseb. Proep.Ev. ix. 17) ; while

Canaanites

10).

father

Augustine

settlers

i.e. Kef-t,

of Phoenicia,is made

name

Canaan,

moved

the coast, which

Eupolemos

iv. 36 ; Dion.

H.

the Phoenicians

settlingon

Phoenix

Gulf.

selves
According tovii. 89, the Phoenicians themasserted that they came
from the
The same
is asserted by
Assyrian Gulf.

xviii. 3, 2 ;

whence

to the
"highlands" of Aram.
the
father of Phoenix, was
(Baal),
Agenor
also called Khna,
and
Philo
Byblios
to
stated that Khna
changed his name

not

of

utterances

Sede
Volkern," 1879; Guidi, "Delia
dei
primitiva
Popoli Semitici," 1879),

basis.

and

shows

that
had

Herodotos

Phoenician

art

and

Egyptian and
"Assyrian" {i.e.Babylonian), and the
discoveries made
at Mykense and on other
prehistoricsites show that the objects
traders
brought to Greece by Phoenician
were
partly Babylonian and
partly
Egyptian in character.
^
This
statement,
again, has been
confirmed
tions
excavaby Dr. Schliemann's
understand
at Mykense, if we
by
the
feudal
with
its
Argos
Argolis,
capitals
of Tiryns, Mykense, and
Argos, which
mark
successive epochs in the historyof
Akhsean

are

power

mixture

and

of

civilisation.

In the

Peloponnesos,at all events, the Akhaean


dynasty of Mykense took the lead. The
naturally the first part of
Argolis was
the country to which
of Asia
is

the art and

brought across
noteworthy that Argos
were

the

culture
sea.

is here

It
made

THE

I.]
BiaTiOeaOai

TOVTO

iirl rrjv

THE

OF

EAST.

Se rj efcrrj
(jyoprov. Tri/jLTrrrj
rj/uiepTj
c'^eSovTrdvroyv, ekOelv
i^ejJLiroXrjjjbevcov
crcfyc
Kol
dX\a"; re TroXXa?
Sr)Koi rov
r^vvoLKa^
top

7J";clitikovto,

air

EMPIRES

OaXacraav

^acrCkeo^ dvyarepa' to

"^W7)ve"^XeyovcTL,

Be

^lovv

^Ivd^ov.

Trjv

ve6";MvelcrOaL
Trj";
TTpv/uLvrjv

elvai,Kara

ol ovvojjia

koI

to

rcovro

a-Tdaa"}

TavTa'^

KaTa

fJbaXicrTa
^opTLCovtwv a"^irjv6v/jlo(;
irrr avTd"^.
Td";
Kal Tov(;
^oivif"a"; BiaKeXevaajJievov^
op/jurjo-ao
Srj ifKeova^ tcov
aTro^vyeiv,ttjv Se lovv aw
fxev
yuvacKMV
"

tcov

Se e?
icrl3aXo/jL6vov(;
dWycTi dpiraaOrivai,.

via

ttjv

oi'^eadaL

AtyvTTTOv dwi- 2
ickaQai \kyov"TiTlipaac,
ovk
dSi/CTj/jidTcov
EW^^z/e?,teal tmv
co?
dp^ai. fieTCL Be TdoTa ^^W'^vcov TLvd"; (ov jdp
TTpoiTov TOVTO
e?
dirrj'yrjaacrOai)
Tvpov
cf)aalTrj"; '^otviKrjf;
Tovvojxa
eypvat
fia(Tt\eo"^
dpirdaaLtov
ttjv dvyaTepa YiVpcoTrrjv
TTpocr(T')(ovTa"=;
S' civ ovtol
TdoTa
elrjcrav
ccra
7rp6";
crcf^c
K.prJTe'^.
fjuev Br) laa
Be
TdoTa
alTL0u";
dBiKii]^
y"vio-6ai,
^Xkr}va"^
rr;? BevTepr)";
pueTa
diroirXeovTa^ iir

AlyvTTTov.

fiev ^\ovv

ovtco

e?

'

'

the
and

of

leadingpower
not

Kadmeian

Thebes, which

of

the

Akhfeans

while

the

beehive

the

Treasury of Minyas,
that
the
in question coincided
period
proves
with
the
latter portion of the
It is
prehistoricperiod of Mykense.
clear, therefore,that the Minyans of
northern
Greece
have
must
been quite
the
as
powerful a people as
Akhseans,
and at the same
time
(as was natural,
from the proximity of Phoenician Thebes)
cultured people,but only during
a more
the later part of the prehistoric
age in
Argolis. The statement, accordingly,
made
by Herodotos, which relates to the
beginningand not to the close of Akheean
accurate.
supremacy, is strictly
"
Siart^ecr^at
Cp.
arrange for sale."
as

*'

ch. 194
^

the

; also Od.

16 may
root

15, 415.

from
derived,like 'Idoj'es,
"to
go," and signify the
At any rate,she was
origin-

wanderer."

"the

Argos,
myriad
of the

eyes

When

of stars.

the

cityArgos (reallyderived

different root

from

that

by
his
name

from

of dpybs, 'Apyuj,

dpyeuvos,
argentum, etc. ) was confounded
the old epithet of the sky, the
myth of 16 was localised in the Argolis,
and 16 herself made
the daughter of the
Argive river,Inakhos.
''
the Phoenician
moon
Eur6pa was
with
the
Astarte
or
Ashtoreth,
goddess,
wooed
the
crescent
horns,"
sun
by
god,
whose
symbol was the bull. Hence she
the daughter of Phoenix,
the Phoenician,"
was
also called Khna,
"Canaan,"
or
Agenor, the Greek rendering of the
with

' '

"

Phoenician
of

Baal
"the

the sister

Melkarth, and
eastern."

The

name
Kadmos,
the
broad"
first
to
Eur6pa was
given
plain of Thebes, occupied in earlytimes
and
from
Kadmeians,
by Phoenician
extended
denote
hence was
to
gradually
of the European continent.
the whole
with
The
the name
legends connected
"

of Minos

show

that

occupied by

time

Krete

was

Phoenician

at

one

ments.
settle-

be

"

ya,

goddess, watched
bright" sky, with

moon

ally
Greek

with
the dissemination
legends connected
of the alphabet and
Phoenician
the neighbourmg capital
civilisation,
or
of the Minyans at Orkhomenos.
The
of the Akropolis on the latter site
extent
that at one
shows
the
time
Minyan
have
been
must
as
great as that
power

to}nb, kno^vn

the

Hellas,
prehistoric

laa,

acpL,etc., "tit

48; Soph. Antig. 142.

for tat."

Cp. ix.

HERODOTOS.

^evecrOai* tcarairXcaaavTa'^
eVl

KoX^tSo.Kol
raXXa

^aatv

elveKev

tmv

aLTelv

KYjpvKa

fiaKpfjV7]l e?

yap
Trorafiov,

airiKaro,

Se
M.7]8"L7]v.irefjiy^avTa

tov

Aldv

re

rrjv

Koi
ivOevrev, SiaTrpy^a/JLevov^;

rod ^aatXeof;
apirdcrai
Yi^dXywv/SacnXea e?

Si/ca"^ r?}?

re

[book

kol
dpirayrj'^

ttjv

duyarepa

rrjv

'EWaSo-

dTrairelv

rrjv

ovhe
eKelvoi
'I0O9 tt}?
co?
Ovyarepa. rovf; Se vnroKpivaaOai,
eBocrdv acpcSUa^; r?)? dp7rayr]";'
ovSe o)V avrol
Scoaeiv
'Ap^yetT;?
Se Xeyovat yevefj jxera
eKelvoiaL.
rdora
Sevreprj
AXe^avSpov
Sl
Ik
rdora,
'EWaSo?
iOeXrjcrai
TOV
Tlptd/jLOV,
aKTjKOora
rrj^i
Scocrec
irdvrco^ on
iTrcard/jievov
ov
yevecrOaoyvvaiKa,
dp7ray7]";
eiceivov^ hihovau.
SiKa^i' ovSe yap
ovrco
Br) dpirdaavro^avrov
^

01

'

'^\ev7]v,rotcTL
drrairelv

^Wtjcto ho^ai irpoirov

^^Xev7]vKal

re

irefx-^avra'^dyyeXov^;

hiKa"^ rrj";dpirayr]^alrelv.

rov^;

Be

rdora
TTpoicT'^o/jLevcDV

")?
irpocpepetv
a"^i M.rjSeLTj':;
rrjv dp7ray7]v,
diraireovrayv
i/cSovre^;
ov
^ovXoiaro cr(j)c
dXX(ov
BiKa"; yiveaOai. /^e%/ot l^^v cdv
rovrov
Trap*
dpirayd^
Be diro rovrov
^^^XXrjva^Br]
lxovva"^ elvat Trap*dXXrjXcov, ro
alriov^ yeveo-dai'
fjbeydXcoi;
dp^ac (TrparevecrOac
7rporepov";
yap

S0PT69 avrol

SZ/ca? ovBe

^Acrlr}vrj ad^ea^ "9 rr]V ^vpdnrrjv.ro jjbev vvv dpird^eiv


elvai,ro Be dpTraaOeiaewv
yvvaiKa'^dvBpcovdBiKcov vojjbi^eiv
epyov
(TTTovBrjv
TTOtrjaacrOaL
dvorjrMV, ro Be /jLTjBe/jiLav
ri/Jicopelv
coprjv
Br^Xa yap Br] on, el firj avral
e^eti^ dpiraaOetaewvcrcoc^povcov'
eK
e/SovXopro,ovk dv rjpTrd^ovro.
rrj";'Acr/7y9
"T(^ea";
fjuev Brjrov"^
69

rr)v

rodv
Xeyovcro liepo-atdpTra^ofxevecov

yvvaiKOdv

Xoyov

ovBeva

'

Be AaKeBacfjLovL7]";
aroXov
TTOtrjcracrOaL.
"iXX7jva";
eiveicev
yvvaiKO"^
Kal eiretra
eX66vra"; "9 rrjv ^Actltjv
crvvayelpat
[xeyav
rrjv Tipidfjiov
alel TjyrjaaaOatro
diro rovrov
^^XXtjvlkov
BvvafiivKareXelv.

elvat iroXefJuov
a(f)io-t

rrjv

ol TlepaaL,rrjv
[/Sdp^apa]OLKTjLeovrai
^^XXtjvlkovTjyrjvrai Ke'^copicrOai.
Ovro)

dXcoaiv
'

Tot'9

fiev

rd

^AatrjvKal

yap

Uepaai Xeyovau

eOvea

evoiKeovra

Kal
^vpcoTrrjv

Be

yevecrBaiyKal

Bud

rb

IXlov

rrjv

eovaav
evpl(TKOV(Ti
ac^icTi
rrj^ "9
rrj";e'^Oprj^
rrjv dp'^rjv
^XX7]va"i. ireplBe rr]"i 'Io{)9
o/xoXoyeovcrc Tleparjai,
^0iViKe"^' ov
dpirayfjcr^ea";'^p7]cra/jievov";Xeyovcrc
yap
ovk

ovrco

*'

Apyel e/JLicryero rS
alBeofievr]
rov^
vavKXjjpo)
rr)^ ve6";'eVel 8' ejxaOeeyKvo^i eovaa,
Br]edeXovryv avrr]v rocai
ovrco
roKea";
^olvi^u crvveKTrXcoaai,, 0)9
dyayelv

av

fir]

"9

AiyvTrrov,dXX*

0)9

eV

to3

KardB7]Xo";
yevrjrac.

Tdora
fiev

avrrjv

rovrcov

jxev
ovk

vvv

Tiepaatre

Kal ^olviKe^

ep'^o/juat epecov

ct)9

ovrco

Xeyovcrc
y

dXXco^i

eyco Be
Ka)";

irepl

rdora

THE

I.]

iyivero,rov
''

TOV";

EAST.

THE

virdp^avraolSIkcov epycov i";


to
e?
arjfjbr)va"^Trpo/Sycro/juac
Trpocra) rov
Kol fjueyakaacTTea
eire^iwv. ra
av6pco7r(ov

Se olSa

^Wrjvas;,

OF

EMPIKES

wpoiTOV

avTO";

tovtov

Xoyov, ofjiOLa)";
afiiKpa
TTaXat
TO
fieyaka
yap

rjv,

itoWcl

to,

ajjiiKpa

avTcov

tcl

jeyove'

he

eV

rjv ajJbLKpd.ttjv dvOpcoTrrjtrjv


a)V
ifjueo
rjv fieydXa,irpOTepov
eTn/jbVTJcrofjLa
evhaijjbovirjv
ovSafiaev tcovtm
fxevovaav,
eTnaTafjbevo^

d/ji(j)0T"pC0V
OflOiO)^.
Y^polao'^
rjv Al'So?
'

Se

Trat?

p^ev y"V0";

^AXvaTTeco, Tvpavvo"; Se

fji6aa/jL^plr}
i^Ui irpo^ ^operfvdvep^ov
%vpi(ov T6 Kol Yia(^\ay6vwv
fjb"Ta^v
0
Yav^6ivovKoXeofjievov
69 Tov
ovTo";
iSap^dpcov
}^poL(To";
eOvecDV

T(jdv

ivTo^

AXvo";

o?

iroTapLov,

pecov

cltto

TTOVTOV.

iTpoiTo"^

TMv

cS/jiev
TOV"i
rj/juel^;

KaTeaTpeyjraTO^^Wrjvayv

pbev

e?

Be

KaTeaTpi'^aTO
"piXov";
irpoaeTroirja-aTO.
Klo\ea"; fcal Acoptea";
ev
Trj ^Acrcrj,
tov^
(f)LXov^
piev "Icovd^ Te icai
Se
irpoaeiroirjcraTO AaKeSacp^oviov;.irpbBe ttj^; YLpoiaovdp'^r]";
^'EjWr]ve";
TTuvTe^;
K-ipL/jueplcov
aTpdTevpua
rjcrav iXevOepoc to
yap
eirl T7]v ^leovLTjv
ov
TO
diriKopievov
Y^poiaov eov Trpecr^vTepov
diraywyiqv,
tov"^
(j)opov

"

i.e. Kroesos.

scepticism

of

the

assertions

of

cognate dialects.

in regard to the

Herodotos
oriental
the

The

writers

mind

seems

of Ktesias

have

to

when

been

in

claimed

he

ments
statesuperior authority for his own
as
being derived from the Persian
otos
archives.
The historygiven by Herodis parodied by Aristoph. Akharn.

523

sq.

Syrians here are


Syrians of Strabo,whom
1

"

contrasts
or

the

The

Semitic

(Strab. pp.

with

Arameans,

the Black
east

"White

the Greek

grapher
geo-

Syrians,

of the Amanus

533, 544, 737.

See

Schol.

the Hittites,and

spoke
Sinope, according to
founded
Skymnos of Khios (943), was
and
the
a
Syrians,
promontory a
among
little to the north
of Sinope was
called
Syrias. Pindar
(Fr. 150, ed. Bergk)
speaks of "a spear-armed Syrian host"
of the Thermodon, meanat the mouth
ing
the Amazons, the Hittite priestesses
of
of the Asiatic goddess, Nana-Istar
Babylon, and Atargatis of Carchemish,
carried
whose
to
worship they had
Ephesos and the west.
2

same

race

the

For

as

Kimmerians,

the

Gimirrai

their
now
948).
that they were
inroads in Asia Minor, see Appendix IV.
really the Hittites of
calls the first capture
W^hat
Eusebios
Carchemish, who did not belong to the
Semitic
had originally of Sardes
the
in B.C.
at all,and
Kimmerians
race
by
descended
the mountainous
of the
from
tradition
is
1078
region
probably a
of the north.
ments
They have left monuconquest of Lydia and Sardes by the
behind
them
at Boghaz Keui
Hittites before the rise of the dynasty of
(?
It is possiblethat the
the Herakleids.
Pteria)and Eyuk (?Tavium), on the east
bank of the Halys. Herodotos
tells us
is
meant
event
same
by Strabo (i.p. 90),
of
he says that the Kimmerian
when
chief
(i. 72, vii. 72) that the inhabitants
Hittite
a
Syrians, Lygdamis ruled in Kilikia
Kappadokia and Kilikia were
his followers
while
district
in the
and
Hittite remains
overran
shape of
and
captured Sardes.
Lydia
According
sculpturesand inscriptionshave been
The
tribes
to Ilesykhios,
found
in these countries.
Lygdamis burnt the temple
of
Artemis.
to
them
inhabiting
probably belonged
ad

Apoll. Rhod.

i.

We

know

of the

and
Assjn-ianinscriptions,

"

"

HERODOTOS.

iyevero
fcaracTTpo^r]

[book

aX)C

iroXicov

rcov

i^ iTrcBpofjLYJf}
dpTrayij.

7 rj Se rjye/jiovi7] ovrco

eovcra
69 to
UpaKXeiSecov,
irepirfKOe,
yevo";
ol
Be
K.avSavXr]'^,
tov
/caXeo/jLevov^
M.6p/jLvdSa"i.
K.polaov,
rjv
Be
dirdyovo^;
^Xkrjve^ yivpaiXov ovo/md^ovcn,
XapSlcov,
Tvpavvo^
NtVou
AXKalov
tov
^rjXov
TOV
"Aypoovjmev yap
'}ipa/c\eo";.
Tov^AXKaiov^
l3ao-i,\"v";
iyeveTO ZapBlcov,
^Upa/cXecSecov
irpMTO^
ol Be irpoTepov
Be 6 Mvpcrov vaTaTO";.
*'Aypcovo";
}^avSavX7]";
to

^acnXevaavTe";

TavTT]^

Trj"^ yoopr]^;

rjcrav diroyovoo AvBov

tov

AvBco"^ eKXrjOr)0 7ra9


8^///09
ovto"^,
irpoTepov
M.7]L0)v/caXe6/jLevo";.^
^UpafcXelBat
eiriTpa(j)OevTe
irapd tovtmv
ifc BovXrj'^
re
etc
deoTrpoirlov,
tt]^ ^JapBdvov
eo-'^ov TYjv dp'^Tjv

'Atuo9,

cltt

'^YipaicXeo^^
ap^avTe"^jjuev

koI

yey ovoTe^;

oTeo

father of Kandaules

The

was
Myrsos
Eusebios). The termination
to have been gentilic
seems
-ilos,
therefore,
identified
in Lydian.
Kai^-SauXTjswas
with Hermes
Herakles
or
by Hesykhios.

(Meles in

of the

errX Bvo

Hittite

introduction

elKocn

koI

re

occupation of Lydia and


and writing

of civilisation

the nations
among
Herakleids
would

of
seem

when

into

power

then

carried

the

the
to

west.

have

The
grown

Hittite

empire
and is translated o-KvWoirvtKTrjs(Tzetzes
began to decay and could no longer support
in Cramer, Anecd.
the satraps of Sardes.
Oxon,
3, 351) ; cp.
Herakles,
the sun
god of Babylonia and Assyria,
Kvwv, canis, hound, Skt. (^ivan. Tzetzes
of Tyre, had been adopted
Hipponax : "Slpfxrithe Melkarth
quotes a line from
the
Hittites
into their
Kai'Sai/Xa.
Nikolaos
M.riovL(XTl
by
Kvvdyxo.,
system of
like
the
Asiatic
Damascenus
calls Kandaules
worship,
goddess, and
Sadyattes.
*

The

words

dropped
MSS.
knew

6
of

out

NtVou
the

(Stein's^ b d).

nothing

"

text

As

'AkKalov

have
late

in

three

the

Assyrians

of the country west

of the

we

find the

have

been

iii.64), the

Asia

into

Lydian

Sandan

name

Minor.

Hence

of the

(Joh. Lydus,

Sandan, Sandes,

or

deity to
De

Mag.

Sandakos

With
Halys before the reignof Assur-bani-pal, of the Kilikians and Hittites.
the
Assur-bani-palstates that when
Alkaios, ''the strong one," comp. the
ambassadors
of Gyges arrived at Nineveh
Alkimos
of Xanthos.
^
knew
The name
of Meies or Mae6nes may be
who
(B.C.660) none
they were, or
connected
with the Lydian /zwOs earth."
had heard the name
of Lydia {Luddi), or
of Mseander.
could interpret
their language,the names
Comp. also the name
^
confusion
and
with the oracle
Belos
of Ninos
(Nineveh)
(BelProbably a
delivered to Gyges (ch. 13).
Merodach
of Babylon) cannot
refer to an
5^ lardanos
the husband, or, acwas
cording
earlyAssyrian conquest of Lydia. Babylonian
other
and
the
to
art
as
culture, however,
accounts,
father,of
modified
at
Omphale, which
Carchemish, the Hittite
perhaps be the
may
carried
of the Asiatic
Lydian (or Hittite) name
by the Hittites
capital,was
the
Asia
Minor
at
time
Artemis
to
or
(the
throughout
goddess
Ephesian
Kywhich
the rise of the Herakleid
Herakles
the
or
Sandan,
sun
bele).
dynasty
would
logy
god, while serving Omphale, had a son
go back, according to the chronoof Herodotos
is
Akelis. (orAgelaos)by Malis,or Damalis,
; and as Carchemish
called
"Ninus
of her slaves (Hellan. Fr. 102). AcAmmianus
vetus
cording
one
by
and

"

"

Marcellinus

3, 7),it
in the

(xiv. 8

is clear that

text

is

; see,

the

too, Diod.

ii.

genealogygiven
legendary reminiscence

to

first had
Lamos

Diodoros
Kleodeeos

by Omphale.

(iv. 31), Herakles

by

slave, then

y"V"a";

avBpcoverea

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

irevre

re

Kai

THE

EAST.

'jrarpb^
M.vpaov.^ ovto"; 8

Trat?

Trevrafcocrca,

irapa

J^avSavXeo)
i/cSeKO/jbevo^;
ttjv ap')(r)v,fJt'^XP^
tt)? ecovrov
Srj o)V 6 K.avSav\7)";rjpdadr]

rod

ol elvai
ivo/jLC^e

KaWicrTTjv.

ttoWov

yvvaiKa

vo/jil^ojVy
rjv yap ol
tovtw
fjudXiCTTa,
dpecTKOfJuevo^i

rdora

Tracrecov

tm

he

^povou

vTrepeiraivecdv.

he

oxrre

Tvyir^ AaafcvXov
al'^fiocpopcov
tmv
Vvyrjkol ra aTTOvhaiearepa

rcov

hi] /cal

kol
K.avhav\7j"^
o
vTreperlOero
7rpr)y/jLdTcov

yvvaLKO";

ipaaOel^he

yvvacKOf;,

hce\6ovTo^

iroXkov

ov

elho^;tt}?

to

ixPV^

Tvyrjv roidhe,

J^avhavXy yeveadai,KaK(t)";)
eXeye irpo^; rov
Vvyr},ov ydp ae ho/ceco ireiOeaOaL fjioc Xeyovn ireplrov eiheo";
eovra
dvOpcoTroiai
dincrTOTepa
Tr)?yvvaLKO"; (S)Ta yap Tvyx"^vei
h^
6
iKelvrjvOeijaeaiyv/nvijv^^' dfjLl3co(Ta"i
TTotet
6(j)daXfia)v),
okccx;

yap
"

elire

*'

heairora, riva

Xeyei^ Xoyov

ovk

Oe-qaaaOaiyvfjivrjv ; dfia
ifjurjv

Tr)v

Kal

hverao

rrjv

alhco

vyiea,

he

irdXai

yvvr].

KeXevcov

klOmvu
he

fxe

heairoivav

avveiciichvoiievrp
KoXd
dvOpooTTotcn

ra

[xavOdveiVhel' ev rolac ev rohe ea-Ti, a/coirelv


elvat Traaecov
TLvd ra ecovTov.
i/celvrjv
eyoj he ireidojjbai
yvvacKcov
helaOai
Kal creo heofiat
o
KaXXlcrrrjv,
dvo/uicov.
[mtj
/jiev hrjXeycav 9
ol ef avrcov
TOLavra
dppcohecov
direfxaxeTO,
jjutjtl
yevTjrai fcaKOVy
6 8' dfJieL/SeTO
Tolorihe.
Kal
ifie,
Odpaei,Tvyr],
fir] (po^eofjbrjre
eK
e^evpTjrat,

rcov

'

"

ft)9 creo

7reLp(Ofievo"^Xeyco Xoyov

rovhe,fxrjre yvvalKa

T7]v

iurjv,firi

e^ avTTJf; yevr^Tai ^Xd^o'^. dp^V^ J^p ^V^ yLti/^ai'T^cro/i


cliaTe firjhe
ovTCi)
fxaOelvfitv o^Oelaav viro aeo.
iyo)ydp ere "9
oiriaOe
tS KocfKOfieOa
ev
TO
olKTifxa
6upT]^arrjaco,
tt)^dvoiyo[Jbevr)";
TL

TOi

The

of

twenty-threeyears to
Herodotos
a
a
long one.
reign seems
that a generation lasted
does not mean
only twenty-threeyears, but that, as son
succeeded
father regularly,the twentytwo
reigns corresponded to twenty-two
generations, Xanthos, the Lydian histhem the reigns
torian,mentioned
among
of

average

Kambles

wife

while

or

Kamblitas, who

asleep,and

Akiamos,

ate

his

whose

Askalos,founded Askalon, where


general,
Mopsos or Moxos, the Lydian, drowned
the
goddess Atargatis in the sacred
makes Tylon,
lake. Nikolaos Damascenus
of
Sadyattes,and Lixos the successors
i.
Eusebios
Can.
{Chron.
15)
Omphale.
makes
the four
predecessorsof Kandaules, (1) Alyattes,(2)Ardys for thirtysix years, (3) Alyattes II. for fourteen
years,

and

(4) Meles

for twelve

years.

In

Nikolaos

Damascenus

the

order

is

Adyattes I.,Ardys, Adyattes U., Meles,


and Myrsos, the father of Sadyattes,by
whom

Kandaules

reign of

Ardys

must
a

the Herakleidse

feud
and

be meant.
broke

out

In the
between

the Mermnadse,

then

of Gyges,
representedby Daskylos, son
the favourite of Ardys, who was murdered
by Adyattes II. In the fifth generation
the Mermnad
Gyges avenged the murder,
excited by fear of punishment for the
insult he had offered to the daughter of
the Mysian prince,
he had
Arnossos,whom
been sent to bring to Lydia in order that
she might be married to the Lydian king.
Considering the meaning of the name

Kandaules, and
the Greek

his

identification

with

Hermes, it is possiblethat it
a nickname
was
given to a princewhom
Nikolas calls by his real name,
Sadyattes.

HERODOTOS.

[book

icreXOovra
ifjue

koltov.
e?
Trapecrrac koI rj yvvrj rj i/jur)
Kelrat Be ar^yov rrj^ icroSov 6povo"^'
eirl tovtov
tmv
IfJbariwv
Kara
koX
eKhvvovaa
ev
eKacTTOv
O^aet,
icar
rjorvytijv 7roWr/v irape^ec
Se
rod
inreav
TOL
airo
OerjaaadaL.
Opovov aT"L')(r)iirl ttjv evvrjv

^era

Kara

lU

voorov

re

oca

lovra

D'Yerai

rjveroipbo^'
rj yvvr).

^e

CO?

e?

or]

fxev

fcal
oXKrjfjua,

to

Be

vcoTov

eyeveTO

iTOirjOeveK

TO

/uLeXirco
to
o)?

kol

r) yvvrj

tcl

ae

oiacpvyeiv,

elvac,

Traprjv/cat

avTifca

eOrjelTo6 Vvyr]^.

eijxaTa

e?

KOiTrjv,

T7]v

e^tovTa. fxaOovaa
ave^cocrealo-'^yvOelaa
ovt"
fjLiv

ewopa

avBpo"^ovTe

tov

fxr}

copr] Trj"^koltt]^

Iov(T7)";
Trj";yvvaiico^

koI

okco^

edvvaro

TaoTa

fieTa

TiOelcrav

ivdevrev

ovk

iirel iSoKet
}^avSav\7j(;,

e^co.
i'^copet

v7reKdv";

Be

Be

eaeXOovcrav
KaTCL

uvpecov.

Vvyea

tov

Tjyaye

yivr],aol

avT7]"i

TicreaOai tov
J^avBavXea'
e')(ov(Ta
irapa yap
Be Kal irapa
TolcTL AvBoldi, (T'^eBov
to2(tl aKKoicn
^ap^dpoiac,
ev
eBo^ejjbaOelv,
vocp

11 Kal

dvBpa 6(^6y]vai
yvfivov

/jueyaXTjv
alcr'^vvrjv
^epec.

6?

TOTe

fiev

ovBev BrjXoiaaaa
Br} ovTco
r](TV')(^ir}v
etp^e* cb? Be rj/jiepr]Td')(^baTa
iovTa"^ ecovTrj,
tmv
oiKeTecov
iyeyoveo,
tov(;
fjuakicTTa copa ttlcttov^
ifcdXeL tov
Vvyea. o Be ovBev BoKecov avTrjv
eT0L/jL0v"^ TTOcrjcra/jLevr]
eTTLaTaaOaL
TMV
rjXOe KaXeofievo^' icoOet, yap Kal
irprj'^devTOJV
okco^;
irpocrOe,

eXeye

KeTO,

rj

Be

/SacriXecaKaXeoL, (f)0CTdv. ")?

r] yvvrj

TdBe.

"

vvv

too

oBmv

Bvmv

Vvyr)"^diri-

irapeovo-ecov,

Tvyrj,

K.avBauXea
BlBco/jLC
alpecTLv,
OKOTeprjv ^ovXeai TpaTreaOai. rj yap
d7roKTeiva"; ifiere Kal Trjv ^acrtXrjirjv
ae
eye Trjv AvBcov, rj avTov
avTLKa
diToOvrjaKeivBel, ct)9 dv firj irdvTa Tret^o/xez^o?
OVTCO

l^avBavXr] tov
TdoTa

TOV

tcl
tBr]";

Xolttov

fir)

Bel.

ae

Bel diroXkvcrOaL

^ovXevaavTa

dXX

rj

ere

'

Kelvov

ye

ifie yvfjuvrjv
Be Tvyr}";reo)?

tov

Kal TrourjcravTa
ov
6erjcrd/jbevov
vo/jn^o/iieva.o
Ta
Xeyofxeva, jxeTa Be iKeTeve
/jiev direOayvfJia^e

fxr] fjbiv dvayKair)

evBelv

Br) eireiOe, dXK

iopa

rj

BiaKplvau TOiavTTjv

avTov

VTT

aofjuev avTutT
rj

aXpecnv.

dvayKairjvdXr]deo)'^
irpoKeifievr^v rj
dXXcov

aTToXXvaOac'

eireipooTa Brj Xeycov TdBe.


ifiovKTelveiv ovk iOeXovTa,

12

tjtol

opfjur)

ecTTat

rj

Be

oOev

tov

BecriroTea

alpelTaiavTo"^

diroXXwai

irepielvai.

iirei fie dvayKd^et^;BecxTroTea tov


dKovcrco reo)
Kal TpoTrco einyeipr](j)epe
"

*'

vTToXa^ovcra e(f)rjeK
irep

Kal

eKelvo"^

Be r} eirLyeiprjaL^ eaTao.^*
virvco/jbivcp

^ovXrjv, vvKTo^

ovkcov

yevofxevr]";

dXX^
diraXXayr]ovBefila,

(ov

yap

eBeo rj avTov

"You

are

behind

avTov

tov

/uuevycoptov

ifie eireBe^aToyv/Luvrjv,
co?

pbeTieTo

Be
o

rjpTVcrav Tr)v iiriTvyy^i,ovBe ol rjv

diroXwXevai

her."

rj J^avBavXea)

HERODOTOS.

10

[book

^acriKea.^ dveOrjKe
dvaOrjfjbara
TopBlo)^pvyirjf;
fiera M.lS7]vtop
/SacrtXiJLOv
Srj koL M/St;? tov
Opovov e? tov
irpoKari^fov
yap
he
Keirai
iovra
o
iSifca^e,
d^coOerjTov
Opovov ovto"^ ev9a irep
ol TOV
he '^pvcro"; ovro";
koI o dpyvpo^;
o
o
tov
Vvyeco Kprfrripe^.
iirl
dva6evT0";
dveOrfKe,viro AeXcpcov/caXecTai, VvydSa^;
tov
Tvyrj'^
eTTCOVVJJLLrjV.
15

eVetre * '^p^e,
*^(Te/3a\e
re
e?
/juev vvv
aTpaTcrjv koI ovto^,
/cal K.o\o"f"(bvo^
dcTTV etke' dX)C
M.l\r)TovKoi 69 S/jbvpvr)v
to

Midas

names

and

Gordios
the

among

Phrygians and
both
language
which

peasant
about

and

Gordios
be

to

the

to be lord of Asia

Avho turned
and
his

ascended
married

is

raised

his

cart

which

who

was

well

as

from

tied

him

reeds

become

had

above

Midas

was

in

myths
mythology

king, and

the

had
he

Pan

and

as

knot

could
destined

of

Midas

all that he touched

of whom
ears

who

yoke of
only by

be undone

race

esteemed

the

of

an

Sikan, planned it."


Ramsay's paper on the
in the "Journal
Phrygian Inscriptions
of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1882.
During his visit to Phrygia in 1881 he
recopiedthe inscriptions
alreadyknown,
found others,and discovered a new
gian
Phrynecropolisnear
Ayazeen, twenty

ass

cause
be-

Mr.

W.

M.

"

miles
*

south

of that of Midas.

eTrel re,

6(Tos re,
"and

like

enclitic

demonstrative

of

Eusebios

eV for eirl,
used

in

B.C.

738.
of

have
He

apt,

how

and

sense

compound
e^ for

^Qare,

re.

the

use

the

primitively

of

the

of

the

relative.

of the

like the

Fei,i.e.

preposition
prefix
aFei, from the
Sanskrit

reflexive Sanskrit
daughter
Aganoun
prosici and
and
the
Latin
of
si. The
memndn,
king
Kyme,
swa,
to have been the Midas
meant
seems
originaleir-Fd explains the occasional
by
Herodotos.
He killed himself by drinking
length of the first syllableof eird in
bull's blood when
vaded Homer.
Phrygia was in^
Old Smyrna, on a hill above
the
Kimmerians.
This was
He
is
by
ably
probto be distinguishedfrom the Midas
Burnabat, on the north side of the Bay
whose
tomb
adorned
of Smyrna.
The
modern
with a bronze
was
Smyrna had
till the age of Alexander
existence
264
no
d).
image of a girl(Plato,Phmdr.
the
and
his successors.
Great
Old
Among the tombs of the Phrygian kings
said
in the valleyof Doghanlii(betweenYazili
have
been
built
to
Smyrna was
by
Kaia and Sidi Ghazi, the ancient Prymthe Amazons,
in whom
we
see
a
may
tradition of the Hittite
and Midseon) is one
at Kumbet,
nessos
occupation of
with
lines in
an
Lydia, along with Ephesos, Kyme, and
inscriptionof two
of the part of
which
The
reads
Ates
name
Phrygian letters,
Myrina.
(1)
Arkiaevais
owed
its
foundation
to
Ephesos which
Akenanogavos Midai gavagtaei vanaktei edaes ; (2) Baba Memevais
the Amazons
Samorna
or
was
Smyrna,
Proitavos
and Myrina is apparentlythe same
Sikeneman
word,
kphi Zanavezos
elaes. This may
initial "t being lost,as in fiiKpos for "r/MKp6s.
be translated:
"Ates
of the Amazon
tomb
of Akenanos, built
The
Arkiaevas, the son
Myrina was
this for Midas
the
the king : Baba
pointed out in the Troad {II.ii. 814).
The Amazons
were
primarilythe priestMemevais, the son of Proitas,and Zana-

Damodike,
the Greek

same

root

as

the

olos re,

re,

tVa

re, are,

originated in

by

to

Bans

ocrre,

tocrei
tDcrre,
so," shows

'E-n-eiis

throne

the

See

singing of
Apollo. Another

that
made

into gold,
whispered that

those

of

vezos,

kings.

allied

were

native

common

Phrygian

Greeks

part of Greek

became

told of

are

aWo
fiiya air
avrov
yap
heovra
erea,
reaorepd/covra

ovSev
BvMv

Be
i7rifivr)"T6evT6"^,
"ApSvo";

iae^aXe, eirl

tovtov

THE

EAST.

iyevero l3aaL\evcravT0"s

epyov
tovtov

fjuev Traprjaofjiev roaavra

Tvyrjv ^aai\evaavTO"^
Se TlpCTjvia'^
eiXe
M-lXtjtovre
re
e?

i^
ZapSlcovl^L/jL/juepioL

TvpavvevovTO^;

re

11

Tvyeco fiera

rod

ovto";

jJbVTjixTjvirourjcroiiai.

clttIkovto e?
i^avacTTavTe^;
vofjudBcov
etXov.
^dpBL";
TrXrjvr?}?dKpo7ro\Lo";

^KvOecov

VTTO
rjOecdV
^

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

KaLTjv Kol

ttjv

tcov

16
eTea
nrevTrjKovTa
^'ApSvo^Se ^acTikevaavTO^ ev6"; SeovTa
koX i^ao'lXevcre
6 "ApBvo";,
BvcoBeKa,
eTea
i^eBe^aTo ^aBvdTT7]";

XaBvaTTeo)

Be K.va^dprjre
to3 ArjcoKeco
'AXuarT?;?. ovto^
Kal M.ijBoLcn,
eK
re
l^ifjufjuepLov;
diroyovo)eTroXe/jbrjae
T7]"; Aair]";
KTiadelaav
elXe, e?
re
e^ijXaae,%/jbvpvrjv
ttjv diro K.oXo(f)(ovo";
ovk
ijOeXe
tovtwv
co?
re
K.Xa^ofjLevd"i
ecre/SaXe. diro fiev vvv
dXXa
Be
dXXd
jjueydXco^;*
aTTrjXXa^e,
irpocr'TrTalcTa^
epya direBe^aTO
17
TaBe.
iv Tjjdp^fjd^iaTTTjyrjTOTaTa
M-cXijcriOLo-o,
eoiv
eTroXefjuTjae
Be

tov
iroXe/jLOVirapd tov
irapaBe^dfjievo^;

eiroXiopKeittjv

Be

dypcov

TCOV

Be

direaTra, ea

"9

TTJV

elvai epyov

ttj

of the Asiatic

ship the Hittites

dTraXXdcraeTO
6kco"; Btac^Oelpeie,

yea

Be

aTpaTifj. ra?
goddess

introduced

whose

wor-

into western

olKLa";

wards

and

29, 2). "Aarv

Smyrna,

Minor.

is the

"

cityas
^

opposed

Od.

i.

This

ians
who
had
the

the

lower

Acropolis(cp.5,

sent

is

the

two

due

Karian
nassian
^
e.

and

of their
in battle

captured
Assyrian monarch,

chiefs whom
as

and

he

present
was

to

after-

i.

the pressure

If

Aulus
the

probGyges

Nineveh

the
compare
the Halikar-

and

feminine,"
higher pitch,as Bottiger

Rawlinson, but
as

to

of

of the Kimmer-

With

and

AuSo?

It is

Ardys

"flutes masculine

of lower

both

Ardys
name
Ardyssis in
inscription.

Not

11).

them.

by

successor

to

eVeS/o?;?
fji^

submission

ian invasion.

women,"

3).

mis-statement, since we
that
Assyrianinscriptions
invasion
of Lydia by the Kimmertook placeduring the reignof Gyges,

learn from
the

to

unwalled

the

of his

was

tcl

oTrlaw.

KaTejBaXXe

ov

slain himself

able that

originally an
JEolic colony,became
Ionic through the
treachery of the Kolophonians. See
ch. 150.
Mimnermos, the elegiacpoet,
celebrated the repulse of Gyges by the
(ix.
Smyrnsens, according to Pausanias

and

ol MtXT/crtoiiireKpdTeov,
6aXd(7(T7]";
MaTe

Trj"; yap

Asia

eaTpaTeveTO
Kal
re
yvvaLKTjtov

avXov

Ovpa^;
eveiri/jLTrpT]ovTe
Be Td re BevBpeaKal tov

ovTe

'^(oprjv ecTTdvai'

TTJ

"

aTpaTtr^v

dirLKOLTO,OLKij/jiaTa
M.iXr)(jL7]v
fiev

KaTejBaXXe

ovTe

KaTa

iv

TOV

KapTTov

esses

re

(Tvpiyywv

dvBpTjLOvJCO?
ewl

icre^aXXe Trjv
Kal irrjKTiBcov
Kal

dBpo";,
TTjvcKavTa

KapTTO^
Be VTTO

yap

iv ttj yea
6fco)";
fiev etrj

TOLMBe.

M.IX'}]tov
Tporrw

eireXavvcov

iraTpof;,

"flutes
Gellius

first

of

men

and

Attic.
(JSfoct.

interpretationis

the
adopted,
mean
two octaves
of diff'erent
Lydian/"ia7a5is(of
flute denoting the
pitch),the masculine
deeper tones of the instrument, the
flutes the higher notes
feminine
(cp.the
and
dextra of the Romans).
tihia sinistra
Herodotos

would

HERODOTOS.

12

TMvSe

18

ivOevrev
(iireipeiv
opfjueofievoirrjv yeav
e'^oiev
he
ol
ifcelvcdv
ipyd^"cr6aL MtX?7crtot,avTO'^
ipya^o/jbevoyv

elv"Ka, okco";

Kol

re

ep^ot

ia/SdWcov. rdora irolcov eiroXefjiet


erea
^iXrjo-lcov
Btcpdaca
Tpd^xara fjie^ydXa
iyevero,ev

(TiveaOat

Kol

TL

evheKa, iv

rolai

Atfji"V7]t(p
'^(oprj"^rrjf;a(f)"r"pr](;
iia'^eaapuevcov

re

to).

Ta

AvScov

fxev

e^

vvv

^^^^

VPX^'

(TTpanrjV'
Se irevre
Ta

Se

tmv

to)v

09
eiroKefjuei

kol

yap

iricov

rd

e?

on

ef 'AXuarr'T;?o

Kal
co?
7rapaSe^d/ji"vo";,

7raTpb";
tov

/jltj Xtot

rrjv

rolai

Be

KaTeKavOrf.

Kal

Se

to

avve-

dvTarro-

o/jlolov

Sr] irpoTepov ol ^CkrjaLOL Tolai


Be
i^LOiCFL TOV
tS
TrdXepbov crvvScijveoKav.
Trpo? ^^pvOpalov";
ereu
viro
\r]iov ifjuriirpaixevov
BvcoSeKdrcp
Trj";aTpaTtrj^crvvTjveL'^dr
TOiovSe yeveaOai irprjyijba' co? dcpOr)
TL
Td'^taTato \r)iov,dvefiM
^A6r)vai7)";
^loojjbevov
d'yjraTO
d^Oel'i
eiriKX/rjaLV ^A"T(T7](rL7]"^,
V7]ov
hihovTe^

yap

iroXefiov rovrov

ovroc

fiovvoc.

Kal

/xol

irporepov

ivrerajjievoi^;.
iroXe/jLov
irpocrelye

^Icovcov rov
^cXTjcTLOLcrt
ovhajjbol

7rekd"^pvvov

Apovo"; ere
^iXrjairfv rrjv
o

TroXejuLov
r}V avvd'^a';'

rov

erro/xeva

M.atdvSpov

iv

koI

Aadvarrij^;

evoeKa

ia/SdXXcov TTjvcKavra

hehrfkcdrai,irapdrov
Tolcrc

erea

2^a8vdTT7}";
ovto^

Zahydrrew

19

[book

eTL/jboypeov'

v7)o";

to

irapavTiKa

Xoiyo? ovBel^;

fjuev

6
iyeveTO,fJueTa Be t^}? crTpaTtrj^ d7rLKo/juev7]";
XdpBi"}
69
evoarjae
AXvdTTT)';. iJbaKpoTepri"^ Be ol yivofievrj'^ ty)^ vovaov
irejJiireL69
elVe Kal avTu"
Br]crufji^ovXevcravTOf;
etre
Ae\^0L'96eoTTpoirov"=;,
Teo,
Oeov eirelpeaOai
Tolai Be
eBo^e irefJb'^avTa
tov
ireplTrj"=;vovaov.
"9
AeX(^oi'9ovk
ecpr)'^prjaeiv irplvr) tov
rj Uv6i7] diTLKOfJievoLai
^

vrjov

20

T779

eveTrprjaav
olBa
iyo) ovtw

iv ^Aaaijao). AeX^cov
M.L\7)air)";
yeveaQai' ^CXr]aioi Be rdBe irpoaTiOelai
TovTOiai,

eovTa
^iXrjTOV
J^v^lreXov
%paav^ovX(p tw TOTe
^elvov 69 Ta /jidXtaTa,
to
irvOoiJuevov
'^pTjaTrjpiov to
dv
dyyeXov KaTeiTrelv, okco^
yevo/juevov, TrefjLyjravTa

TO

Nietzsch

irapeov

jBovXevrjTai, ^iXrjaiOi

{Abhandlung

Bielefeld,1873)

uber

tries to show

Herodot,

that ont

references in Herodotos
thirty-five

of

to what

iv.

one,

TvpavvevovTL

previouslysaid five follow so quickly


to lead to
the originalstatement
as
on
the supposition either that
something
the text when
has been expunged from
revised by Herodotos, or that something
has been dropped which has been inserted

in

further

585.

he has

on.

The

five references

are

this

vvv

Xaivcvv

thinks

the

1st

edition

ii, 14.

in chh.

ra

Periander

tyrant of

succeeded

Korinth

about

Here

of the

war

73 sq., stood

17 before iire-

inch.

the words

yap,

Xeyovac

account

jxkvvvv

by the
etc., being added
edition,
2d
his
preparing
^

TrpoeoBcof;

tl

ovtco

Kyaxares, now

the

AXvaTTy

tq)

16, 79, v. 35, and

Nietzsch
with

jxev

'^V^

aKovaa'^

UeplavBpov

TOV

21 7rpo9

X^PV'^

Adr)vai7]"^
tov
dvopdcoacoac,

author

his
B.C.

^| ^rea,
when

father
625

as

to

OF

EMPIKES

THE

I.]

THE

EAST.

13

Si, w? ol rdora i^ayyeXOrj,


avri/ca
yevea-Oat. ^A\vdTT7}";
eirefiire
airovSa";
TTOirjcracrOai
%pacrvj3ov\(p
KTjpvKa 6? MtA,7;Toy^ovXo/jb"VO^
rbv
/cat ISJiikrjcriOia-L
av
o
oI/coBo/ultj,
re
vtjov
fxev
y^povov oaov
Se
Brj cLTToaroXo'; e? rrjv M-lXtjtov rjv, Spaavfiov\o(;
cra^ico^;
Xoyov, /cal etSco?

7rpo7r67rva/ji"vo(;vravra

rocdSe.
jjbrj'^avarah
KoX l8LO)TCfco";,
TovTOV

ocro"^

TTOiTjcretv,
6COVT0V

M.cX7]aloi(Tt,
eireav
Trpoelire
K(")fjb(oy^paaOai

Koi

IScov
^apBL7]vo"i

re

rdora

dXkriKov^.

Se

okco^

eiveKev,

alrov

fieyav

acopov

"9

crlTo"^ koI
T7]v

irlveiv

rore
crrjfjirjvrjy

rwz^Se
^pacrv^ovko'^

irpoayopeve

dcrrec

tm

avyKojuLLcra^^

avTo";

e?

ev

rfv

TTuvTa

AXvarrrj'^ fxeWoc

ra

re

eirolei

dyoprjv
7rdvra";
koI

re

22

Srj o KTjpv^o

av

Kal

KC'^vfievov

tol"?

dyyeiXrf^AXvdrTrj. rd Srj
dvOpdyirov^ev evTradeirjaceovra^;
Kal iyevero'W9
Krjpv^Kal etTra? Trpo?
ydp 8r)IBcov re eKelva
AvSov
evTo\d"; dirrjXOe
rd^^ ZdpScf;,
Tov
ra?
e?
co?
%pao-v(3ov\ov
dWo
ouSev
St*
irvvOdvofiaLf
iyevero rj SiaXXayr). iXTTL^cov
iyot)
AXudTT7](;airoSecTjvre elvac Icr^vprjv rfjMtXT^rco Kal
ydp
Xecov
TOV
to
ijKove tov
69
rerpvcrOai
KaKov,
KrjpvKOf;
ecr^aTov
M.lX^tov
eK
evavTiov;
tov";
Xoyov"; r) C09 avTo^
Trj^;
vo(TTr}aavTo";
Be
KaTeSoKec.
eir
BtaXXayrj (t"^l
t] re
eyeveTo
fjueTa
"p re ^elvov"=;
Kal
uvtI
elvac
Svo
Kal
dXXTjXotao
evo^
crvfjujubd'^ov'^y re
vr)ov^
ev
Trj AOrjvalr)
OLKoSofirjae AXvd.TT7](;
re
ttj ^AacTrjaco,
avTO";
o

ev

eK

T779

dvecTTrj. KaTa

vovcrov

fiev

Kal

re
7rpo"; MtXr;o-/oi;9

tov

"paav^ovXov iroXepLov^AXvdTTj}coSe "0"^e.


Be rjv J^v^jreXov
tm
ovto";
TlepLavSpo";
Spaav/SovX^ 23
7rat9,
TO
YieplavBpo^;
YLoplvOov
'^p7)(TTrjpiovfjir]vvo-a"^. eTvpdvveveBe
Be
tS Br)Xeyovcrt Yi^oplvOioi
tS
ev
(ofioXoyeovat "r(j)i
Aecrficoi)
iirl
^[(p OSwjxa fJbeyiaTov TrapacrTijvat,,
^Apiova tov M.r]6v/jivaLOV
eirl Talvapov,
eovTa
BeX(j)LVO"^
Ki6ap(pBovtmv totc
e^eveu'^OevTa
Kal BtOvpafi^ov
ovBevo"; BevTepov,
eovTcov
tcov
irpMTov dvOpdiircov
Kal ovopidaavTa Kal BiBd^avTa
XBjxev'TTOcrjcravTd
re
TjfjLel'^
K.oplv6(p. TOVTOV
'Aplova Xeyovat, tov ttoXXov
'^povov 24
o

ev

tov

TOV

The

dithyrainb,originallya hymn
to Dionysos,sung by a band
of revellers,
was
adapted to the system of Doric
choruses and danced by fifty
boys or men
round

an

altar.

cyclicchorus.
others agree
its invention
Lasos

its

Hence

name

of

and
Hellanikos,Aristotle,
with

Herodotos

to Arion

of Hermione

in

ascribing

later writers made

while,
Pindar, 01.

its inventor

accordingto the Scholiast

on

xiii.
it

was

25, Pindar, who


invented

elsewhere
to

the

by
its

traces

Arkhilokhos

than

Arion,

to

Hence

as

it, and

dithyrambic character
some
ably introduced
use.

he

was

one

to Thebes.

in Athenseus

628) refers

implies that
Arion,

Lesbian

originin

Naxos, in another

reallyolder
p.

here

; but

passage
It was

fragment of
[Deip.xiv. 6,
a

is itself of

Arion

prob-

alterations

in its

said to be the

son

of

HEKODOTOS.

14

[book

irKwcraL
^Iraki'rjv
iTTcdu/jirjcrat
Bcarpifiovra
TleptavSpa),
e?
irapa
Be '^pTj/xara /leydXa OeXrjaac oTTtacD
Kol ltiK"\ir]v,
ipyaad/juevov
diTiiceaOat. opfidcrdac
eK
e? l^opivOov
Tdpavro^,irtorrevovTa
fjuev vvv
Be ovBa/jLolcrc
irkolov dvBpcov
/jitcrOcocracrOac
fidWov t) l^opivOiOLcn
Be iv
TreXdyei eTri^ovXevecvtop ^Aplova
J^opLvOicov.T0V9
Be avvevra
Xlacreadai,
eK^aXovra^; e'^ecv rd '^p^fiara.
tovto
Be irapaireofjievov.
Bt}
ovkwv
'^pijfiara
irpolevra,'\]rv'^r]v
jxev a(j)i
dXXd
TrelOeiv
KeXevetv
tov"^
tovtolctl,
TropO/juea^;
rj avrov
Bia'^pdaOalfjutv, co? dv ra^?}? iv yea rv'^rj,rj eKirrjBdv69 Tr)V
OdXaacrav
dTreLXrjOevra
Brjtop
Aptova e? dTToplrjv
rrjv ra'^lcrTTjv.
Bo/ceoc,nrepLiBelv
eireiBrj
ovrco
ev
avrov
rfj
irapaLTTjcraorOat,
(T(f)t
re

tm

top

avrov

irdarjcrTdvra
(TKevfj
BeKero
el

eBcoXloccTc detaao'

iv Tolai

vire-

KarepydaacrOai.Kal rolac iaeXOelv yap rjBovr)v


fjLeXXocevdfcovcrecrOai rov
dplo-rovdvOpdnrcovdoiBov, dvaecovrov

'^(oprjaaci/c rr}'^7rpvfMV7]"^ "9


irdaav

rrjv

Kal

cr/cevrjv

Bue^eXOelvvofiov

ply\ral
fitv

"9

rrjv

ardvra
KiOdprjv,

ttjv

TeXevTCdVTo"^
opOtov,^

rov

OdXacrcrav

ivBvvra

Be

rov

/juecrrjv vea.

Xa/Sovra

eBcoXlooao

Kal

delaa^; Be

ft)9

ewvrov,

et^e,

crvv

iv

Be

re

rolat

v6/jlov

rov

rfjcrKevy rrdar}.

Be BeX(f)iva
rov
Xeyovcn
J^optvOov,
iirl
Be
viroXa^ovra i^evecKat
avrov
Talvapov. drro^dvra
'^copelv
Kal drrLKOjjbevov
rrdv ro
"9
dirriyelcrOaL
J^optvdovcrvv rfj cTKevfj,
dmcrrlr)'^^Aplova fiev iv (f)vXaKfj
TlepiavBpovBe
yeyovo";,
iropOpbewv.ft)9 Be
/juertevra, dvaKa)"; Be e'^eiv rcov
"')(eLv ovBafJbfj
KX7]6evra";laropetadaLet n Xeyoiev irepl
dpa rrapelvaiavrov^;,
Be iKelvcov a)9 ecTj re (Tco9 Trepl
^IraXtTjvKal
Aplovo^;.(f"a/jLev(ov
crcpcrov
/jllv ev
7rp7](Tcrovra Xirroiev iv Tdpavrc, iiri^avrjvaL
fjLev dirorrXelv

rov"^

69

vrro

Kyklon.
the myth
attached

Little is known

of him

beyond

related in the text, which


itself to him

in

had

popular legend.

The

myth appears in another form in the


story of Orpheus, as well as in that of
Apollo Delphinios,who, in the guise of
a
dolphin,urged the Kretan shipthrough
the

sea

until

the

shore, where

sailors

reached

bidden

shrine

The

name

the

resemblance

between

the dolphin {8e\(f)iv)


and
derived
nassos

from
above

the

it,no

latter tale,and
a

dolphin on

"

twin

the

to become

they
priestsand founders of the
Delphi, the oracle of the god
were

the

of

of song.
of

that of
"

doubt

Delphi,
peaks of Paroriginatedthe

rise to the device

gave
the coins of

Delphi, and

belief in the connection


between

and

to exist

dolphin and the musical


Apollo. The primitivemyth,

the

followers of
which

believed

told of the effect of music


outward

nature,

seems

on

to

beasts

have

re-

ferred to the wind.


^

According to the Scholiast on Aristophanes (^c/iar.16), the Orthian was in


a high key.
6p6ia
Compare the Homeric
"she
cried
ijiJcre,
shrilly." Noywos,from
v^/xw "to
means
distribute,"
"share,"
then
and so
or
order,
arrangement
"custom"
is
and
"the
(what
arranged)
"

"

arrangement
strain.

of

service

that of

The
of

of

notes,"

Nomos

Apollo, as
Dionysos.

"

"

was

i.e.

dedicated
the

musical
to the

dithyramb

to

EMPIKES

THE

I.]

OF

THE

EAST.

Kal
e'^^covi^eTrijSTjcre' tov";

^KplovacoaTrep

15

ov/c
"icTT\a^evra";

e'^eiv

/cat
re
l^opivOioi
appelaOac. raora
[juev vvv
iXey^o/j.evov^
icrrl avdOrjiiayoKtceov
AeajBiOi Xeyovat, Kal 'Aptoz/09
jjue^ya
irrrlSeX^tz^o?
iirl TaLvdpcp,
eTrecov
avdp(07ro";.
6
25
he
Al'So?
tov
TroXe/iovhievelKa"^
AXvcLTTTf]^
Trpo^ M-iXTjalov^i
en

ov

/jLereireiTa reXevra,

^aaiXevaa^

erea

Kal irevrrjKovTa.

eirra

dve-

ovto";
Trj(;olKir)"^
e?
SevTepo";
ravrr]^
re
cTLhrjpeov
KprjTrjpd
dpyvpeovfieyav Kal VTroKprjrijpiSoov
Ae\"pov"i
dvaOrj/judrcov,
d^iov Sea irdvTcov to)V ev AeXcfyolat
koWtjtov, Oerj'^
TXavKov
rod ^lov 7roir]jj,a,09 p,Qvvo"=;hrjirdvTwv dvOpcoTTcov
(Tihr}pov KoXkrjcnv e^evpe.
26
Te\evT7]aavT0"; Se 'AXuarreo)
i^eSe^aro rrjv ^acnX7][r]v
Kal rpiTjKovra,
6 AXvdrTeo), erecov
eoov
rjXcKLTjvirevre
J^polao^;
evOa
Srj ol
Sr)'KXX^vcov TrpdiTOiCTi
eTreOrjKaTO
09
'E^ecrtotcrt.
dveOecrav rrjv ttoXlv rfj^Aprevir
avrov
'E^ecrtot
TtoXcopKeofjievoc
Se
rod
earo
eK
fitBc,e^d^fravTe"^
"9
ay^oivlov
rel'^o^;'
vrjov
Kal tov
fjuera^vrrj"^
iraXatrj'^ttoXlo^;, f) rore
eiroXiopKelTo,
6
eirrd crrdScoL.^ TrpcoroLcrt fjuev Sr) tovtokti
e7rej(eip7)ae
vrjov

OrjKehe iKcpvyoov
rrjv

vovaov

to

re

figurestill remained -at Tsenaros


in the time of jElian (the third century
after Christ),with the inscription
:
The

"

'Adavdroju

irofXTralcnv
'Apiova,^vkXovos

v'lbv,
'E/c Si/ceXoC

ireKayovsaQaev

oxvm-cl rode.

Creuzer

ingeniously supposes that the


myth grew out of the figurededicated
by Arion in the temple of Poseidon (on
the site of which
church
of

of the

now

stands

Apollo Delphinios,and

connection

music,
choose

between

may

the
The

Asomatos).

have

figureof

the
induced

the

ruined

legend

consequent

dolphin
the

and

poet

to

ing.
dolphin as his offerlater coins of Methymne
The
present
reArion sitting
on
a dolphin.
^
"Invented
the solderingof iron."
of
soldered
bronze belonging to
Objects
been found
the prehistoric
by
age have
Dr. Schliemann
at Hissarlik (Troy) and
taken
Mykenae. Herodotos, however, is misin saying that the art of soldering
iron was
first invented
b}'^
Glaukos,since
it was
known
in Egypt at least as early
the eighteenthdynasty, like the art
as
a

of

layingplatesof

imbricatingor

the other.

The

metal

art of

inlaying
practised
this early period
(Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, ii. pp.
257-8, ed. Birch). Among the objects
found
in the fourth
by Dr. Schliemann
tomb
silver knife-blade,
at MykenfB are
a
with figures
of men
hunting lions inlaid
in gold, and a silver goblet similarlyinlaid
with
gold work.
Pausanias, who
the stand of the vase
saw
presentedby
sisting
Alyattes to Delphi, describes it as conseveral plates of iron, laid
of
one

over

damascening metal
by the Egyptians at
or

'

was

also

'

the other

in the

form

of

steps ;
(those at the top)curvinga little
outwards.
It had the form
of a tower,
one

over

the last

large

at

the

; and

composed
nails

and

decreasing upwards

piecesof which
not

were

fastened

it

was

either with

with pins,but were


dered
simply solcording
together" (Pans. x. 16, 1), Acto Athenseus
[Dcip. v. 13), the
inlaid with
was
figuresof plants
or

vase

and

base
the

animals.
The

Prion

or

ancient
Pion

and

city included
a
portion of

Mount
Mount

HERODOTOS.

16

Se

}^pOLcro";,
jjuera

iv

dXX.a"; alrla^

aXXoLCi

[book

^Icovcov

eKaa-Totai

fiepeo

rcov
iTri^epoov,

27

iSvvaro

fxev

toIctl
fjii^ova
iiraiTtay/xevo^;,
evplcTKeiv,

Se

Kal

re

fie^ova'^
irap-

Kal

avrcov

AloXecov,

(pavXa

ein-

'

e?
rfj ^Kcnrj EXXT^z/e?/careo-rpdcj^aTo
ivOevrev iirevoec z^ea? 7roi,7jcrd/jLevo"^
iirLyeLpelv
irdvTcov
iovrcov Be ol
Tocac
eroi/jicov "9 ttjv vavTnjylijVy
VTjcncoTTjcn.
ol he
ol fjuev ^lavra
TlptrjveadiriKopLevov
e? ^dphi^,
Xeyovac rov

Se apa
o)?
(j)"pQ)V.
aTraycoy^v,
to
(f)opov

TiiTTaKov

M.vTL\7)vatov,
elpo/jbivou
J^polaovet

Tov

elirovra rdSe

TrepL T7]v 'EXXaSa,

^aaiXeVy
iirl

vow

dXr]6ea

Xeyetv iKelvov
voov

KaraTravaai

etr]vecorepov

re

"ay
vavTrriylr^v.

rrjv

Kal
re
SayoSt?
e?
fivplyv,
Be ekiriaavra
e')(0VTe"^araparevecrdac. K.potcrov
Xttitov

vrjo-LMrat

iv

ae

ol iv

iXOetv

VTjcrcwTrjcn,

avvcaveovTat

"

eiTrelv

at

iirl AvBoiv

iirl

Oeol iroirjo-eiav

tovto

yap

7ralBa"^avv

lirizoicrir

Be

tov

v7roXaj3ovTa (pdvat m jBaaiXev,irpoOv/jLco'^


ev^aaOat
jjuol (palveat
iv
V7](7id)Ta";
otKOTa
iXTTL^wv. vtjo-lr^Treipw,
LTTiTevofjievovfiXa/3eLV
"

Be

(OTa"i

TL

dXXo
BoKet^;eu'^eaOai

ij,iireiTe Td^caTa iirvOovTO

AvBov";
Xa/Secv dpcofjuevoi

pbiXXovTaiirl acj^icrt
vavTTTjyetcrOat
vea^,
OaXdacrr],Xva

iv

iv

BovXdKTa"^

^XXrjVcov
rjirelpoi)
OLKrjfjuevcov
T^pole^ei?;"KdpTa re rjcrOrjvaL
Trj

Bo^ao Xeyecv, ireiOofxevov


iiTiXoycpKal ol,7rpo(T(pvco";
yap

TOO

aov

av

tov";

ae,

TLo-covTai

to)v

virep

iravaaaOau

Kal

Tij^ivavTrrjyirj^i.

Tolau

ovtco

tcl^;

"Icoat ^eivlrjv
crvvedrjKaTo.
fjuevoLcn
Kal KaTecrTpafi/xevcov
28
l^povov Be iTrtycvofievov
which
reon
along the cliff,
still
mains
of earlyCyclopean walls can
be traced.
The
temple lay at the distance of about a mile from the Magnesian
in
of it and
Gate, which was westward
and
the valley midway between
Prion
Koressos

It would

Koressos.

seem

that

in

the

already
enclosed by the citywall,though Xenophon still speaks of the temple as being
stades from the city{Ephes.i. 2).
seven
Asiatic
The
to the
temple, dedicated
Greeks
identified
the
goddess, whom
time

with

by
went

of

of Herodotos

their
Mr.

ae

Artemis, has

Wood.

back
which

it had

to

the

been

been

excavated

originalstructure
Hittite period; that

The
the

ruins

now

remain

was,

Pliny, the eighth. The


sixth,commenced
by the architects Kherof
Krete
and
his son
Metasiphron
hundred
genes, occupiednearlyone
years
according

to

building,and was
day Socrates drank
400).

Kroesos

had

by

Herostratos

the Great

was

destroyed the

born

hemlock

the

contributed

The
the

oIktj-

a'^eBoviravTcav

in

its construction.

vrj(Tov";

same

seventh

very-

(b.c.
towards

was

burnt

night Alexander

(b.c.356).

of Greek
religion
strikinglyillustrated by the action
of the Ephesians. The rope locally
connected
the temple with
the city, and
so
placed the latter under the protection
of the goddess. Compare Thukyd. iii.
104 (where Polykratesdedicates Rheneia
Delos
to Apollo by connecting it with
the
a
chain). Similarly,
conspirators
by
who
had
aided
conKylon at Athens
The

local character

is

nected

themselves

Eumenides

by

with

the

cord, and

altar of the

their removal

of
brought a curse
upon the house
who
ordered
the
Alkmseonid,
gakles,
See ch. 61.

Meit.

HERODOTOS.

IS

aVTWV

Kol

CLTTlKVeOLTO,

vaioLcri

%6\(0V

Br] Kol

KeXevaacrt

vofiov^

[book

air

TrotT/cra?

^A$7JVaL0";,
^AOt]09
BeKa, Kara
a e
eSTJ/xTj
erea
avTjp

Xva Br) firj


i/C7r\(0(7a";,
66copi7]";
irpOf^acTiv
avrol

eOero.

tmv
KaaOfj XvaaL
Gai
AQr^valoi'opKLOOcrc

ov/c

yap

nva

tmv

oloi

re

vo/jlcov avay-

avrb

rjcrav

30

BeKa

/jbeyaXocac KaTei')(ovTO

"yap

iroirjerea

l^okcov OrjraL. avrwv


Brj
rov^
av
cr(f)o
')(^pr}cre"j6aL
vofjuoicn
6 aoXoov elve/cev e? KlyvTTTov
Kal Trj";Oecopi7j";
iKBrjiirjcra'^
TovTcov
koI
Brj koI e? %dpBi"^irapa J^polaov.
aTTLKeTO
irapa Kfjbacriv
rod J^pola-ov
vrrro
a7nKOfjL"vo"; Be i^eivi^eroiv rolau fiaatXijloco-o
SoXcova
/ce\evcravTO"; J^polcrov
tov
rplrr)
rj rerdpTrj
fi"Ta Be r)/jiepr)
eireBeiKwaav
tov"^
kol
6r]aavpov";,
7repii)yovKara
Oepdirovre^;
cov

"

TTCLvra

fieydXa

eovra

Kal

Trdvra
raSe.

"

7ro\Xo"^

Kal

re

ol
w?
crKe'y\rd[xevov

^elve AOif^vale,
irap

yrjv TToWrjv

Be
okjBia, derjadfievov

kol

Kara

irepl

K.polo'o'i

X0709 dirlKrat

aeo

r}fiea"; yap

rjv,ecpero

Kaipov

ra

ficv

[^elveKev]
cro(pLrj";
r?}? o-t]^;koI irXdv7)"^,
co? "pi\o(ro(j)eco
eiveKev
6ecoplr]";

mv
iireXrlXvOa^'
vvv
eTrelpeaOab
/jue
Trdvrcov elSe? oX^icorarov.^^6 fiev
tjBt]

eirrjXOeere el nva
'i/jbepo"i
oX/SccoTaro^rdora eTreipcora' %6X(ov Be
eXTTi^MV elvai dvOpcoircov
ovBev viToOwirevaa^ dXXa
rS eovn
/3a(7iXev,
y^prjcrdfjuevo^;
Xeyet
B
e
TeXXov
^AOrjvatov" diroOwypbdaa'^ J^poiao'^
to
Xe'^Oevecpero
"

a"

elvai

Brj Kpivec"; TeXXov


Kotr)
ilTLo-rpe"^e(o"^
''

etire
re

*'

TeXX")

rovro

fiev

tt}?7roXco(;

Koyadol, Kal crcpielBe

rovro
rrapafieivavra'

reXevrrj
valoLcn

rod

Be

diracn

rod

ev

r)Kov(T7)"; TralBe^;rjcravKaXoL

reKva

jScovev

oX^Layrarov;^^ 6 Be
Kal

eKyevofxeva
ft)9

rjKovn,

^iov Xafiirpordrr]
eireyevero'

ra

Trdvra

irap

yevofiev7]"; yap

r]iJblv^
^AOtj-

^YiXevalvi,^
l^07]6'qcra"^

/jbd'^7)";
7r/309 rov"i

darvyeirova"^ev
direOave
Kal fitv
KaXkiara^
iroXeixlcov
rpoirrjv Troirjcra^; rMV
kol
AOrjvatoLBrjiiocrlr)
re
irlfirjaav
rfjirep eireae
eOa'^av avrov
TeXXov
iJLeydXw"^r 0)9 Be ra Kara
rov
irpoerpe'^aro6 ZioXwv
TroXXd
Kal oX/Sia,eTrecpayra rtva
rov
re
J^pocaovet7ra9
Bevrepov
Kal

31

of his
the account
questionablewhether
Blidinwholly legendary.
ger defends the chronology of Herodotos
and Kroesos together,
in bringing SolOn
but not very successfully
{Bericht.Wien.
Ak.
197
Comp. a note by
92, pp.
sq.
Mus.
in
the
Rhein.
d. Phil. 36,
Philippi
3, pp. 472-3).
^
"After
a
happy life,as we reckon
it," not "after a long life," Eu takes
the genitiveas being the neuter
of the
old adjectiveeii^,
Sanskrit
i.e. iads,
su-,
travels is not

from

the

root

of

the

substantive

verb

ei/xi.
^

This

shows

that

the

unification

of

Attica, ascribed in the popularlegendsto


"

Theseus, "the establisher,did not take


placeuntil shortlybefore Solon's time, if
then.
even
Perhaps it was one of the resuits of the

tyranny of Peisistratos.

hostile relations
towns

of the two

of Eleusis and Athens

cated in the

legend of

the

Eumolpidae of Eleusis and

The

neighbouring
isfurther indi-

war

between

the

the Athenians.

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

elnre

EAST.

THE

19

iSoi,hoicecov irar^yy Sevrepelaycov

IJb6T eKelvov
**

OF

KXeo^cv

^ircova.

koI

re

tovtolctc

yap

otcreaOaL,
iovdc

S'

Ap-

yevo";

dpfcecov
7rpo";
pco/Jir)o'CtifiaTO'^
/cal
Srjteal Xeyerac
re
TotijSe'
dedXocpopoc
djJif^oTepoL
o/xolq)^ rjcrav,
oSe 6 X0709.
iovcrrj^i
6pTrj";
rfj H^?7 rolai KpyeiOiCLeSec iravTO)^
^oe";
lepov,ol he crcj^o
e? to
^evyetKOfitaOrjvac
TYjv fjbrjrepa avrcov
Se
ifc Tov
ev
rfjcopy
dypov ov irapeyivovTO
ooprj' iKKXrjLO/jLevoi,
j8to9
yelotcro

virrjv,Koi

re

tovtm

'

vTTohvvTe"^avrol vtto ttjv ^evyXrjvelX/cov rrjv afxa^av,


ve7)viat
iirl T'fj";
Be (J(^t
koi
dfjbd^7]"^
dtj^elro
rj jirjrrjp, (rraSlov^ Se irevre
Be
dirltcovTO e"; to
BcaKOfiiaavre^;
lepov. TaoTa
reaaepaKovra
ol

(7(f)t
TTOLTjcracTL

VTTO
6(pOelo't

KOi

dplaTT]e7reyev"T0,

BteBe^ere

Tr]"^ 7rav7]yvpL0"i

iv

tovtolctu

6eo"^

jBiOV
etr)
dfiecvov

TeXevTr} tov
0)9

dvOpcoTTO)TeOvdvai

fJudWov rj ^coetv. Kpyeloi fiev yap Treptal Be ^Apyelat,


verjvlwvirjv poL"jX7]v,
t(OV
ifiaKapc^ov
Trjv

(TTavTe^

o'lcov Te/cvcov
i/cvprjcre'
rj Be /jltJttjp
irepc^apr]'^
/jLTjTepa avTO)v,
/cal
dvTiov
tgS re
aTaaa
tov
eovcra
dyaX\xaTO^
tj} (^rjfjbr},
epyo)
/cal IMtcovl toIctl ecovTr]"i Te/cvoccn,
oi fxiv eVtevyeTo KXeofit re
6eov

fieyd\o)";,
ttjv

firjaav

icTTL.

Bovvai

Be ttjv

jjbeTa TavTTjv

to

ev'^rjv w?

dvOpdmcp Tv^elv dpLCTov


edvadv

re

Kal

ev(O')(^rj07]cr

lepcool verjviac ovkItl dveo'Trjcrav


dX}C iv TeXei
el/cova^;ttoit]tovtg)
^ApyelotBe a"f)eo)v
ea'^ovTO.
dveOeaav
(rdfievoc
ft)9
yevo/ievcov.^^
dvBpcovdplcFTcov
"9
AeX"^oi;9
%6\o)v jjbev Br)evBac/jLovi7)"^
BevTepetaevefie tovtoictl, ILpolao^3e 32

iv avTut
KaTa/cot/jir)6evTe^

tm

8' rffieTepr) evBacfjUovlr]


ovtco
^etve^Adyjvale,
rj
ovBe
IBtcoTecov dvBpcovd^iovi
TOL
to
axJTe
/ji7)Bev
"9
direppLTrTai
Oelov
Be elire w l^polae,
0
iTrtdTdiJbevov
;
97/x,ea9 iTTolrjo-a^
fxe to

etire
airep'^Oel^i

"

"

**

iov

(^Oovepovre Kal Tapa'^coBe'^


iireLpcoTa^i
dvOpcoTTTjicov
iv yap tm
IBelv
TrpTjy/jbdTcov
irept.
jxev ecTTt
fiaKpM '^povw iroXka
irdv

TCL

iOekei,iroWd

[XT) TC(;

eTea

ovpov

Pausanias

t7]";

Be

Kal

of

Herodotos'
which

his

It embodies
which

philosophy, to
historywas
the Greek

violates

troduces

the

disorder

"9

yap

e^BopirJKOVTa

i6vTe"siviavTol
ovtoc
fo?;9dv6pa"7ra)
TrpOTlOrjfii.^

sculpture in the
temple
Apollo Lykios at Argos, representing Biton carrying a bull on his
shoulders
(ii.19, and see ii. 20). The
said to be Kydippe,priestess
mother
was
of Here (Plut.Mor. 109).
2
have
the
Here
we
expression of
saw

iraOelv.

in

part written.

idea that

or
(lirpov,

into

the

illustrate

anything
mean,

in-

Koa-fios of the

world, and
the gods.

must

The

therefore
Greek

was

be hateful
still

interested in political
life,and

preparedfor

the

assurance

of

to

keenly-

not

yet

Epikuros,

for none
the gods "care
of these
things." Comp. Pindar, Istlim. vi. 39,
of Aristotle,
and the answer
Met. i. 2.
^
Ps.
Medical
10.
science
xc.
Comp.
and
have
of late
sanitary regulations
years considerablylengthened the averof life. See iii. 22, and
Solon,
age
Frg. 20.
that

HERODOTOS.

20

ePhofJLYjKovra
irape-^ovrai

[book

koL
r)/jiepa";Sc7]Kocria";

el Se

ifi^oXi/jOov
SL(T/jLvpLa";,
/jLtjpo^;/ji7]jLvo/jbevov

Kol

SrjiOeXrjcreL

Xva Srj al
/jltjvI
fia/cporepov ylvecrOac,

irecov

rcov

Tovrepov

irevTaKio-yjXia'

Siov,/jurjvef;
crvixj^aivcocTi
e? to
p,ev irapa
Trapayivofjuevai
ol
fjuij/covra
i/jL/SoXcjuLoc
erea
jLvovrat
rptrj/covra irevre,
ifc TO)v

tmv

T^fxepecov

'^iXiai

TovTcov

fjbrjvoiv

e^So/XTjKovra
erea,

ra

e?

rovrecov

Trevrrj/covTa.

rj/juepacBe

rcov

eovaecov

o)pat

e/3So-

ra

airaaewv

/cal

TrevrrjKovTa

koI
SicrfMupicov,
rfj
e^afcccF'^tXLcov
rj ereprj avrecov
ovSev o/jlolov 7rpocrd"yeL
irapairav
irprj^yiia. ovtco
ereprj rj/jiepr)
S)V Yipolcre
ttXovecTTL
ifiolSe
av6pco7ro";
av/jiipopr}.
elvai avOpcoTTcov
e/celvo
nroWoiv
jSacrcXev^;
Tetv
fjieya ^aiveai koI
Se
ere
TeXevrrjcravTa KdX(o"^ tov
eyco Xeyco, irplv
eipeo fie, ovfcco
Kol
htrjKocricov

to

irav

kol

crv

TO

aloiva

ov
o
to
irvOcofjuat.
yap
ecTTi,
r)/jiep7]ve'^ovTo^i oX/StooTepo^;

KaXa
TOL

evTV^el^.

jjbev

fiouvov,

evTV^eo"^

Xolat.

Be

e7rL6v/jbir]v
ovk

rj

evTV^LT]

KaKcov,

evirau'^,

^iov
dXX^

irXelara

Herodotos

blunder

for

142).

So

he

here

further

the

over

quired

an

was

is

as

the

number

makes

that this is due

Prof

indifferent
shown

by

of

years

calhis
re-

at

t) be

eTTLoeiTai'

oe

dvOpojirov
aMfxa

fiev yap

partlyto his countthirty days each,


alternately
thirtyand twenty-

months
of

fiev

solar year consist of


has pointed
Rawlinson

out

instead

(TvXXa^elv avdpcdirov

TaoTa

vvv

"TC

x^PV ovBe/jula
KarapKel irdvTa ecovTrj

the

days.

ing

tovtolctl

oe

e^'oee?

ev

ecTTi'

o?

av

Ta

ovBev
6

av

TeXevTrjar)ev')(ap["JT(D

nine, and partly to his forgettingthat


month
omitted
from
was
intercalary
time
time
fourth
to
possibly every
the

"

Egyptian dynasties(ii. TpieT-qpls.


^
Borrowed
not be surprisedthat

375

the

Trpo^;

need

we

fjueydXr^v
irpocr-

aTTjv

TolcnBe

e^et erepov
Be Kal
")?
dpLcrrT].

to

irXelaTa

culator,

Kal

e'^ei, aXXov
Kal eireiTa
e^oov BtareXfj

ecrrc

avTMV

fjuev

axrirep

aXKo

avTrj
e')(rj,

avTapKe";

eaTt,

aXXa

TTape'yovGa,

irdvTa

tcl

evTV')(^ea.
dBvvarov

eovTa

Be Bvolai
dvoX/3to";
irpoe'^ei
irXovalov
Kal dvoXjSov ttoX-

reXevTijcrei
tov
eKelvov; tov
crv
o
6X^io"^ KeKXrjaOai d^co";
tprjTel'^,
KaXelv
av
fi'ijBe
ko)
oXjBiov
TeXevTTjcrr],
eTrccr^elv,

irplvS'

ecTTL'

tov

iravTa

eKelvov
irpoeyet
TaoTa
oixolco'^ BvvaTO'^ eKelvw evecKai,
Be ecTTt, avovcro";,
d7radrj";
direipo^;

ol cnrepVKet,
el Be
eveLBrj";.

ovTO"=;

ev,

Be

ovto"^

eir

^aTrXouBe fjLeTpLco";
ep^oz^re? ^lov

Be
o
BvvaT(OT6po";,

evetKat

ciTTjv /iiev Kal

irXovcnof;

eKTeXecrao
e7ri6ujLii7]v

fiev

ireaovcrav

Brj /jueya

jjuaKkov tov

el /jlt]ol tv'^tj eiricrTroiTo


j^lov. ttoXXoI fiev yap

TeXevrrjcraitov
dvoXjSiOi elcn, iroXXol
dv9p(07ro)V
ev

e'^ovra

TOV

ifkovaio"^

/xeya

the ^olic

from

like
SictTrXoi^ros),

the

dialect (for

Homeric

^d^eos,

or
^o-koto^, ^arpecpr/s,
t^'-XPVV^,
^o-p-ev-qs,

and
^airXTjdrjs
with

^airvpos,which, together

^aTrXouros,must

rived from

the

Epic

be

regardedas

dialect.

de-

THE

I.]

irap"ifiolto

/Slop,ovto";

Tov

icTTi

Se

(TKOTrelv
cj)ep6a6ai.

diro^ijaerai'iroWolai

Krj

Xoyov

dfiaOeaelvat,o?

tovto

tm

ov
}Lpoia(p

eXa/3e
ol'^ofjbevov
Be

Be

ovvopua

elvat

"Tepo";

ol rjv "Atu9.

BopdTiakoX
eK
TO)v
dvOpcoTTOL,
/cat

ol

iraiBl
eirl

ol

iralSa.^

Bte"p6apT0,
tjv

puev

irdvTa

Ta

ol ttjv

o?

tov

tt^wto?*

arj/jiaLveo

tm

eBcoKe, KaTappodBrjaa^
tov

yvvalica,ewQoTa

Be

(TTpaT7]yelvfitv

dKovTia
e^eirefJUTre'
Trprjy/jia

tolovto

irdvTa

Tolai

ydfiov,dirLKvelTai

e?

iroXep^ov

e?

yjpewvTai

OaXdjjbov^;

ifCKo/jLiaa^;
dvBpecovcov
"9
tov"^
irauBl epurear).
tm
Kpepudpuevov

X^P^^^'^^^ 7raLBb";tov

ev

oveipo^i,

fBXrjOevTa.
acBrjperj
cilj(^fjbfj

Xoyov

TOiavTa

Ta

fxiv

ecovTM

dyeTai fiev tm
AvBmv
ovBafJbfj
eTL

firj tL

diravrodv
dvOpcoircov

*'Atvv

tov

34
fieydX?]

vefi"at";

Kara

ovTepo^;

Bt) mv

tovtov

oveipov

(TvvevTjcre,

eirecTTTj

rjXiKcovjjbaKpM

twv

diroXel

Be

ol evBovrt

Y^polacpBvo TratSe?,tmv

co?
}^poiG-(p 6vecpo(;,
B eireiTe
Ka\
e^rfyepOrj

TO)v

Oeov

etc

fJieXXovTO)vyeveaOai KaKMV

Bt)Kco(f)0(;,
a Be

yap

33
i'^apl^ero,

ovre

kco";

ifceXeve.

oX/SccoTaToi'.avTLKa
dXrjOeirjv
tcjv
ec^aive
Be T(p

/Saa-cXevSLfcaLO";

SrjuTToSefa?6\/3ov o 0"O"; irpoppl-

ecovrov
on
CO? 6i/cdcraL,
J^polcrov,
ivopbicre

rjaav

21

'^prjiiaro^ rrjv reXevrrjv,

iravTo^;
')(^pr]

Xeycov

Be XoXcova

Mera

EAST.

ovS6Vo"; d'TroirepbTrerai,
7roi7]adfjLevo";
Kdpra So^a?
rd
dyaOd /jl6T61";
ttjv reXevTrjv iravro'^
irapeovra

jXiv

'^prjfiaro^;
opdv

THE

ovvofxa

yap

rdora
^ov(;dveTp"(f)6.^^
0VT6

OF

EMPIRES

35
e'^ovTO^; Be

XdpBc^dvr)p

ra?

avpL(j)op7J
Ka6apo";'X^Lpa"^,eoov ^pv^
exof^evo^; fcal ov
Be ovto";
Ta
jSaacXTjlov.irapeXOcbv
e?
yeveo'^ Be tov

puev

yevefj,

Yipolaov

ol/CLa

KaTa
vofiov"; tov"^
eTrt^w/otou? KaOapatov eBeiTO eTroKvprjcraL,
Be TrapairXrjcTLTj
Tolai
eorTO
K^oto-09Be jJLLV e/cd07]pe'
rj KdOap(TL";

AvBolcrt

of

The

Kal

'

EXXrycrt.

East, and

was

propheticcharacter
widely spread in the

of the

many
the British

caneiform

tablets

belonged
Babylonian work on the
interpretationof dreams.
Thus, "to
of a bright light presaged fire."
dream
now

to

Cf.

Museum

ancient

an

Lenormant,

Science

des

"La

Divination

Presageschez les

et

Be

eireiTe

belief in the

dreams

in

Tolai

la

Chaldeens,"

host then
the

blood

eTTolrjcre
vofic^o/jieva

Ta

sacrificed
and

sucking-pig,poured

other

libations

and

the

Adrastos

"may

not

circumstances

("he who
be

of
runs

the
not

escaped,"similar

steia,the title of Nemesis

1875.

on

his

hands, callingupon Zevs Kuddpaios, made


offeringsto the Erinnyes, to the dead
and finally
person, and to Zeiis /uLeiXixto?,
of the assassin
inquired after the name
murder.

away"

or

to Adra-

in Boeotia

and

Kyzikos) is a Greek, not Phrygian or


and points to the Greek
Lydian name,
under
the protection of Zeus eTriaTLos, originof the story. Stein suggests that
the story of the death of Atys, the son
thrustinghis sword into the ground and
of Krcesos,may
have
arisen out of that
His
covering his face with his hands.
^

See

assassin

Apoll. Ehod.
seated

himself

iv. 693
on

The
sq.
hearth

the

at

HERODOTOS.

22

iirvvOdveTO
K.po?"T09"

"

wvdpwire,Tt?

oKoOev

Kal

re

KoOev

ioov Kal

re

[book

elif],
Xefycav rd^e.

Ti"^

eTriaTLo^

^pv"yLrj"^
7]K(ov

r?}?

Be
;"
icfiovevcra'^
dvhpSjv tj yvpat/ccov
iral^, ovofidd/Jbei^6To
j^acrikev,
VopSccofiev rod MtSeo) el/jit
Be
Se
deKCdv
^o/juac
^'ASprjaro's,
"^ovevcra"^ dBe\(f)eov
efiecavTOv
rod
Kal
viro
e^e\7fKafxevo"^
irdpeifxi
Trarpo^;
eaTepr)/jLevo";
TrdvTcov.'^ Ky3ot"ro9Be jjllv dfiel^ero TolacBe.
dvBpSiv re
Kal eXrjXvOa'^e?
evOa
eoov
(j^lXov^,
Tvy^dvei";
(f)L\o)v
eKyovo";
ovBevo'^fjuevcav ev rjfierepov. avfjbc^oprjv
'^pTJ/juaro^
re
d/jL7]^av7]cret";
nrXelcTTOv.^^
6
oo?
Brj
Kovcfiorara(pepcovKepBavel"i
ravrrjv
fxev
Be
Biairav el'^e
ev
K^polaov.
'^povo) tovtw
Mu(7t") '0\v/j,7r(p
^09
yiveTai
fjueya' opfieofjievo^ Be ovto";
^(^priiJLa
rd rcov Mucrwy
rod 6peo"^
iroXkaKi^;
eK
rovrou
epya BtacpdetpeorKe.
rlva

ifjiol
iyeveo;

re

"

0)

re

*'

36

ev

ol Muo-ol

Be

ev

eir

tm

avrut

rco

e^e\6ovre"^iroieeaKov

avrov

Be

reXo"; Be

eTTaa'^ov
7rpo"; avrov.
yivcrojv dyyeXoL eXeyov
rcov

jjuev

drrLKopbevot
irapdrov

rdBe.

^acriXev,

"

dvecf"dv7]
rrj x^PV" ^? '^^
fjueytarov
rjfMLV ev
eXelv
BwdfjueOa. vvv
rovrov
TrpoOv/uLeo/iievoc

epya

S)v

ov

rov

creo

rralBa Kal

XoydBa"^ veyvla^;Kal
ol
eK
e^eX(iL"iJbev
rr]"^ '^copi]'^.

dv fiiv
Kpo?cro9Be

W9

rov

juLvrj/jLovevcov

7racBb";fjuev irepL

"

'^prjfjia

BtacfiOeLpei
TTpoaBeofieOa
iBeovro,

eXeye cr^i rdBe,

eirea

ov

dv

yap

rdord

Kal

vo";

Brj rovrcov

fiev

rd

oveipov

l^polaov

crvfjiTrefJi'^^rat
rifjuvy

Kvva";

ere
e/jiov jJirj fivijaOijre

rov

ovBev,

KaKov

vfuv

ol

vvv
ydp
jJueXeL.
crv/jiTre/jL^lraL/ubf
veoya/nof;
AvBcov
Kal
rb
Kal
irdv
avfJLirefJb'y^ci)
Kvvrjyeo-cov
fievroL XoydBa";
lovcn elvat 0)9 irpoOvfJiordroicn
rolai
BcaKeXeiKTOfjuai,
crvve^eXelv
ecrrc

re

37

rdora d/jbelylraro'
rb Oripiov
eK
rrj'^
vfjilv
'^(opr]";.^^
aTro'^peco/jievcov
Be rovroicTL
M-vcrcov eTrecrep'^erac 0 rov
rcov
l^polaoviral^ dKr]Koa)"^
rcbv iBeovro

ol M.vaoL.

Be rov
(pa/juevov

ov

GVfMire/jL-yJrecv,
Xeyei irpb^avrbv
(r(f)i,
^

rd

KdXXccrra

irporepov

Kore

Kal

rov
Yipolaov

veTjvLT]^

rdBe.

ye

irdrep,

*'

ripiivrjv

yevvaiorara

iralBd

e9

re

evBoKifieiVvvv Be dfX(f)orepa)v
dypa";(fiotreovra^
rivd BecXiTjv
diTOKXr\i(Ta"^
ovre
ovre
^'%^^?"
/jlol irapiBcov
fie rovrcov
reoicrl fze y^prj ofifiacri
re
ddvfMLTfv. vvv
69
dyoprjvKal e^
^alveaOai; kolo"; fiev rc"; rolcrt TToXLTjrycnBo^co
dyopY}"^
(j)otreovra
TToXepLOv^Kal

"9

re

elvai,

KOLO^

Be

dvBpl avvoLKelv
Xoycp avdireiaov
of

Tt9

rfj veoyd/juco
yvvacKt
ifie mv

6kco"; fioo

Atys, the suu-god, slain by

tusk
^

of winter
Tournier

(see Pans,

crv

rj

fjLere"; levau

i"rl
d/netvco

the boar's

vii, 7).

{Eev. de Philologie, 1878)

makes

ovrco

7)
Orjprjv,

Troieofjueva.

relative,and

accordingly

vvv
87],
evdoKi/LL^eu',

reads
^

the

eKelvrjBo^eo

eirl rrjv

rdora

to,

Be

kolco

"

What

face must

I show.

"

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

rolcrtSe.
d/jbel/Serai
KyDotcro?
ouSev
Tft)

tov
TrapcScov
d'^apo

virv(p

iirLarao-a

"

oKi^oy^povtovecreorOaL' vtto
irpo'^ o)V rrjv o'^tv ravrrjv

ecprjae

dXkd
TOL

XeXrjOeere
TO

tov

re
ovk

iirl
Svvai/jurjv

TrdTeptol,

*'

avyyvco/jLT] jjuev

SiKatov

ttj^;

8e

ecTTO

ov

ISovtc 39

fjuavOdvei^

(j)pd^etv.
(f"y"i

ifieTeXevTijaeLVvo";
(j)dvaL
(TLB7]pe7](;
at^yU/^9
(j"o^eaL
cTLSTjpeTj
;
Trjv av
fjLev elcrL^et/oe?, koltj Se al'^firj

ovetpov

Be KolaL

el fjbev yap
TL

yap

ore
t,orj"^
e'yu,?)?
icov 7rat9*
tov
Srj
rvy^dvec'?
yap
elvai jjbocXoyi^ofiaL.
OVK
djxei-

kco^;

oveipov,^
e/jue tol

to

38

irapaXafji^avo/jLepa

Treplifjue
(pvXaKrjve')(eLV'to

oyjnv TOiavTrjv,

ye

iirl rd

Kol

el? ydp jmol fjuovvo^


BiaKXe'yfrac.
Trjv aKOTjv
"T"pov Sc6(f)6ap/jL"vov
v"r)VL7]"; toI(tlS6.

23

aXKo
heiklrjvovre
ovelpovev
jjlol6^lri";

ovre

dWa

raora,

dTroXelaOat.
(TiSrjpirj^;
al')(fjbr]";

jBeTai 6

iral,

iroico

eaTTCvaa
ydfjiovTOO TovTov
dTTOTre/jLTro),
"pv\aK7]v
e'^cov ec

EAST.

THE

VTTO

oBovto^;

vtto

tol

olKe,')(^prjv
Srjae

TovT(p

elire TeKevTrjcreLVfie, rj dXXov


6
Teo
Se inro al'^fiij'^.
TToielv Ta
jroLel^' vvv

dvSpa";rjfiLV ylveTaL rj fid'^r),


yLtere? yu-e.
S) Tral, ecTTL ttj fjue vLKa"=; yvd)fjL7]v
40
dfjbel^eTai
}Lpo2cro";
dirot^aivwv
ct)? o)v
ireplTOV evvTTViov.
vevLKT^jjuevo^
fjueTayLvcocTKco,
eirl
he
levaL
TdoTa
41
elira^
re
ere
o
K.poiao";
ttjv dyprjv.^^
jjueTLrj/jLL
Be ol \eyeL TaBe.
diTLKopbevcp
^pvya "ASprjaTov,
fieTairefjLTreTaL tov
*'"ABpr}(7Te,
iyco ae avfi^opfjTreir\7]ypjevovdydpi,ttjv tol ovk
oveLBl^o),
eKadTjpaKal oIklolctl v7roBe^dfjLevo";
rrapeycov
e')(^co,
Trdaav
Bairdvrjv. vvv
mv
(o^e/Xet?yap i/meoirpOTroLrjaavTO^
eireLTe

mv

ov

ttjOo?
"

vtto

aeo

e'?
')(^p7j(TTd
'yp7](TT0L(rLfie dfieL^eaOaL)(f)v\aKaTratSo?
ifiov'^prjL^co
yeveadocLe? dyprjvopfieofievov, firj TLve"; KaT
o-e

ere

tov

oBov

iirl BrfXrjaL
/cXcoTre? KaKovpyoL
vfilv. tt^o? Be tovtm
(jyavecocrt
Kal ae tol
to2(Tl epyoLCTL*
diroXafiirpvveaL
%/3eoz/ eVrt levaL ev6a
ierTl Kal irpoaeTL
42
dfieiiraTpooLov re ydp tol
pcofiT] virdp'-yeL.^^

"ABp7]erT0"; ^acLXev, dW(o"; fiev eycoye dv ovk r/ta e'?


deOXov
TOLovBe* ovTe
TOLjjBeKe^yprj/jievovoIko'^ eerTL
ydp avfi(f)opfj
e?
to
ofJbrjXLKa^ev TrprjeraovTa"; levaL, ovTe
^ovKeaOaL Trdpa,
airevBeL*;
Be, eVetVe av
ifiecovTov. vvv
iroWa'^fjTe dv ier'^ov
Kal Bel
')(api^ea6aL
'^pi^aTolaL),
(ocfielXco
ydp ae dfiel/SeaOaL

^eTaL

"

co

TOL

BLaKeXeveaL
elfil eTOLfio^; TdoTa, rrralBd Te
tov
aov,
e'lveKev irpoaBoKa tol
tov
^vXaaaeLv, dTrrj/juova
(fivXdaaovTO'^
iireLTe ovto^
43
dirovoaTrjaeLV. TOLovTOLaL
dfielyfraTO
Yipolaov,
XoydaL Te ver^viyaL Kal KvaL
rjlaav fieTa TdoTa
e^TjpTV/jievoL
iroLelv

"

"Now

but

what

the

escaped your

do not

you

of

(meaning
notice."

"

the)

T6

understand
dream

hf, cannot

second

has

known

be

wrote

ace.

after

construction.
dWa

7d/3.

\k\., an

otherwise

un-

Perhaps Herodotos

HERODOTOS.

24

Se

aTTiKOfievot

to
"OXv/uuirov

rov

Se fcal
irepicrTavTe's

6vpovT6";
0

e?

6po(;i^ojreovto

OripioVy

iar^KOVTi^ov.evOa Brj
he "ABp7j"TT0";,
Ka\e6iJbevo"^
"^ovov,
kvkKco

avTO

Srj6 Ka0ap6e\"^
tov

^elvo";,
ovTO^

[book

K^poicrov
d^apTavec,Tvy^dveuhe
TratSo?.
^^^"TrXrjae
tov
ovelpovTrjv
/jbev hrj/3X?7^el9
Ty ctlx/^V
Wet
he Tt"; dyyeXecov tS
diriKOfxevo'^
to
Kpo/cro)
ryeyov6";,
"j)7]/ji7]v,
he 69 Ta?
Trjv fid^yvkoI tov tov TratSo? fiopov earjfjbT^ve
SdphL";
aKovTi^cov TOV

TOV

vv

ixev

tov

re

44

45

OavdTw
tS
iraiho'^ crvvTeTapayfievo";
tov
K.poL(To";
direKTeive
tov
/jbdWov TL ehetvoXoyecTootl
avTo";
[xlv
(jyovov
he
hecvM^ eKdXei jjuev Ala
eKaOripe.TrepLTjfie/CTecov Trj o-vficf^opf}
vtto
tov
^ecvov7re7rov9(o";eirj, eKdXec
KaddpcTLOV,
juiapTvpofievo"^ Ta
he eTTLo-Ttov
Kal eTaiprjiov, tov
re
Oeov,
avTov
tovtov
ovofjud^cov
eiricTTiov KaXecov, hiOTi hr) oIkloktl v7rohe^d/jievo";
TOV
tov
fjLev
eXdvOave
he
TratSo?
^etvov "j)ovea
/Soctkcov,
tov
tov
eTatprjiov, a)";
avTOV
(pvXaKa crf/XTreyLfx/ro,?
evprjKOL TroXefitcoTaTov. "Traprjaav he
ol Avhol
ol
oircaOe he eiTreTo
tov
"pepovTe"^
/jbeTa TovTO
veKpov,
0
irapehlhovecovTov
"povev"^.(7Ta"; he ovto";
irpo tov
ve/cpov
tm
T"x?
TTpoTelvcov
Yipol(T(p
'^elpa^,
e7rc/caTa"T"pd^aL
/xcv KeXevcov
Kal ")? iir
veKpS, Xeycov ttjv t" irpoTeprjV ecovTov
avfi^oprjVy
ol.

he

ifcelvr]
TOV

he
Kpofccro?

CO

tovtcov

ea)v

KaiTrep

^etveirapd

OdvaTov.

"69

OLKO";

olfC7]l(p
toctovto),
rrdaav

he

ov

crv

dXXd
i^epydcrao,

ea-TjiJiaive
r]v,

tcl

TOV

Te

tov

aKOvaa'^

KaKw

ev

aeo

deKcov

ovhe

KaOrjpavTaaTroXayXefcoo^; eoT)'

ttjv

(jlol Tovhe

Oecov

kov

iraiba'

/Stcocnfjiov,

AhprjcFTOvKaTOCKTelpei,

Kal Xeyei 7r/509 avTov

hiKrjv,
eTrechrj
crecovTov
tov

Ti";,

/jueXXovTa eoreaOai.^^
eccfVTOV

ol ecr)

KaKov

aXTio"^,el

}Lpot(TO^
fxev

AopT/crro?

be

e'^co

KaTahiKd^ei^

fjLOC Kal

o?

"

fjurjocrov

iraXai

vvv

lopOico

nrpo-

eOa^jre,
")"?
tov

Mioeco,

he
dheXcfieov
yevo/jLevo"; (f)ovev"^
eireiTe
tmv
tov
Ka6rjpavT0"^,
r^av^lr)
dvOpcoTTcov
ireplto
eyeveTo
elvai
tcov
avTO"^
jjhec/Sapv(TTjfia, "7vyytvcocrKOfjLevo"; dvOpcoTTcov
tc3 tv/jl/Sm
ecovTOv.
e7rtKaTacr(j)d^ec
crv[i^op(jL"TaTO";,
ovTO(;

46

hr)0 ^ovev^ /xev

he
Ky90fccro9

tov

irrl hvo

icovTov

irevOet

/jueydXay
KaTrjcrTO tov
7ratSo9 eaTepr]fjbevo"^. /leTa he rj KaTvdyeo^ tov
J^va^dpeco
rjyeKal
v
tto
tcov
l^vpov tov
J^a/JL/Bvo'eco Ta
fioviT] KaTaipeOelcra
irev6eo";
direiravcre,
TlepaecovirprfyfjuaTa av^avo/xeva
fiev K^poicrov
he 69 (j^povTcha,
ell kq)"; hvvaiTO, irplvfieydXov^yeveorOai
iveffrjae
av^avo/jievrjv
TOV";
KaTaXa^elv avTMV
Ilepaa";,
Trjv hvvafitv.juueTa
0)V

Trjv

hidvocav

TavTrjv

B.C.

eTea

ev

avTlKa

549.

See

direTrecpaTO
tcov

Appendix V.

fiavTrjLcov

tcov

26

HERODOTOS.

[book

olSa S'

koI fxerpa daXd"7(rr]";,


r
iyo)'y^rdfifiov
apiO/jiov
Kai
clkovco.
Kuxpov avvirifjbi, koX ov cf)cov"VVTO";
rfK.Oe
6S/ii7]
'^eXcovTjf;
/jl "9 "pp"va(;
Kparacpivoco
iv
'^aXKO)
dfi dpveioicn
"ylrojui"V7]";
Kpeeaatv,

48

8' iTriecrraL.^
fj'^a\Ko"; fjuev vTrecrrpoyraL, '^oXkov
ol A.vhol 6"cnTLadcrr]"^
avyypayp^dfjbevoi
ot^ovro
Tri"^ TivOlrj'^

TCLora

dircovre^

e?

%dp8i";.co?

ra?

Se

ol

coXXot

koI

evdavra
'^p7](Tjjiov";,

7r"pt7r"/jL"j"6e

eKacrra
Ys.pol(jo";
crvyypa/jijjLdTwv.
tmv
Sr] ovSev
iircoparcov
fiev
he ""? to Ik AeXipcoviJKoucre,
o
avrtKa
irpoaieTO
fiiv
Trpoaev'^eTO
Kal
elvat
iv AeXre
to
/navrrjiov
TrpoaeSe^aro,
vofjuiaa^; fjuovvov
ol i^evpTjiceL
oTi
to,
avTO"^
(j^oicn,
eTroiT^a-e. eTre/re yap St]St67re/jL'\J

Traprjcrav(pepovre^

tov^

dvaiTTvacraiv

irapd

TCL

'^p7](TT7]pLa

tcov
Oeoirpoirov'^,
"pv\d^a";
ttjv Kvplrjv

tov";

i^evpetv
67rtvorjcra"; to, rjvdfjurj'^avov
rj/jbepecovefirj^avrjcraTO TotdBe'
Kal
Kal
T"
dpva KaTaKo-y^a"^
eiri^^pdaacrOai,
'^'xjre
'^eXcovTjv
ofiov
49

avTO";

Xe/STjTt'^aXKecp,'^dXKeov

ev

AeXcj^MVovtco

eK
Tov

XeyeTat), dXXo

jxev

hrj

he ttjv ^Afi(f)i,dpe
elivelv 0 TL Tolat AuSolac
"'^0)
e'^prjcre
ovBe
(ov yap mv
touto
vopn^ofjieva
KaTcu

ovK

to

lepov

ye

rj

irepl

TTOCTjaacTL

tcl

J^poLcrcp
i^prjcrOT]'

tu"

viroKpLCTLV,

fjiavT7]Lov

eTriOel^.
e7rl6r}[jba

tcl

Kal

otl

d'\^evhe"^

ivo/iiaejiavTrjiov

tovtov

eKTr]a6ai.
he

yieTCL

50

IXdcTKeTO'
KXiva";

Ovalrjcn fieydXyactov

TdoTa

KT7]ved re

yap
Kal
iTTO'^pvaov^;

re

irdvTa
Ovcrtfjua

Ta

iXTTi^oyvTOV

fidXXov

7rd(Tt TTpoetTre Ovecv

Te

To";.

ct)9

"

I number
And

the

the

edvae,
Tpca'^lXca

to

irvp'qv

fieydXyv,KaTeKate,

Avhotcrt
dvaKTrjcrecrOai,'

TovTOiat

irdvTa

Kal

sand

dumb

and

and
the

avToiV

Tiva

eVl
i^rjXavve,

the

measure

voiceless

sea,

speak to

jxev

tovto)

tl

eyot eKaahe iK Trj";Ovairj'^


iyeveTO,KaTa'^ed/jLevo";
'^pvcrov dirXeTov

r)jjiC7rX[v6ca
ef avTOv
6

AeX^otai,Oeov

iirapyvpov^Kal (j)LdXa";
'^pvorea^i

eXjxaTa7rop"^vpeaKal KLOa)va";,
vyaa*;
Oeov

iv

tcl

ism and

clairvoyance.Among

^^le tortoise

was

e^a-

ttolcov

puaKpoTepa

sacred

to

the Greeks

Aphrodite.

me

The

flesh of

Boiled

with

tortoise,hard
lamb,

is the

of
smell

^^r

shell,
I

xpd,j.fMov
dpidfxbu,
cp. Find.

'EwieaTai

smell,

is from

euvvfii.

"

The

01

ii. 99.

Pythian
in early

priestessdelivered the oracles


the 7th of
times only once
a
year, on
The
the month
second
line refers to the fact that
Bysios ; later,once a month
the
(Plut.Mor. 292 f, 398 a).
priestessinterrupted the envoys
while
they were
speaking {eireipwreou). ^ The waste of good things recorded
of the holocaust of the
Those
who
us
rejectthe divine inspiration here reminds
luxuries of life made
of
of the oracle have their choice of regardby the women
the
of
the
in
Florence
here
as
a
preaching
ing
story given
myth, or
consequence
of Savonarola.
of explainingit by the help of mesmerIn

caldron

'^^^^'"

of

brass, with

brass

cover

as

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

OF

THE

EAST.

27

Se TraXacmata,^
rpiiraKacTTa, v'^o";
/Spa'^vrepa
Se eirraKaiheKa
koI eKarov,
tovtcov
kol
airecfiOov
dpcO/jibv
'^pvcrov
8e
aXXa
eX/covra,
efcacrrov
recrcrapa, Tpirov rujurakavrov'
TTakacTTa, iirl he

ra

ra

iiroielro Be
araOfjuovSiraXavTa.
rakavra
eXicovaav
/cat XeovTo^; el/cova 'y^pvcrov aire^Oov,
araO/jiov
Be/ca.
6 Xecov, eTrelre KareKalero
eV Ae\(j)0L(7c
o
ovTo";
vrjo^^,
airo
Kareireae
(errlyap rovroLac
tcov
ISpvro),koi
rjfjLt7r\iv6lo)v
Kelrai
tg3 J^opcvOlcov
e/SBo/jiov
vvv
ev
OrjaavpcoeXKcov crraO/uLov
Xeu/cov
TjjxiTrXivdLa

ypvcrov,

rjfjbiTaXavTov aTreraKT]

r^fjuraXavTOV.

reraprov

avrov

yap

51

ein-

direizepjire
e?
AeX^ou?, KoiX raBe
dXXa
/jieydXov^;,
dfxa to tare, KprjTr}pa"^ Bvo fieydOec
y^pvoreov Kal
iirl Be^ia eatovTL
e? tov
dpyvpeov,tmv 6 fiev '^pvcreo"; eKecro
vr]ov,
Be
Kal
6 Be dpyvpeo";
eir
vtto
top
dpLarepd. fJbeTetCLvrj6r}(Tav ovtol
Kal
Kelrai
tco
o
vrjbvKaraKaevra,
ev
KXa^ofievicov
fiev '^pvcreo";
Kal ere BvcoBeKa
eXKcov
araOfMov etvarov rj/jLtrdXavrov
Or](TavpS,
tt}? ycovLT]^;,^
irpovr^lov
'^copecov
jjjvea^;, 6 Be dypvpeo"^errl rod
vtto
e^aKO(T[ov"^'
Oeo(f"avLoicrL.
AeXcpcov
d/jb(popea(;
eTrtKipvarao
yap
Be

TeXeaa"^

rdora
ILpolcro^

Be fjbiv AeX(f)ol
tov
(^eoBoopov
(f)a(Tl
BoKeco'

ov

to

yap

To3

Tcov

Bvo

Kal

dveOrjKe,'^(^pvoreov
re

dpyvpeov,

elvat
AaKeBatixoviwv (j^a/xevcov

eirtyeyparrTat

'^pvaecp

eyco

Kal iriOovs

(^aiverai
/jlol epyov
tm
oc
ev
dTreTrefjU-^e,
J^opivdlcov
Orjaavpw

Kal TrepippavTrjpia

eaTao-i,

elvat,Kal

elvat.

ctvvtv^ov

dpyvpeov^ Tecraepa^;

T"

%a/uLLovepyov

ovK
eiredvd67]/jia,
XeyovTe^' ecTTU yap Kal tovto
6pda)(;
J^poicrov,
Be
^ovXop^evo^'^apL^eaypayjre tcov rt? AeXcpMV AaKeBai/ubovLoiac

little over

palm was a
Inscriptionsshow
A

iraXaara,

all the MSS.


^

The

MSS.

read

reckon

easy, however,
reading. Bahr

reading

but
Tpia Tj/jLcrdXavTa,
that

Herodotos

half-talents.

to

construe

makes

the

It is not

the

modern

ingotsof

pure
those

gold weigh 325 French lbs. and


of pale gold 260 lbs.,but his calculations
not wholly certain.
are
1
Pale
or
alloyed gold is the usual
material
of earlygold ornaments
found
,

in the eastern
Some

ancient
side

part of the Mediterranean.

ornaments

Lydian

of Tmolos

latelydiscovered
tomb
are

Soph. Antig. 1037.

on

of

the

in

an

southern

pale gold. Cp.

"The

See

of

be

The

was

the

Six
than

more

Wine

during

of

corner

viii. 122.

would
^

decided

by

read

must

we

two.

except

the editors have


did not

that

iraXaKTra, the

not

three inches.

the

"

chapel,
hundred
amphoron
5000 gallons,

mixed

ante

with

festival of

latter is mentioned

the

by

water

in it

Theophania.
Philostratos

( Fit. Apoll. iv. 31) and Pollux (i.1, 34).


^
Theodoros, the architect, according
to Pausanias

; viii.

the art of

bronze.

14),invented
This,howof Greek
an
error
vanity, as
ever, was
the art was
practisedin Egypt, Assyria,
and PhcEnicia at an earlyperiod. Theocredited with
doros was
having carved
the emerald
in the ring of Polykrates.
The
suppositionof K. 0. Miiller,that
there

were

name,

is

to the

12
(iii.
castingin

two

Samian

artists of

this

and contrary
wholly gratuitous,
plain words of Pausanias.

HERODOTOS.

28

eTTLCTTd/jievof;
to
ovvofia

[book

aXX' o fiev
iTrc/jivycro/jiaL.
Sl ov
co-tI,ov
Trat?,
vhcop,AafceBatfiovlcov
TTj^ '^eipo"; pel to
re
avaOrjjJbaTa
ovSeTepov. aXka
ye
fxevTOL TMV
ireptppavTrjpicov
Koi
OVK
o
dfiatovtolctl
aireTrefjU'xIre
K^polcro^y
eiTiarjiJba iroWa

Oat,

Tov

ovk

ecScoXov xpvdpyvpea KVKXoTepea, koi Sr)koI jvvacKO";


tt}? dpTOKOirovTr]"; J^potcroveiKova
Ae\(j)ol
TpiTTTj'^v,

yevjjbaTa
aeov

TO

elvai.^

Xeyovat
52

7rpo"; Se

dveOrjKe6
Betprji;
tS 8e
aTreTrefju-y^e,

koi

T7]";

aTeperjv,

tcl^

'^pvaeov

TCL

iv
%7]j3e(ov

6TL

To3

ToLcri Be

53

el

/cal dWcov

re

fjbovva

vvv

o/jiOico";

^ij^yackoI
BMpa

tcl

tcl

"9

crTpaTOv

"

J^polao^;

XeyovTe^
y^prjcTTTjpiOLG-L
eOvecov ^acTLXev^,vo[JLL(Ta"^TdBe
re

d^ca Scopa

el crTpaTev7]Tat
vfjuea^;iweLpcoTa

jxavTrjca

eBco/ce

tcov

iirl Hepcra^;

dvSpcovirpoaOeoLTOdvpuixa'^ovrol fjuev
Be fMavTTjlcov
at
TaoTa
tmv
todvto
69
iireLpwTeov,
d/jb(f)OTepci)v
irrl
rjv aTpaTevrjTaL
irpoXeyovcraLJ^poLcrco,
yvoifjiat crvveBpa/jLov,
Be '^Wyvcov
KaToXvaeiv
fjieydXrjV
tov";
dp')(r)v
Tlep(Ta"^,
fiLV
BvvaT(OTdTOV"; avve(3ov\evov ol i^evpovTa (j)i\ov";
TrpocrOeadai,
iireLTe Be dveveL'^OevTa
OeoirpowLa iirvdeTo 6 K.poL(7o";,
eX7r/cra9 fcaTaXvcreLV
Te
tolctl
'^prjcTTrjploLCTL,
Trdy^v
VTrep^crOrj
6*9 Tlvdo) AeX(f)ov";
avTL";
irefji'^a^
BcopelTaL,
Tr)v J^vpovl3a(TiXr]Lr)v,
'^
Bvo
avTwv
to
e/ca"TTOv
'TrXrj6o"^, dvBpa
7rv66/jLevo";
aTaTrjpcrL
Be
eBoaav
AvBolctl
dvTi
tovtcov
kol
AeX"pol
Yipolcr(p
y^pvcrov.
dTeXei7)v kol
kol
irpoeBpLTjv,
i^elvaL
7rpo/j,avT7]L7]v Kol
alel
e'9 tov
ylveaOat AeX(f)bv
avTcov
Bcoprj^ovXofjbevcp
'^povov.
Kol

54

TdoTa

iov

el crTpaTevrjTaL
'^prjcrT^pLa

tcl

dvOpdnroLcn,v/jLlv

iv

kol
i^evprjfidTcov,

eX

ofiOLCO";

dvSpMV irpocrdeoLTo
ol AvBol dveOeaav
d7re7refjb"p6rjcrav

Tiva

(piXov. ft)9 Be aTTLKOfxevoi e"; tcl


TolaL
TCL
dvaOrjixaTa,
i'^pecovTO
etvau

AvScov

tmv

K^ot(709
eireLpwTav

Kpolaof; kol
Tlep(Ta";

AvBmv

re

69

dyetv /jueWovcn
o

Ae\(j)ov";
koi
dpeTTjV
/cat al'^/mrjv

^vcttovTrjau Xoy^yo-i

koI

T7]"i

"9

puev
ttjv

diro

tcl

dfupoTepa e/xe rjv Keifjueva iv


^AiroWcovo^;.
Icr/jbr}VL0V
V7](x" TOV

cepa eveTeWeTO

iirl

irav

'^pvaeov

y^pvcreriv, to

iraaav

"yvvatKo";

TaoTa
^d)va";.
avTov
TTvOo/uuevo^
^AjiKptdpeo),
koi
K.poLao";

crdfco";re
dveOrj/ce
irdOrjv,

TTjv

ecovTov

TLva

(TTpaTov

tcl

re

KaT

tu"

55

image of the
probably an
goddess in a seated posture, like
figurein gold-leaffound at Mykense
Mycencc, No.
given in Schliemann's
(p. 182).
It

was

of

tlie

oracle,according

Asiatic

{Ehet. iii, 5), were

the

jxeydX-qvdpxw

and
273
^
^

"

The

The

necklace.

gold

stater

must

like

the

oracles

some

to 16s. 3d.
equivalent

The

drachmae
exact

was

words

have

Aristotle

he

5ca^as

is

plain

extracted

it,
quotes, from

The
published collection.
puts the embassy

Chronicle
556.

It

KaToKdaei.

Herodotos
other

to

Kpocaos "A\vu

that

"

of 20

Parian
in

B.C.

THE

I.]

EMPIRES

OF

THE

EAST.

29

Be rov^; AeXt^oi)?
crd/iievof;
o
to
Kyootcro?
e^pTjo-rijpLa^eTo
rpirov
eireire 'yap Sr) TrapekajBerod
aXTjOelrjv,
ivec^opelro
fJbavT7]iov
avTOv.

rdSe

Be

eTreipcora

r) fiovvap')(^L7]. rj Se

"(TTac

dW^

et ol 7roXv^p6vco"i
')(^p7)ar7]pta^6/j,"vo";,

UvOltj ol XP^ rdhe.

^acrc\ev";M.'ijBoccrc
r)/jLiovo";
yevTjrai,

orav

''

AvSe

TroXvyjrTJcpLSa
7roSa/3pe,
Trap'Epfiov
elvai.^
alBelcrdao Kaico^
/uuijBe
(j)evyeLV
/jueveiv fji7]B'
^ovTOiCTi eXOovcTL TolcTL eire"JL
6 Yipolao"^
56
ttoWov
tc
fjudXicrra
TravTcov
eXiri^wv i^/jLlovov
7]crOrj,
ovSa/juddvT dvhpo";(BacrtkevcreLV
KOI

Tore,

ovo
lVl?70ft)z^

fjueTCi Be

avTO'^

o)v

iravaeaUai

avrov

icppovTC^eccrTopecov

TaoTa

TWTdTov^

e^

ol

ovoe

tov^;

TrpoaKTrjcratTO
"^/Xou?,caTopecov

eovTa^

iovTa
Kai

Be

Tov"^
TO

TO

"

^Icovikov.

tov

rdoTa

Aev/ca\icovo"^

Media's

shall be

king

^acrikeo^;olicei yrjv
the

mule,

Lydian, by the pool


fly,nor stay.
pebbly Hermos
dread

the

Lydians

coward's

that

name

by

day."

usually
The

Kroesos.

to

distance

of
and

Sardes

4|

later writers

tumuli

at

runs

from

the
or

the

Sardes, between

of Bin

Bir

Tepe,
Lydian kings.
distinguished." ,Cp.ii.

of the
the burial-place
^

"The

121
^

most

f.
The

two

term

"

"

Pelasgian

the

Greek

is used

writers

Homeric

to Zeus

of Dodona,

the Thessalian
3

the

"

Argos in Thessaly,
as
worshipped by

Akhseans.

Pelasgians are

In 11. ii. 840tribe of

the

natives
Homer
"divine

of the
of

of

Thrake.

{II. x.

429;

Pelasgians"

But
Od.
have

elsewhere
xix.

in

177) the

passed

into

those

i. 146, ii. 56, viii.

26, vi. 138.

name

Hence

Illyrianorigin may
have

roots

we

that

it would

various

among

Pischel's derivation

be

the

in irepap and

simply

"to

ya
^

tribes

explained by

of the word

from

the

a
elf
{ya),so

the

mean

like "lonians"

grants,"
"emi-

(l"Foves) from

go."

Deukalion

is formed

from Deukalos,
epithetsof the sun-god (Hyperion,
Apollon, or Apelion), devKa-\bs

like other

Mysia.

present passage of Herodotos, as


in Thuk,
iv. 109, they are
regarded as
In

has
name

its

Herod,
v.

way

said
to
be
were
primitive Arkadians
the
mountains
of
Arkadia
Pelasgians,
being naturally the last refuge of the
inhabitants of thePeloponnesos,
aboriginal
whom
the Greeks displaced. The occurrence

{11.ii. 681, xvi. 233)

passages
it is appliedto Akhsean
and

See

44, vii. 94,

of the

populations
neighbourhood
call prehistoric,
now
or
known.
unrelationshipwere

and

origin and

and

denote

to

should

we

whose

in

(1) as
by
denoting certain Greek tribes of Thessaly,
Thrake, and Mysia, and (2)as equivalent
to our
term
own
"prehistoric." In two
senses

which

epithet given

Hermos

miles

the

went

the

Hence

sandals.

barefoot

^Oocotcv,eVl

ttjv

region of mythology,
prepared for the use

been

shoes, unlike

wore

Greeks, who
used

irpoKeKpifjueva,^

to

of Greece
The

AcopLKou

tov

fjuev
tcl

rjv

to

Soft-footed

Nor

yap

evpiCTKe

to

When

Of

tov^;

Be

hvva-

dp^c^lov fiev JJeXao-ycfcov^ Be ^^Wtjvlkov eOvo";.


Be TroXvirXdvijTov
kco
e|"6^cop?;cre,
fiev ovBafjbfj
Kdpra.

"7rl fjuev yap

ttj^^ apyr)"^,

^^Xkrjvwv

av

Kal ^AOijvalov^
AaKeBai/jLovLou";
irpoexovra^
7"j/eo9

kot"

to IloXv-devicrjs,
akin
woXv-devKTjs
{Od. xix. 521), and the Homeric
d-devKris

being

"unheroic"

and

from

the root due

The

myth

which

ej'-5i"/cews"zealously,"
' '

to lead

has

"

(Latin,duco).

attached

itself to

HERODOTOS.

30

Se

'

Acopov rod

EXXt^z^o?rrjv

[book

rrjv "Ocraav

vtto

Se ^lariaiodTLV
KaXeojjcevTjv
')(^cop7jv,
iv
i^avecrrrjvtto Js^aB/jueicov,
ocKec
ivOevrev
57

ovTw

ifc Se

TvpcTTjvMVJ^prjcrrMva
to refer to the ark

seems

iroXiV

of the

sun-god sailingabove the floods of winter.


Pyrrha, the wife of Deukalion, is "the
rise
men
ruddy" dawn, the time when
again to the work of the day. Deukalion
of Protogeneia,
the
father
the
was
(like
Amphion,
Amphi-ktyon
morning,"
from
the old Greek
d/A0os "a cloud")
' '

and

Hellen.

from

The

confusion

et\?7 "heat"
and
^

aTpefceo)"; elirelv.
e')(^co

iari reKixaipofJuevov Xejetv toIctl

name

writers

Kadmeians
the

latter

name

are

Phoenicians

their

apyetvbs),

of the Hellenes.

name

usuallyin
of

dispossessed
by the
Kadmos,

results

leader,was

the

Thera, and
the island

ot

archaic

the time

Kore

when

colony ; while

represent Kadmos

vases

bearded

an
god, furnished with
human
wings, whose
figureterminates
in a serpent's
tail. It would seem, therefore,
as

that
Greece
the

the Phoenicians

and

the

JEgean

be

were

and

called Kadmeians

found.

were

For

The

said to have

might

Kadmeians

147,

Kadmeians

been

colonised

wherever

the
iv,

who

carried with

worship of Kadmos,

Thebes

of the

to

Phoenician

Greek
old

o/juovpoi

back

goes
was

el he

tmv
TleXacrycov

eovcri,

Sparta see
Minor, i. 146.

Greek

Boeotians.
son

en

Herod,

wards
Thebes, after-

Greek

vvv

oc/ceovrcov,

the Ionic
^XAt;,

between

(like apyewbs

the national
The

KoXeofjuevov*

Kal i/c Trj"; Apvoiriho^


e?
avTi"^
rrjv ApvoTrlSa/jLere^r],
he
YieXoirovvrjaove\6ov
AwpuKov eKXTjOrf. r^vriva

the

rrj^ 'IcrrtatwrtSo? co?

Tilvhu) yiaKehvov

Xeaav ol ^ekacr'^oi,^
ovk
"y\cbcrcrav

VTrep

^'OXv/jlttov

he

e?

XP^ov

/cal top

re

the

and

them
fore
there-

they
at

in Asia
at Athens

from
fugitives
more
probably

v. 57),but
colony existed at Athens in
prehistoricage, the amalgamation

(Herod,

Phoenician

{i.e. the
king Agenor or Khna
of which
with the towns
the Akroon
ally
originCanaan, "the lowlands,"a name
coast-land
polis and the Pelasgikon (the modern
given to the Phoenician
of the
communicator
the
The
Pnyx-hill)created Athens,
only), and
plural
Greeks.
His
the
the
to
union
of
Phoenician
than
more
'Adrjuai
implies
alphabet
Semitic
the
Pindos
is meant
one
Kharmon,
community.
By
wife,Hermione, is
the city,not the range of mountains,
"the
Sanctuary." His name
Hermon,
^ The
Eastern"
"the
ancient
would
have
"the
or
Pelasgi of Thrake
means
Phoenician
those
of
east
the
Kedem
Thesfrom
an
dialect,
spoken
(
Illyrian
god,
and "ancient"). He was
saly a Greek one.
worshipped as
^
Kreston
in Mygdonia in Thrake
was
a god not
only at Thebes (Plut. Pelopid.
(seeSteph. Byz. ad voc.) Its inhabitants
19), but also at Sparta (Paus, ill. 15),
mentioned
the influence of the Phoenician
whither
are
again in Herod, v. 5, In
the
had
time
of
on
extended,
and,
Thukydides (iv, 109) the
Kythera
colony
of
the form
Edonians
under
Kadmilos, corrupted Krestonians, Bisaltians, and
bordered
the Khalkidic
who
is
into Kasmilos
and
on
{Kedem el, "he
colonies,
all termed Pelasgians(so the passage
of the
three
before
God "), was
are
one
should
The
be rendered). These
Kabeiri
of Samothrake.
slayer of
Pelasgians
himself changed
two
the dragon, Kadmos, was
or
dialects, and
spoke
languages
into a serpent,and thus is identical with
"belonged to the Tyrsenians,who once
and
Lemnos
"the
old serpent-god" {yipwv dcpiuv) inhabited
Athens,"
The
contradicts the assertion
latter statement
adored in Phoenicia (Nonnios,Dionysiac.
of Herodotos
that they had
ii, 274, xli. 352). A figureof the serfrom
pent
come
from
Athens
not
the
island
and
is carved
rock
in
of
Lemnos.
on
a
Thessaly,
Phoenician

"

"

' '

"

EMPIRES

THE

I.]
rotcn

rjaav

EAST.

THE

31

KoKeofJuevoiaL {olk"ovSe
Aaypievcro

vvv

/cal
KaXeojJbevrjv),

ryrjif
2/cy-

Trjvo/cavra

HXaKLTjv re
^WrjcrTrovTO),ot

SecrcrdXtcbTcv

vvv

TTjV

OF

ical

tmv

ctvvolkol
\dfC7]V TLeXaaycov olKrjadvTcovev
dWa
ttoXlTleXacrytKaeovra
ifyevovTO^AOqvaloccrL,koX ocra
el
re/CfiaLpofievov Set XeyecVy
a/juara to ouvo/jua /jberejSaXe,tovtolctl
el tolvvv
rjaav ol UeXacryol ^dp/Sapov yXwacrav tez^re?.
rjv koI
irdv TOLOVTO
TO
TieXaayiKOV,to W-ttlkov eOvo^ eov UeXaayiKov
ttj e? EXXT/i^a? koI ttjv yXcocraav jJueTefiaOe.
djjbaTjj jubeTajSoXfj
ol K.pr)crTcovtrJTai,
Kol
tmv
vvv
ovBa/jioicn
Br] ovTe
a(^ea^
yap
Be
ol TTXaKLTjvol,
elal ofioyXcocro-oi
ovTe
crcplcro
'jrepioLfceovTcov
BrjXovalre otl tov rfvel/cavTO
6/Jb6yX(oo-(Tot'
yXooacTTjf;
yapaiCTripa
'

ra
tovtov
fieTa^aivovTes e? raora
'^copla,
e'^ovau ev
Be 'YjXXtjvl/cov
TO
yX(0(Tcrr)
fjuev,iireiTe eyeveTO, alec /coTe

elvac
ft)9 efiol
KaTacjialveTai
Bta')(^pdTai,

TleXaa-ycfcov

TOV

da6eve";, aTro

eov

"9
opjieofjuevov av^rjTai,

(f)vXafcy,
Trj avTrj 58

dirocr'^LcrOev
/juevTOt
dpyrjv
ttjv
ajubt/cpov t"o
aTro

eOvecov,JleXaaycovfidXtaTa

ttXtjOo^;
tcov

fcal dXXcov
7rpoaKe'^o)p7)/coT(ov avTO)
Bo/cel ovBe to
Be o)V
'TTpocrOe
e/juoiye

eOvecov

^ap/Sdpcovo-v^vmv,
HeXacrycKOV e6vo";,eov fidp-

fJueyaXw^ av^7]6rjvai.
^apov, ovBafJbd
idvecov
Br)MV TMv
eirvvOdveTo o
BiecTiracriJbevov
TovTcov

Kal

TOVTOV
'iTTTTOKpdTeof;

TOV

to

fxev

The

monise

the Hellenic

To

name.

from

ences

the
from

inferethnographical

draw

this is to

ancients,who

the Torrhebians

the

blunder

' '

Who

had

Athenians."

the

author

identified

of

Kreston

Krotona

(Cortona),
neighbours of the

been

This

refers to the tradition

had

that Attika

of

Tyrrhenians
Lydia. Diony-

was

which

the Etruscan

error

the

of

sios of Halikarnassos

with

repeat the

derived

been

inhabited

once
by
"Pelasgian,"i.e.a prehistoric,
population.
Plakia and Skylake were
eastward
of Kyzikos (foundedb. c. 780 ?). Perhaps
a

Herodotos

derived

them

Aristeas.

from

'^"The
the
came
^

same

Hellenic

must

leave

about

the inconsistent

that

statements

the

always spoke
language,and was a branch of the Pelasgians,which multipliedgreatly,and yet
that the Pelasgianlanguage differed from
the Hellenic, and the Pelasgiansthemselves were
barbarous
a
people, which
never
greatlymultiplied. His speculations on
philology and ethnology are
never
very profound,
^
The
three periodsof the tyranny of
Peisistratos
527.

race

extended

Herodotos

disunited"
On

country

B.C.

560

to

in

saying
"oppressed and
(not "distracted")under his

that the Athenians

rule.

from

is incorrect

same

the
in

were

contrary, he had found


state

of

the

anarchy, misery,

poverty, in spite of Solon's legislation,and left it united,prosperous, feared


and

race

language

into existence.
"We

his statement

ever

has

always

since

had

it first

"

abroad,enjoying peace
home, and intersected

Herodotos

to

har-

59

^AOrjvaicov.

TvpavvevovTO"^

to 'do with

re

KaTe'^ofievov

tov
YieiorLCTTpdTov

l^potao^vtto

'^povov

Tyrseniansof Mygdonia have nothing


the Tyrrhenians of northern
Italy,except an accidental similarityof

Kttlkov

Athens

itself

was

and
with

adorned

good
roads
with

laws

at

; while

public

HERODOTOS.

32

[book

koX Oecopiovrc 'OXvfiTrta


lSooott]
eovrt
iTTTTOfcpdrec
yap
Tepa"^
ol
6v(TavT0"^
iirecTTeoiTe^
iyevero/jueya'
avrov
lepa \e^rjTe"^
yap
ra

ra

Kab

re

/cpecov

efJurXeoi /cal vBaro^

eovT6"^

avev

irvpo^

e^eaav

fcal
vTrepe/SaXov.ILlXcov Se o AaKeSai/jLovto^
Traparv^cov
to
Oeijcrd/jLevo^
irpoyra iiev yvvalKa
repa^ avve/SovXeue iTnroKpdrec
ol/cia,el Be rvy^dveie-^cov, SevTepa
e? tcl
/JL7]dyecrOaiTeKvoiroiov
Kai

rrjv yuvat/ca

direiTTacrOai.

OeXeiv

ovkcov

Be

rvy^dvei,

ol

tl";

e/c

XtXcDz^o? ireideaOao

rdora

irapaXoiv koI

Tieiaiorrparov

rov

e/c

rcov

rov

ireBiov

Me^a/cXeo?rov
irpoearecbro'^
AX/c/neoyvo^;
AvKovpyov AptcrroXatBeo),
Kara"ppov7]cra";

fjuev

rreBiov

rov

iTal"^,
tovtov

ewv

irapatvecravro^;

arao-ia^ovrcovrcov

09

Kal ro)v
A.6rjval(""v,

TMV

ec

rdora

yeveaOatol fMera
liriroKparea'

Tov

rovrov,
^

fcal

eKirepuTTeiv,

Kal
rvpavvlBar^yeipe rpirrjv ardaiv, crvXXe^af;Be aracricora"i
rocdBe.
rS Xoycp
virepa/cplcov
Trpoard'^
rpcofiari/Jbrj'^avarac
Kal jj/jLLOvov^ rjXacre e? rr]v dyoprjv ro
ecovrov
re
t,evyo^co?
(Ta"^
ol jxiv eXavvovra
rov^
e?
i'^Opov^,
dypov rjOeXTjaav
eK7re(pevya)";
diroXecrao BijOev,iBecro
Btj/jLov
rLvo";
"pvXaKr]";
rrpo^ avrov
ev
evBoKLjJirjcra'^
rfj 7rpo"^ lAeyapea^yevofxeu-rj
Kvprjorai, irporepov
ISiicratdp re
Kal
dXXa
eXcov
aTroBe^d/jievo^
fxeydXa
arparTjyirj,
rrjv

rcov

re

rov

"

be

epya.

dcrrcov

orjfjbo^;

e^airarrjuei'^ebwKe

AUr]vaicov

rcov

KaraXe^a"; dvBpa"^rovrov";

ol

rojv

Bopv(j)opoL
puev
eyevovro
Be'
JleLCTLo-rpdrov,
^vXcov
Kopvp7]"popoc
Kopvva";
yap
e'^ovre'^
eXrrovro ol oiTLcjQe. crvveTravaardvre^; Be ovroi
d/xa Yleio-iarpdrq)
ecT'^ov rrjv aKpoiroXLV. evOa Btj TieLcrLcrrparo"^
VPX^ ^AOijvaicov,
eVt
ovre
juieraXXd^a"iy
decr/jLLa
avvrapd^a^ ovre
rLfia"^ ra"; eovcra^;
ol

ovk

re

60

Karearecocri

roLCTL

Be
jjierd
Xeo?

ttoXXov

ov

aracTLMrai

buildingsand

the intellectual
sessed

trade
^

as

As

he

1, vii. 211,
to

This

ro

of

distinction

posextended

viouslycan

commanded

the

pretended.

Cp.

ch.

73, vi.

etc.

must

Plutarch

be

mistake.

{Solon,8)

the

According
between

war

Megara and Athens took placebefore the


of Solon, B.C.
594.
P. would
legislation
have

been

held

an

too

young

his
of

at that

time

important command,

re

Kal

ev.

to have

while

the

gained thirty-five
years
hardly have helped him

party conflicts.

Nissea

was

the

prein

port

Megara.
^

Sea.
"

Kocr/jiecov KaXco^

ol re rov
Me^a/c"^povrj(javre"i
AvKovpyov e^eXavvovcrl/jllv. ovrco
Kal rr]v rvpavvlBa
irpMrov ^AOtJvu^,

day, and

which

supremacy
Sigeion and

ttoXlv

roovro

the centre

life of the

of the Black
"

was
library,

naval

far

rrjv

'^povov
Kal ol rov

TleL(7L(Trparo";
eaye

fxev

as

evefxe

This

shows

that

Peisistratos

was

"tyrant" by the people, whose


leader and champion he was
againstthe
His
oligarchy.
tyranny, therefore,was
the
not
unpopular and unconstitutional
afterwards
it was
imagined to be.
regiirie
62.
Seech.
As the bodyguard was
given
by the demos, the latter could not complain of its being contrary to law.
chosen

HEEODOTOS.

34

Se

avBpL
Tpdrov. opyfjBe

Se To5

Tov

heivov

[book

arc/jid^ecrOac
tt/do? Tleicricr-

ecr^e
KaraWdacreTo
eZp^e

co?

rolac
e'^Oprjv

rrjv

ara-

iir ecovray
cTLdorrjac.^
ra
fiadoDVBe 6 TieLaio-rparo^
iroteofjueva
d7raXXd(Tcr"T0 "K Trj"^ xd)pr)"^
Be 69 'Eyaerto
d'7rLKO/jL"vo";
irapdirav,

ijSovXeveroafia

ptav

oiriaw

dvaicTaaOaL
TToXlcov

TO)v

iTrTricoBe yvcofij) viKr}"TavTo"^


rvpavviBa,evOavra ijyetpovBa)TLva"; e/c
Traicn.

tocctl

rrjv

icov
irpoaiBearo
(r(f)L

aiTive^

Be

ttoWcov

rt.

/xeydXa

rfj Boaei rcov


7rapaa')(^6vT(ov
'^prjfiara, ^rj^aloi virepe^dXovro
ttoWo)
Koi
'XprjiJbdTcov.
Xoyqy elmrelv,
fjuera Be,
'^povof; Bie(j"v
Trdvra a"j)c
koi
e^rjpTvroe? rrjv KaroBov
iMtadcorol
^Apyeloc
yap
diriKOVTO
Kai
eK
lIe\o7rovvr)"Tov,
lSld^io";
a(^L dvrjp dirLyfJuevo'^
eSe\ovTr)(;, ovvofia rjv Avy Bafic^;,
ifKeiaTrjvirapel7rpo6vfJbi7]v
koI dvBpa^. e^ 'Eyoerpt?;?
Be op/Mrjx^TO, /co/xto-a? koI '^prjfiara
ov

tm

62

evBeKarov

6evT""; Bid

diriKovTO

ereo^

KoiX irpo)Tov

OTrtcro),

Be

rrj^i

ev
tovto)
'Arrt/cr}?
cr"f"L
io-'^ov^tlls/iapa6o)va.
%ft)/3ft)
arpaol
dWoL
rod
dareo^
dirLKovro
eK
re
araaLMrac
TOTreBevo/jLevoLcn
eK
roocn
rcov
re
Brjfjuaiv
77 Tvpavvl";
Trpoaeppeov,
irpo eXevOeplrj^;
rjv dairaxTTOTepov. ovtol
jjuev Brj avvrfXi^ovTO, KOrjvaiwv Be
ol eK TOV
dcTTeo^jeo)? fjuev UeiaL(TTpaTo";
koI
Ta
j^prjiiaTa ijyecpe,
Be
ft)?
eireiTe
eVp^e M.apad6ova,Xoyov ovBeva el')(ov'
fxeTavTL'^

tc3

eirvOovTO

eK

avTov
M.apa6covo(;

tov

Br) ^orjOeovcTiew

ovTO)

eVl

01

eirl

yiapa6oyvo"^
rjiaav

koI

avTov.

koI

KaTcovTa'^,

Tov(;

liis quarrelwith

up

the

"Which

under

were

Peisistratos

them."

of the wealth

derived

obligations
good

any
had

made

from

his silver-

Strymon. Five MSS. read


irporjcdeaTo, TrpoTjdiaTo.The ending
is
of the 3d pers. pi. pluperf.in -earo

mines

on

the

or

and

Homeric
tion

to stems

is

Herodotean,

"

the termina-

which
properlyfollowed a conby analogy
only, being extended
The
form
ending in a vowel.

-aro,

sonant

New-Ionic,

not

means
fjLai.literally

tion of

an

of services
trates

the

at'Sorosto
rendered
Greek

edevTO

oVXa.

Ta

^A/jicplUetcno-TpaTO)

perforinsan act of kindness except under


suppositionthat it will be repaid;

the

oppositeparty,"
"^

dvTia

OeirjTrojuLTrfj
'y^p"(6fjLevo";
irapiaTaTaL
made

diriKveovTac

crvvL0VTe"^

**He

use

tcovto

e?

TlaWrjvlBof; AOrjvairjf;
lepov,koI

evOavTa

'^oaav
TravaTpaTifj

re

eK

eVl

to

ovtol

daTV,

to

dficf)!
TlecalaTpaTov,
co? 6pfjbr}devTe";
daTV,

to

eirl
iropeveadai

Old-Ionic.
"to
some

be

Upoaideoin the condi-

one

him."

on

by
feeling that

account

It illusno

one

iii. 139, note

see
"

The

7.
of Herodotos

comment

just.
people

It

is clear

hailed

liverer from

that

Peisistratos

oligarchyand

the
as

is

un-

Athenian
their

de-

faction

-fights
;
landing at Marathon, the difficultythe oligarchs had
in getting a force together, and
the
with
which
it was
ease
dispersed by
Peisistratos.
If the people had objected
have made
to his coming, he could never

hence

the

unmolested

his way to Athens.


^
"Under
divine
iii.
iv.

77,

iv.

152,

viii.

8, v. 92, i. 86,

inspiration." See
94;

also iii. 139^

iii. 153, i. 111.

It is

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

THE

EAST.

^KKapvav 'y^p7}cr/jLoXoyo";
avrjp,
rdSe
Xiycov,
tovm
e^a/ii6Tpa)

\vTO";

35

ol Trpoaccbv

o?

XP^

^^

Be Blktvov iKireireTaa-Tai,
l36\o";,
to
Bta vvkt6";.
Ovvvoi S' olpbTjcrova-L
o'e\7]vaLr)";
Be avWa^wv
6 fiev Brj ol evOed^aw '^pa rdSe, UeKrlaTparof;
to
Kal ^d"; BeKeaOaL
to
iTrrjye
'^prjaOev
'XprjaT^pcov
ttjv (TTpaTir^v,
8' 6

eppcirraL

63

7rpb";
TeTpafJUfjuevour^aav
apiaTov
ol fxev
Kal
avTcov
Brj TrjvcKavTa,
dpiaTOv jxeTe^eTepoL
fJueTa to
ol Be dficpl
eaireYieiaiCTTpaTOV
7rpo"; Kv^ov^ ol Be 7rpo"; virvov.
Be
/SovXrjv
KOvjvalov^;
aovTe^i
tov";
Tpdirovat. (j^evyovTcov tovtcov
ivOavTa
OKcof;
crocpcoTdTrjv
JJecalo-TpaTOf;
fjurjTeaXuae'TrLTe'\(yaTaLy
^AdrjvatocBe ol

eK

dcTTeo^

tov

Oelev

ol

"TC

TTalBa^;iirl

TMV

evTeTaX/xeva

tcl

Kal

Ke\evovTe";
^

ol Be
TrpoeTre/juTre,

iTnrov;

eXeyov

yovTa";

elev

re
^AOrjvalotBteaKeBaafxevoL

aTnevac

tov";
KaTa\a/jL^dvovTe";
^evHeicrcaTpdTov,
dapaelv re

viro

iirl

eKacrTov

re
eppl^co(7e
TTjv TvpavvlBaeirLKOvpoKji

avToOev

fiev

AvyBdfjueL)y^
re
ert
7rp6";
Be
TMV
Xoylcov,
Ka6ripa"^
TovTov

TOV

tovtocctl

SyBe'

eTr

tempting

into 'Axap'A/caprnv
since
Acharnpe
was
Valckenaer,

yeus

and

Plato

"

The

(near the modern

Amphilytos
{Theag. 124).

The

cast is

The

tunnies

flung, the
dart

in
helplessly

his

of Mediterranean
2

beneath

This, of

Thrake

the

(see

refers to

of five per
the Athenians.
tax

23).

"some

Grote

of

This

is inconsistent

of

insult

an

damis
*

coarsest

is

Delos

on

the

"re-

been

the silver-mines

for

the

According
the

levied

incomes

mistranslates

to

should

island

of
the

troops being derived.

More

by

future

in

conse-

further

B.C.

all the

in

it,and

all

births

purifica-

426, when
corpses
ordered
and

the
that
that

deaths

take
of
than

their

have

of

removed
buried

Lygdamis

demos

name,

underwent

Athenians

whom

by a certain
oligarchs. Lyg-

the

Karian

the account

received

Telestagorasfrom
dart

Stry-

the

with

Aristotle,
accordingto
made
tyrant by the

had

Peisistratos

cent

from

obtained

were

from

v.

"

mon

quence

; soon

moon."
soon

Attica, others

from

tion in the winter

which

Thukyd. (vi. 54),

passage,

spread

fish.

course,

oaov

w^as

nets, like tlie

of
venues," some
from Attika,others
of

net

fellow-

of Peisistratos will

enemies

eK
Ka6rjpa"i
eK
tov
lepovely^e,
eiro-y^L^

vrjcrovAt^Xov

ttjv

Garito),

calls

countryman
1

Trj";

correct

close to Pallene

e?

KaTa(TTr}aa"^

69
tov^
e^opv^a";
veKpov"^ /jieTecpopec
Kal
AtJXov."^
TieLai"JTpaTO"i
eTvpdvveve
puev

'^Mpov

to

pur)

TTavTo^;

'^(opov

aXkov

with

^Tpvpb6vo";
iroTapLOv

^d^ov {Kal
Ilec(TlaTpaTO";
iroXep^coKal e7reTpe'\jre
KaTecrTpe'"\raTo

TavT7]v

'Xp7]/jLdTQ)V

AOrjvalcov Kal
Trapa/jLecvdvTcov

Kal
iralBa'^ Xa/Scoj/
(f)vyovTcov

yap

Kal

iroWotcTC

aTrb

Be

tmv

(TvvLovTcov,^
re
tmv
6/jLrjpov";
avTLKa

Be 64
ireiOofievoov

ecovTov.

to,

to
Brj TieL(7iaTpaT0";
TpiTov aypiv K6r)va";

AdrjvaLcov,ovto)

crvvoBotac, tmv

dva/SL^daa^; tov";

place in the neighbouring


Rheneia
(Thukyd. iii. 104).
half the corpses were
shown,

armour

been

those

and

mode

of Karians

of

burial,to

(Thukyd.

i.

HERODOTOS.

36

KOrjvaiwVy Ad7)vai0)vBe ol

jxev

[book

iireiTTWKeaav, ol
rfjfJi'd')(r)

ev

8e

'

"K
A\k/jL"covlS"0)v
ecjievyov
tt}? olktjltj^;.
iirvvOdTou9 /jiiv
vvv
TOiavra
rov
AOr]vaLov";
'^(^povovtovtov
Se AaKeSaofiovLOv^
i/c KaKcov
0
vero
re
}^pot(To";
Kare'^ovra, Tov"i
iovTa"; r^hif]
tcd
Kai
fieyaXcov irecj^evyoTa^
iroXefjicp
Karvireprepov^
inrl
Aeovro^;
/cat
Teyerjricov,
^aaoXevovTO^;
'tiyrjo-LfcXeo^
ev
yap
ol
dWov";
TToXeyu-ou?
AaKeSacfiovLoc
tov"^
Ziirdprrj
evrv^eovre^;
Trpo?
Se
koX
to
ere
Teyetjraf;
/jbovvov^ irpocreirTacov.
irporepov tovtcov
a^ehov Trdvrcov '^Wijvcov Kard re (T(f)ea";
rjaav
KaKovo/jLooraTOL
avioiv

Q^

fier

AvKovpyov
iirl

^ou?

8e mSc
fjuere^akov

^etvoLcnaTrpoafitKrot.

Kol

avTOV'^

TO

e?

"vvo/jLir)v.

%7rapTC7]T6(ov
Sokl/jLov
dv8po"iekOovTo^i

ToiV

'^prjcTTrjpLov,

iarjtee?

co?

fxeyapov, evOv^

to

AeX-

69

TIvOlt]

Xeyei TaSe.
ttotI iriova
Avfcoopyeifjuov
vtjov
Koi irdcnv
Z7]vl(f)i\o"^
^OXvfjLina
ScofiaTe^^ovcro.
Sii^co
7] (76 Oeov fiavT6V(T0fjLat rj dvOpwirov.
7]/ceL"^0)

dlOC

"TC

""
fjuaXkov Oeov eXirofJiaL,

KOI

to have wor8). The Phoenicians seem


shijipedthe sun-god in Delos before the
Greeks took possessionof the island and
introduced
Apollo (seeJebb on Delos, in

the Journal

of Hellenic

who

one

why
spot to understand
rock, situated between
insignificant
visited

other

has

not

like the numerous


to history,
Lykurgi of Greek legend,the sons
Ares, Boreas, or Herakles.
According
Plut. Lyk. 1, the Spartan lawgiver

in the

other
of

to

the

was

of Eunomos

son

Eukosmos.

Plutarch
' '

the

islands,and

than

ology

i. 1880),
Sticdies,

it is difficult for

though

AvKOOpye.^

an

saying, Concerning

two

direct line

we

which

can

is not

assert

and

father

of

his life

begins
by
lawgiver,Lykurgos,
absolutelynothing
the

controverted

there

are

different stories in respect to his birth,


Europe, should
his death, and his mode
the centre of a great religious his travels,
of
Peisiboth
and
thus
Delos,
political
purifying
proceeding,
legislative
worship. By
;
least of all is his age agreed upon."
visible proof that Athens
stratos
gave
at the head of the Ionian world, and
was
Thukydides does not allude to him, but
naval
how
such a
that the Spartans emerged from
states
we
can
only wonder
influence could
and political
desperatedisorders 400 years before the
supremacy
have
been acquired in so short a time.
Peloponnesian War (i.18). Hellanikos
doubtless
stored in the
The oracles were
(Strabo,viii, p, 363) equallyignoreshim,
and ascribes the constitution
of Sparta
public libraryPeisistratos established at
banished
Onomakritos
had
and
Prokles.
Institutions
he
to
Athens
Eurystheus
;
ascribed to him which show that, like
for forgingan oracle of Mousaios
are
(Herod,
Numa
the
vii. 6).
Pompilius at Rome, he was
all
the
ideal legislator
to whom
tions
regula5
Thou
art come,
Lykurgos, to my wealthy
referred.
of the later Sparta were
shrine,
of passengers
have become

from

Asia to

"

The

friend

I doubt
Yet

of Zeus

if I shall

rather

and
name

all that
thee

god, Lykurgos,

god

are
or

divine

man,

He

if I can,"

of
Lykurgos, ''expellerof the wolves"
rather
to
to
anarchy, seems
belong
myth-

is said to

the
the

have

forbidden

the

use

of

which
silver money,
was
known
unin Greece till the age of Pheidon,
iron rings retained at Sparta being

gold

and

previousmedium

of

exchangethrough-

THE

1.]
ol fjuev

St] TLve";

TLvOtTjvTov

vvv

EAST.

Xe"yov(TcKal

tovtoktl

7r/)09

THE

OF

EMPIRES

37

(j)pd(Tat
avT"p
K

koo-jjuov liirapTLrjTrjai'")?

Karearecora

rrjv

avrol

Aeco/Scoreco,
AaKehaifJbovLOL
Xeyovac, AvKovpyov iTrtrpoTrevcravTa
Be XTrapnrjTecov,
gk
l3aaiXevovTO"^
J^pijrrj^;

aSe\"^t3eou
fjuev ecovrov
dyayeaOac rdora.^

0)9

rdora
irdvTa, Kal e(f"vka^6

vofxijjia

Kal
TToXe/uLOv
e'^ovra, ivwjjbOTia^

"9

rd
/jueriaTTjae
rd'^ca-ra,
Be rd
/xtj irapa^aiveLV.fierd
Kal crvcrcriTia,
TpL7]KdBa";
7rpo";

eTrerpoTrevcre

yap

Kal
icpopov^;

AvKovpyo^.
ecrrrjae
yepovra^i
Be
to3
ovTCO
evvofjutjOrjaav,
AvKovpycp reXev- 6Q
fjbev fjLeTal3a\ovT6";
njaavTC lepovelcrd/juevot
cre/SovratfxeydXa)^, ola Be ev re X^PV

re

TovTOiai

tov^;

ovk
dyaOfiKal irXrjdeL
6X[yo)vdvBpwv,dvd re eBpapLOV avriKa
Kal evdrjv^dijcrav.
Kal Bt] acj^covKen
dyecv,
direxpcirjavx^Tjv
dWd
^ApKdBcovKpeaaove^; elvau ep^jOT^cTTT^pta^oz^
KaTa(f)pov7]cravTe";
iirl irdarj rfj ApKdBwv X^PV' V ^^ TLvdiij a"pL
ev
^e\(jiol(TL
^

rdBe.

Xpd

the

out

The

country.

supposed
only, as we learn
to

was

the time
Grote
of

lands

age of
wonder

god

later

the

which

the third

oracle

the

or

not

him

to Krete

with

the latter

100

and

Aristotle

was

and

others also

for

Kharilaos,
of the
peculiarities

regent

The

which

militarycamp

turned

of Krete

Sparta only in
might be regardedas

irresponsibleephors
Perioeki

publicslaves called

agreed

so

far

the

In the time

kosmi,

vir-qKooi,

ixvolaL).The

an

and

Kretans,
however, had a public meal known
as
dvdpLa,furnished at the expense of the
state ; but they had
no
kings, and possessed
slaves
or kXt]private
(d^a/iicDrat
pCjTaC).

of

Spartan\6xos or
kostyes and 512
enomotise

and

Thukydides (v.68) the

cohort

contained

men,

128

pente-

pentekostys4

the

In

men.

the time

of

sisted
{Hell.vi. 4) the lokhos conof only 2 pentekostyes,and the
pentekostys of only 2 enomotire and 50
The
triikas is mentioned
men.
only by

Xenophon

Herodotos, and
at

nesian

the

"War.

public meal
who
^

shared

seems

to

ceased

have

to

of the

Peloponbeginning
The Syssitiarefers to the
paid for by those
{(peiBiTiov)
it.

ephorscorrespondto the tribunes


of the peopleat Rome, and like the latter,
graduallyusurped the supreme power in
the state.
As has been
already stated,
reallyinstituted in the time
they were
of Theopompos (Arist.Pol. v. 9 ; Pint.
bers
Lyk. 7 ). The yepovres are the thirtymemThe

of the

as

mon
com-

(a senate,

race

called

called

the

unknoAA-n

were

of

property of the Dorian


ekklesia,

than

more

; the institutions

those

to

constitution

into

No

b. c.

whether

along with
as,
Prokleid,whereHerodotos,he Avould have

(b.c. 880),

Labotas.

Spartan
state

century

exist

makes

he

in the

arose

man.

accordingto
been an Ageid.
that

War, and

equal-division
Lykurgos w^as

hesitated

other writers calls him

state

he
dated

Aristotle, from

idea which

an

was

Aristotle

years

from

that

with

Agis in

call him

instituted

of the first Messenian

has shown

credited

ephors whom

have

Dorian

Council, which,

institution, must

as

have

common

existed

the very beginning of the Spartan


Each
member
state.
Avas
requiredto be

from

sixtyyears of age.
"They (shot) grew up." "Ava. is
used adverbiallyand separated from
its
verb, as in Homer, showing that the socalled Homeric
tmesis is not necessarily
mark
of
Old
the
Ionic dialect,
a
Comp.
over

^^

vii.

156, and R

18, 56.

HERODOTOS.

38

[book

Boocro).
alret^' ov
ApKaBtTjv/jb atT6fc9' /jL""ya//.'
TToXkol iv ^ApKaSij]
/3a\avr]"pdyot
avBpe^eacrtv,
oi
airoKoyXvcrovcnv,
ovtl
fie^yalpoi.
eyco Be
roc

tol

Bcoaco
Kol

rdora

op'^rjcracrdac

BiajJuerprja-aaOaL}
a'^oiva)

ireBlov

KoKov

ol

aTrevec^Oevra
rjKova-av
dWcov
ol Be
aTrel'^ovTO,

Qi";

Tcov

fjuev

TeyerjvirocraiKpoTOV

rot

'^pTjcrfiM

earparevovTO,

AaKeBac/juovcoL,
^ApKciBcov
TreSa? "^epofxevoL
eiri ^eyerjTa^
KL^BrjXw ttlg-vvol, co? Bt] e^avBpaTToBtovBe

TeyeiJTa^. eo-aayOevre^

fjbevoL Tov";

rfj av/ji^oXrj,
oaoL

avrSiv

TreSa? re ey^ovre^ Td"^ i^epovro avrol Kal "T')(oiv(


e^coyp')]6r)(Tav,
ireBiov to TeyerjTecov
to
BiafMerprjcrd/iJievot
epyd^ovTO, at Be TreBac
Kal e"; e/uue rjaav
iv Teyej],
irepl
avTai,
Tjjcn iBeBeaTO, eTC
A67jvat7]";
Tov
Kpefidfjuevat.
vrjov TTj^ ^A\e7j";
ev

croac

Kara

67

TroXe/juovavve'^eco^; alel

irpoTepov

Be

KaTcu
tov";
^eyerjTa^,
7rpb";

deOXeov
Kal

Br) tov

fiev

T7]v

re
^Ava^avBplBed)

ol
Balfiovi
tjBt]

tov

K.potcrov
'^povov

KaTcu

Ap[aT(ovo^^acnXTjtrjviv

AaKe-

to3 iroXe/jicp
iyeyovecrav,
ZtirapTirjTai KaTVirepTepoL
alel tS TToXefM^eaaovvTO
iTreoBr]
viro
yevopuevoc.

TOLwBe

TpoTTO)

Kal

KaK(b"i

Tiva
TeyeTjTecov,
e?
Treyitilrai'Te?
AeX(j)ov(;
OeoTrpoirov^
iireipdiTeov
decov IXaadfievoLKaTvirepOetg3 TroXefiM TeyerjTecov
av
yevoiaTO.

Be

TlvOiT](T"pt"^p7;cre

Ay jjbejxvovo^ odTea
tov
'Opecrreft)
olol
d"(;Be dvevpeivovk
t"
iirayayofievov^;.
iyivovTOttjv OtJktjv
Oeov
TOV
tov
^OpeaTeo),eirepbTrov avTi^
iiTeLprjcrofjbevov'
ttjv e?
Be TdoTa
Tolai OeoirpoKeoLTO
^OpeaTT]^.elp(OT(0(Ti
'^copov iv
Tj

Ta

TM

Xeyeu

iroLCTL

97

raSe.
YIvOIt]

ev6^
Kal

ivl '^copo),

^eyerjXevpw
^ApKaBi7j";

Ti";

eoTTi

Trvelovat
dve/xoi

Bvco KpaTeprj(;vtt

dvdyKr}";,

Kal Trrj/JL
iirl Trr/fxaTC
dvTtTV7ro";,

TviTO^

KelTai.

"

ala,
afjbejjLvoviBrjv
KaTeyei (f"val^oo^
(TV
TOV
KO/jbLor(Td/jLevo";
Te7e7;9iiTLTdppoOo';
ecrcrrj.
Kal
TdoTa
Be
oc
AaKeBai/jLOVLot,
direl'yov
ft)?
TjKovcrav
T779 i^evpe"Tio";
irdvTa
ovBev eXaacTov,
Br) Ai'yr)^
0
tcov
Bc^rj/juevoL,
dyadoepycov
e?
dvevpe. ol Be dyaOoepyol elcrl tmv
KaXeo/jievcov%7rapTC7)Tecov
ev0* Ay

"

Aikadia

Many,
Shall

ask
on

you

No

off.

keep you

And

naught ;
Tegea I'll grant to dance
And

the

fair

such

boon

fed, that dwell

acorns

plain to

grant.

therein

yet I grudge

whence

measure

swinging foot,
with

the

"

Arkadian
There

rod."

at

Athena

Alea

Mantineia,

worshipped also
Manthyreia, and Aleia,
was

See

Paus.

iii.

5,

blow

Tegea lies upon a plain ;


two winds, driven by might and

main
Blow

epithet.

you
3

with

lier

^^

The
Fetch

upon

blow

fruitful
him

and

stroke

soil holds

to

thee, and

on

stroke

again.

Agamemnon's
Tegea is won."

son

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

i/c
a(TT(hv,6^o6vT""^

EAST.

THE

"*

39

alel ol

Trpecr^vraroL,
irevre
Set rovrov
iviavrov, tov
av
rov
eKacrrov'
i^lcocrt
gk
eT"o";
tov";
Tc3 KOiVM
Sia7r"fi7ro/Jbevov";
TMV
X7rapTL7]T6(ov
CTTTrecov,
fjurjekivveiv
aWrj.^ tovtcov
aXkov^
tmv
o)V
avSpMV Ai'^7)";
avevpe iv Teyiy
iTTTrecov

TOiv

68

Kal

Koi
rovrov
rov
"TO(j)lr).
'^pr](TdfjLevo";
avvTV^lrj
eov(Trj"^ yap
eXOcov
eOrjetro
e? ^(aXKr^iov
Teye'^ra^,
rov";
7rpb";
'^povov i7rc/j,o^tr)";

Kal iv 6a)v/iiarc
i^ekavvofjuevov,^
rjv opecov
(TiSrjpov
Se
/jbaOcov

fjbiv

elire
dTrodcovfid^ovra

'^a\/"6v"s

ro

TTOteo/jbevov.
rov

iravaafievo'^

dv, o) ^elveAdKwv, el irep elSe? ro irep iyco,Kdpra


rj Kov
epjov
dv "0(ov/jia^"";,
okov
vvv
ovrcj
Ocov/na7roc"o/jL"vo";rrjv
rvy^dvei';
"

rfjSeOiXcov rfjavKfj ^peap

iv

cnhrjpov.iyco yap

ipyaaLTjvrod

3e
iroirjaacrOai,
eirrairrj'^eL' vtto
opvo-crcov iirerv^ovaopS
vvv
rcov
dinarLrj';/jlt)fiev yevecrOacfjLrjSa/jid
fii^ova^;
dvdpooTrov?
dvoi^a avrrjv Kal elSov rov
rfj cropM'
pbr^Kei tcrov iovra
veKpov
Be
ol
6
oiriaco.^^
/Jb6rp'^"7a";
eXeye rd irep
(rvvi'^coo-a
/juev Bi]
6 Be ivvcocra^;rd Xeyofjueva crvve/3dX\ero
rov
oiTcoTrec,
^Opearea
elvai, rfjBe (7V/jil3aWo/jLevo";'
rov
Kara
ro
rovrov
Oeoirpoirtov
Be
'^aXKeo"^ Bvo opecov (j)V(Ta";
iovra";,rov
dve/Jbov^;
rou?
evpicTKe
Kal rov
avrlrvTrov,rov Be
dKfMovaKal rrjv cr(f)vpav
rov
re
rvTrov
i^eXavvo/juevov
Kelfxevov,Kara
ro
criBijpov
rrrjixa iirl irrifian
roLOvBe ri
iirl
eiKd^cov,w?
KaKco
dvevprjrac.
dvOpcoirov
atB7]po";
Be
rdora
crv/jL/3aXX6/jbevo";

Ala

seems

one

of

the

false

forms

the

Epic dialect,produced by
positionthat yaia at the end
resolvable

was

into

ala

Kal

the
of

of
supline

(Journal of

aTreXdcov

^irdprrfv"cf"pa^e

e?

in the middle

of the world.

Even

sixth

B.C., it would

century

forging of iron
Spartans,among

whom

there

labour

manual

; and

The

and

xctX/cets
throughout Greece

use

of iron

statement

of Herodotos

is contra-

dieted

by the better testimony of Xenophon {De Rep. Lac. 4, 3), who says that
the ephors elected three iinraypeTaL,and
these chose the 300 knights from among
the Spartan youth. As the ephors were
changed every year the election must
have

been

verse

in the

fieya
^

annual.

Stein

quotes the
Etym. Mag. 417 : S^t Ai'xa

bears

beingsent

in different

in active
directions

service,
by the

Spartan community."
^
The employment of iron in the place
of bronze was
of comparativelylate date
the Greeks,as among
other nations
among

upon

to be

the

called

general.

became

of the

date

of

the

and

xct^'^^'ci
after the
The

fact

Homeric

medium

as

ch.

The

verb

means

"tumulus"
bones
ised

at

of iron

55).

here

Cow

of

ascribed

to Lykurgos
ringsinto Sparta
exchange (seenote 5 on

legend which

the introduction

"^

continue

continued

Poems, which are well acquainted with


the use of iron, and effectually
disposes

ffd/xa.
"Should

or

smithies

little

smiths

trade

"

the

to

was

Philology,x. 19 (1881),p. 118).


"*
Who
quitthe order of the knights.
"

the

appear,

novelty

was

of the

cvvkx'^'^^shows
"a

that aopo'i

sepulchralchamber"

rather than

"a coffin."

or

The

fossilevidentlythose of some
the
like
bones
of
the
Dun
animal,
slain by Guy of "Warwick,preserved
were

"Warwick

Castle.

Similar

notions

of

HERODOTOS.

40

AaKeBai/jLovLOKTi
irav
ol aiTLTjv

^pd^cov TTjV

ecovTov

e/cSfcSoz/TO?
TTiv

ovK

avopv^a^ he

irprjy/jba.ol 8e

to

eTTeveiKavTe";

eStco^av. 6

XirdpTrjv.Kol

cltto

tcl

irXaarov

Xoyov

e/c

Be a7rcKO/ii"vo";

TeyerjvKoi
yaXKea ifitaOovro
irap

(rvfi(j"opr]v
7r/309 tov
av\r)v.^ y^povw Se

tcl^ovKal

tov

[book

co?

e?

evoiKicrOrjj

aveyvcocre,

cruXXe^a? oiyeTO(pepcove?

ocTTea

'^(^povov,ok(o"^ ireipwaTO aKKrjXwVy


ol AaKeSaL/jLOvioc
tjBtj
TroXefKp e^ylvovTo

toutov

tov

iroWS

to)
KaTvirepTepoi
Be (TipL
Kal 7] ttoWtj t?}?TLeXoTTOwTJaov
rjv KaTeaTpajiixevr).
TdoTa
6 K.poLcro";
69
Srj o)v iravTa
7rvv9av6fjLevo";
eire^Tre

fcal
^ipovTa";

dyyeXov'^Bcjpd
Z^TrdpTTjv

re

e?

heriaoixevov^
"jf/x./-6a^t?;9,

^^ ^^ iXd6vTe";eXeyov
T6
TO,
"VT"L\d/ui"Po"^
Xejeov XPV^'
eirepu^^re
AL'^a)^' re
Kal dXXcov
iOvecov jBacTiXev^,
o
Xeycov
rj/juea^; K^polcrof;
TaBe.
Oeov tov
AaKeSat/jiovLoc,
0)
^XXrjva "j"lXov
tov
'^ptjaavTOf;
irvvOdvofiaiirpoeaTdvaoTrjf;'EXXa8o9,
irpoorOeaOaL,
v/jbea"; yap
"

vfiea";

^tXo9 re OeXcov
'^pT^cTTrjpLov nrpocrKaXeofiaL
dvev t6
SoXov
Kal d7rdTr]"^.^^
}^polcro(;
aviJbfxa')(o"^

KaTcu

mv

to

yeveaOai Kal
fjbev hr) TdoTa

So

Kal avTol
dK7]K00Te";

Kal
(TVfjLibLa')(L7]'i*

%dpBi";
'^pvcTov
TO

vvv

ydp

Tcve";

Kal
^ecvt7j";
irepL

opKoa

e/c
l^polaov
evepyealacel^^ov

avTOV^

ol AaKeSac/jLOvcoL
e9
Tre/jL-yjravTe^;
yap

yeyovvlai.

"TC

TTpOTepov

to

eireKrjpvKeveTO,

Au8coz/ Kal eTTOiTjcravTO

Tcbv
Trj diTL^ei,

Te

he
AaKehaijJLovLOL
to
l^poiaco
deoirpoinov
yevofxevov yadrjadv

dyyeXcov

i";dyaXfia ^ovXofievoi'XptjaaaOat
tovto

oDveovTo,

iv
Trj";AaK0)VLK7]'^

SopvaKL iSpvTac^AttoXXcovo^;.'^ K.polao";

70 Be

eScoKe ScotIvtjv.tovtcov
(T(f)i
wveofJuevoLCTi
AaKeBat/jbovLoc
eSe^avTo,Kal
ttjv avpufjia'^lriv

Kal
^XXr)vcov alpeiTO(plXov^;.

wpoKpiva'^
Te
^(pBlcov

the size and


found

are

"He

from

the

strengthof

in Homer

tovto

the ancient

heroes

[e.g.II. 1, 272

5,

wished

to

rent

latter,who

at

the

courtyard

first would

not

give it up."
^

This

cover

had

sent

a(^ea^

fiev avTol

tovto

rjaav

The
Sellasia,
Spartans were
ready
enough to help an Asiatic despot who
had
conquered their brother Greeks of
not
so
Ionia; they were
equally ready
afterwards
ened

be

to

{Fr. 219)

pompos
tans

seems

irdvTwv

eK

Be

304).
^

otl

ol

eiveKev

o)v

TrooTjo-dfjbevoc
Kp7)Trjpa yaXKeov
^
Kal
'xe7Xo";
pueydOet,
e^coOev 7rXrj(TavTe";
ireplto

eirayyeiXavTL,

eTOi/jLot

Te

an

Theo-

error.

that

the

Spargold in order to
image of Apollo, at

states

for the

the face of the

Amyklse, with it,and Pausanias (iii.10)


the statue
45
actually saw
(which was
feet high) at Amyklee.
Thornax
was
the road from
a mountain
on
Sparta to

by
The

to assist Athens

bowl

bronze

made

in imitation

lenic

or

This

was

must

of the

"Corinthian"

similarlyadorned
animals.

threat-

when

Persia.
have

been

Phceniko-Hel-

ware,

which

with

the

favourite

was

figures of
Phoeni-

decoration,and characterised both their pottery and their work


The
in metal.
embroidery of Thera,
cian mode

of

HERODOTOS.

42

72

[book

'^W'^vcovZivpioi ovofid^ovrai'^
rjcrav
OL
TO
rj Ilepcra?
ap^ai yir^Bcov
fiev nrporepov
Zivpioi ovTOL
Be "Kvpov. o yap ovpo"^ rjv ttj^ Te M-T^St/c?)?
Tore
KaTrjKooi,
cLpj(ri";
AXu9
Koi
b? pel e^ ^Apfievlov
o
oca
AvBiK7]";
Trj(;
6peo"i
iroTafio^y
K.l\lko}v,^
fjueTa Be M.aTtr)vov(;jiev ev Be^trje^et pecov, eic Be tov
Be tovtov^
Kal pecov avco
^pv'ya";'7rapafjLeL^o/jLevo"i
Trpo?
erepov
evOev
^airiraBoKa'^
%vpiov";
ef
^operjv avefxov
fxev
aizepyeiy
Be
A\v(;
o
ovtco
aTrordfjLveo
Tla(p\a"yova"^.
evcovvjxov
TroTapbo^
irdvTa
Karco
eK
6a\dcrcrr}"^
T7J"^ Acr/179ra
o"^eBov
tt]'^ dvTiov
Be
ecTTi
J^vTTpov69 TOV ^v^eivov TTovTov.
tt)^ %ft"/3'^9
av^rjv ovto";
Ol

Be YLaTTira^oKai

vtto

Be

'

'

73

oBov

d7rdcr7]";'
firjKO^

TavT7]";

Be

fjbovvTat.'^ecTTpaTeveTO
^

Kappadokia Avas
by the Halys, and

bounded

ev^(i)V(p
dvBplirevTe

eirl tyjv J^aTTTraBoKlrjv


TCovBe
Kj0otcro9

the

on

are

within

plenty
time

its

the

on

is

area

borders, and

evidence

of

it

that

there
at

was

headquartersof the Hittite

the

They

Its

be

must

Strabo, whom
with

contrasts

the

White

the

Greek

the

Black

is
one

race.

Syrians of
geographer
Syrians of

(pp. 533, 544, 737. Cf.


i. 948). Pindar
Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod.
ed.
Bergk) speaks of "a
{Fr. 150,
at the mouth
spear-armed Syrian host
of the Thermodon
(compare Herod, ii.
Semitic

Aram

"

104), the
the

river

Amazons,

on

the

banks

whose
Hittite

dwelt

of
priestesses
ing
accordSinope,

goddess ; and
of Khios
to Skymnos
(943), was
the Syrians. But these
founded
among
Syrians were reallyHittites,so called as
to the
coming from the country known
The
Aramaic
Greeks
as
legends
Syria.
the coins of Sinope,Side, and Kotyora
on
Gazir (Brandis,Miinzivesen,308, 427),
or
belong to a later period. See also

the Asiatic

Herod,

vii. 72.

language of
as

that

Aryans,

of
who

Strabo

the Kataonians
the

White

afterwards

belonged to the
which
brought the

states
was

into

Armenia, and

the

Aryan

ans

south by
larger in the
where
it
Persian cuneiform
inscriptions,
is called
or
Katapatuka
Katpaducca
(comp. Kat-aonia). The important Hitand Boghaz Keui
at Eyuk
tite remains
west

the Kilikians.

rifiepai dvaiai-

that
the

the
same

into

Media, in the seventh

Medes

century

B.C.

Pharnaspes,king of Kappadokia, married


Atossa, sister of Kambyses, king of
Siculus ;
Persia, according to Diodorus
but

he

as

is also said

generationsdistant
pis, the statement
(see iii. 68,

note

been

to have

from

Darius

4). The

Hystas-

be

cannot

five

correct

of the

names

early Kappadokian kings, however, are


Persian, as well as the deities worshipped
in Kappadokia in the
Persian
period
(Omanes, Anandatis, and Anaitis). See
ch. 77.
^

The

Kilikia

considerablyto

of

of the Taurus

Herodotos
puts the
range.
Lake Urumiyeh) far too much
^

extended

Herodotos

the north

Matieni

(of

to the west.

The

quire
certainlyrepedestrianwould
be
"well
equipped." As the
distance
is 280
miles, and Herodotos
200 stadia (about 23 miles)a day's
makes
caravan
journey (iv. 101), either his
geography or his arithmetic is at fault.
fessor
It is very possible,however, that Proboth
here
be
right
Mahaffy may
and in ii. 34 in reading fifteen for five,
fifteen days being equivalent,
according
modes
of reckoning, to the
to eastern

to

real

distance.

originaltext

was

He

supposes

that

ANAPIIEHMEPAI,

the
and

iotas has fallen out


that one
of the two
Syrians. The
vii.
1881). Compare also
occupied Kappadokia,{Hcrmathcna,
of migrai. 185 (where Vitringasuggests t'e (fifteen)
wave
tion
instead of e').
Aryan Armeni-

EMPIEES

THE

I.]
kol

eiveKa,

OF

THE

EAST.

43

^f^^P^7rpo"7KTr](Tacr0aL
Trpo? rrjv

^ea^

Kol jjuaXicTTa
rw
^ovXo/jb6vo";,

ttkjvvo^;
'^prjo-TTjpio)

[xolpav

ecovrov

icov

TiaacrOai

Kai

KaTvd^eo^ K.vpov, Aarvdyea yap top


Kua^apeo),
iovra
M.rjScovBe fiactXea, Ku^o? 6
Y^poiaov [xev yafjb/Spov^
J^polcra)
Ka/jb^v(7"(o
^^X^'yevofjuevov yafjb/3p6v
Karaarpe'^dixevo^
fo)Se. %Kv6eo)v TO)v
etXrjdvSpojvaracrtdcraaa vire^rfkOe
vo/uudScov
M-tJ^cov
69
ervpdvveveSe tov y^povov rovrov
yrjv TTjv ^r]ScKr)V'
OeXwv

virep

6 ^paoprecotov
l^va^dpT)^
fxev TTpMTov

ev
irepLelire

Trjv Tej(y7]v

ovTcov

he

lK"Ta";' cocTTe

"OVTa";

to^cov. y^povov he

twv

%Kv6ecov

ireplnroXkov

yXoio-crdv
t"
eKjJiaOelv
alel

koI

yevofjuevov,

alel

dyprjvkoI

to

^ocTe-

^epovTcov,Kai KOTe
eXetv
voaT^cravTa'^Be avTOV"^
/jurjSev
Keivfjai
a(f)ea";
(rjpydp, 009 SoeSe^e,opyrjv aKpo^) TpTj'^eo)'^
}^va^dpr}"i

TMV

(TvvqveiKe
o

^e/3o-t

ft)9

X/cv6a";tovtov^

Tot'9

7raiSd";acpLirapeScoKe
ttjv

7roc60fji6Vo";avTov"^,
Kol

AipoKeco, 09

err

KdpTa Trepieaire dec/celr].ol

Be TdoTa

'ira6ovTe";,
J^va^dpeco
TreirovOoTe^,ejBovkevaav tcov
irapd

dvd^ta a^ewv avTOiv


TralBcov
BcBacr/co/jLevcov
o-(f)l(TC
wcrre

MCTirep

'AXvarreo.

tov

SaBvdTTeco

Kai
ydp }^va^dp7]";

eirdaavTo,
eyevovTO.

^KvOa^

Kai

7rpo";

aKevdaavTe^
KaTaKo^jrat,,

eva

Be

Orjpla(TKevd^eiv,
K^va^dpy Bovvac
BovTe"; Be Trjv Ta')(^i(TT7)v
BijOev,
KOfJil^eaOai
ct)9 dyprjv
irapd
(^epovTe"^

avTov

ecoOecrav

to

Kai

ol

Ta

"9

%dpBL^. TdoTa

ol 7rapeovTe";
^KvOac TdoTa

Be TdoTa,

Kai

tojv
BacTVfjiove";

tovtcov

Kpecov

'AXuaTrect)

iroLrjaavTe^

Kai

eyeveTO'

iKeTat

ydp Brj AXvdTTTj^ii^eBlBovtov";


AvBotac
Kai Tolcn
e^auTeovTLJ^va^dprj,
7ro\eyLto9TOtcrc
fxeTa

ov

yi'r]BoiGL
eTea
errr
ev
TrevTe,
eyeyovei
AvBov(; evlKTjaav,
7roWdKC"; Be
Tov";
Kai

TLvd eTTOLrjcravTO'
vvKT0/jLa')(^l7]v

TOV

Tft)
TToXe/jLov

eKT(p

"TeL

toIcfl

iro'KkdKL^puev

ol AvBol

^rjBoc

o'

M7^8ou9.

Tot'9

Be

ev

iirl
Be a(f)0
Bi,a^epovaL

(rv/jL/3o\7]";
yevo/jiev7]";

74

c(T7j";
m(tt"

avvrjveLKe

vvKTa
yevecr6ai.
yLta^7;9 (Tvve(TTe(oa7]"; ttjv rj/xeprjv "^a7rlvr]";
Be
fieTaWayr]v TavTTjv
@aXr}9 o MtX7;crto9Tolcn,
TTJV
T779 rj/juepTj^;

T?79

'

Iftxrt
^

TTpOTjyopevae

"Brother-in-law."

eaeaOai,^ovpov

Ta/x^p6sis any
by marriage(7a/Aos).Comp. Skt.
jdmdtri son-in-law,"yam^ "daughter"related"
in-law,"myamffiTi
; Lat. ^C7Hmz
(forhi-gemini).
^
For these passages, see Appendix V.
^
Eclipses of the sun had been predieted by the astronomers
of Chaldea
at
an
earlyperiod. The gi*eatastronomical
work
(afterwardstranslated into Greek
by Berosus), compiled for Sargon of
relation

"

ivcaVTOv
irpoOefJuevo'^

Agane

before

both

happened
predictedtime."
predictionsdid
tain

basis,and

Thales
from

must

seventeenth

the

mentions

B.C..

tovtov

century

solar

eclipseswhich

"at"

and

This
not

rest

on

that
a

very

the
cer-

only approximate.

were

have

"out
shows

had

of their

derived

his

science

of
Babylonia.
Babylonia on Thales, see the first note
ch. 1.
The
on
eclipse has been varito B.C.
ously assigned by astronomers
For

the

influence

HERODOTOS.

44

iv

[book

ol
877Kal iyeverotj jjberalBoXrj.

Tw

eTrelre elSov

Se AvBol

fcal 01

re

M^jSot

avrl

iTravaavro
re
rj/juiprj^;
fid'^r)';
yevo/juevrjv, rrjf}
Kal fjLoXXov
ecovrolcn yeveaOaL.
koL
eairevaav
elprjvrjv
aficfyorepoo
he (TV/jL^il3daavT6(;
%v"VveorL";
otiSe,
re
K/Xtf Kal
avTov";
rjaav
ol airevAa^vvTjTo^; 6 ^a/3v\a)VL0"i. ovtol
acpi Kal
opKiov
^AXvdraavTe";
yeveaOat rjaav, Kal yd\xwv eiroKKayrjv iiroLTjcrav'
Sovvac
rea
rrjv Ovyarepa ^Apwjvcv Aarvdyec rS
eyvwaav
yap
TTaihi' dvev yap dvayKair]'^
avfi/3dcri"";
K.va^dpea)
lcr'^vprj";
la'yypal
vvKra
TL

01

to

eOekovcn

ovK

'

re

irep

75

opKia

crv/JLjuevetv.

EXX^yz^e?,Kal

eTTLTdjJbwvTai
e? Tr]V
TovTOV
Brjo)V Tov

irpo'^

he

iiredv

tovtoicti,

to
o/jiO'^poLTjv,

rdora

nroielTat

rd

eOvea

rd

^pa')(^LOva";

tov";

dWrjXwv.^
alpuadvcCKeiyovai

AcTTvdyea l^vpo^;
eovTa
ecovTov
/jbTjTpoirdTOp
KaTao-Tpeyjrdfievof;
Xoyotcrt
ecr^e ho alTirjvttjv iycoev toIctl oiricrcx)
tc3 Kuyjco"9 Te to, '^prjaT'^pta
}^poio-o";
eTrtyLteyu-^o/xez/o?
crrj/jLaveco' Ta
iirl TLepo-a";,
Kal Brj Kal
diriKoixevov
eirefjiTre el aTpaTevTjTai
eXrrlaa^
KL^hrfKov,
tov
jxov
iTpo"^ ecovTov
')(^p7]a
'^prjafiov elvai,
AXvv
e? Tr]v Uepaecovpbolpav.")? he diriKeTO eirl tov
icTTpaTeveTO
o
to.?
Kp Otero?, to evOevTev, co? fxev iyo) Xeyco, KaTa
iTOTafJLov
he 0 ttoXXo?
tov
eov(ra";
co?
X0709
ye"pvpa"; hie/SL^acre
crTpaTov,
'

625, 610, 603, 597, and

The

585.

last

been

date best suits tlie chronology and

history

Shalmaneser's

of

ii.

for

the

period. Pliny {N.

makes
wish

it
to

Greeks
the
^

of

Herodotos

583.

B.C.

the

contrast

with

H.

53)
to

seems

science

of

the

of
ignorant superstition

the

"barbarians."
"mediators"

The

Kilikia,and

Syennesis was

were

Labynetos
a

of

common

Syennesis
Babylonia.

name

among

kings (Herod, v. 118, vii.


98 ; Xenophon, A7iab. i. 2 ; ^Eskh. Persce,
Other
324).
kings of Kilikia (called
and
Khilak
in the Assyrian inscriptions
the native coins)were, Pikhirim, B.C.
on
of Tubal
854 ; Ambaris
or Amris
(Tibamade
reni),
king by Sargon,B.C. 712 ; and
is
Sanda-sarme, B.C. 660 (whose name
compounded with that of Sandan, the

the

Kilikian

Kilikian

Herakles).

Tarkondimotos,
Kilikia

father

in the time

Tarkondemos
and

son,

or

ruled

of Augustus. Tarsus,
(B.C.833),
by Shalmaneser
was
supposed to have had an Assyrian
tion
origin,and to have been built in imitaof Babylon. If so, it must
have
called

Tarzi

city of
Labynetos is clearly

of the

restoration

age.

older

(NabuNabynetos, or Nabonidos
N
for
nahid),a copyisthaving mistaken
A.
(See ch. 77. ) As Nabynetos did not
become
king of Babylon till B.C. 555,
Herodotos
has given the wi'ong
name.
Nebuchadrezzar
was
reallyking at the
time.
Labynetos is placed on the same
footingas Syennesis,and therefore could
hardly have been merely a Babylonian
official.

As

such,

likelyto have had


hostile kings.

he

moreover,

was

weight with

much

not

the

confirmingan oath or
by drinking one another's blood
widely spread (see iv. 70). In Chinese

The

of

custom

contract

is

secret

describes
among
tribes
-

is drawn

societies blood

finger of the
poured into a
drunk
by the

bowl

of wine

rest of the

the
the

for

candidate

or

from

the

admission,
water, and

society.Tacitus
as
prevailing

custom

same

Georgian

and

Kaukasian

{Ann. xii. 47).

"The

Herodotos

bridgesthat reallyare
seems

to

be

here

there."

contrasting

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

THE

EAST.

45

Ste^l^acre. a7ropeovTo"; yap


^^Xkrjvwv,Sa\r]";ol 6 M.c\7]aio"i
ol hia^rjcreTaL
rov
Brj
OKco"^
'Trorafiov o
(TrpaTO"; (ov yap
}^poi"TOV
elvai Kco tovtov
TavTa";)
tov
Xeyerac irapeovra
'^povov ra? ye(j)vpa"^
iv
Tov
%a\riv
Trora/jLov i^
rep arparoirehwiroLrjcrai avr^ tov
Kal
e'/c
Be^crj^;
pelv,iroirjcrac
apt"TT6prj";
yeupo^ peovra rod (rrparov

(TrpaTOirehov
ap^d/juevov
Sicopv^a /Sadeav
6k(o"=;
to
aTpaTOTveSovthpypuevov
opvacreiv, dyovra /jurjvoetSea,
eK
vcoTov
\d^oi, TavTT) KaTCL
KaTCL
iKTpa7ro[jLevo"s
T7]v Sicopvy^a
Kal avTL"^
e?
aTpaTOTreSov
7rapa/ji"t^of.i6Vo";
petOpcov,
dp')(auov
Kal
iireiTe
TCL
"o-'^l(t67]
Td'^caTa iroTafJio^,
apyala eafSdWoi' McrTe
ol
Be
Kal
to
8ta^aT0"i iyiveTO.
irapdirav
Xeyouat Kal
djji^oTepr}
oTCKa tovto
TO
peWpov diro^rjpavOrivaL*
dpy^alov
jjuev
TrpoaLe/JLat'76
avTOv
/CW9
; Kpotcro?Be eireiTe
iropevofJuevoL Sie/3r)crav
yap oiTiorco
hia^d^;
e? t7)v IlTepLTjv"
(TTpaTa" diTLKeTo T7]"; K.aiTTraSoKiTjf;
idTl
Se
tt}?')(^cop'r}"i
(r) TlTeptTj
KaXeo/Jbivrjv
Icr'y^vpoTaTOV,
TavT7]";
TToXiV
SiVCOTTTjV
KaTCL
KTj KeifJUeVT]),
TrjV "V ^V^6LV(pTTOVTCp fldXcCTTd
ivOavTa
twv
^vpiojv
cjyOelpcov
tov";
KXtjpov^' Kal
icrTpaToireSeveTO
eVke Be Ta"^
Kal rjvhpairohiaaTo,
elXe p"ev tmv
TlTepicov
ttjv ttoXcv
%vpLOV";re ovSev e6vTa"^ alTiov^
avTrj^; Tracra?,
TrepL0iKiha"^
dvacTTdTov^; eTroirjcre.
KOpo? 8e dyeipa^tov ewvTov
crTpaTov Kal
Tom
fieTa^v olKeovTa"^ 7rdvTa"; i^vtcovtoKpotcro).
irapaXa/SoDVf
irplv8e e^eXavvetv op/jbrjcrattov aTpaTov, Tre/jb-yjraf;
KrjpvKa^; e? tov"^
aTrccTTdvaL.
diro K^poLcrov
"Icdva^ eiretpaTO cr(j)ea";
"Iwve? fiev vvv
iireWovTO'
ovK
Kv^o? Be co? diriKeTO Kal avTeaTpaToirehevaaTO
evOavTa
ev
Trj TlTepLyX'^PVeirecpMVTO KaTa
to
iaxvpov
Y^poiacp,
Be
Kal
ireaovTcov
dWrj\(ov. pbd^rj^ KapTepr}'^
dficpoTepcov
yevopuevr]^
TToWcov, reXo? ovSeTepot
eireXOovarj^;,
vvkto"^
ScecrTrjcrav
viKTjaavTe^
Se 77
Kal
ovtco
djji^OTepa
K.po2cro(;
fjiev crTpaTOTreBa
rjycovLo-aTO'
avcoOev

mSe'

8e

tov

av

tmv

to

ov

crvv

tm

to

Ta

his

Greek
of the
current
^

with

assertion

own

other

Greek

tradition.

The

of

is here

town, though

double

have

Halys may
legend.

Pteria

that

historians,not with

some

that

of

channel

originated the

district rather

town

of the

same

than

had

firstof

these,and Kroesos crossed the river

be
the district must
any rate
which
and
Keui
Eyuk
Boghaz
the two

that
are

Hittite

from

in order to meet
that Pteria

is between

Ghurun

doubtless

and

advanced

him.

The

"

near

was

seventy and

Kaisariyeh.
along the
vague

state-

Sinope,"which
eighty miles dis-

shows that Hdt. had


from the Halj^s,
personalknowledge of the country,
"*
The fields of the Syrians or Hit-

tant

name

by Stephanos Byz. Texier


would
identifyit with the Hittite city
whose
at Bogliaz Keui ; perruins are
haps Eyuk, the neighbouring Hittite
ruin, is more
likelyto mark the site. At

to which

led

Kyros

ment
a

is mentioned

ated,and

roads

in

situ-

high-

no

"

"

tites.
may
the

This
have

overthrow
led

to

the

of

the

Hittites

colonisation

of

depopulated district by the Persians


(seenote 3 on ch. 72). The ruin of the
Hittite
doubt
palace at Eyuk was
no
effected by Krcesos.

HERODOTOS.

46

Kara
IxejJb^Oel^;

kcovTov

nfkrjOo^to

to

[book

'TtoWov
crvfJi^a\odV
(TTpaT6";

eXdaacov

Be

yap

aTpcuTevfJua

ol 6

(rjvyap

tovto
T^vpov),
/JL6/jL(f)d
o
ovk
KOpo?, airrfkavve e? ra?
ft)9 T17 vaTepair]
eireipcLTo eirioov
iv
KaTa
to
%dphL";, v6(pi'X^cov
TrapaKaXeaa^;/xev Alyv7rTLov"^
opKiov
koL
"Afiacrtv^jSaaLXevovTa AlyvTTTOv
{eTTOitjaaTO
rrpo^
yap
fjbeTairefi'^diJb
r)irep 7rpo"; AaK"BaL/iioviov";),
TTpoTepov
aufjLfia'^iTjv
KOL

^a^v\(ovLov"; {koL

eTvpdvvevehe
(TVfjL/iia'^irj,
'^povov

prjTOv,

evevcoTO,

"TTpaTL7]v

eirl

Tov";

d\Laa";
TOV

^dpBc";,
eirefjuire

'^povov

Kal

'^ei/JLMva

KTjpvKa^

fiev

eTreiroLrjTo

^affvXcovLcov

tcov

AaKeBac/jLovloicn
irapelvaue?
Kal

eapu crTpaTeveiv
diriKeTO e? tcl^

""?
(^povecov,

Ta";

crvWe^a";

ecouTOV

t7]v

dfxa tqj
irapel^;,

TdoTa

KaTa

avTM

tovtov

Brj tovtov";

T"

Kal
Tlep(Ta";.

tovtov"^

iTpo"i

tov

Be
Aa^vvrjTO";),^
i7rayyel\a";

rj o

7rpoepeovTa";
(rvfjLjjLa'^La";

e?

SdpBt";'tov Be irapeovTa Kal


"9
TrejbLTTTOv jJLTjva avWeyeaOac
irdvTa
Yiepayai, 09 rjv avTOv
^etvLKOf;,
fjua'^eo-djuLevov
aTpaTov
d'TTel";
BcecTKeBaae,ovBafxaekiriaa^; p.rj KOTe
dpa dycovi,adfievo"i
ovtco
eKdarj eirl %dpBc"i.
7rapa7r\7)aL(o";^
K{;yao9
T^doTa

78

irav
TrpodcTTecov

}^poLa(p to
eTrCKeyofjuevcp

6(f)lcov

Be avTcov,
Xiriroi fieToevTe^i
iveTrXijcrOrj
01
(j^avevTcov
Ta";
vofxaf;
IBovtl
Be
KaTrjadiov.
tovto
vefJueaOat
(pooTeovTe*;
l^poiaw,cocrirep
Kal TjVy eBo^e Tepa"; elvac
Be
avTiKa
tmv
69
eirepLire Oeoirpoirov'^
Be
TeX/jurjaaecov.diriKOfMevoiai toIctl OeoirpoiroLcn
i^rjyrjTecov
OeXei o-rjixalveiv
Kal fjLaOovai
to
to
nTpo"; TeX/jLTjacreayv
T"pa";, ovk
dvaTrXtoaac
dirayyelXai'irplv
i^cyeveToJ^polcro)
"7(pea^
yap rjoTTiaoD
%dpBL";
7]X(o6 K^otcro9. TeXyLt?;"Tcret9
"9 Ta9
jJuevTOi TdBe eyvcocrav,
"

iirl ttjv ycoprjv,


eivac
dXXoOpoov irpoaBoKifjuov
J^polcra)
Be tovtov
tov"^
KaTaaTpec^eaOai
eirt'^coplov'^,
XeyovTe^;
aTTCKOfievov
cTTpaTov

elvai
6(f)cv

760.9

iralBa, lirnrov Be

For Amasis, see Appendix I.


Labynetos for Nabynetos or Nabonidos.
See Appendix II.
^
Having dismissed all that part of
^

Makri

town

' '

consisted of mercenaries
which
his army
drawn
after having fought such
a
.

iroKepjiov
; but

same

''0$ fjv ^. with

the

partitive

genitive is like ij ttoXXtjttJs 7^s and


similar phrases.
^
"Leaving off." The ruins of Sardes
still abound
with
poisonous snakes,
That
sometimes
of great size.
they
should
have
been eaten
by horses must
have been a popular legend.
^
Probably the Lykian Telmessos,now

Clement

the oracle

was

famous

of dreams

Little

-^

it the Karian
near

following herein
of Alexandria, who

nassos,

and

makes
name,

Halikar-

Cicero

for the

says

and
that

interpreta-

{Strom, i. 16, p. 361).


Makri
except tombs

battle."

eirriKvBa}

Kai

Leake

of the

tion

re

remains

at

the theatre,

supposed to eat dust


(Gen.
14).
"genius loci" is
often representedby a serpent at PomIt was
the inhabitpeiiand elsewhere.
of tombs
ant
(Verg. jEn. v. 93), and
Pythagoras was believed to have taught
The

snake

iii.

was

The

that

the

human

marrow

after death

be-

OF

EMPIKES

THE

I.]

EAST.

THE

47

rdora

ovhev
'^Srj
rjXcoKori,
vireKplvavro
K^poicro)
Kal avrov
elSoref;
re
rjv irepl
%dpSi,";
l^potcrov.KOpo? Be 79
KO)
iv
avrUa
dire\avvovTO"; KpoLaov /xera ttjv fJid'^rjv
ttjv yevo/Jbivrjv
Trj UrepLr},
jjuaOcov
ft)? d7re\dcra"; fjieWoi Kpotcro? hiacTKehav rov
ol eivat
eXauveiv
co?
TrpTjy/jid
evpiaKe
(TTparov, ^ov\6v6/iievo";
hvvaLTO rd'^caraiirl ra?
%dpBi";,
Trplvrj
hevTepovdXtcrOrjvai,

TeXyLt-r^crcret?
jjuev vvv
tcjv

to

Si ol rdora

eSo^e,Kal iiroiei Kara


i\d(Ta"^ yap rov
dyyeXo^;
e?
rrjv AvSltjvavro^;
rd'^o";'
arparov
iXTjXvdet. ivdavra K/3otcro9
69 aTropirjv ttoXXtjvdinyfjievo^^i
K.polcrG)
KarehoKei,6fjL0)";
ft"9 ol rrapdBo^av ecr^e rd Trprjyixara rj co? avro";
eOvo^;
AvSoij'i i^rjyee? juLd^Tjv.
rov
rjv Se rovrov
rov";
'^povov
AvSlov.
ovhev iv rfj^Aalrjovre
ovre
rov
avSprjcorepov
dXKCfMcorepov
Kal
e^opeov fjueydXa,
(Tcpecov
rjv drr Imroav^ Bopard re
7) Be fji'd'^rj
TreBlov Be (TvveXOovrcov 80
lirrreveG-Oai dyaOoL
avrol r}aav
ro
69
ibv /jueya re Kal yfrtXov
rb irpo rov
dare6"^ eart
rov
XapBtrjvov,
rovro
TXX09 avpprjyvvaL
(BedBe avrov
Trorafjbol
peovre"; Kal dXXoc Kal
e'9rov fjbeyiarov, KaXeojxevov Be Eip/juov,
09
e^ o/oeo9 lepovfMr)rpb";
iKBcBol 69 OdXaaaav
Kara
^coKaiTjv rroXiv),^
^LvBvfJbrjvri^
pecov
AuSft)!^ Tr)v

TMV

Svva/uLLV,CO?

'

'

elSe rov";
AvBov(; 69 f^d'^Tjv
ft)9
K.vpo";
racrao/juevov^^y
iiroiT^ae
KarappcoB^aa";
Apirdyov viroOepbevov
dvBpb"^
rr)v iTTTrov
ivdavra

'

Mt^Sou roLOvBe.
re

Kal

ocrac

rS

acro(f)opoc

Kal direXcov rd

rrdaa^ dXiaa^

Kd/MTjXoo.,
ravra^
aKevo(j)opoc

dvBpa^ iir
d'yjdea

icovrov elirovro

rS

arparo)

avrd"; dve^rjae lirTrdBa aroXr)v

ivearaXfievov^,

Be avroi)";irpoaera^e
crKevd(Ta"^
ri)^dXXr]";
irpolevaunrpb^
(Trparcrj";
rrjv

eireaOai
'iTnrov,
rfj Be KafjbrjXcp
IS^polaov

iKeXeve, oiriaOe Be
ol Trdvre^;

rov

Tre^ov iirera^errjv

Trapaiveaercov
Bcererd^aro,

Krelveiv irdvra
(f)etBo/j,evov^
came

snake

horse

was

of

(Ov.
eastern

if.

389).
origin, and
xv,

rbv

to

the

The

ass,

"the

honour

animal

of

the

If the

was

Kyros

west."

first tamed

of

the

having
belongs either to the Tatars or to
the primitiveAryans.
2
The
Hyllos flows into the Hermos
from
of Magnesia
the north, westward
ad Sipylum.
Consequently the plain
meant
is not the Sardian
by Herodotos
plain properly so called,east of Sardes
and south of the Hermos, but the plain

horse

west

of Sardes

and

north

of the Hermos.

Trdcrav

lttttov.

dXXcov

/xev

must

firj

The

really took place here,


have managed to slippast
Hermos

to the south

of which

is used

apparentlysince
Hermos

the Murad

flows into the

now

of its older
as

sive delta has been

The

AvBcov

Be

battle

Sardes.
sea

ft)9

Be
l^polcrov

i/jLiroBcov
yovofievov,

The

"the
accordinglycalled by the Accadians
animal
of the east,"in contradistinction

Tre^bvorrparbv

rov

channels,one

road.

formed

the time

rises from

An

at its

exten-

mouth,

of Herodotos.
two

sources

in

Dagh, a branch of the Taurus,


in the ancient Phrygia, called Dindyma
in classical times.
The
Dindymenian
mother
is Kybele or Kybebe, the Asiatic
to have
goddess, whose worship seems
been carried to the west by the Hittites
and who had a shrine on Mount
Dindyma.

HERODOTOS.

48

avTov

TOVTOV

ovre

opewv

BijTO

ttjv

Kol

ivdavTa
iidj(7]v,

XttitoiKol

elSov avTd^,

i\7rl";.

rrjv

ov

fxevTOi

KapuriXoovol

re
ScecpOapTO
dvecTTpecfyov,

ottlctw

Avhol

evOevTev

to

diro
d7ro6opovTe";
y^povw

he

tS

K.poLcra)

SeiXol rjcrav,
aXX*

o)?

'iTrirwv ire^olTotai,

toov

iroXXcov
dfjicpoTepwv

ireaovTwv

Tel'^o^;
eiroXiopKeovTO

to

Tiepaeoiv.

TMV

Be SoKecov ol
Totcrt fjuev By KaTeaTrjKet
TroXcopKLTj. Kjootcro?
eVeyLtTre
e/c tov
Tr)v TroXiopKirjv
'^povov iwl fJbaKpov eaeaOao
TeL'^eo";
ol
dWov"; dyyeXov^ e? ra? avixfia'^ia^'fxev yap irpoTepov
SceTre/jiirovTO

"9

TrefiTTTov

firjva 7rpoepeovTe";

avWeyeaOai

e?

BelaOai ^orjOecv co?


e^eirepLire
ttjv Ta')(^i(TTr)v

Be
82

ovre

oS/jltjv
Srjmv
avrov
6a(l"paivojjL"vo";.^

Se e?
ol AuSot, fcaTei\r}6evTe(;
eTpdirovTo

81

rcovSe

lttttov

aveyerau

coa(j)pavToTd^^taTatmv

co?

oi ye

epuaOovTO yivofievov,
avve^aWov.
YleparjcTi
viro

ovk

ttj'^

rdora

Iva tc3 l^polcrq)


Ittttlkov,
d'^pijcrrov
ecrecro(f)tcrTO,
rj to
AfSo?.
o
eXXdfJb-y^eaOai
ct)9 he koI
eVetp^e
crvvrjicrav

eiveKev

T7)v

7]

KafJirfKov^era^e avrla

Kafjurfkovliriro^ ^o^elrai, koI

IBerjv
avTOv
Tc3

8e

Ta"=;
Trapaiveae,

eiveKev

69

firjBe
rjv avWa^/Savo/juevo^;
afivvyraL,

/jLT)KTetveLV,

jjuev

[book

Bt]o)v Td"^ dXXa"^

Xdp8c"^,
tovtov";
iroXiopKeopbevov

koI Brjkoi
dvixpLayJ^a^
AaKeBalfiova. Tolai Be koI avTOtcn
tolctl
^TrapTLrjTyai
69
avTov
TOV
7rpb(;
^Apyelov";
^(povov o-vveTreiTTcoKet
epL"i
TavTa^
eovaa^;
ireplyoopov KaXeofJuevovSvperj^'Td"^ yap Svpea";^
ol AaKeBaifiovLoc,rjv
diroTafMopbevob
fjiolpT]^;
TTJ^ ApyoXiBo^;
ecr')(^ov
Be Ka\ T} fjii'^pi'
M.aXecov
Trj
rj 7rpo"; eaTreprjv ^Apyelcov,
tj
vrjacov.^
r/Trelpw
xd"pv ical rj ^vOrjplrj
vrjcro^ Kal al Xoiiral tcov

l^poLcrov."9

T"

eirefjuTre

KaT

TOVTOV

eovaa

re

ev

Be
ivOavTa
^07]67jcrdvT(ov
Apyeiwv tj} o-(f)eTepr)
dTTOTa/ivo/juevy,

avve^rfcrav eV Xoyov"^ avveXOovTe^

IJia')(^eaa(j6ai,
oicoTepoi
Be

TO

irXrjOo"=;
tov

The

The

dislike

tinues, as

Gulf, by
originallyfrom

travellers

horse

to

in the

of the
the

Ac-

Arabia.

it still coneast

are

well

represented by the
Luke, as Leake supposed,
monastery
the chief town
of Kynuria, ''the
was
borderland
Lakonia
and Argobetween
lis. The Kynurians claimed
to belong
of the Peloto the pre-Dorian lonians
See Thukyd. v. 41.
ponnesos.
of S.

"

TpirjKoo-iov^
tovtcov

aTraXXdcraecrOac

able to

testify.
Thyrea, not

wcrre

TrepiyevcovTat,

beast

Persian

of the

av

crTpaTov

camel, called "the

sea," i.e. the


cadians, came

8'

elvat

eKaTepcov

'^(bpov

tov

eKdTepove'9ttjv

In the time

of Pheidon.

ecovTov

The

whole

gradually absorbed by the


when
still aiming
Spartans
they were
Peloat possessing themselves
of the
before their check
at Tegea
ponnesos,
led them
to
change their policy and
forward as simply the leaders of the
come
Dorian
race.
Kythera had been occupied
the
Phoenicians,who built a temple to
by
driven
out
Astarte
there, but were
by
country

the

was

Dorians, like the Phoenician

elsewhere

etc.)

colonists

(in Thera, Melos, Thebes,

HERODOTOS.

50

ivOavra

aWcov

tmv

^alvcov,TcS

Kara
rjv^TpotdBy^;,

ov
"pvXaKO";'

ovhe

rjv Becvov

yap

eireipaTO

irpoa-

tt)?aKpoiroXto';rfj

tovto

Kara

/jltjd\w

tovto

Kal a[jba')(p^'Trj
dfcpo7roXL";
/3a(TL\6v";
z^aphlcov
fiovvrj ov
irepLrjveiKe

re
d7roTO/jLO";
yap
0
M77X779 irpoTepov

K0T6.

dvrjp MapSo?

ireiravfjbevwv

ovvofjua

ireraicTo
oiihel's

[book

ecTTL

TavTy

ol r) iraWaKrj

6T6K6,

r)

Bi/caadvTcov co?
TeX/nTjao-icov
XiovTo^; to Tel'^o";
dvdXcoTOL,
eaovTai
tov
z^dpBie^
'7repieveL')(6evTO"^
dXKo t"L'^o";7r"pi,6V6LKa";,Trj rjv
6 8e M.7]\r)";
to
KaTa
eTTifiaj^ov \to
iov afxa'^ov re ica\
to?
KaTyXoyyae tovto
ycoplov]
T7]"; dKpo7ro\io"s,
Be irpo'^ tov
T/jlcoXov
ecTTL
diroTOjJiov'
TeTpafjufxevov T7]"; TroXto?.
6 a)V Br)"TpotdBr)";
o
ovto^
MapSo? IBobv Trj irpOTepatrj tmv TLva
AvBcov KaTa
t?}?aKpoiroXio^ KaTa^dvTa iirl Kvverjv dvcodev
tovto
Kal e? OvfiovijSdXeTO.
KaTaKv\i(j6el(7av
dveXo/juevov
Kat
i(j)pd(Tdr)
t6t6 Be BrjavTO";
aXKoL
dpafie^rjKetKal KaT
re
avTov
Hepaecov
Be (tv^vmv, ovtco
Brj%dpBLe";
re
dvepaivov irpoa-jSdvTcov
rjXcoKeaav
Kal 'Trap to acTTV
eiropOelTO.^
(^ 3 f ^
\eovTa

Tov

tov

Kar

Be

avTOV

TdBe iyiveTo,
ILpolcrov

to,
eTreixvrjaOrjv,
fjuev

irpoTepov

evecTTol
TrapeXOovcrrj

MV

dWa

dWa

irdv

Kal Brj Kal


e7n(j)pa^o/jLevo";,

Te

Kal

Be.
iircecKr]^
d(l)o)Vo";

to
l^polao'^

ol 7ra2";,tov

rjv

e";

avTov

Trj

ev

eireiTOLrjKeL,

Ae\"f"ov";
ireplavTOV

"?

Be TIvOlt]ol elire TaBe.


"7re7r6jjbcj)ei,
y^prfcrofjievov'^.rj
AvBe
ttoWmv
^acrCKev,pueya vrjTne ILpolae,
yevo^,

Irjvdvd BoofxaTaKoveuv

fjbi]jSovXov TToXvevKTOv

iraiBo'^^deyyofievov.to
e/jifJLevai'avBrjaet
yap

ev

the symbol of Sardes,


was
protectingdeity,the sun-god.
The
acropolis,composed of crumbling
been almost entirely
sandstone, has now
the
into
washed
down
plain below, and
mentioned
by
it is clear that the breach
7

lion

The

of its

and

Herodotos
a

have

must

here

meant

last

king

rather

the

family who
account
^

i.e.

one

before

spot where

The

Meles

been

have

the

Kandaules, but

mythical Meles of
deposed by
was

the

Atyad

Moxos

on

tyranny.
the south side, where

on

to the

alone

IS

at
9

present

not

the

advice

of

(Ebares, figures of men


long poles and raised to

being placed on
the
been

top of the walls.


the

Persian

This

account.

must

have

The

Lydian
given by Polysenos. According to this, Kyros agreed to a truce
and
pretended to withdraw, but the
followingnight returned and scaled the
with
ladders.
As
unguarded walls
the
account
same
Xenophon gives
as
Herodotos
{Kyrop. viii. 2), it would
account

seem

is also

to

be

the

Greek

version.

The

of the

the lion makes

myth of Meles
it suspicious.

and

top of the acropolis


"

".

precipitous.

According to
6),Kyros

Strat. vii.

dfji^i^
dvoXffo)}

rj/juaTt
irpcdTov

1
.

Xd"iov

ttoXv

croc

introduction

of his

approach

the

hardly

can

but

been

occurred.

landslip had

Be

Ktesias
took

"

Lydian-born,

of

many

king,

foolish

as

child

(Polysenos,
through

Sardes

Kroesos,

wish

treaty wild,

not

in

thy home,

with

en-

8?;rov

oKtaKOfjievov

l^polaovct)9

he

l^polcro";
fxev

6 he iral^;ovro^;

airoOavelv

Seof?

fcrelve

koI

re

51

aXXoyvo)aa"i
Tlepcrecov

n^
vvv

ol

tl

Btjtovto

irdvTa
TjSrj
top
e(f)(ovei,
Kal

vtto

T7J";

Bcecfyepe
nfKrfyevri
rov
Tiepar^v,
8e
MvOpcoTre,
firj
i(j)6ey^aT0,
fjuera

ct)? elSe iirLovra


d(j)covo(;

fjbev

^77 ^dphc";
ecr'^op

eTTiovra

opecov

elire
epprj^e(fxovrjv,

KaKov

l^polaov.^^ovto";

TOVTO

roov

retp^eo?, rjie yap

aiTOfCTevecav,

EAST.

THE

ovSe
"7V/ji"poprj";
iraprjfjbeKrjKeL,

irapeovcrr]^

VTTO

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

"

irpMrov

86
y^povov t?}?^0779. ol he Yiepcrau

e^cojprjaav,
dp^avTa
l^poccrov
eTea
7ro\Lop/C7]6evTa,
KaTCL
TO
fieydXTjv
dp'^rjv.
ttjv ecovTov
-^pTjaTTjpiov Te fcaTairavaavTa
he
h
e
ol Tiepaair^yayov
Xa/3ovTe"; avTOv
irapdILvpov. 0
avvvr)aa"^
Trehrjac
dvejBl^aae eir avTrjv tov ILpolaovTe
TTvprjv fjueydXrjv
re

ra?

avTov

Kal TeacrepeaKaiheKa"
TeacrepeorKaiheKa
r^jxepa^

ev

Kal hl"; eirTa


hehefievov
eiTe
hrjaKpoOiVLaTdoTa

OeXcov, ecTe

Avhcov

Tralha";,
ev

avTov

irap

KaTaytelv Oecov

hy,

OTeco

vocp e'^cov
Kal ev^rjv

etre

elvau Oeoae/Sea
tov
7rv6ofjbevo";
l^polcrov
Tovhe .etveKev dve/Sl/Saaeeirl ttjv irvprjv, ^ovXofxevo^eihevai el rt?
tov
fxr)^covTa KaTaKavdrjvac. tov
fjbiv hacfiovcov
puev hrj
pvaeTau
eTTLTeXeaai,

iroielv

TdoTa'

Kal

he

tm

iirl Trj^ irvprj^^ eaeXOelv,


ol etrj
OeM
Zo\(ovo"; w?
crvv

eaTecoTC
J^polcro)

tov
Kaiirep KaK(p eovTu ToaovTM,
elvac tmv
fjL7]heva
^coovtcovoKjBlov. ft)9 he dpa jjllv
elp7)/iievov,
Kal
dvevecKd/jLevov^
Te
dvaaTevd^avTa
tovto,
7rpoa-aT7]vat
Kal tov
7roWrj";r)crv^L7j"^"9 TjOt9 ovofjudaai aoXwv.^^
K.vpov
KeXevaat
aKovaavTa
tov
T0U9
l^polaovTiva
epfjurjvea';eireipeaOat
eiTLKaXeoLTo, Kal tol'9 irpoaeXdovTa';
TovTov
eTreopcoTdv.JLpolcrov
he Te(o"; fiev (Toyrjv
p^eTa he, ")9 rjvayKdl^eTO,
ej(eiv elpcoTeofjuevov,
enrelv
irdai
tov
av
Tvpdvvoiai TrpoeTip^rjcra fieydXcov
eyco
eXOelvT^
irdXtv
dcrrjfia
'^prjp.dTcov
"9
Xoyov"i
a}"; he
e"ppa^e,
crcpL
ev

to

TO

"k

"

"

irdvTa
Oerjadfjbevo^
re

fxdXXov

Ti

Tov";

avTw

"9

Thou

ecovTov

Xeycov

ecovTov

shouldst

better

tj

thus

hear

thy boy

alway

wilt hear

him

e9

"

way.
both

speak

out:

;
on

The

Homeric

The

"

probably

an

un-

and

"

and

"in

every

meanings

apart

identity of

so

"

are

number

"on

is

more

legend than
Lydians
with

tov

fiev

to

coinci-

were

con-

Kroesos.

this thought struck him, he


long breath."
Cp. II. 19, 314.

When
a

"

Whose

monarch

later.

to

to be burnt

"

drew

due

Fourteen

demned
^

round,"

Kal jjudXtcrTa
dvOpcoTrcvov

to

dence.

first,I ween,

''all

sides

dirav

6X/3lov";hoKeovTa"^ elvac.

^^*

'A^0ls

o^Xov

ola hr}
oX^ov diro^XavpLcreLe
irdvTa dTTOjSe/SrjKe
ovhev
ol Trj irep eKelvo"^ elire,
tov

cn^icrbavTolat

irapa

Thou

Kal

avTcov

Kal
6 %6Xcov ioov ^A6r]valo"^,
eXeye hrj0)9 rfKOedp'^rjv

irapeyovTcov

elira^;,
a"9

XcTrapeovTcov he

Xeyo/jueva.

to,

eTreipooTeov

wealth."

conversation
would

prefer

with
to

every
abundant

HERODOTOS.

52

rdora
l^poLcrov
TO,

[book

t^Btjafifievrj^ KalecrOai
aTrrjyelcrOac,
ttj^ he 7rvprj";
fcal rov
tmv
ra
J^vpov aKovcravra
ipfu^rjvecov

irepieayara.

koX
koL
elire, fiera^yvovra
re
evvcoaavra
avTO"^
}^poLcro(;
ioov aSXov
icovTov
dv6p(07ro";
dvOpcoirov,
evSac/jLovlj
'yevofjuevov
heiaavra
iXdcrcro),
tovtolctl
ov/c
^cjvra irvplScSocrj,
ttjv
7rpo"^
ovhev elrj
/cal iirLXe^dfjievov
tojv
Ticriv
""?
da^aXicof;
dvdpwTroccrt
on

re

ev

a^evvvvai

KeXeveiv

e^ov,

KaTa/3c^d^"Cv l^potaov
SwacrOac

87 Tretpcofievovf;ov

XeyeTat
o)?

irdvTa

cjpa

ol

TL

6tl

fJbeTa

koI

Trvp

J^polaov.

koI

tov";

evOavTa
7rvpo"; iiriKpaTrjaat.

to

eTri^cocracrOaL
tov

AiroXXcova

eiriKaXeofxevov,

ehcopriOr],
Trapaa-Trjvai koI
eic
tov
fcaKov.
tov
fiev haKpvovTa
irapeovTo^
Be
i/c
kuI vyvefilrj^;
6eov,
re
aWpL7)";
avvBpafieiV
ef

Ke'^apicrp.evov

avTov
pvcracrOat

eTTCKaXeldOaL

tov

tov";

Kaco/juevov

fiaOovTa ttjv l^vpov fieTdyvcoaLVt


Yipolcrov
Be
hvva/jbevov";
dvhpa G^evvvvTa
irvp

fxev

KUTaXa^ecv,

ov/ceTC
ec

Auhchv

vtto

koI

T6

to

ra'^Lcrrrjv

ttjv

tov

avTov

vBaTC
koI
vaao
e^airlvri'^
ve^ea /cal '^eifXMvdre KaTappayrjvat
ovtco
Brj/juadovTa
Xa^poTdT(p,KaTacr^eaOrjvalTe ttjv irvprjv.^
koL
TOV
"^vpov CO? ecTj o Kpoto-09 fcal Oeoc^tXr)^
dvrjp dyaOo^if
diro Trjf;
KaTa^L^dcravTa avTov
etpeaOai TdBe.
l^polae,
7rvprj";
eirl
TL"i ae
dveyvcoae
dvOpcoTTcov
yrjv ttjv ifirjvaTpaTevcrd/xevov
dvTL
Be elire
^acriXev,
w
o
ifMolKaTaaTTJvac ;
TToXe/jicov
(j)i,Xov
Be KaKott) i/JuecovTov
eirpTj^a
Tjjafj fxev evBaifiovlrj,
eya" TdoTa
Be tovtcov
o
'^XXr)v(ov6eo"^ eiraelpa^
BaifjiovLrj.
acTto'^
eyeveTO
ovBel";yap ovtco
dvo7]TO";ecrTC 6aTL";iroXe/JLOV
ifjue
(TTpaTeveG-Oav.
"

"

"5

We

reminded

are

of the

martyrs, ordered

Christian

the fire would

whom

also the
in

the

of

Kroesos

is

of Damascus.

that

son

the

wished

Here

his

; and

that

it

who

from

Kyros,
prisonerand

the

anger

of

moved

by the
Lydians had
with

Kroesos.

his

been
The

told

are

had

been

and

to

when

was

desist from

the

him

save

enemies, who
of Solon.
selected
storm

his
and
the

Persians, and

the first had

tried to

name

in

him,
to Apollo to save
Sibyl appeared

the
father ; that
ordered
the Persians

not

we

to die with

dumb,
prevented prayed

deed

embellished

Kroesos, who

of

legend

The

further

Nikolaos

burnt,

Children

Three

furnace.

fiery

be

injure. Comp.

not

of the

account

legends of

to

to

pitied
from

Persians, and
observe
bade

not

were

fact that
we

now

Kyros
know

sent

by

him

Kroesos had
to

Delphi.

con-

fire,
the

been bound
The

whole

story, it is clear,has been coloured,if


not
invented, by the vanity of the
Greeks.

Ktesias

fire, but
Kroesos
thunder

be

was

to

asserts

says

nothing about

that

the

fetters

the
of

miraculouslystruck off by
he
lightning,after which
treated kindly by Kyros, and allowed
live at Barene
(Barke in Justin, i. 7).

were

burnt

or
any
last state-

(seeAppendix V.) was the case, and


sequentlywas not likelyto venerate
Thales had predictedthe storm, and
fetters with which

to

for-

bodies
This

Zoroastrian, as

began

Zoroaster, which

of

burning of dead
pollutionof fire.
point to the
may

ment
was

tlieythenceforth

the law

the

other

Fourteen

terrified the

"

were

and

THE

I.]

OF

EMPIRES

THE

ev

"Lp7]V7j(; aipeLTac

TTpo

ddiTTOvaL,

he

ev

ol

rw

Kov
Bal/bLocTL
(^iKovTjv

'O

/xev

rdora

icaX Kapra
Kal
fcal auT09
ecovrov

,^^f7raL0"";
"

--

oi

ry

53

rou?

7raT6pa";

7ral8a";. aWa

toi'9

rdora

yevecdai.

Xvcra"; Karelae
re
iyyv^;88
KOpo? ^e avrov
re
diredoov/jba^e
ev
nroWrj rrpo/jirjOly
el^e,
opecov
Se
ol irepleKelvov
rrdvre^.
eovre";
avvvoirj

eXeye,

he

jiera

re
enrLarpat^ei^

tt^o?

rd

ere

Kal

elire
Kepat^ovra^;

Al'Swz' dcrrv

rcjv

Xeyecv

fcorepov

Trarepe^;

ovTco

i'^o/jLevo';
r)av'^o";rjv.
rb
Jlep(ra";

"

yap

jxev

EAST.

tSo/x6z^o9
rov";
"

^acrcXev,

rvy^dvcorj acydv ev
Oapaeovra e/ceXeve Xeyetv

rw

voecov

"

b re
KO^oo? Be fiiv
rl
ttoXXo?
ojullXo'^
/SovXocro. 6 he avrov
ovro";
Xeycov
elpcora
rdora iroXXfjarrovhrjipyd^erao
Be elire
rroXtv
rrjv arjv
;
he
Kal
ad
rd
Bta"popel.^^
StapTrd^et, -^pijfiara
l^pocao^; dfiei^ero
ovhev
rd
TToXcv
ovre
ovre
e/xd hiapird^ei'
rrjv i/XTjv
y^prffiara
Kal dyovcTLra
aa,
re
ydp ifMolen rovrcov
(^epovai
fjuera' dXXd
rd
he
he 89
elire'
Ki/yoo) eirLjjbeXe^i
K.poLcro(; /neraarTjo'd/jbevo';
eyevero
rolcrt rroieofJievoLai.
dXXovff,etperoI^pocaov6 re ol evopcorj
rovf;
rrapeovrt

'^pr) ;

"

"

"

re

*'

ev

he

elire

evopeco

elal

**

erreire fie

rrXeov,

av

a)V

vvv

eiravaarrjaopbevov,

Kdrcaov

rcov

"j)vXdKov";, Xeyovrcov ^
oc

aTracpeofievoc

hovXov

W9

hcKaco), ec

ctol,

re

e6vre"; v/Spccrral
Uepcrac (j^vcrcv
Kal
'jTepiihrj";
hcap7rdcravra";

rovrov";

roc
ef
j^prjixara fieydXa, rdhe
dv avrcov
irXelara
rovrov
Karda'^rj,

yeveaQai'^09
iyco Xeyco.

ehcoKav

aoL

arj/jbaivecv

d'^prjixaroi.
rjv

Kara(T'^ovra"^

roi

6eol

a)v

eirlho^a

avrcov

ayhe,ec
Trolrjcrov

rrpocrheKeaOal
rd
roc
dpecrKec

eirl rrdo-rjac
rrvXrjac
rfjcrc
hopv(j)opcov

rd
eK(j)epovra"^
ra"
dvayKaico";
cr(f)ea
e'^ec heKarevdrjvac
7rpo"^

rov";

'^prifjiara

AcL

Kal

rd '^prjixara, Kal
^crj d7racpeofievo";
drre'^Oricreac
rdora 90
hcKaca eKovre^;
irocelv ae
eKecvoc
irporjaovcrc.^^
crvyyvovre"^
ol ehoKec ev virorcdeaOac
aKovayv
0
acveo-a(;
K.vpo";
vrrep'^hero,
W9
he TToXXd, Kal ivreiXd/jcevo'^
rd
rocac
hopv(f"6poc(TC
J^poc(TO";
(TV

re

a^c

ovk

"If I see anything to your ad vantage," or perhaps "if I see any deeper
than you and yours."
^

' '

You

treatment

expect
may
from them."
Or

be

the

"

hence

these";
for

i^ avroov

may

to

decline

small

construction,

the

^vXaKas is

tendency
following single pattern, which

equivalentto e/c tovtcjv, "after this,"


afterwards, as in ch. 9, iii. 52, vii.
8 y, viii. 60 /3(in the sing.i. 207, ii. 51,
vii. 46).
^
The
of the imperative here inuse
stead of the conjunctiveis anomalous.
The
relative,
however, is equivalentto
"

"and

^vXclkovs

all

an

after
from

appears
of instances to have

number

of

example

nouns

the
been

justsettingin during the


in

otos

forms

New

in

Ionic.

Homer

II.
fxdpTvpoi,
modern

Greek

have

II. 24, 566


{cfyvKaKoi,

2,

302 ; Od.

the

16, 423).

analogy of nouns
predominant ;
^aa-iXeas,dvdpas,etc.

rafxiashas
we

age of HerodWe
find similar

become

In
like

hence

HERODOTOS.

54

[book

vTreOrjKaroeirirekelv, elire irpb"^


l^polcrovrdSe.
T7]juL"vov

Soatv

avhpo^(3acn\eo"^'^prfara

creo

l3ov\eal

TjvTCva

hecrirora,"daa"^

Ta9

he

elpero6

ryevecrOai
irapavTiKa.^^6

rot

he elire

c5

"

f.i6

ol

re

eTraXiWoyrjcre

rovro

eTrijyopecov

nracrav

hidvoiav

ecovTov

rrjv

Si ol
l^poi"70";

Trapacreoiro.
koI

tmv

/judXccrra
eirl Tlepaa^' Xeycov
fjuavrrjiqi earparevcraro

Ta";

kol

viTOKpicna'^

ray

/Satve

avTi(;

dWov

Kol

Traz^TO?

tov

K/3otcro9,
Tre/bLTTcov
irehaq eirX rod

ra's
roLcrt

eirelvai ol tg5

irapaiTeojjievoq

tovtov

Avhcov

ra)V

e?

rdora

fcare-

ovethicraL.

tovto

'

eKdarore

av

6eM

eTraepOelf;

")?

he

rev^eai irap efieo, J^polae,


herj. o)? he rdora ijKovae

"

kol

yprjCTTrjpiwv

koI
dvadrjfiara,

ra

KO/309 he fye\daa";elire

evereXXero
Ae\(f)ov";

iiavrrjioiai

ovhov

riOevra"^

elpcordvel ov
eiraiG'yyverai
irrl
ILpolaov crrpareveaOai TIepcra";
eiraelpa^;
")?

Karairavaovra

91

iroielv,alreo

eirea

Oeov
^JLWijvcov,
tmv
'^apcel/jbaXcara tov
Oecov
rdcrSe
iyo) iri/jLTjcra
fiaXtcrra, iirelpeo-OaL
TTefiyjravra
el e^airarav tov"^ ev iroieovTa"^
nreha^;,
vojuo^; earl ol^
KOpo?

TOP

kol

epya

l^potcre,
avap-

"

rov

vtjov

drr ^9
l^vpou hwajuULv,

rrjv

ol

aKpoOlviarocavra

re
jeveaOai, heiKvvvra^; rd"^ 7re8a?* rdora
eTreipcordv,Kal el
d')(aplaroicrL
vojjlo'^ elvai rolau '^WyviKotac Oeolcn.
aTrofcofjuevotac

he rolcTi Avholau
etrrelv rdhe.

Kal
b?

Kal Xeyovac

ra

evreraXp^eva

6ew.

ho\(p yvvatKTjia)
hopv(f)opo(;
^UpaKXechecov,

ecov

heairorea

ecpovevaerov
rralhaq

Kal

l^poicrov
yevotro

rov

olov

l^polaov,

ovK

evehcoKav

avrai,

re

rb

eyevero
re

rjvvae

Kal

vcrrepov

he

rovrcov

rotcn

KaiofxevM
ovk

yevofievov

Ao^LT)^,
^

ol'
i'^apicraro

sense

of

\^yw.

Frohde

along with Ao^cu,an


with

to do
"

"

ambiguous.
explainif derived

of

the Sanskrit

rov";

/ULrjKar

rpia

avrov

l^polcrof;

rr]"; 7re7rpco/jLevrj";.

he

errt^pKeae.

ro

he
erea

yap

emcrrdcrOa)

rovro

ol

hevrepa

fiavrrjiov

rb

K/)otcro9jxefJu^eraL.
opOco';
ydp ol
irporjyopeve
eirl Tlepaa";,
/jbeydXrjv
dp'^yv avrbv
crrparevijrai

Ao^i'aslias nothing

is difficult to
root

Yjv

Kara

irapayayelv fMolpaf;.baov

Kara

avro)

rtfjbrjv ovhev

irdOo^ Kal
l^aphtayv

d\ov"^

rovroicn

ereai

eiriairoiJLevo'^

x\o^i(o 6kco"; dv

dXwcrcv, Kal
e7rave/3d\erorrjv Saphicov
CO?

eKelvov

rrjv

ecr^e
he
TrpoOufxeo/nevov

TrpocrrjKovcrav.

in the

TVvOirjv
Xeyerat

rrjv

dhvvara
ean
dTrocfivyetv
rrjv ireirpcofjuevr^vjjuolpav
he
l^polcro^; irefiTrrov yoveo^i d/xaprdha e^eirXyo-e,
'*

with
The
from

compares

it

Xo^6s

regard

form

\"vk6s, Kretan

the

it,

epithetof Artemis,

ZaMs7i-ma?i, "mark,"

"sign." As the epithet is applied to


both Apollo and Artemis, it is better to

as

coming

light,the vowel
a

"popular

nected
Schone
from
was

Avttos

from

(=

the

of

root

A6ktcs), lux,

being changed through


conetymology," which

it with

either

Xo^os

or

\byos.
"

(Hermes, ix.) ingeniouslyinfers


the

oracle

regarded as

that
a

the

fall of Sardes

fixed date.

Herodotos

KaraXvaeiv.

OF

EMPIKES

THE

I.]

^e irpo^ rdora

tov

iirelpeaOau
Trefjuyfravra
Korepa
Be

avWa^oov

ov

apyrjv.

EAST.

THE

XPV^ ^^ jxeXkovra
icovrov rj rrjv
rrjv

prjOevovS^

to

55

^ovXeveaOau

ILvpov Xiyoo

"7rav6LpofjL6VO"^

eatvrbu

TeXevTolov
rS /cal to
'^prjcrTTjpia^o/jLeva
a7rocj)aLV"Ta).
elire Ko^lr]^irepi rjficovov, ovSe
tovto
avveXa^e.
Br)
rjv jap
Bvcbv
6 K{)po9 ovTo";
i/c "yap
ofioeOvecov
ovk
rjfilovo^'
iyeyovet,
Be viroBeeo'Tepov'
dfieivovo^;,
/jb7]Tpb";
rj fjuev yap rjv M.7]Bl(;
iraTpo^
Be TIepcr7]"^
Kal AaTvdyeo"; OvyaTrjptov
o
^tJBcov /3aaiXeo"^,
re
acTLov

rjv Kal

vir
dpyofjuevo^^

dwoiKeir

BecTTTOLvr}
Tr) ewvTov
AvBolai, ol Be

Tolart

Be dK0VGa"s

6eov.

eKelvoiau

TOLOTa

fiev rj

elvat

ecovTov

Toccrt

UvOlrj vireKplvaTO

tov
dfiapTdBaKal
dp^rjv Kal 1covl7]";
ttjv
ov

tyjv

Brj Trjv l^potaov re


TTpcoTrjv KaTa(7Tpo(f)r]v
ea'^e ovtco.
dvaOrjfiaTaev Trj '^XkdBi
ILpolacpBe icTTi Kal dWa
Kal

KaTa

jxev

elprjfxeva
jjuovva.

tcl

ov

Tplirov^
'^pvaeo^,

fxev

ev

ttoXXcl

92

^rjjBrjCTL
Tjjai I^occotcov

yap

dveOrjKetS ^AttoXXcovc

tov

ciTraaL

/cal aTrriyyeCkav Ys^poLaw,


l^dpBi";

dvrjveiKave?

avveyvw

evepOe ioov

/cat

Be
^la/JbrjvLq),

tm

ev

at TroXkal, ev Be
/9oe9 al '^pvaeai Kal tcov
kcovcov
TdoTa fiev
dcnrlf;'^pvcrer] fjLeydXrj.
Tlpov7]lr)"^
T7J"^ev AeX(f)Oi(Tt

^(pecTMai

Kal

re

S'

i^awoXcoXe tcov dvaOrjfxdTcov*


B ev ^pay^iBrjcTi
Ta
Trjcrc^iXrjatoov dvaOrjixaTaJ^potao),
0)9 6701)
Xaa
toIctl
K
al
TTwOdvofjuat, re crTaOpubv ofjboia
ev
AeXcpoiac
Kal 69 tov
Ta
dveOrjKeolKrjtd
"9
re
AjUL(j)tdpeco
AeXcj^ov^;
fiev vvv
"TL

69

ijJLe
rjv irepieovTa,

to,

Be dXXa
Ta
iraTpwicov
dirap'yrjV'
'^pr)fjbdTcov
dva6r]/jbaTa
ef dvBpo";
oval7]";
e^Opov,09 ol irplvrj ^aaueyeveTo
Te

Kal

eovTa

Xevcrai

tmv

avTiaTaa-LcoTrj^}

avairevBwv

KaTeaTijKec,

TlavTaXeovTc

dp'^rjv.6 Be TiavTaXecov rjv ^AXvdTTeco


Be dBeX(j)eo"; ofjuofi'^Tpco^;''
Kpotcro9y^tez^yap
fiev 7r"xfc9, ILpoicrov
Be e^ 'IaSo9.
"K
Ka6t/3779
\AXvdTTr), UavTaXeoov
rjv yvvaiKo"^
yeveaOai

AvBcov

tyjv

ovk

makes

the

five Mermnad

170 years;
167 years,

kings reign
subtractingthree,we have
i.e. just five generations,
ac-

cording to

the

(ii. 142) of
Hence

years.

calculation
three
the

of Herodotos

generations to
number

100

of

years
Mermnad

to the
assignedby Herodotos
dynasty. In ch. 13 Herodotos will have
written tt^/xtttov
airbyovovby mistake for
As
yevedv.
Astyages was
conquered by
Kyros,accordingto the inscription
lately
found
at Babylon, in B.C.
549, and the
next year or two were
spent in subduing
"

the

Medic

fortresses

the

temple

of

The

stood

in

burnt

Delphi was

548, it is clear that

embassy

Assyria, while

in

the

in

B.C.

story of the

to the oracle is

temple
front

of

of

a pure
myth,
Athena
at Delphi

the

great temple

of

Apollo {Trpbrod vaov). The shield was


carried away by Philomelos,the Phokian
general,in the Sacred War {Paics.x. 8).
^
Stein pointsout that here the predicate is lost,which
probably referred to
the plundering of the temple of Brankhidse in B.C. 494 (seevi. 19).

56

HERODOTOS.

iirelre Be Bovto";

^"

tov

avdpwirov

TOP

Be

irarpo'^

avrov

ovaiTjv

aveOrjKe e?
elp7]fxev(p
Tocravra
elprjaOw.
93

6
rrjf;ap'^rj^i

eKparrjo-e

iirl Kvd^ov
avrcTrprjacrovTa

tov

Tr)v

[book

Kpotcro?,
ScecfyOecpe

cXkcov

en

irporepov

KaTC"p(ocra"i

ra

eiprjrat.

/cat

rore

rS

rpoirw

irepl[xev avaOrjfjbdTwv

ov
^covfiaraBe yr) r] AvBltje? avy'ypa(f"rjv
fiaXa e^et, old re
Kal
i/c tov
aXXr] '^copr], irape^ tov
T/jlco\ovKaTai^epofxevov
Be epyov ttoWov
ev
to)V
fjuiyccTTOv
'yJTTjyfjbaTO';.'^
irape'^eTai ^w/ol?
re
^a/SvXoyvtcov.eaTt avToOt AXvdTTeco
KlyvirTicov
epycov Kal to)v
\id(OV fieydXcov,
TOV
tov
l^polaov7raTpo"; crrjfjba,
fjuev eaTi,
rj /cprjirl^;
Be dWo
to
(TTjfia %WyL6a. 7^79.'^e^epydaavTO Be fxiv ol dyopaloi
^

Kal
dvOpcoTTOc
Be

ovpoL

Kal

'^eip(t)vaKTe"; Kal

oi

e6vTe"^eTi

TrevTe

Kal

e?

"

His

father

having

handed

it

over

to him."
2

The

instrument

had

iron

which
carding-comb, over
was
dragged. According
who
Dam., the "enemy"

teeth,like
the

taleon

was

merchant

incited

named

Pan-

Sady-

attes.

The

Tmfilos

gold-dust washed
by the Paktolos must
from the gold found

Tmolos.

of
It.
^

"

Oitt

re

as

in

down
be

by

from
guished
distin-

Herodotos

Vulci, as

dvcOj

The

contents.

the

As
will

tomb

"Cucumella"

well

the tomb

as

stone

described
have
tomb

of Porsena

sembled
re-

at
at

by Pliny {N. H.
perpendicular height
of the great pyramid of Kheops is 482
of nearly 13
an
area
feet,and it covers
described

Clusium

xxxvi.

19). The

acres.
^

"Monumental
No

{e.g.

7, 280).

cubic

longer visible.

no

the

in the mines
Homer

is

victim

Nikolaos

to

of

metres

crrjiMaTO^

e^epydaavTo,Kal

eKaaToi

Ta

base

rjcraviirl tov
ijjbe.

eveKeKoXaiTTo
(T(j)L
ypdfjbjjbaTa

2*

iraiBlaKai,
ivepya^o/jbevao

at

on

the

stone

stones"
trace
now

of
on

scription
bearing inwritingremains

the

top of the

Lydian alphabet was, like


of the Gygsean Lake, and is the highest
the alphabets of Karia, Lykia, Pamthe
tumuli or tombs
of all the multitudinous
phylia, and Kappadokia, based on
the plateauof the Bin Bir Tepe. It
Greek alphabet,with characters retained
on
is a conspicuousobjectfrom the acropolis from the older Asianic
syllabary(which
to
used
in
and
continued
be
to
is
of Sardes,
entirelycomposed of
Kypros down
earth.
On the top is a huge block of stone
the fourth century B. c. ), in order to express
sounds
not
represented in the
(about 9 feet in diameter) cut into the
form of a pomegranate or phallus. The
Phoeniko- Greek
alphabet. A specimen
mound
has been partially
excavated
of
the
Lydian alphabet survives in the
by
Spiegelthaland Dennis, and a sepulchral five characters on the base of a column
mis
chamber
discovered
in the middle, composed
belonging to the earlier temple of Arteof large well-cut
at
by Mr.
Ephesos, discovered
highly-polished
blocks
The
chamber
"Wood
of white
marble.
of
(publishedin the Transactions
iv. 2,
is 11 feet long,nearly 8 feet broad, and
the Society of Biblical Archaeology,
7 feet high. The
had
mound, which
points out that the
1876). Mr. Newton
been
of the
cseiatse
used in later times for burial purbase
belonged to one
poses,
is 281 yards in diameter, or about
columnse
presentedby Kroesos.
^
half a mile in circumference.
each
class of
Texier
"Stating how much
executed."
makes
had
it 80 metres
workmen
high, with 2,650,800
The

tomb

lies

on

the southern

bank

The

tumulus.

"

"

HERODOTOS.

58

'

[book

^iWrjat KaTecrr"c6(7a"^icovrcov i^evprj/jua


jeviaOai,,
d/juaSe TavTa"^
airoiKiaaii^
re
i^evpeOrjvai
Xeyovcrt koI TvparjVLTjv
ct^lctl
irapa
oihe

Xeyovre*;. iirl "Aruo?

ireplavrcov

(TLTohelriv
la^vpr)vava
AfSou?

kol
tyeveaOai,

iraaav

yLtez^ScdyetvXcTrapeovra^,/nera

reft)?

Be

aXkov
Bi^TjaOaL,

ciKea

AvBir]v

rrjv

OrjvaLBr]wv

/cal

Tore

/cal
o-ipalpr}'^

Be, co?

tov";

Traveadai,

ov

avrcov.
eTTL/jLTj'^avaaOat
koI
Kvj3(ov
to)v
darpayoXwv

i^evpe-

aWo

rcov

ISildveoy ^aaiXeo^

tov

kol

Trj";

iraiyvlcovrd etBea, nfKr]V


AvBol.'^.
nrecrcrSyv' tovtcov
a)V
ttjv e^evpeatv ovk
yap
OLKTjLovvrac
Be wBe iTpo"^ tov
TTOietv
Xl/jlove^evpovra^,rrjv fiev ereprjv rcov
Iva
Brj/jlt)^rjreoievcrLTia, rrjv Be ereprjv
r/puepecov iral^ecvirdaav,
orcrelcrdai iravo/jLevov;
tmv
Btdyeiv
Tratyvtcov.
rocovrq)
rpoTTO)
iir
aXX

Bvcbv

erea

eTL

aXXecov

tmv

Beovra

iracrecov

eiKocn.

jjuaXXov (Bia^eaOaiyovtco

eTTi

knows

only

of

colonisation

Torrhebos

rhenos
him

this

calls

Torybos, and makes


a
Lydian city and
Lydian tribe. Dionyof

of a
the eponym
sios of Halikarnassos

that

states

and

the

differed

pletely
comLydians
ligion,"
"language, customs, and restatement
a
fully confirmed, so
language is concerned, by the
side,
inscriptionson the one
ical
Lydian words preservedin class-

Etrurians

in

as

Etruscan
and

the

authors

tlie other.

on

Etruscan

out

gi'eatcities of Etruria

the

that

than

inland, rather
while

far north

as

more

the

of

vocalisation

corrupted the

south.

Etruria

as

language
further

may
the Rhseti of the

legend

of the

name

of
seems

sea

the

Lydian
to

be

we

becomes
advance

connection

tween
be-

Alps and Rasena,


Etruscans.
colonisation
Greek

one,

The
of
sioned
occa-

name

of the Etruscans, and

easilychanged

into

rhebos,
Tor-

Tyrrhenes,

allows
the

in Asia

In

ch.

that
of

name

the

rhenians
Tyr-

Minor.

the Ly do -Phryor
gian
Attys was
sun-god wooed by Kybele, as TamAdonis
or
muz
by Aphrodite (Astarte),
and
served
by his eunuch
prieststhe
Galli.
Agdistis is another form of his
Manis
the PhryManes
was
or
name.
gian
called
Masdes
Zeus,
(Ahuramazda)
by the Persians, according to Plutarch

Atys

et Os. p. 360

(de Is.

Draughts
both

game,

was

board

in the

found

b).
ancient

an

the

tombs.

and

Egyptian

(sent) and

being figured on

(ah)

men

and

monuments

board

preserved

in

found

at

Abbott

the

ues
Collection,is given by M. Prisse d'Avenin

Monuments

similar
vase,

by the similarityof Tyrrheni or


Tyrseni, the Greek
corruption of the
native

known

been
the

himself

first made

Thebes,

are

Bvo

avTcov

'^

coast

Botzen, and

be

There

the native

the

on

inscriptionshave

Etruscan

found

Phokseans

was

agglutinativeand sni generis: Lydian


belonged to the Helleno-Phrygianbranch
of the Aryan family. Mommsen
points

^acrcXea

Herodotos

163

Tyr-

KaKov

to

mythical Lydian prince.

or

founder

the

about

nothing
Etruria, but

dvcevat

ovk

Br}tov

Xanthos, the native Lydiaiiliistorian, the

not

far

Be

eireire

as

game,
also

was

fifth

the

ball

of

games

early period.
been

found

in

epoch ; but
shape, with
numerals
has
in

been

in

game

an

astragali, and
known

were

No

9.

of

the

various
from

an

dice, however, have

Egypt before the Roman


ivory die of rectangular

its four
the

discovered

Assyria.

the

played in Egypt as early


and
even
dynasty. Odd

with

played

was

egyptiens,p.
called

sides covered

cuneiform
at

Nimrud

with

character,
(Calah)

SceXovra

fioLpa^
Se eVl

tmv

'^(opr}"^,koI
rov

ecovrov

/jbotpecov

EAST.

jBaaCkea

TracSa,rS

kwvrov

rfjaTraWaacrofJbevrjrov

THE

59

/cXrjpaxraL
rrjv fiev eVl fiovy ttjv
iirl fxev rfj fjueveiv avrov
\ay-

Trdvrayv

AvBcov

6^6S(pi/c T?79

yavovcrrj

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

Trpoaraacrecv,
eivau

ovvofia

he

ein

Tvpcryvov.

e^tevaii/c rr}^ p^co^?;? fcaraffrjvat


ra
irXola, e? ra eaOeiJuevov";
iravra
KOI
"9
^jjuvpvqv
fjir)'^avrj"Taa6at
/Slovre Kat
ocra
a(j)irjv '^prjara eiriifkoa, airoirXelv Kara
yea*;
airiKecrOab
eOvea
irdXKa
o
Ofju/Spc69
^ijrTjcriv,
"9
irapapbei'^aiJLevov'^

Xa'^ovra^Se

avrcjv

roi'?

erepov;

7ro\ca(; fcal oiKelv


Kov";^evOa cr(^ea9
ivihpvcraaOaL

to

P'^-^pc

rovBe.

iirl rov
l3aaiKeo";rod
pbeTovoixaadrjvai
avTov";
TracBo'^,
dvTJyaye'eVt rovrov
09
(T(p6a";
rrjv iTroyvv/jbLTjv
7roi60/Jb"Vov";
ovofJLaaOrjvaL
Tvpor7]vov"^.
Be Brj95
AvSol
eTTtSL^rjrac
Uepo-ycroiSeSovXcovro.
fJbev Srf VTTO
Se

dvrl

AvSmv

evOevrev

TO

o
rj/ilv
X0709

Kal

tov

re

K.vpov bcrrcf;

ecov

rrjv

l^poicrov

oreo)
TLep(Ta";
ttj'^
rpoTTM
riyrjaavro
ol
^Ao-L7)";.fo)9 o)V Uepo-ecov/ubere^erepot
Xeyovcri,
p^rj ^ov\op.evoL
rov
raora
eovra
Xeyecv Xoyov, Kara
rreplILvpovdWa
ae/jLvovv ra
dWa";
eirtardp^evo^^
Xoycov
ireplY^vpov Kal rpc(j"aaLa";
ypdyfro),

dp'^rjvKarelXe,

6S0U9

T0U9

(pyjvacf^

^Acravptcov
dp'^ovrcov
rrj"^
rrevraKocna,

drr

irpcoroL

ctvo)

Aalrj^;eir

koX 96

eiKocn

erea

iSlirjBoi
rjp^avro diriaracrOai, Kal

avrcov

toIctl ^AcrcrvpLOCcrt
ireplrrj";eXevdepL7]";
fjua'^eadp.evoc
avBpe"^dyaOol, Kal dTrcocrd/jievoc
rr)v BovXoavvrjv ?;Xefeyevovro
dXXa
eiroiei
Kal
eOvea
p^erdBe rovrov^;
0ep(o6r](Tav.'
ovroi

Kco";

ra

The

Alpis and
of

Karpis

flow into

Danube

north

iv. 49.

Herodotos, therefore,must

included

Lombardy
Appendix

See

ference
with

is made

whom

Umbria,

according to

he

had

to

Once
Persian

Herodotos

become
like

have

in the district.
Y.

must

acquainted (see ch. 1). The


tradictorylegends of Kyros
soon

the

hero

more

re-

authorities
have

been

three

con-

show

how

of

popular

Charlemagne in the
legend chosen by
ages.
is simply the old solar story
Herodotos
told of Perseus, of Romulus,
which
was
other
and
of so
mythic heroes.
many
the account
It is doubtful whether
given
by Xenophon in the Kyropcedeia is one
of the three meant
by Herodotos, since
the Kyros of Xenophon
is merely the
Greek
writer's
of what
ideal
a
royal

mythology,
middle

The

rcovro

ought

warrior

to be.

has

Herodotos
historians

in

It is evident
view

that
Greek

other

had

who

adopted different
of the birth and bringing up of
accounts
Kyros ; in oppositionto these he asserts
real
that
he is going to relate "the
history."
^ gee
ch. 177 it
Appendix II. From
of
would
that
the "upper Asia"
seem
the Tigris
Herodotos
Asia between
was
and

the

Minor

Mediterranean, exclusive
of

west

Asia."

What

the

Berosos

Halys,

or

calls the

of Asia
"Lower

Assyrian

be
dynasty, reigning 526 years, cannot
of
this
since
(1)
Assyrians
passage,
the dynasty of Berosos
ruled
only in
Babylonia, and (2) it ended B.C. 747,

the

two

years

before

the

rise of the Second

Assyrian Empire ; while the


of the Assyrians in Western

supremacy
dates

Asia

HERODOTOS.

60

iovTcop
yirihoLCFi.

Tolai

wSe

avTL';

ovvofxa

Kara
yir)B(DV

TOdv

Kol
hoKifMo^

ol K

icTTL.

rjTrecpop,

rrjv

iv

MTJSotcr^

rolai
rjv

^paopreco.^

iOv^
dp'^rjv,

oXlyov irpo'^
dWrjcTL

rcbv

alpeovTO.

Si/cacof;
rjv

ttoicov

ovBevl

8e

irporepov

Se

iraaav

tov";

avrov

Br),ola

/jLvco/jbevo^;

e^^eovk

eiraivov

ol iv
irvvdavo/jLevoo

dhiKoiai

Kara

iireire
yvaiyfjurjat,
rore,
hiKaaoalel

Se

iirerpdirovro.ifkeovo^

aXXo)

rrjcro

opOov

ro

ArjcoKea Kal avrol

rov

rrjv

ciBlkov iroXefJUOv

opeovre^

rdora

T6

cocrre

7r6pc7ri7rrovr"";

dcr/juevoi
icpotreov
irapa

TeXo9

rb

(h"; ArjLOKrjf;
elr]dvrjpfiovvo^

St/cd^cov,
irporepov
rjKovcrav,

M^3ot

/cwyu,?;?

TroXtrjrecov,ovrco

KcojJbrja-L

SiKalo)

to5

on

T7](; avTTj^;

koI

re

KaroLKrj-

koI

echv

hiKatoavvqvi7rt6efJi"vo"
7rpodv/JLOT"pov

hiKao-TTjv
fjbiv icovTMV

TpOTTOv;

rfjicovrov

iovar]^dvo/jiLr}"^
7roWrj"^dva

ixevroi

eK

iv

Kcofia^,

eiroleL,eirLaTafJievo^;
^7]Sc/":r]v

fievoiy

ava

iral"^ 3'
ArjtoKrjf;,

tjv

Kol

fjuaXkov TC
rdora

KOL

7]cr/c6i'

97

ttclvtcov

A7]L0/cri";
rvpavviBo^iiroiet rocdSe.
epaa6e\";

fjuevcov

Se avrovo/jicov

TvpavviBa irepirjXdov.
avrjp

e?

rco
iyevero ao(f)0";

ovTo";

[book

ola TrvvOavofievcov
rd"; SiKa^ diroiiTK^oireovro^,
iov} yvov"; 6 ArjiOKr}^
ro
^alveivKara
dvaKelfxevov
"9 ecovrbv rrav
evOa
iSiKa^e,
ovre
Kar[^"Lven
rjOeXe
irpoKarl^cov
irep irporepov
Slkclv
ol
\vaire\elv
ov
ovr
ere
rcov
i^7]/jLe\rjecovrov
jdp
e"p7j
hi r)/j.ep7]";
Kal
rolai
ireka^
Kora
SiKd^etv. "0V(77]"; o)V dpirayrjf;
itoWm
en
dvo/jilrjf;
fJuaWov dvd
ra";
rj irporepov
rjv,
/cw/xa?
ol
iSlSoaav
kol
roavro
M?}Sof.
e?
Xoyov,
a"pLo-L
(TVveKeyOridav
3'
BoKeco,
rcov
iyo)
\eyovre^ irepl
fidXcara eXeyov
co?
KarrjKovrcov.
ol rov
toS
Ar]coKecL)
(piXoi ov yap SrjrpoiTM
irapeovri
'^peco/jievot
rov

fyivofjuevov

"

from

and

least

as
early a period as the
Tiglath-PileserI. (e.g.1130),

at

of

reign

closes after the

death

of Assurbani-

pal (B.C. 640 ?), with two


partialeclipsein the eleventh
centuries
not

were

until the
and

Moreover,

b. c.

even

tory the
The

two.
were

never

all.

The

posed
^

We

Medes

conquered by the Assyrians


of Sargon (b.c.722-705),
then
it was
oiily the more
into whose

terri-

raid or
a
Assyrian king made
of Astyages or Istuvegu
Medes
subject to the Assyrians at
whole

in Avhich

to grow

find

of Herodotos

statement

is unhistorical, and
the way

the

715,

up.
the

merely
monarchy

sup-

of

Daiukku

as

chief in the year


"the
house
of

built.

Daiukku,

This

the
a

carried

is correct.

statement

made

his

Medes, he found

multitude

of

condition
political
to that
^

in

237.

a
was

divided

states,

citychief.
therefore

into
rather

or
"

Their
similar

of Greece.

"As

sions

"

When

campaign against
them

small

towns, each under

vassal

king Ullusun, was


Hamath
by Sargon.

Esarhaddon

of

Ekbatana

of the Minnian

captiveto

B.C.

Assyria,not

district in which

afterwards

was

as

name

the

far from

illustrates
was

Minnian

and

Bit-Daiukku,
Daiokes," lay to the east

time

tribes of them

western

periods of
and eighth

that of

were

ch.

people learnt that


fair;" to ibu, "the
30, v. 50, vi. 37,

his

deci-

truth,"
vii. 209,

oiKelv
elfJbev
^acTiXia'/cal ovro) rj
{ovhe vir
rpe'^oixeOa,

BvvaroL

Xeyovre^; irelOovaL
ovTLva

/jbevcov

X^PV

re

EAST.

61

avrcov
(^epecrrrjcrco/jLev rj/jiicov

'^copyv,

rrjv

THE

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

avrol

koi

^vvofMrja-erai,

tt^oo? ep^ya

iaofieOa. rdord /cy


Be irpojBaWo-98
jSaacXeveaOat. avTiKa
dvacrraToc

avofiL7]";

"covtov";

A7jcok7j";
rjv iroXKo'^

jBacrikea,o

(TrrjcrovTaL

vtto

koX alveo/jL"VO(;,
o
tovtov
"?
7rpo/3aX\.Ofi"vo(;
B e/ceXeue
olKia re
Karaiviovcrc /SaatXea cr^iaielvac.
o
avTov";
icovrS
koi
avrov
ol/coSo/Mrjcrac
d^ca Ti}9 ^aori\r]iri";
Kparvvat
rdora
ol
TTotiovac
re
yirjBoL'olKoBofxeoval
Brj
Bopv(p6poicn.
yap
Iva avTo^
fcal lo'x^pd,'^
avrS
re
OLKia
jjueydXa
e^pacreTr)"^ ^^PV^*
i/c Trdvrcov M.jjB(ov
iim pair overt,
avTM
Koi
KaraXe^Bopv"p6pov(;
6 Be o)? e"T^e rrjv dpj(rjVy
a(r6ai.
Mt^Sof? rjvdyKaae ev
rov^
dWcov
tmv
tovto
irepicrreXXovra'^
iroKidjia iroirjaaaOaLkoI
rdora
Be Koi
MtJ^o)!^
roiv
TTeiOoiJievcov
rjaaov iTrtjubiXecrOai.
rdora
rd
Kal
Ky^drava
vvv
Kaprepd
OLKoBo/ii"L
rel^^a/neydXa re

dvBpO'^koI

iravTOf;

KeKKr]raiy

erepov

rovro

rel^p^

ro

earl

koXq)vo";
av/jL/jLayel

earl

rel^p^ Kara

or Agbatana, called AgamBabylonian text of Kyros


and
Hagmatana in the Persian ciineithe
on
Hamadan,
form, is the modern
Elwend, the Orontes of
slope of Mount
classical geography (Aranzi in Sargon's
inscriptions).The descriptionof the
shows
that
palace given by Herodotos

it

in

the

built

was

imitation

in

temple erected
Borsippa, and
rud, the seven
coloured

called

now

like the

than

it evident
the

Deiokes.
form

date
But

of

great

stages

which

walls

of

the

eirrd,ev Br]rw

AOrjvecovkvkXov

8'

ro

avrcov

fjbdXiard
ktj

ro

7rpo/jLax"(ove"; elal

ol

the

assigned by
know

Herodotos

it must

or

of

tried

alone
later
to

the cuneihave

to

existed
ruins

the

Sir

show

that

at

of which

are

empire.

H.

Rawliiison

known

now

Geog.

as

Soc.

x.

inscriptionof
that

Kyros, however,
capital of Astyages
of Media
Major, now

the

Ekbatana

See
has

Atropatene, the

in

S\\leima,Ti {Jour, of

real

Ekbatana

second

Ganzaka

the

was

Median

V.

Appendix

who

Kyaxares

Takt-i-

1). The
indicates
was

the

Hama-

dan.

Median

citywas

from

Kastarit
founder

were

2-4). This

i.

that
inscriptions

at

Birs-i-Nim-

of

that

we

the

Nebuchadnezzar

by

palace (see Judith,


makes

rt

BevrepovfieXave^^,rpirov Be kvkXov
(potviKeoc,
Be
irdvrcov
Kvdveoi, ire/jLTrrov
aavBapdKLvoi. ovrco

Ekbatana

tanu

Be /cal fiaXXov

ro

OrjaavpoL

kvkXov

rrpo-

^wp/oi/

ro

Be

rov

rerdprov Be
^

rov

Brj irpcorov

fiev

ol

Kal

Kal

ri

avvairdvrcov

rcov

eveari

fjuev

kov

elvac,

rooovro

B\"Ovrcov

^aaCXr]ia

rov
fjueyaOo^.''

XevKol,

ware

kv/c\o"; rolai

erepov

v'^rfXorepo^.

rd

reXevraiM

rod

ro

ecov

kvkXcov
e7rerr]Bev9r]'

Be ovrco
fjLefirixdvrjrat

eveareoira.

6 erepo^;

Mare

fxayewcri, fiovvotat

/jueycarov

kvkXm

erepco

been

"Very

nearly equal

circuit

of

readers

of Herodotos

to

be

The
are

acquainted with

historian
Thuk.

Athens."

himself.

ii. 13 makes

thirteen

The

in

size to
hearers

here
Athens

the
and

supposed
like the

Scholiast

on

the circuit of Atliens

by sixtystades.

HERODOTOS.

62

kvkXohv

TMV

[book

elal (f)ap/jLdfcot(Ti'
Svo Se
rjvOiafJievoL
iTpoiJia'^eoi)ve";

01

elal

ol T6\evTaloi

Be

Karapyvpay/juevovf;

fiev

Kara/ce'^pvaco-

ecovrS
irpofjuayethva^;. fxev Brjo ATjtoKijf;
Be aXXov
ol/cia,rov
Brjfiov
re
irepi^
ireplra ecovrov
ereL^et koI
Be
irdvTcov
oiKelv.
CKeXeve
oiKoBo/jLijOevTcov
to
Koafiov
ret'^o^
TOvBe
earc
o
Ar)c6K7}(;
KaTa"JT7]crdfjLevo"^,
jjurjre icrcevac
tt^wto?
Be dyyeXcov Be iravra
'^pdaOat,opacrOal
irapd jBaaCkea fjLrjBeva,
rovrotcn
en
fJL7]Bevo^,
re
^aaiXea viro
yeXdv re /cal
irpo"; re

99 juLevov;
"'^cov tov";

dvTiov

raora

diTacTL eivai

Kol

TTTveLv

ecovrov

eaejuLVVve rcovBe

eovre^i

avvrpo^oi

elv^Kev, ok(d";
eKetvw

re

tovto

Kau

"ye

ala'^pov. rdora

av

fir) opeovTe";

100

erepolo^a"pcBoKeoi

cKpdrvve

Kol

Kal

ireaKOVy

et

fiev

rjcrav

eaco

Be aXka

ArjLOKTj^;
fjuev

101

rrdcrav

rb

vw

ifceKocrfjuearo
or

6kco"; fier air

v^pl^ovra,rovrov

dvd

BieKoajjiTjae
(j)v\dacrcov

BiKaiov

ro

eBiKaiov, Kal
d^LTjvifcdcrrov dBiK7]/iiaro"i
KarrjKooL

"9

rypd(f)ovre"; rrap eKelvov ecnrefjuBuaKplvcovra"; ecrcf)epo/jieva";


eKirefJiireaKe.

rd^ BiKa"; eiToleL rdBe

rrvvOdvouro

nva

BLKa"^

eKelvov

Kara

Be rdora

eireuTe

/jlt)opojai.

ol ojJbrjXiKe^;,

eirl^ovXevoiev, dXX'

koI

rfj rvpavviBc,tjv

ecovrov

/cal rd"i re

vaXeTTo?*

rdora

eivai

irepl

ovBe
(f^Xavporeprjf;

0LfCLr]"; ov

dvBpayaOtrjvXetirofievoi,Xvireolaro

Be

ol

ejji'y^
aero,

KardaKorroi

Kar

re

/cal

e6vo"; crvvecrrpe'^^e
M-yBt/cbv
fiovvov

/cal

rrjv '^coprjv rrj"^ VPX^'

-^p^e'ecrn Be yLrjBcovrocrdBe jevea, ^ovaao Tlaprjra/crjvo


"Apt^avrol^ovBcot M.d"yoi.^yevea fxev Br) M.'^Bcov
%rpov'^are";

rovrov

102

ArjtoKecoBe iral^ ^iverai ^paoprrj^;,


o?
reXevrT]Kal
erea,^
ArjLo/ceco,
jBaaiXevaavro^; rpia
rrevrrjKovra

roadBe.

earl
aavro^i

colours

The

of the

the

Babylonians,

was

week

sacred
of

seven

planetsof

whom

among

number,

days

seven

and

who

called after the

eastward

seven

planets.
^
Medes
The original
spoke agglutinaand
tive dialects,
belonged to a nonthe
non-Semitic
In
and
race.
Aryan
of migraninth
century B.C. the wave
tion which
brought the Aryan Persians
into
into Persia brought the Aryan Medes
Media, though the Median
empire of
still nonKyaxares and Astyages was
when
it
was
conquered by Kyros.
Aryan
See Appendix V.
The
of "Mede
name
first introduced
was
by the Assyrians,
who
applied it in a geographical,and
the
not
to denote
ethnographical,sense
"

of the

Zimri

in

Kurdi-

Oppert ingeniouslyexplains the

stan.

seven

had

tribes

"classes"

as

yevea

or

castes, the

Buzse

being the "aborigines" (Pers. bilzdf


Skt. hhujd); the Paretakeni
"the
no"

mads

(Pers. paraitakd)

khates

"the

dwellers

chatrauvatis, Skt.
zanti

"the

in

the

Stru-

tents"

(Pers.

chatravat); the
race"

Aryan

(Pers. ariya"

zantu, Skt. dryajantu); the Budii


cultivators
the

and

magus,
^

of the

when
three

the

(Pers.hUdiyd) ;

holy ones" (Pers.


maghd).
reign of fifty-three
years indicates
Magi

"the

Vedic

its unhistorical
that

soil"

Ari-

character.

If

we

assume

Kyaxares had reigned thirtyyears


he captured Nineveh, the fiftyyears

of

Deiokes

added

to

the

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

OF

EAST.

THE

63

8e
TrapaBe^dfjuevof;
TrapeSe^arorrjv ap'^ijv,
ov/c

iireOrjKaTOkoI

TovTOLcrc

re

Be e'^fov Svo
/juerd

koI

oXko

Be

dWccx;
dTrecrrecorcov,
are
crvfjifjbd'^cov
eir\

ol

irdvrcov,tote

rjp'^ov TTporepov

yaav

/ube/Liovvcofjuevoi jjuev
ecovroov

fievrot

ev

6 ^paoprrjf;ai)TO";
Srjcrrparevo'd/uLevo'^

TovTov;

dp^a";Bvo koX

eiKocn

Kal

erea,

eTTOLTjae.

d/mcjyorepa
Karearpila'^vpd,
Icov eOvo^, e'9 crrparevad^lvov
^Aaavpicovtovtov";
el'^ov

eOvea

rdora

fiovvodv

Hepcraf;TrpcoTocau

M.7]Sa)vviri^Koov^

7rp(OT0v"s

eir
^ero rrjv ^Aacrjvdir aXXov
iirl tov";
Kaavpiov";Kal
/jLevo^i

Kol

aire'^paro

eirl rov^;
aTparevad/jLevo^;

dWa

^r^hcovap'^eiv,

SteipOdprjy

ttoXXo?.

avrov

crrpaTo";

re

rjKovre'^y

o
i^eBi^arol^va^dp7]";
^paopreco103
^paopreo) Be TeXevrrjaavro^;
^eveaOai dXKifJboiiArjco/ceco
Xeyerac iroXkov en
Trat?.
ovto";

Tov

tS)v Trpoyovcov, Kal


^AaLT) Kal irpcoTO^

7rpcoT0";

Tepo^

reXea

eXo'^caeKara

re

tov^

ev

eKdarov^ elvai, rov^


re
Btera^e %ct"/3W
Be
Kal tov"^
ro^o^opov^ Kal rov"; tTTTrea?*
ai/yfjLO(jy6pov";
irpo tov
6 toIctl AvBolai
dvapX^ rjv Trdvra 6jbLoico";
ovro^;
dvairec^vpfxeva.
earl fjua'^eadfjievo^
ore
vv^ tj rjfjLeprjeyevero
cr"f)i,
fia'^o/jievoKTC,Kai
dvQ) ^AaiTjv irdaav
6 T7]v
ecovrS
AXvo^
TTora/jLov
"JvcrTr)(Ta^
eirl
Be tov"; vir
irdvTa^ eaTparevero
ecovro)
dp'^ofxevov'^
(TvX\e^a";

rfj

''

Tr)v

^Lvov, Tifjicopecovre

back

Dating

years.
the year of the fall of
reach

i.e. the very


chief Daiukku

from

handed

tion between
the

interval

the

down

district

"Median"

two

by

tradition.

the

Mannai

between

forces which

Hence

Kimmerians.
them

together.

that

Daiukku

chieftain

king.
with
7

name

Minni

or

Van

of

(in
and

fact that

the

Nineveh

tradition

associated

be

forgotten
only a subordinate
Ullusun, the Minnian
be compounded
may
not

name

"16^:^14,
"great."

is written

") in
(perhaps"all-directing

Pirru-vartis
the

"

Proto-

OeXcov

T^avrrjv

"

(reallySusianian) transcriptof
inscription. His reign of
and
historical,
twenty -two years seems
the

we

Behistun

can

well believe that

he

attacked

the

the

Assyrians during
decay
empire. But it is difficult to suppose
that the Median
founded
empire was
by
him rather than by Kyaxares or Kastarit,
since Phraortes, the rival of Darius,
assumed

the

restore

the Median

their

(Khsh-

in the Persian

and

he

attempted to
kingdom, and called

descendant

the

of

of Sattarritta

name

Khasatrita

Assyrian texts) when


himself

Hamadan

overthrew

medic

ttoXlv

rrfv

thrita and

connec-

was

the Susianian
The

The

Lakes

It must

under

His

the

chieftains

of Minnians, Medes, and

composed

were

Herodotos

of

between

Urumieh) and the Medes


be explained by the
may
combined

should

we

carried away
prisoner
would
therefore
seem

was

of the

names

as

as

by Sargon. It
that the fifty-three
years
represent

610

B.C.

Nineveh,

105

the first year of Deiokes,


the Minnian
year in which

715

B.C.

make

would

twenty-two of Phraortes

irarplKal

rS

of

Vakistarra

Uvakhsatara
(Persian,

; Ass. Uvakuistar),
erroneously identified
with the Greek Kyaxares. The
latter is
more
reallySattarritta,
correctlywritten
Kastarit in the Assyrian tablets which
relate to the last struggleof the Assyrian power,
^skhylos {Persoo,761-64)
makes
of the
Kyaxares the founder
empire.
^
The
this
Assyrian sculpturesmake

which

statement

has

been

more

than

doubtful.

HERODOTOS.

64

[book
^

K.ai ol, w?

(Tvix^aXoiViviKria-e
tov";
Kaavpiov^;,irepu^ye Be
T7]v ISIlvov iiTrjXde^KvOecov arparbf}fieya^y
KaT7jfi"P(p
^aac\"v"; 6 ^KvOewv MaSi;?;? TiporoOveo)7rat";' oc eaeavTovf;

i^ekelv.

jSaXov jxev

ovrco
"^ev"yovai

eTrcaTTo/jievoc

Be diro

ecTTC

aiTLKOVTo.

Kal

iTorafJiOv

in: tt)? EuyoajTri;?,


i/c^aXovT"";
A.air]v
l^LfM/jL6pLov";

Tr]v

Be

TOVTOcat

104

e?

rrjf;
KoX^tSo?

iroWov

ov

M.7jSLKr)v
'^coprjv

ttjv

\tjiiv7]"^
T7]"i MatT^rtSo?

Trj"^

KoXn^of?

e?

e?

^dcrcv

evrt

e/c
ev^oovo)6Bo";,
rj/jiepecov
dXX!
e?
virep^rjvai
rrjv yi-T^BiKrjv, ev

Be

TptrjKOvra

to

Bed [xeaov
Be Trapa/jiei/So/jL
eOvo^; avrcov
rovro
^dairetpe^,^
early
SkvOul
elvac ev
oi
votai
rfj ^rjBtKfj. ov
fxevTOL
ye
ravry
dWd
oBov
ttoWS
ecrejSaXov,
KaTvirepOe
rrjv
fjLa/cporeprjv eKrpaJLavKaartov
evOavTa
ol fxev
to
ev
Be^ifj
opo^.^
TTO/juevoi,
"^ovTe"i

105

^TjBoL avjji^aKovTe^rolat Z^Kvdyao Kal eaa(odevTe"; tj}fid^rj


T979
^
ol
Be
^KvOac
irdaav
^Acrlrjv
KaTeXvOrjcrav,
dp'^Tj^;
ttjv
eirea-yov,
Kal
evOevTev Be riicrav eir
eireiTe
ev
AcyuTTTov
ttj
eyevovTo
^

Strabo

Kimmerian
of

out

(i, p. 91) makes

Madyes

prince,who

the Treres

called Gimirrai

the

Esarhaddon

of

westward

Asia

into

xi. 14-19

become

sailors of Ionia.

battle

captured in
banipal at

Nineveh

afterwards

killed

See ch. 15.

in

or

drove
from
The
shan

some

Od.

Euxine,

Greek

chants
mer-

Soon

wards
after-

them
their

in

memorial

of them

from

must

The

to

have

two

had

He

was

with

Skyths,
homes,
been

into

to

be

"Western

between

110, iii. 94,


have

the

Tiflis.

to
Saspeiresseem
neighbourhood of
attempt to identifythe

of the

Iberi is not

name

successful.

1.

the shores

(/Z. ii. 461)

is the

plain of

conquests of Krcesos
the
and

(seech.

The

Homer

"

who

Aryans.

large number

East.

In

mead

seem,

of the Caspian.
along
route
would
have
been
longer
through the PylseCaucasese.
Herodotos,
to be thinking of the
however, seems
followed by Greek
route
merchants, who
first sailed by sea to Phasis and Dioskuroad
rias,where they joined the caravan

settled

or

The

to the

have

Maeotis

(or Rion) is

intervened

Media

i.e.

Medes
on

Phasis

races

See iii. 94, note


3

of the

the

mistake.

and

that

the

Palestine, is supposed
inroad

Ritter's

them.

Skythopolis,given to Beth-

of their

37).

Avith

final attack

their old

names,

of

assisted

then

to Assur-

665.

battle

their

in

to

miah.
propheciesof Jere-

mouth
to

and

inhabited

he

is

tribes

iv.

have

present

B.C.

in

Media.

near

name

they

As

Minnians

Nineveh,

as

made

270 miles.

This

them

must

whom

chieftains

the

ever,
how-

they destroyed Sinope, and


into Lydia.
Gyges sent

Kimmerian

and

the

to

be

to

seems

earlier

of Azof

Kolkhis

When

the shores of the

known

and

marched

Minor,

From

'

of

under

turned

composed, they

was

alreadyreached
and

and

them,

in the

about

northern

Assyrian monarchy
Teuspa. Esarhaddon,

chief

(b.c. 675),
the

threatened

defeated

them

Sea

texts

frontier of the
their

Reference

Asia.

Kimmerians,

Greeks), and first appear

of the

they

Assyrian inscriptions,

of the Persian

Saka

time

when

in the

the

(theSakae
in

The

Minor.

Asia

are

drove

by

the

to

mean

come

time

Asia

being

country

can

of

alone

the

Herodotos

Minor,

west

have

to

seem

all Western

the

Asia

of

The
tended
ex-

name,
it had

Asia, Lower
Upper Asia
Tigris. Here

and

the

Asian

Kayster.

of
signification

Asia

Upper

the

"the

be meant.

HERODOTOS.

66

ttXtjv

eiroLTjcravTO

[book

^a/3v\cov[r)(;
fjLOtpr]^;.

tyj'^

rdora

he

jxera

rolcn %Ki"dat
erea
lLva^dp7)";
reacrepd/covTa
fxev, jBaatXevcra^
Trat?
r^p^av,reXevTa, iKhe/cerat he Acrrvdyr]'^
li^va^dpeco
rrjv
Kal ol iyeveroOvydrr^prfjovvo/jua eOero M.avSdv7]v,
j^aaikrjirjv?
virvw
Acrrvdyiji;
ifK/qaai
ovprjaac toctovto
rrjv i8oK"t
he
koX
iiriKaraKkvaai,
ttoKlv,
fiev Tr}v ecovTov
ttjv ^AalijvTraaav.
Be
rolcri
M-dycov
v7rep6e/jLevo(;
ovetpoTroXoLcrc ivinrviov,
avra
fxaOcov. /juera he ttjv Maz^e^o^r}6ri
Trap'avroiv
hdv7)vTavTTjv eovaav
ijhrj
dvhpo";
wpalrfvyirjhwv fjbev tcop ecovrov
avv

107

tm

ev

coare

tmv

to

e/caorra

a^tcov

oeooLK(D"^

yvvaiKa,

o'yjrtv o

ttjv

oe

lleparj ccoot

rov
liLa/uL^vcr7)";,
dyadrj^;
olkltj'^ fjuev eovra
evpicrKe
he
ttoXXgS
evepOe dycov avrov
dvhpo";
ixecrov
rpoTTOv
tjctv^lov,
*
roS
Mt^^ou. crvvoifceovar]^
hrj
ILajLi^vcrT)
r-^? yLavhdvr]";,6
elhe dXkriv 6'^lv,
iho/cet he ol eK tmv
rco
AcrTvdyr}"^
Trpcora) ereu
alhoLcov Trj"; 6vyaTpo";
d/uLTreXov,
(j^vvat
ravrrj^
rrjv he afxireXov
Ihcbv hrj tovto
Kal v7rep6e/jLevo
iirtcT'^etv
rrjv 'AaiTjviracrav,
Tolcrc oveipoiroXoiat,
eK
rcov
TLepa-ecov
ixereirefJb'y^aTo
rrjv Ovyarepa
he e^vXacrae ^ovXo/jievo^to
eirlreKa eovaav,
dTriKojuevTjv
yevool
ol
eK
rcov
M.dycov
ttj^ o'^lo";
IJuevov i^ avTrj"^ hca"p6e2pai'
yap

tS

108

olool

ovoevi

ovvofxa

r}v

that

of

has

Nineveh,

the

Hesiod," while

as

if

linson

poet

various

referred to.

were

suggests that the

"

capture

reading

looks
ireiroi-qKe

the word

Prof. Eaw-

curious notices

(ed. Dind. p. 26)


of
Scythic character
concerning
laws
and
of
the
the
dress, language,
are
Parthians, which
expresslyascribed
from this
by him to Herodotos," come
in

John

of

Malala

the

lost work,

well

as

the

as

narrative

Kephalion
the Synkellos, followed

Hellanikos,

to

Herodotos

Ktesias, and

history.

Malalas

seem

to have

lived

after

the

completion

have

had

time

to

However,
of

Ktesias
in

In

we

may

the
have

long enough
history to
his

have

to

confute

history
worth

from

of

We

Herodotos

very much,
his notices of

present

learn from

the

"

fall B.C.
684.
years his accession would
well
be
This date, however, cannot
conciled
rethe fact that

with

Kyaxares was
Lydians in the battle
that event happened in
the most
probable date

the opponent of the


of the

Halys, if

584,

B.C.

with

or

of the fall of Nineveh.


^

Nikolaos

makes
Argoste,
Kyros, have the dream.
denied
Ktesias
See Appendix Y.
and
o
f
Astyages,
relationship Kyros
scription
out
to be borne
seems
by the inhas
of Kyros. Astyages
thing
nothe Zend
to do with
Aj-Dahaka

the mother
^

the
and

"

Herodotos.

the

"

history
posed
com-

in

newly-discovered
inscriptionof Kyros that the overthrow
of Astyages, Istuvegu in the Assyrian
If,
text, took place in B.C. 549.
therefore, Astyages reigned thirty-five

tion.
inten-

been

Babylonia

book.

Herodotos

carry
the Assyrian

been

judge

Assyrian
and
kellos
Syn-

of his
out

appears
order
to

case

any
would
not
if

his

in

late writers, and

are

does not

John

But

of

according

(B.C. 120), who,

and

eagle, Assyria

an

of the

his account

in

drinking
"

introduced

Herodotos

or

bitingsnake"

the Zohak
be
name

of Damascus

of

supposed.
shows

of

darkness

of the Shahnameh,
The

and
as

Ass)Tian form

it to be of Protomedic

non-Aryan origin.

evil,

used

to

of the
and

EAST.

THE

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

67

on
iar)ixaivov
fxeXXoi ol r^? Ovyarpo^;avrov
ovecpoTToXoi
70Z/09
rdora
avrl
eKelvov.
0
Srj mv
jSacrcXevcreLV
(f)vXaaao/ji"Vo"^
^

Kpnrayov
iyivero 6 KO/^o?,Ka\eaa";
avBpa
Kol TTLCTTOTaTOV
TO)V
iraVTWV
Kai
oIkTJCOV
IS/lrjBcOV
T6
eTTLTpOTTOV
tol
av
to
TrpoaOeo),
Kpiraye,TrpTJy/jia
ecouTov,
eXeye ol rocdSe.
aXKov"^
kol
/jL7]SafjLa)";
eXofJuevo^
/jirjSe
ifiere irapa^aXrj
Trapa^^pijar),
(Tol
avrS
ere/ce
yiavhdvT)
Xd^e rov
irepnrearj^;,^
i^ uaT"pr]"i
diroKreivov
Se e? aecovrov
iralSa,(j)6p(ov
jierdhe Odyjrov
rpoiro)
Se
6
aXXore
IBovXeatr
apbei^erai ") jSaatXev,ovre
orecp avTo";
'AcTTf a"y7;9,

w?

''

^'

'*

Be e?
ovhev, (pvXaacrojjLeOa
Tra^etSe?
dvBplrcSSe d'^apc

Kco

Tov

e?

/jbereTreLTa '^povov

TovTo

ylvecrOat,
'^prj 8rjto

ovTco

el

fjbrjhev
e^ajxaprelv. dXX

kol

cre

(ptXov
eTTLTTjBecof;,^
ifiovvTrrfpeTelcrOai

ye

tol

iraihiov 109
to
TrapeSoOrj
KXalcov e? tol oLKca.
irapeXOcov
KefcocTfjirjfMevov ttjv iirl OavdTw, i]ce
Be e(f)pa^e
irdvTa ^AaTvdyeof;
ttj ecovTov
pr)6evTa
yvvauKl tov

6 '^Apirayo^,
W9
dfiecyfrd/jievo^;

TovToiat

Xoyov.

7]
'

Be

7rpo";

mv

vvv

crol

tI

"

Xeyec

avTov

ol

ev

eVrl

vow

ovB^ el
^Ao-Tvdy7]";,
d/xei^eTac ov ttj eveTeXXeTO
ol
koI
Te
ov
/jialveTao,
fMavelTat Kdfctov r) vvv
'TTapa"^povrj(Tei
ttj yv(""fjbr) ovBe e? (^ovovtolovtov
TrpoaOrjaofjiaL
virrjpeeycoye
Be
koI
TToXXwv
avTut
ov
otl
etvefca
(j^ovevaco
fiot
Tr)(rco.
/ullv,
TTotecv

6 Be

avyyevrj";

ecTTi

d7rac";epaevo^
T'Y]V

OvyaTepa
Bl*

KTelvet

"

iral"^,koI
^

yovov
TavTrjv

dXXo
ifieo,

otl

K(7Tvdyr]"^
fxev

e^ 8'

eOeXiqaettovtov
dva/Srjvatrj Tvpavvi^,

eaTi

koX

yepcov

TeXevT7]GavT0^
Trj"^

tov

vvv

"9
viov

ifiolkcvBvvcov
0
tov
etveKa
efiolBel tovtov
dcrcf^aXeo^;
iJbeyicrTO"^; dXXd
[lev
TeXevTav
iralBa,Bel puevToc tcov Ttva
tov
KaTvdyeo^ avTov
"f"ovea
elire
koI
yeveaOau
dyyeXov 110
avTiica
ificov" TaoTa
kol
/ubr) tmv
rjirlaTaTOvofjua'^
^ovkoXcov tcov ^AcTvdyeo^;tov
"7re/ii7re evrt tcov
to

rj XeiTreTai

ivOevTev

to

T"

e7rtT7]BeoTdTa";
vefiovTa

rjv

^LTpaBdT7]"^.crvvoLKec

yvvaiKi

Be

"

TTjv

Tjv

TjjavvoiKei

He

seems

to bear

Be

Kfz^o)

M.7]Btf"r)v
z^iraKco.

Harpagos

koI

KaTa

non-Aryan

probably the leader of


the conspiracy,which, as we
learn from
the inscriptionof Kyros, caused
the
latter to gain so
a
over
victory
easy
Astyages.
^
By preferring others you bring
destruction on yourselfhereafter."
7
Assist his purpose."
name.

' '

was

tm

ovvofia

Be

(tvvBovXt},
ovvofjua

ewvTov

ttjv yap

OrjptcoBeaTaTa,

opea

ttjv
Kvva

ttj

'^XXrjvwv yXoiaaav, KaTa


aTrdica ^ yir^Boi.
KaXeovao

Xenophon's
givesAstyages a

[Kyrop. i. 4)

romance

son,

Phra-

Kyaxares.

ortes, however, the rival of Darius, does


not

of

call

Astyages,"

scendant
^

bnt

Kyaxares,
"Kyaxares,

of Vakistarra.

Mitradates

to the sun."
^

"

himself

Spaka

is

cannot

son

the

de-

"

Zend

See ch.

the

113,

word,
note

' '

given

3.

be identified with

the

HERODOTOS.

68

al

Se

elcrc
vircdpeal

rcov

[book

evOa

opewv,

Ta";

re
Srj0 /3of/coXo9,
ave/juov
tt/qo? ffopeco
TTOVTOV
Tov
Tou
^v^elvov TavTT) fjLEV

ovTO(;

'wpo^
7r/30?

^aaiTeipwvopecvrjiarL Kcipra koi

^omv

rcov

vofjia^

"tye

^Ay/SardvcovkoI

tmv

'yap

yirj^LKT]
Ycopr]

7]

yy^rfkr)re

iSycrc

/cat

Be aWr)
eVel
a7reSo9.
M.7jBlk7]
(TVV7]p6"pr)"^,
x^PV ^'ctt^ iraaa
7]
0
Mv
^ovKoXo"; cnrovhfjnroWfj KaXeo/nevo^; aiTLKero,
eXeye 6
KeXevei,
iraihiov
to
ae
AcrrvajT]';
tovto
Apirayo^; rdSe.
rcov
av
Xa^ovra Oelvau 69 to ipTj/jborarov
rd'^caTa
opecov, oko)^
'

"

koL
8La(f)0apei7].

dWd

avTO

T6(x)

rdhe

/3of/coXo9Kal

aKovcraf;

oSbv

OTTLO-o)

avTcp

Kal

ere

KaKiarcp

eKKelfJievov
rerayfjiat

e^w."

TraiSiov

rjte ttjv

avTrjv

dvakaf^cbv
69

eTTLTe^iovcra

Sal/uLovaTLKTei

ro)

rdora

diTLKveiTat

yvv7],

7)

d7roKT6Lvr)"i

fjurj

irepiiroi'qcrr]^, 6\e6po)

rpoTTO)

iiropavSe
hia'^prjcreG-Oai.

111

elirelv,rjv

eKekevcre

roc

to

eiravXiv.

T7]v
iraaav

S'

tm

Tj/juepTjv,tot6

Kal

dpa

Kara

K(o"i

rjcravSe

ev
ol'^ojxevov /SovkoXov 69
dXX7]Xa)virepi, [lev tov
t?}9 yvvaiKo^;
(^povrihi
d/LKpoTepoL
8e
6
6co6co";
to
Kpirayo^ /jbeTaTre/jiyfracT
dppcoBecov,
yvv7]
7]
he
dirovocrT7]aa";
dvhpa. eireuTe
i^
avTr)"^
eTreaTT),
deXTTTov ISovcra tj yvvr) etpeTOirporeprj 6
7rpoOv/jL(o";
fiiv ovtco

iroXtv.

tov

tokov

"

ovk

TOV

oca

to

'

8e
o
Ap7rayo";[jbeTeireix-^^aTo.
eXOcov

Kal r^Kovaa

Secr'7T0Ta";tol'9

elire

[jLTjTe Ihelv

to

yvvat,

ocpeXov fiTjTe

oIko^

7)/i6T"pov";.

ird^i

[xev

")9
iy(Dhe eK7rXayel"^
ijca
KaTei'yeTO,
Traihiov TrpoKeljjLevov
dcnralpov re
opeco
ecrco.

KeKO(T/jL7}/jievov '^pvaM

elhe fjue, eKeXeve


ttjv
Oelvat
Kal
(pepovTa

A(TTvdyea
yuT]

(j^ea

Zend

etvac

evOa

guttural,and is rather
garded as a non-Aryan word.
same

from

story came
account

which

of

the

the

kpirdyov KXavOfiM

he

rd'^taTaiarfkOov,

Kal

Kpavyavco/juevov,
^'

k6o}u,Lat.
of

that

to

be
At

the

re-

by

on

in

Astyages is represented as of the


Mitradates.
The
name
myth may have
attached
itself to Kyros in consequence
of the meaning of his name
("shepherd
of
the
in
Elamite).
country"
See Appendix V.
The
legend is told

heroes

Romuhis

As

whole

light

of other

the

the

Persians, as well

unfavourable

tmv

opecov,

^0,9

el
eTTiOefJievov
fjuoi, ttoXX^ d'TreLXrjcra"i
hoKecov
Toyv
iyo) dvaXa^cov e(f"epov,

Kal

account

final

it is clear

ttoXlv

69

yeveaOaL e'9

kot6

OrfpLwheaTaTovecTj

rdoTa

(^pd,Skt. ^wa{n), Greek

time

re

eadrjTVttolkIXtj. Kpirayo^ he 0)9


iraihlov olyeaQai
Ta'^iaTTjv dvaXa/3ovTa to

tov

on

Kal

Te

TroLrjaaifjuL.

canis, Eng. hound,

elSov

**

Assena, the

both

as

the

B.C.,

the

fed

by

of

An

in

the

T'su, was
the

Turks,

as

suckled

by
powerfulking

wilderness.

the

Kw'en-mo

was

also

ravens.

illustration of the

stition of Herodotos.
9.

west.

suckled

second
century
after having been deserted
Avolf,

Wu-sun

by

in

and

were

of

ancestor

Tsze-wan

tiger,and Kw'en-mo,

of

east

Remus

wolf, so, accordingto the Chinese,

well

in

and

pietyor

super-

See cli. 62, note

THE

I.]

OF

EMPIEES

dv

THE

EAST.

69

KareSo^a evOev ye r}v.


Be opecov -^pvo-M re koL elfjuacn
Be
7rpb";
iOd/jL/Seov
KeKoo-firnjuevov,
Kol KXavd/jiov
ev
KarecTTeMTa
Kpirdyov. koI Trpo/care
e/xcjyavea
irdvra \oyov 6epa7rovTO"^,
oBbv irvvOdvofjbai
b? ifie
rov
Bt)Kar
dpa M.avBdvr)";
co?
e^coTroXto? eve')(eiptcreto ^pecj)o";,
TrpoTre/Jb'Trcov
rov
re
K.afi/3v(Teco
tt}? Karvdyeo^ Ovyarpo^kol
l^vpov,
Trat?
e'iTj
oBe
earl,
diroKrelvaL.
Kal fjiiv Aarvdyr}'^ivreWerai
vvv
re
koI eKKoXv^a^; direBeiKwe.
djiiaBe rdora eXeye o /SovfcoXo^;
97 112
ol/cerecov elvac

Tivo"^

ov

yap

Kore

Be

elBe

ft)?

iracBlov fjueya

to

re

Kal

BaKpvaaaa Kal
fjirjBe/jLtfj
dvBpo";i'^ptji^e
Te^vrj
evecBe"; eov,

yovvdrcov rov
iroielv
Be ovk
elvac dXX(o"^ avra
eKOelval fjuv.
olo(; t
0
"(f)7]
diroKaTacTKoirov^
e'f Kpirdyov eiro'^oybevov'^,
eiri(^oLTrjaeiv
yap
eireiOe
XelaOai
KdKCcrra
re
rjv jjurj crcpeaTTOirjo-r). ft)? Be ovk
tmv
Xa/So/Jbevrj

dpa

dvBpa,Bevrepa Xeyec

Tov

rdBe.

rj yvvr)

eTrel

"

ov

roivvv

Bvvapbaiae ireiOetv fir] eKOelvai, crv Be a)Be ttoltjctov, el Br} iracra


Kal eyco, reroKa
Be
reroKa
dvdyKif)o^Qr]vaieKKeLfievov.
yap
Be Trj"; A(TTvdyeo";
reOveo^;.
rovro
irpoOe^,rov
(f)epcov
jmev
Kal ovtco
ovre
6vyaTpo";nralBa ""? e^ rjixecov eovra
Tpecf^co/xev.
dXaxreac

(TV

fieva

dBcKecov
6

earai'

re

BeairoTa^i

Kal o
^acriXrjLTjf;
Kvprjcrec
racj)?]^
'y^v^rivTKdpra re eBo^e rS /SovkoXm

rrjv

rd
7r/909

ev
Xeyetv rj yvvrj,
irapeovra
davarcocrcov
iralBa, rovrov
fiev e(j)epe

rov

yvvaiKiy

rov

Be

ecovrov

eovra

Tft)

kol

fiev

epTjfiorarov

ro)V

eyevero,

e?

Be 6
Tre/jLyjra^;

veKvv.

euBe

mcrrorarov'^

irauBiov.

Kal

ro

re

fiev

"

Apirayo^ rcov

Bid

rovrcov

ereOarrro,rov

rov
eOayjre

Be

vcrrepov

ovofxaaOevrairapaXajSovcra
erpecf^e
rj yvvrj
dXXo

Kov

Kal

ov

^vpov

Kal
Oe/juevr).^

(xv.p. 1034) makes Agradates


of Kyros, but this was
originalname
Persian
his
title, "countryprobably
given," a translation of the Elamite
Kuras
("country- shepherd "). See Apfor
There
is no
reason
pendix V.
identifyingAgradates with Atradates,
Strabo

rov
ore

erepov

Be

rplrr]

^ovkoXo";,
Be

eXOcov

iraiBlov

e?
rov

Bopv^opcovtou9

ecovrov

Kal

rov
ot)";

rrroXtv

riva

rov

'

riOel.

dyyo";ev

ro

iravrl

KaraXiircov,
rrpofBocTKcov
(j)vXaKovavrov
Apwayov diroBeiKvvvai ecfyij
erotfMo"; elvat rov

rcov

the

irapaBiBol
rfjecovrov

opecov
r)Le

113

rdora.

eTroiec

Xa^cov eOrjKe"9

veKpov

iraiBicp
eKKeifJievcp

rjfjLeprjtgS

avrUa

KoorpLrjcra^^ Be toS koo-jjlm

ecpeperov
erepov
rraiBo'^,
^epcov e? ro

jBe^ovXev-

rj/xtv KaKco^

ovre

TeSvew^

yap

drroXel

TrepicbvOVK

tov";

^ovkoXov

ro

JLvpov

rovrcov

^ovkoXov, ovvofia
rjv BeKaery'^6 rrai";,

and
"tire-given,"a Mardian
robber,
Nik.
Damask,
the
to
was
who, according
after being emfather of Kyros, and
ployed in a menial capacityin the court
of Astyages, rose
to be cupbearer and
satrap of Persia. It is noticeable that
he is made
a Mardian
or Amardian, i.e.
,

114

HERODOTOS.

70

rotovSe yevo/nevov i^e(j)r)V"


fiiv.
Trjrjaav koI al ^ovKoklatavrau,

avrov
e?
Trprjfyfia
ev

/cco/jlt]
ravrr)

6SS.
ev
rjXliccov

aXkayv

^acrCkeaelvao tovtov
Be

elvai,Tov

Be

fxev

ev
eirai^e
rrj
Be fier
eirat^e
ol 7ratSe"^
eiXovro
Tral^ovre^;
ecovrcov
rod jBovKoXoveTriKXrjcnvnralBa. 6

Be
olKla";ol/coBojubelv,
Tov"i

Bopv(f)6pov(;

elvai,too
/SaaiXeo^;
o(f)6a\/jLov

avTMv

nva

kov

/cat

Br]rov

Btera^etov";

avTcov

[book

Be

tlvl

eBlBov yepa^;, o)"; eKaarw


Ta"; d'yyeXta";
(f)epetv
epyov TrpoaTdcrcrwv.
iraiBlcovcrvfi'TTai^cov,
ecov
el? BrjTovTcov
rcov
7rat9
^Aprefju^dpeof;
ov
M.7]BoLcri,
yap Br}eTroirjae

BoKLfMOV
dvBpo";

TrpocTTayOev
eKeXeve
TralBa^^BcaXajSelv,
avTov
aXkov^
tov"s
l^vpov,
iralBcov o l\.vpo";
Be tcov
iralBa Tprj'^eco'^
tov
ireiOoixevcov
KdpTa
Be
o
eireiTe
fieTeiOr]
w?
/JuacrT
t
yecov.
Td'^tcrTa,
TreptecTTre
ye Br)
KaTeXOoov Be 69
iraOcov,jjuaXXovtl 'jrepLrj/jLeKTec,
dvd^ca ecovTov
ev

eK

to

TOV

TToXiv

vtto
tmv
aTroL/CTi^eTo
l^vpovrjVTrjcre,
dXXd Trpo? tov
Tovvofia)
l^vpov(ovydp kco r)v tovto

7rpo";

XeycovBe

ov

tov

iraTepa

iraiBo'^. o Be ^ApTe/jbl3dp7]"^
'Ao-Tvdyeo^
opyfjco?
iX6cbv
koI
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tov
AaTvdyea
dfjua
tov
dyofxevo^;
el^e
irapa
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vtto
tov
Xeycov O) ^acriXev,
dvdpatairpyy/joaTaecj^r]

^ovKoXov

TOV

"

wBe
BovXov,jBovKoXovBe iraiBo"^

BeiKvv"stov
irepiv^piajjieOa,^^
6eXcov
7ratBo";tov"^
cofjuov^;. dKovaa"^ Be Kal IBcbv ^AorTvdyr}"^,
Trj";
^ApTe/jL/Sdpeo^;
eiveKa,
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/jLeTeTrefiireTo
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TOV
IBovKoXovKal TOV iralBa. eVe/re Be iraprjaav djxc^oTepoL,
TovBe
Brj
""pr}
^Xey^a^ tt/qo? tov JLvpov A(TTvdyrj"^
(TOV

115

Te

"

TOLOvTov

crv

ecov

TovBe TralBa eovTO'^ irpcoTov


TTal'^eToXfjbr]aa"^
tov
eovTO'^
wBe.
;" o Be dfiet/SeTo
deiKelrj
w
TotfjBe
e\xo\
irepicrirelv
"

Trap

ol ydp fie eK
BeairoTa,iyoDTdoTa tovtov
Bi/crj.
eiroiTjcra avv
Kal oBe rjv,7rai^ovTe";
tmv
avTMV
"T(j)ecov
Tr]"; K(Ofir}"; 7raiBe"^,
eaTTjaavTo
T09.
ovTO";

^acnXea' eBoKeov ydp a^i

BrjTovBe

a)v

TdoTa
116 'Kdpeifxir
iBoKet
"f)epeaOat

eiveKa

"9

oc

ecovTov

Te

Teo
d^io"^

tovto

KaKov

7racBo";tov

XeyovTo^i tov
Kal

avTov,
dvdyvco(Ti(;

Te

e?

dXXoL 7ratBe";tcl
ol fxev vvv
eiriTacraofjieva
Kal Xoyov "i^e ovBeva, e9 o
Be dvrjKovcTTei
Te

BIktjv.el

eivai

'^apaKTrjp

tov

Kal rj viroKpicn";

tov
TrjrfXiKLrj
'^povo"; TTj^ieK6ecno";

iTrcTrjBeoTaeTreTeXeov,

eXa/3ettjv

oBe tol
elfit,
AcrTvdyeaearjie ll

irpocrcoTTOv irpocr-

elvat,
iXevOepcoTepr}

eBoKei
iracBof;

avfji^alvetv.

iirl '^povov d(f)6oyyo";


rjv. /Jboyi^;Be Brj
Xva
tov
elire,OeXcov eKTre/jL^jraL
'ApTe/ju/Sdpea,
dvevet'^Oel';

Be tovtoktl
eKirXayel'^
KOTe

native of the district of which

calls himself
His

and

wife is called

his ancestors

Argoste.

Kyros
kings.

Atradates

be

the

same
as
the
Mitradates,
assignedby Herodotos to the
of Kyros(ch.110).
pseudo-father

must
name

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

EAST.

71

Xa^oDV paaavlar), ^ApT6/ji^ap6";,


iyoDrdora

fjbovvov

coare

iroLTjcra)

THE

"

^ovKoXov

Tov

OF

koL

ae

iralSa

tov

tov

firfhev
i7n/ji6/jL(f)ea6ao.

crov

Be l^vpov rjjov ecrco ol


Srj ^ApTe/ji/Sapea
Tre/iTrec, tov
Ke\evaavTO"i
AcrTvdyeo'^.iirel Be vireKeXeLirTo
tov
depdirovTe^^
TaBe avTov
6 fiovKo\o";,
elpeTOo "AaTvdyrji^y
fjLovvo"; fiovvcoOevTa
TOV

fjbev

KoOev

/cal

iralBa

Xd/Soc TOV

tl";

7rapaBov"^.
o

etrj

Be

ef

eoovTov

elvau irap icovTw.


avTov
eTt
"^7]yefyovevai kol ttjv TeKovaav
Be fJULV ovk.
(BovXeveaOaL ecprjeTnOvjJbeovTa
A(TTvdy7j(;
ev
e?
diriKveladai, dfjuare Xeycov TdoTa
icrrj/uiacve
dvdyKa^ /jieydXa"^
Be dyo/jievo^
ToldL
o
Xafi^dvetvavTOV.
e?
ra?
Bopv(j)opotao
Be
dif
iovTa
Bt) "cf)atve
tov
dvdjKa^; ovtco
Xoyov
a/5^o/-tei^09
koI KaTe/Satve69 XtTa"; re
Bte^Tjie
tj} dXrjOelrj
dp'yfji;
'^pe(o/jievo";,
re
^

Kal crvyyvco/jbrjv

KeXevcov

ecovTM

ej^eiv

avTov.

117
AdTvdyT]^ Be TOV
eK"^rjvavTO^
piev jSovKoXov Tr)v dXrjOeirjv
'Apirdyw Be koI p.eydXco"i
Xoyov tjBt]Kal iXdcraco eiroielTo,^

Be ol
Bopv^opov";eKeXeve.
o)?
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Tea)
Brj
tov
tol
TrapeBcoKa dvyaTpo^;
KaTe^prjcrao

KoXelv
avTov
tov";
yLte/x(^o/x6z^09
o
Apirayo^^etpeTO jxiv
Traprjv
'

iralBa

TOV

piopcp

ov

Ap7rayo";a)9

co

TO

Xeycov

tovto

Kal
6/309

puiv "9 eprjpov

ere

elvac

Kal eyco Trpo^;


crol
pL7]Te avTco

voov,

KaXe(Ta";

re

^ovkoXov

tov

crv

TdBe

KaTa

irapapbevovTa

TovBe

diroKTelvai

KeXevovTa

tov

e^^revBopbrjv yap

ovk

TwSe

TwBe

aTTeoXrjo'a^ iravTola
Be

ye

TrapaBiBcopiL
puevToi

OVTCO.

Troojao)
KaTcu

re

Brj a)Be.

^a?
TTapaBiBcopitTracBlov,
Kal

tov

dvapLdpT7]T0";
pbr^Te OvyaTpl ttj afj

av6evT7]"^. ttolco

avTO.

elBe

to
iraiBloVy
^acrcXev,eVetTe TrapeXa/Sov

"

6kco";crot

aKoirewv

ycvopuevos:

ecrjv

TpaireTac
Xeyec TdBe.

e^ovXevov
ere

'

Be

/SovkoXov evBov
eirl '^^evBea.oBoVy
Xva purj eXey^opuevo^
aXlcTKri-

dXXd

Tao,

*'

eK

Trj"iep^rf^ ;"

yeyovoTa

iovTa,

iveTeXXeo

Oelvai
evTeLXdpbevo";,

ov
TeXevTrjarj,
(pvXdcrcrecv
ci'^pc

rjv purj TdBe

einTeXea

TTOirjarj.

eTreiTe

tmv
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evvov^^^cov Tot'9

iraiBiov,
KeXevopueva eTeXevTTjae to
inaTOTdTov^ Kal elBov BC eKelvcov Kal

eOayjra
pucv.

jBacruXevirepl
tov

KaL

tovtov

TTOLTjaavTOf;

TOLOVTcp

yeyovo"^y

eV^e

ovtco

irpMTa

e'^pTjCTaTo 6 iral^ir

popcp

Xoyov
ecjiacve

tcl

Be KpvTTTcov
A(TTvdy7]";
puev, KaTd
irep rjKovae

irprjypLaTO^; tovtov^

'

Brjtov Wvv
ApiTayo"^
pev
ol ivet^ej(oXovBoa to
tov
avTO^

7rpo";

tov

^ovkoXov

nrpriypia, irdXiv

ol eVaXtXtm
aTrrjyelTo
^Apirdycp,
pueTa Be, W9
XoyrjTO, KaTe/SacveXeycov ft)9 irepiecTTL re o iral^i Kal to yeyovo";
TO

ep^et KaXoi^'

"

tcS

re

"

yap

Took

ireiroirjpievcp^^
Xeycov
"(f)7]
little further

account

of him."

"

69

tov

iralBa

118

HEEODOTOS.

72

TOVTOv

Tov

jiev

iralha

crecovTov

rrj^;tu^t;?

o)V

o)";

"v

airoTrejJb's^rov
irapa

Be

fiere(TTe(t)arj";,

iralBa

tov

tovto

vetjXvSa,

rov

Oecjv tc/jlt]
TratSo? /-teXXo)6v6cv tolcti
{"T(0(TTpa
yap
irdpiG-dl
Kpirayo'^
jjuol iirl helirvovT
avTTj irpoaKelTat)
fiev ")"?
/cal
T"
otl
/uueyaXa 'TroLrjadfievo';
TaoTa,
r)KOV(Te
rj
irpoaKvvrjcra^
Kal
iirl
ol
Seov
"7rl
otl
iyeyoveu
d/jbapTd"; e?
Tif^rjcn '^prjaTfjcTi
TOVTO

119

/cal Ovyarpl rfjefjbfj


ovfc
Bia^e^Xijfjbivo^;
fi6'yaX(o";,

eKafJLVov

iXacj^pQ}
eTroceofirjv.

ev

[book

tov

"

Belrrvov eKeKXrjTo, 7]t" e? Ta


eh fiovvo^;
rjv ydp ol 7rat";

iroielv

TL

eKelvo^

civ

TO,

crvyKvpTjcravTa.

coTTTTjcre

dXXoi

re

7]'\lr7jcre
tmv

Be

eireiTe

"Tot/jLa.

Be

Ta

Trj";

e?

'

/uudXccrTa
A(TTvdyeo";Kal

Trj
Trepc^apijf; icov "f"pd^ei
ol dirlKeTO
o
KcrTvdyr]^Be, W9

fieXea BieXoov

KaTcu

Be

evTVKa

Kpecov,

fxev

to,

iroLrjadiievo'^
^^X^

BeiTrvov

6)p7](;
yivo/jLev7}";tov

Kal o
BaLTVfjiove";

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Be

Kal

'Apirdyov Trat?, o'^d^a";avTov

Kal

he t7]v
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kov

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re

KeXevrj, avTO";
^

yvvaiKL

Tpla

eTea

eKirepjirei levai

tovtov

yeyovco^;,

iaeXOcov

oiKia.

iraprjcrav oi
Kal avT(p

Kpirayo^,toIctl fiev dXXoLcrt

KaTvdyei

irapeTiOeaToTpdire^at eiriTrXeac jjbrfXeiwv Kpeayv,


Be tov
Kal aKpcov
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re
^ApTrdyo)
TrXrjvKe^aXrj";
ecovTov,
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re

'^eipcov

irdvTa'

KaTaKeKaXvjJbiJbeva. ")? Be

Kavecp

tg3

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tt)?l3oprj(;,
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^

Be

%")/3t9 eKeiTo
eBoKeu dXi"^

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iirl

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'

Be

Apirdyov Kal KdpTa rjaOrjvai,


Trape^epov toIctl irpoaeKeiTO
Kal Td"; yelpa^;Kal
iraoBof; KaTaKeKaXvjjbjjbevrjv
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Tov"^
irpoao-TdvTef;
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Kal
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diroKaXvTTTcov opa
7raiBo";
e^eirXdyr)
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el yivwGKoi
ecovTov
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evTo"^
Be Kal yivoicrKetv e^r}Kal dpecTTOv
oTeo
Qripiov
Kpea ^e^p(OK0i.
Kal
Be dfjLet'\jrd/ievo";
dv fia(rcXev";
elvai irdv to
epBrj. tovtoktl
tov

'

re

'

to

tov

Ta

Te

dvaXajBoiivTa
efieXXe,""?
120

"70)

Xotird

tmv

e?

rfie

Kpecov

ra

Be

ivOevTev

oiKia,

irdvTa.^
BoKeco,dXlaaf; dd'\jreiv
Ta

BIktjv TavTrjv
eTreOrjKe,
^Kpirdycpfjuev ^A(TTvdyr)";
Kupov Be
ol
evvirvtov
tmv
M.dycovot
tov"^
avTov";
TrepL jSovXevcoveKdXei
Be etpeTo0
Trj eKptvav
dircKOfjievovf;
A(TTvdyrj"^
TavTTj
eKpivav.
to

ol Tr}v

KaTa

elirav,XeyovTe^; co? ^aaiXevo-ai

TavTa

' '

crime
that

oyjnv. ol Be

that
his
Congratulating himself
had had a happy termination, and
he was
summoned
to a banquet in

honour

of

biov comp.

fortunate

event."

For

ch. 186, vi. 89, vii. 144.

es

The

flesh

ally
as

was

legend
an

attached

the

archy.

of

old
to

feast

Greek

Tantalos

representativeof

on

myth
of

Asiatic

human

originLydia
mon-

HERODOTOS.

74

rpoTTcp

a)OC

Trddrjv iirlaTaaOai

alvecov

TavT7)v

ol

Kfi^o).

7)

123

T"

ohov

rpa^rjvaLhe eXeye

TTvOecrOai.
7]t"

oSov

Kar

he

hid

TOKei";

^ovkoXov

Tri"^

rjv re

iraaav

tov

tmv

TrofiTTMV

^ovkoXov
tS

ev

rrjv

'Acrri/a^eo?

\oyov

tov

ol

elSevai,

ovk

jxev

irvOeaOai

irdvra

tov

viro

iravT0"^,

Se

")?

fiev yap

he Trj"^KelOev

aiTo
nTa2"^,

rod

cr^teXeye, (f)a";
irpo

r)/jbapT7]fcevaL TrXelaTOv,

icovTov
"L7]

he

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[book

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Xoyo)

TrdvTa

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6 iral^;,
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eovTu

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tmv

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he
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ol TOVTOV
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ev
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ecovTov
Hepcrrjcn^ovXo/nevof; Ap'jrayo'^
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dXXo)"; fxev ovha/jbo)"^
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o
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^'

'

Kal
Xayov /jbrj'^avijG-d/jLevof;
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eTTLTe'^vaTai, Totovhe.
Kal ovhev diroTiXa^^ ft)9 he elj^e,
TOVTOV
icreOrjKe
ovtm
TTjv yacTTepa

(Bv^Xiov,ypd'^af;Td
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hchovTa
124

eyiveTo

TdoTa

Kal

avTM

KOTe

^ovea
vinced

"9

tou9

tmv

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iroteovTC

eireiirelv

avTo^ecpir}
Trapelvat. TdoTd re

K.vpo(;irapaXa^MV

TV'yr}";diruKeo'

ToaovTo

he

KaTa

had

fxev yap
died

ttjv

immediately

after birth."
^

Xayov

tov

tm

ttjv

iricrTO-

diro yXocxTari^
hieXelv

pav

hrjmv

Kal

eiTLTeXea

he

Xayov dveGyicre. evpMV

"

Tlaai.
that

69

aTe

he tov
aTToppd'^^a^
OrfpevTrj oiKeTeMv

Xa^Mv
l3v/3Xioveveov
inreXiyeTO'Ta he ypd/jL/iaTa
Oeol eiropeovat'
iral J^a/n/Svo-eM,
m
ov
ae
yap
yap

TO

eXeye Tdhe.
dv

ehoKec

hov";

Xayov

TOV

ol
fjLTjheva

ev

hiKTva

ol

his
in
:
inscription
Kyros says
"Astyages gathered (his forces) and
went
against Kyros, king of Ansan.
Against Astyages his soldiers revolted
and took him
him
prisonerand handed

"jv

vvv

AcrTvdyea tov

aeMVTOV

Tedv7jKa";,
Trpodv/iirjv

tovtov

to

Kyros. Kyros to the land of


(Ekbatana) the royal city
Agamtanu
(went) ; silver, gold, furniture, and
goods from the land of Agamtana he
over

to

carried

off,and

brought
he had

the

taken.

to

the

furniture
"

land

and

of

goods

Ansan
which

Se

Oeov'^ re

Kara

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

EAST.

THE

rd
/cal ifieireplei^^.

75

/cal iraXac

ere

Sofceco irdvra

/cal ola iyco viro


avrov
aeo
re
eK/jLefiaOrj/cevaL,
irepi ""? iirprj'^Or},
eBcoKa
aXXa
direKreiva
tm
ireirovOa, on
ovk
ere
^AcTTvdyeof;
^ovKoXqj. (TV vvv, Tjv IBovkr}ifiolirelOeadai,tt)^ irep Ao-rvdyrj^;
dvaireiaa'^
dp^"C";.Ile/ocra?
yap
dp')(^ei
'^coprjf;,TavT7}"; d7rdar]"i
eirl MiySou?* Kai
dirLo-TaaQai
rjv re
iyco vtto
aTparnriXdrei
avrla
rd
ecm
av
too
creo,
K(TTvdyeo"^dTToSe'^Oeco
a-rparrjyo^
aXXo?
^rjBcov irpoyrot yap ovroc
^ovXeai, 7]v re rcov Tt9 SoKi/jicov
^

dTToardvre"^ dir

i/celvov Kal

o)?
Karaipelv Tretprjaovrac.

rrolei rdora

Kal

irolei

a)v

Kara

rov
erolfjiov

ev6dSe

ye

dK0vcra";

Ta^09.

^Acrrvdyea

aeo

tt/oo?

yevofievoL

raora

eovro^,

KO/^o?125

ao^wrdrco Tlepcra?dvarreKJei d'TTiGracrOai,


eivac
enToiei
Sr}
^povrl^covBe evplaKerairdora
Katpccorara
rd
rdora.
/Su^Xlov
e^ovXero, dXtrjv rwv
TLepcrecov
e?
ypdylra";
ecppovrc^e
orecp

rpoTrco

/Sv^XlovKal eirLXeyoixevo"^
ro
fierdBe dva7rrv^a";
ecjyrj
vvv
Acrvdyed fjitv orrparrjyov
TlepaecovdiroBeLKVVvai.
re,
o)
TLepaat, Trpoayopevo)
Xeycov,
e(f"7)
v/jllv rrapelvai eKaarov
Be
ean
BperravovT Kvpo"; fiev rdora rrporjyopevcre.
e^ovra
6 KO/309 avvdXtcre Kal
Tiepaecovcrv^vdyevea^ Kal rd fiev avrcov
eiTOLTjcraro,

"

"

Instead

of ten

Persian

tribes Xeno-

phon reckons twelve {Kyr. i. 2).


Pasargadse,Maraphii, and Maspii
those

on

*'all the

whom

other

The
were

Persians

the
dependent," i.e. they were
to
Anaxitribes.
principal
According
menes
(ap. Steph. Byz., s. v.), Kyros
founded
Pasargadse,the old capitalof
the country, called Parsagadseby Quint.
were

Curt.

(v. 6,
it

X.

1), but

Nik.

Dam.

presents
re-

already existing in his


buried
there
Kyros was
and
remained
the
it
1035),
as

father's time.

(Strab. XV.

of
capitalof Persia until the foundation
Persepolis by Darius
Hystaspis. It
stood on the Kyros in the south-east
of
be
Persia, and
consequently cannot
identified with
is on
Murghab, which
the ancient Araxes.
The tomb
of Kyros
at Murghab cannot
belong to the founder
account
of its
of the Persian empire on
architectural
ornamentation, and probably
belongs to the brother of Xerxes,
is called
the
satrap of Egypt, who
"the
Akhfemenian,
by
Akhsemenes,
Ktesias.
The
royal clan of the Akhse"

menidae

"friends"

or

traced

its descent

Akhsemenes

from

(Hakhamanish), whom
kings in their inscriptions
clairii as
their ancestor.
Steph. Byz.
reads
Penthiadse
for Penthialsei,
Karmanii
for Germanii, and
(apparently)
Derbikhi
for Dropiki.
Karmania'
lay
Persian

the

on

the

Dai

frontier

eastern

were

called

Dehavites

Mardi

are

Ezra

the

iv. 9.

of Strabo
of

range

are

The

(xi.p.
tains
moun-

Gulf

northward

extended

south-west

far

as

neighbourhood of Susa).
the

The

separated Persepolisfrom
to
(though they seem

Persian

have

Persis.

tribe, and

Amardi

the

which
the

in

inhabited

761),who

of

Elamite

an

The

as

the

Derbikhi

of the

Caspian,
the eastern
Sagartians were
The Sagartian
neighbours of the Medes.
opponent of Darius claimed to be the
were

to

while

the

descendant

of Vakistarra
the

to

nomad
and

tribes
we

reckoned
otos

can

among

Median
not

were

account

like

the

pretender
The

throne.

Aryans
for

their

the Persians

only by supposing that

by
his

at

all,

beiner
Herod

classi-

76

HERODOTOS.

airiGTadBai

aveireLde

iravre^

he rdhe, ef

M.ijBcov ean

arro

mWol

wv

MacrTrtot.
Tiepaai,TlacrapydBat
lSlapd(j)iOL

aprearat

JJaaapydSac elcrX dptaroi,iv

T(ov

ol

evOev
^prjrprj,

126

[book

toIctl

rov-

elcrl
^A'^aL/jLevlSao

koI

^acn\eL"^ ol TiepcrelhaL
yeyovaai.

dWoc

Se

ovroi
ArjpovaiacotVepfJudviOL.
Jlepa-aoelcrl olSe, TIap6ia\aL0t
ol
Be
dWoi
Adoc
elcn,
vojjbdhe^,
dpoTrjpe"^
Is/LdpSoc
fiev Travre?
Be
diravre^; e'^ovre^
%a"ydpTLOL.")?
Apo'TTiKol
iraprjcrav
KO/oo?,rjv ydp tl"^ yo)po"^ T7]"; TlepcrcKrjf;
Trpoeoprjfievov, evOavra
to

ocrov
aKavOcoSrjf;
TOVTOV
Tov
(T"^i

re

eirl oKTCoKalheKa

crraSiov; rj

Trdvrrj,

eifcocn

iv r^fiepr). eTrcreXee^rjjuLepwcraL
irpoeliTe
adpTcov Be rcov
deOXov, Bevrepd "t^l
Uepcrecovtov
irpoKeifxevov
Trpoeliree? ryv vo-repalrjv
irapelvai XeXov/nevov^;. iv Be tovtw
rd re aliroXta koI rd^ 7roi/jiva"; Kal rd ^ovKoXia 6 K.vpo";
irdvra
eOve kov
avva\L"Ta"; e? rayvro
tov
Trarpb'^
irapeaKeva^e")? Be^oBe
Kal aoTioccn
oivw
re
Uepaecov cTTpaTov, tt/jo?
")?
/jievo"; TOV
Be
iiriTT^BeoTaTOLai.
dTriKOfJuevov^ ttj vcrTepalrj
Tov"i
TLepaaf;
KaTa/cXiva";

'^copov

iireiTe Be

Xec/JLcovaevco'^eo.

e?

diro

Belirvov rjcrav,

Trj TrpoTepalyel^ov r}
Ta
etpeTO (T(j)ea(;K.vpo";KOTepa
elvac avTcov
ttoWov
acpcelrjalpeTcoTepa.ol Be eipacrav
TrapeovTa
Katcd
fxecrov'^
(T"^i
ttjv fiev ydp TrpoTeprjv rjfjLeprjvirdvTa
eyeiv^
o

Ta

TO

Be

TTjv
TO

TOTe

Ki)/309
Trapeyv/jivov

eTTo?

Kal

Te

TrapaXa^cov Be

dyaOd.
irdvTa

tov

\6yov,Xeycov

"

tovto

dvBpe";

TreiOecrOai ecTTi
^ovXo/jLSvoccn
v/jllv e^et.
fjuev i/Lieo
dXXa
dyaOdy ovBeva ttovov
BovXoirpeTrea
fjuvpla

Uepcrac,ovtco
TdBe

irdvTa

irapeovaav

Be ifieoireiOecrOaL elcrl vpblvirovoi


tm
jSovXofjLevoLao
d)V i/xeo
'^6l^mTrapairXrjcriOi
vvv
yiveade
dvaplOfjiriTOi.
TrecOo/jLevoc
eXevOepoc.avT0"; Te ydp BoKeco Oeiy Tv^y yeyov(o"; TdBe e? '^elpa^
Kal v[Mea"^ '^yij/nat
dyecrOai,^
^rjBcovelvac ov (jyavXoTepov;
dvBpa";
"'^ov(TL,firj

ovTe
^

127

TaXXa

ovTe

iroXefJua.

co?

irdXai

Be
Aa-Tvdyr)(;

dyyeXov
7eXX"ti/

cw?

iKdXeu

Beivov

is

i'lrcXa^o/jLevoc
dafievoi iXev-

avTov.

M.i]Ba)vdpyecrOai.

viro

TroceofMevoo

iirvOeTo

TdoTa

Treyu-'x^a?
l^vpov
TrprjaaovTa,
Be KO^oo?iKeXeve tov
dyyeXov dirayavTO";
tj^ol Trap* iKelvov rj KcrTvdyrj^;
o

OTO

irpoTepov

^ovXrjaeTaL. dKovaa"i Be TdoTa


fication

iyovTwv uiBe,dTzicrTacrQe dir

mv

AcTTvdyeof;
ttjv Ta'^lcrTrjvr
Tlepcrai/lev vvv
Trpoo-TaTeo)

OepovvTo,Kal
^

Ta

purely geographical,and ineluded


the aboriginaltribes who
were
held in subjectionby the Aryan immigrants.

AaTvdyrj^;Mt^Sou? T"
"*

"The

distance

great." Comp.
^

"I

into my

think

hands."

wTrXicre

between

them

is

take

this

ix. 82.
am

destined

Comp.

iv.

to

79, viL 8.

THE

EAST.

77
'

koX

nravrat;,

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

OeoPXa^rj^; icov Apirayov

ware

avrcov

aTparrjyov

Be ol M-^Sot
rd
XtjOt^viroL66fJLevo"^
ttTreSefe,
jjllv iop'yec. ""?
ol jbuev TLve";
avrwv
rotcrt
Uepcryai avvefMiajov,
arparevo-d/jievot
oaoL
ifjbdj^ovTO,
/jlt)rod

ol Be
Ilepaa";,

Tov'^

\vOevTo"i Be

rdyLCTTa

Xoyov

ol Be avro/ioXeov

fxerea'^ov,
edeXoKa/ceov

irXelaroL

/cal

re

e"pev"yov.Bca-

ala'^pcj'i,
ct)9
dW
l^vpo)

M.r)BLKOvaTpaTevfiaTo"i
^AaTvdj7]"^,
e"p7)direiXewv rco
Tov

7rpo";

*'

128

iirvdero
ovB

w?

etiTa"^irpcorov fiev rcov


Tocravra
M.dy(ov
KO/Q09 "ye yatprjcretJ*
rovol
fMerelvatrov
l\.vpov,
6vetpo7ro\ov";,
TOv";
fitv dveyvcocrav

dvecTKoXoiricrey
jjuera Be

to5
ev
vTroXetcfyOevra^
dcTTei Tcbv M.'^Bcov,
koI
re
dvBpaq. i^ayaycov
irpecr^vTa^;
veov^
Be TovTov";
koI
eaaoiOri,koI avro^; re
av/jL^aXayvrotcrc TLeparjac
/cat rov";
aTre^aXe.^
e^^jaye rcov M.7]B(t)v
A.(jTvdyri"^
el^cdyprjOr}
Be
tcS ^Aarvdyeo iTpoaaTd";
129
0
KareeovTL
Kp'jrayo";
al'^/jLaXcora)

Tov^

coirXto'e

tov";

"

koI

re

yai^pe

/ce

Brj koI

koL

eirea,

/care

fxiv

ecpero

iTpo"^

Xeycov

tov

Be
0
TTJ^ /SaaiXrjtrjf;.

QvfxdXyea

avrov

"9

Belirvov,to

ecovrov

to

6 tc
iracBo^;eOolvrjcre,

orap^l

"/ceivo";

dXXa

pro /juet, /cat

fitv

elrjt) eKeivov BovXocrvvri

TrpocroBoyv
dvTelpeTOel ecovTov
TTOteLTac
TO
avTo"^
Kpirayo^Be ecf)?],
ypdy^rai,
l^vpovepyov.
yap
elvau.
Be
Bc/caLO)";
ecovTOv
A(TTvdyri"^
TO
Brj
jjllv direcj^aLve
TTprjyfia
dBLKcoTaTov
Kal
TrdvTcov
re
eovTa
Tft)
dvOpcoXoycp aKaioTaTOv
dvTL

/jLLv

^'

(T/caLOTaTOV

TTcov,

Brj Bl

jJiev ye,

ecovTov

iirprj^drj
Ta

ye

dBLKcoTUTOP
KpdTO"^,

Be,

BovXoycre.

el yap
^aaLXrjLTjvKal pbr)

avrov

M?;Soi;9Kare-

dvaLTLOv^

eovra^;

BovXov";

e-^eLV,

dvrl

BovXov^

Be

ttjv

^r)Bov"^fxev

Becrirorewv

irplv Mt/Swi;

to

eovra"^

Teco

BiKaLorepovelvac M.r}B(ovrerp

dyaOov ffYiepcrewv. vvv

rrepLJBaXelv
Uepcra^;Be

to
irepLeOrjKe

dXXo)

irapeovTa

BeLTTVov elveicev

TOV

OTt

yeveadaL,el

^aaLXea

avT(p

dXXo)
Br] Belv TrdvTco^ TrepLOelvat

to

rovro

rovrov

el irapeov

yeyovevaL,
yeyovevac

vvv

Beairora^.
^

ovrco

Kal rpLrjKovra
130
irevre
^aaiXevaa^^ eir erea
KareTravcrOrj,
Mt^So^ Be vireKV'^avTiepaycri
rr}"; ^a(TCXrjLri"^

A(TTvdyri";
jxev

Blcl T7]v

rovrov

^A(TLr}";
eir
^

Nikolaos

five battles
ages and

erea

of

vvv

TrcKporrjra,
rpLrjKovra
Damascus

states

Kal
that

fought
AstyKyros in Persia,Astyages winwere

ning the two first. The next two were


fought,on two successive days just outside Pasargadoe, After the fifth,Kyros
pursuedand capturedAstyages,who had

AXvo";

Bvcov Beovra,

eKarov

between

'

dvco

dp^avre^ T7j";

fled with

discovered
the

whole

few

"

The

narrative

to

be

account

of

Herodotos

gether correct.
^

friends.

oaov

recentlyinscriptionof Kyros shows

is the

Nor

rrorapLOV

rrdpe^rj

Because

fore the deed

See note
he had
was

on

unhistorical.
alto-

ch. 123.

and
Avritten,
his."
justly

there-

HERODOTOS.

78

ol

%Kv9ac

rdora

koI

iroLrjaaai

jjievTOi

vaTepo)

rjp-^ov.

[book

Aapetov,^
airocTTavTe^;

airo

airecTTrjcrav

re
fjuere/uLeXijcre
cr"^t

'^povw

he

oiricrw

Be iirl Aarvdyeof;
rore
J^^XVvi'^TjOevre^;.
/carearpdcpOrio-av
ol Tlipcrac /cal 6 K.vpo'^
e7rava(TTdvT""^ rolau ^rjhoicnrjpxpv
Se KOpo? Kaicov
ovBev dXko
diro TOVTov
TTj^ 'Act/?;?/Karvdyea
to

re

icovTM,

elyeirap

TToirjaa^

ireXevTTjae.

e?

St] Ki}/309yevo/ii6vo"^

OvTO)

re

i/SacriXevaekoI
rpacpel^;

kol

K^poLcrovvarepov

")?
dp^avra dScKLT]^ Karecrrpeylraro,
he KaraaTpe^^rdfJievo^^
irdarj^;
ovrco

rovrcov

eiprjral
/jlol Trporepov,

tovtov

rjp^e.
Trj";'Ao-/?;?
he olSa
Ile/Dcra.?

131

KoX

Kol

vTjov^

Koi

Tolai

rocolcnhe

vo/iiotac

ovk
^cojjLov(;

iroieovai

ev

ficopiTjv

vop^w

ol he

Ovovai

he

rfXlw re

ct)9

/jLcv

6eov"; Kard

rov^;

voixi^ovcnAtl fiev
Ovaia^ epheiv,
rov
dvajBaivovre^;
elvai'

aXXa
IhpvecrdaL,

TTOteo/jbevovf;

overt,
eirccjiep

dv6p(0'TTO(^vea"^
evoixtaav

OVK

dydXfjLara[xev
n^^e")yae^'0L'9,

eirl rd

v'^rlXorara
irdvTa

kvkXov

fcal

ifiolhoKelv, on
irep ol "^XKr]ve"^

rod

tmv

opecov

A/a

ovpavov

irvpXkoI
vhan
Kal dve/jbotcn.^
tovtolg-l
/jLovvoco-i dp^fjOev,
fiev
he
fcal
Oveiv,
rrj
eiTLiJbeiJbaOrjKaa-L
Ovpavir)
irapd re ^Aaavpicov
he
Kokeovcn
kol
jxaOovre'^
^Apa/Slcov
Aaavpiou ttjv A^pohLrrjv
KaXeovre^'

aeXrjvp kol
hr) Ovovai

koI

yea

"

*'

Except as long as
; irape^^ cannot
"besides," as it has
possiblymean
often been rendered.
Comp. irXriv^, vi.
5 ; e^w

Asia
use

This

of

the

Halys

Herodotos
Medes

"

ruled

(notice the

years, i.e. 100 years.


placethe beginning of their

az^w)128

would

-28

empire in B.C. (649 +


the Assyrian empire
One

hundred

and

therefore

Herodotos

the

is that

mean

"east
of

What

vii. 228.

to

seems

28
was

=) 677, when
still intact.

years, however, is a round


indefinite number, which

has

treated

as

though

it

were

adding to it the twentyThe


eight years of the Skythian inroad.
Median
empire could not have lasted
than eighty years at the most, and
more
from
the
is probably to be reckoned
date of the battle of the Halys (b.c.
a

definite

one,

584).
^

took

This

is the

Median

revolt

place in the third year of


Hystaspis, as described by him
Behistun
Inscription.

which
Darius
in

the

The

Kyros
that

was

it

Kyros
king
the

was

tablet
of

shows

that

not

army

which

Elam,

Median

(1)

Persia ;

(2)
re-

volted

againstIstuvegu or jf^styages.
Kroesos had begun the war.
^
See Appendix V.
The
"vault
of
heaven"
is the Thwasa,
of
the
"god
celestial space,"of the Avesta.
Sacrifices
^

Because

water,

or

wind,"
the

offered

not

were

vayu

water,

elements.

the

to

moon,

"honoured"

were

Xerxes

as

scourged

the

pont

(vii.35), which

he

have

done

he

accounted

the

visible

divine.
the

earth,

winds, though vdta "the


"the
air," the earth, and

had

Fire

was

would

"pure"
Helles-

hardly
water

symbol

Ahuramazda.

of

god
fire-temples(each called
"house
of the law"), and
ddityd gdkis,
Dareios, at Behistun, complains that
Gomates
the
Magian destroyed the
temples of the gods." Polybios (v. 10)
implies that the Persians had temples.
Altars were
equallyused by them.
supreme
Persians
built

The

' '

EMPIKES

THE

I.]

OF

THE

EAST.

79

Be
yivXiTTa,'^
6v(7Lr)
^Apd^tocBe 'AXtXar/ UepcraL Se M.cTpav.'^

6eov"^ rjBeKarecm^Ke.
132
ovre
Tiepcrr)(TL
ireplrov"^ elprifjievov^
avaicaiovGL
ov
iroieovraL
/ScofJ^oi)^
ovre
fxeXXovre'^ Oveiv
irvp
cnrovBfjypecovrai, ov/cl avXw, ov are/jL/nacri, ovkl
ovXfjat. tmv
Be CW9 "Kd(JT(p
Oveiv OeXrj,e? ')(0)pov KaOapov d^a"ycdvto
kttjvo^
KoXel
Oeov,
tov
fidXiara.
Tov
ndpav fivpcrlvy
icrTe(pav(o/jievo(;
ol ifyylveraL
Ovovtl
to3
IBir)
dpdcrOai
/jbovvco ov
ecovT(p fiev By
6
Be
irdcn
roicrt
dyaOd'
Tiepayau /carev^erac ev jivecrOaokoI
diraai UepcrrjcTc
To3 ^acrtXec' ev yap
koL
Br)rotcn
avTo"^
yiverat.
eiredv Be BtafMoaTvXa"i
Kara
to
e'^rjarjtcl Kpea,
leprjiov
fiepea
Be
v'7T07rdcra";
eiri
fidXtcTTa to TpicpvXXov,
ttoltjv co? aTraXcoTdTTjv,
irdvTa
Be
Bia6evTo"^
avTov
to,
eOrjKemv
Ma^yo?
TavTT)^
Kpea.
^
eiraelBei
ol7]vBrj eKelvoi Xeyovac
6eoyovi7)v,
dvr)p 7rapeo-Teo)";
elvat TTjv eTraoiBrjv dvev
BrjM-dyov ov crcfyi,
vofjbo^ eaTL
yap
TolcTL

"

Istar

is

Mulidtu.

Mulidatu

or

of

bearer," in any

Assyrian texts
might easily
title.

called

not

"the

tlie

such
possess, but
her
been
popular

we

have

See ch. 199.

Restored

from

jingleof MvXiTTa.

The

iii. 8.

codices

of Is.

star

This
the

is

an

sacrifice

the

chief
that

was

ceremonies

(theVedic Soma).

of music

the

"

drink

of the

ments
Instru-

flute with

fifteen

also
holes,the tambourine, etc., were
employed in the sacrificial ceremonies.

the

"the

MUl,

of

one

of the Haoma

Alilat is the feminine

ing
shining one," the morn14, 12 (inAssyrian ellu,
fern, ellitu). See iii. 8.
De
Vogiie is
in
it
with
the
name
identifying
wrong
of the goddess Allath in Palmyrene and
Nabathean
whose
chief seat
inscriptions,
Taif
in
the
was
Hijaz.

of

54)

"

"AXtrra, probably through

have

vii.

during a

Mitra

error.

The

Mithra

or

Zoroastrians

"

Here

also is included.

He

is

Magos

"

with
synonymous
later period of the

"priest," as in the
monarchy. Up to the time of
Darius Hystaspis,however, the Magians
of the non-Aryan Median
tribes
one
were
(asin ch. 101), who placed the pseudoPersian

Smerdis
which

the

on

recorded

usurper

throne.
the

called

was

(povia. Having

The

festival

overthrow

not
May o(f)Ovia,

of

the

M-qbo-

lost their

portance,
politicalimhim
the visible form of Ahuramazda
or
however, the Magi acquired a
Ormazd.
sacerdotal one
The
Persian
after the amalgamation of
Aphrodite was
Anahid
the Medes
and Persians,and the gradual
or
statue
set
was
Anaitis, whose
infiltration of Persian Zoroastrianism
by
up in the temples of the chief cities of
the empire by Artaxerxes
Median
Mnemon
superstitions. See Appendix
(b.c,
learn from
In the Avesta
the priest is called
an
405), as we
inscription V.
found
dtharvan
"fire
at Susa, a fragment of Berosos
or
priest." For the
wrongly assigningthe deed to Artaxerxes
birthday feast cp. Xen. Kyrop. i. 3.
was

sun-god.

made

"

Okhos.
7

There

This

truism

were

before
error

is either

truism

if Herodotos

meant

not

the
if he

built

an

error.

sacrifice

supposed

that

altars and fires. Libations

began

there
were

were

used

is

allusion

no

prayer, recited in
addressed
first to Ormazd

an
no

be

(see

to it in the Avesta.

rhythmic

Mithra, and
beings,many

just
;

and

that altars

fires kindled

and

actual

or

found

in

Nckyomant.

then

to

examples
the
xi.

the

other

of which

Avesta.

tone,
mono-

and

holy
are

to

Cp. Lucian,

HERODOTOS.

80

Ova[a"; iroietadat.
133

Ovaa^

'^pdrac 6
fiaXia-ra eKelvrjvn/iav

ra

he rrrXeco halra

ravrr)

rfjol

koI

Kpea,

airaaecov

iv

Se

eina-'yMV

oXiyov

rt

(3ovv

airot^eperai6

'^povov

Se
\oyo"; alpel. rj/juiprjv

fxiv

rrj efcacrTO^;
vo/jll^ovo-l
hiKaieovcn

aWecov

rcov

avrcov
evhalfjiove's

[book

Xttttov koI

koI

iyevero.

irpoTiOeaOai'
ev

KaixitjKovkoX

ovov

ev
ra
otttov^
/ca/jLivoccrt, ol Be Trez/T/re? avrcov
he
Trpo^drcov
irpoTLOearai.crirotcn
oXiyoLai '^pecov-

6\ov"^
irpoTideaTai
Xeirra

rcov

he iroWolat
/col ov/c
hia tovto
oKeai'
koL
i7rt(f)op7]fiacrL
TraveaOac,
ireLvcjvTa^
aireo/jievov^;
(fyaacUepo-at rov^ ''FiWi^va^;
SecTTvov irapac^opelrai
ovSev Xoyov a^iov el Be tl
airo
ore
o-(f)t
iraveaOat.
otvw Be Kcupra TrpocreaOiovra^; av
ov
irapacpepocTo,
ifiecraLe^ecm, ovkI ovprjaac avriov
Kai
KearaL/
cr"piov/c
rdora
Be
aXXov.
vvv
ovrco
^vXaacrerac, /jbedvcrKo/juevot
fiev
rac,

icodacrt

^ovXeveadat

aTrovBaiiarara

ra

Trpi^y/jbdrcov.S'
ttj vcrTepaly
TrpoTiOel
vrjc^ovcrt

dBr) "j"^L
tovto
^ovXevo/jLevoLCTt,

av

tov
(TTeyeap'^o"^, ev
/cal vrjc^ovai,
'^pecovTai
0

av

eovTe";

avTca,

tmv

to

^ovXevcovTac /cat rjv fxev dhrj


S*
rjv Be /jLT) dBrj, fJueTelai. to,

eiriBiayiv^crKovcn?
jxeOvaKOfJuevot
Trpo^ovXevcrcovTac,
vy(f"ovTe";
8' oKKrjXoicriev Trjai oBolcri,
rSBe av
Btayvolr]
tc^
evTvyyavovTe'^

av

134

el ofJioioL elai

ol

uvtI yap
avvTvy'^dvovTe";'
Tolcn GToixaai'
dXX7)Xov"i(^iXeovcTi
rjv Be y ovTepo^
oXiy(o,.Ta^
irapeid"^
"piXeovTaf rjv Be ttoXXo) r)
tov

vecrTepo";, TrpoaTrLTrrcov
TrdvTcov Tov"^
dy^iGTa

tov
irpoo-zcvvel

viroBeeaTepo";
dyevovTepo";
TC/iicoa-L Be

erepov.

ol/ceovTa^;fieTdye

irpocrayopeveLV

e/c

BevTepa
Be TOV'?
Be /caTa
BevTepovf;'
Tt/jicbac*
Xoyov Trpo^aivovTe^i
fieTa
Be
efcacTTdTco
iv
ecovTcov
dyovTaiy
TOV?
ol/cr]jui,evov(;
TifJLfj
TjKLCTTa
elvat
irdvTa
vo/jbi^ovTe?
dplaTov;.^
ecovTov"?
dvOpcoircov
fxa/cpw Ta
/card
Be
dXXov?
ttj?dpeTrj?dvTe^ecrOai,
Xoyov [rcoXeyofMevcp]
TOV?
Be

TOV?

Be
2

e/cacTTdTco ol/ceovTa? diro

^yBcov
Still

The

/cal
dp'^ovTOiv

characteristic

statement

whole

ecovTcov

animals

that

the

in their

of the Persians.
Persians
ovens

cooked

seems

to

Aristophanes,Akliarn.

parodied by
Cp. Maxim,

be

Tyr., ed. Diibner,


Dissert, xxviii.
According to Ktesias
allowed
(ed.Didot, p. 79) the king was
to be drunk
only on the day when sacri85-7.

fices

were

made

to Mithras.

Plainlya Greek story. 'ETrt- means


"yet again." Tacitus ascribes a similar
custom

to the Germans

{Germ. 22).

Ka/cicFTOv?

ecovTcov

eOvea

r)p')(eTa

ewvTov"^,

elvat.

iirl

dXXrjXcdV, crvvairdv-

Compare the pretensions of the


Empire, or of the English
tourist.
Stein regards ry Xeyofiepo)in
the next clause as a false interpretation
oi KaTa\6yov,
in proportion."
Celestial

"

macy

"In

the

time

of the Median

the several nations

had

suprethe follow-

ing precedenceover each other." Herodotos


imagines a feudal system conditioned
by geography ; those furthest
from the rulingpower being under those
to it. Perhaps the notion
nearer
was

HERODOTOS.

82

TMV

ecovTov

iin

OLfcerecov

[Xifjalrlrj avrjicecrTov

TrXeco
\oyc(TdfjL"VO";
rjv evplcFKrj

aX\a

iovra
he

ovBeva

Xeyovcn

k(o

oKOcra

TOtavra
7/877

rdora

av

Sevrepa Se

rov

Xeyeiv.

Se

cr^i irouelv

alayjidrovSe

dv

avrolcrt

ovSe

Kal

o^etXovra Kal

eXveKa,

"yjrevSo'

rt

dWocat

rolac
avfifilcryerai

rd"; Xev/cd^;

'^coprj^;,

dXkojv

koL

fjuev

iroXcv

\e7rprjvrj \evK7jv G'^JJ,e?

viro
Xa/m/Savofjuevov

rov

ovhe

yjrevSecrdac
vevofXicrraL,

ro

rov

rjXiov ajxaprovra

rov

e?

darcov

rcov

Karep'^erat

Se fjnv
(f)acrl

139

Se

rdora
e^eorn,^^'

ovk

o(^ei\eiv'ypeo"^, rroXkoiv

ro

09

ov

rrj^

ov
7) fioi'^LSca'
yap
7rat8o9
ecovrov
viro
tov

dXrjOecof;
roKea

ye

aXXa

firjrepa,

dvdyKrjv (j^acrl
dva^Tjreojjieva

fidXtcrraSe dvayKalrfv ipaalelvai

Trdvra

diroKrelvaL

iovra
evpeOrjvat
r^roi virofBoXifjidla

Xeyecv e^ecrn,

ovro^

ovSe

nrarepa

ijevero,rracrav

diro6vrj(TKeLV.daaa

epBeiv

ra

Ovfjuwy^parat.

ecovrov

tov

7rdOo";

/jbe^co dSiK7]f^aTa

Koi

re

to3
ovrco
VTrovpyrj/ijLdTcov,

tmv

S77^acTLoIko"^elvau
138

[book

rdora

rt

Tlepaycrc
"

^elvov Se

e'^ecv.

[iroXXoY]e^eXavvovac

rovrewv

7repiarepd"^
.

Se ovre
e?
eirL(^epovre"^.
irora/juov
ovSe dXXov
ov
'^etpa^; evairovi^ovrau,

rrjv

.,

ovSeva

alrirjv

avrrjv

ovre

evovpeovau

eK

eiMirrvovac,

dXXd

Trepiopeovcn,

o)Se crv/jiTreiTTTora/jLoi)^
fJidXiara. Kal roSe dXXo crcfyc
cre/3ovraL
XeXyOe, rj/jieaf; fjuevroL ov'
rcoKe
yiveaOat,ro Ilepcra?
jxev avrov^
rd

iovra
cr(f)i

ovvofiara

b/jLotarolcn

irdvra

reXevroicn
irpeTTelr}

e?

alypba' e? rovro
rcov
Tlepaecovrd ovvopLara,
6/jlolo)(;.'

irdvra

' '

Wherever

they

would

been

the crimes

such

cases

occurred
.

rfj jxeyaXocrdv

ro
ypdfJLfJia,
Aojptet?piev

tcouto

KaXeovcTL, "Itwz^e?Se
rojvra

Kal

aoyfjbaai

Si^rjixevo^
evprjcrei^
rd

ov

which

rd

fiev

denoted

enquiry to have

3*

the

samech

reXev-

dXXd

ov,

of xi.

sound

the

the

name
Dorians,however,
Among
of sigma {samech) never
changelingsor
displaced the
older shin.
of the two
of children born in adultery.
A reminiscence
^*
Tournier
for e^eari. originalletters was
conjecturesbai-r}
preserved in the

turn

out

on

either

of

"

{Revue de Phil. 1877).


^

not

respect for the

much

chastised
stitious
was

could

Xerxes

an

the

have

had

water

when

very
he

Hellespont(vii.35). Super-

respect for the


Elamite

water, however,

rather than

Zoroastrian

virtue.
"*

Sigina

is the samech

of the Hebrew

the
Hebrew
shin.
The
alphabet, san
Oreeks, not having the sound expressed
by samech, fused the two sibilants together,making sigma take the placeof
"hin before iau, and givingto the symbol

system of numeration, where


900.
+ pi^ denoted
san
^

This

ance

the

Greeks, of
Persian

Herodotos's

only proves

of

Persian

course,

proper

bestowed

of

had

like

mat(a), etc., end


nines

in

-a.

in

The

final

on

but in old Persian

names,

Names

ignor-

language.

oiilynominatives
it.

sampi, i.e.

nouns

in i and

Bardiy(a), Gauvowel, like femi-

Herodotos

was

equally

in imagining that all the names


wrong
mental
had
reference
to bodily or
excellence.

Cf. Pott

on

Old

Persian

proper

EMPIRES

THE

r.]

Tdora

fjuev ar/^e/ceco?

OF

e^co

THE

EAST.

83

etSo)? elirelv

Treplavroyv

raSe

140

cra"p7)veco";
irepi rod airoo
6av6vTO";,ft)? ov irporepov ddirreTac dvSpo";
Tlepo-eo)
vetcv^
irplv
av
viT
eXKvaOfj.^Mafyou? fxev yap drpeKecof;
opvcdo^rj kvvo";
olSa rdora
Sr) iroieovai.
7rot6ovTa";'
ifM(pave(o";
fcaraK^jpcoyap
Be
vi/cvv
mv
yidyoi he
tov
Uepaac yea KpviTTovcn.
aavT"";
C09

fjuevTOi

Xeyerat

KpuTTTOfieva

iroWov
Ke'^copiSaraL
AlyvTrrw lepewv, ol

ov

dvOpcoTTcov

dW(ov

re

tmv

koI

/cau

roiv

ev

KTeivetv,
juiTjSev
dyvevovGi eyi'^^v'^ov
dvovcri' ol Be Brjyidyoc avro'^eipir] nrdyra irXrjvkvvo"^
el fjirjoaa
fcal dvdpcoTTov
Krelvovat,' teal dyc^vtafia fjueya rovro
Troieovraiy
raXka
KTelvovre^ ofMolco^;
Kai
Kai
epirerd/cai
re
fivpfji7]/cd(;
6"pi'^
Kai

irereivd.

jxev yap

dfjicj)!
fiev

Tft"

ft)?
i'^erco

tovtcd

vojutp

Kai

dp'^rjv

evo/uLicr$r],
Xoyov.
aveufJUL Be "7rl tov
irpoTepov
Be Kai AtoXet?, oo? ol AvBol
141
"Ift)i^e?
rd'^iorra
KarecTrpdcjiaTO

irapd}Lvpov,iOeXovTe";
Hepaecov,eTrefiTrov dyye\ov";6? ZidpBi"^
Kai liLpolcra)
Be
eirl roLcrc
avrolcri elvai rolai
o
rjaav KarrjKOOL.
rd
avrcov
aKovcra^
irpota'^ovTo, eXe^e crtpcXoyov, dvBpa ^a?
vTro

avXrjT7]v IBovra

lj(6v"^ rfj 6aXdaarj avXelv, BoKeovrd cr(j)ea";


e^eXevaeardat"? yrjv ew? Be 'y^evcrOrjvaL
rrj^; iXiriBo^;,Xa/3elv
Kai
ttoXXov
tmv
dfjL^iPXrjaTpov
ireptlBaXelv ttXtjOo'^
I'^dvcov
Kai e^eipvaat,
IBovra
Be TraXXofievov^ elirelv dpa avrov
irpo^;
eirel
ovB^
Tov";
ly6v"^ iraveaOe fjuoi opyeopuevoi,
epbeo avXeovTO^
rjdeXereeK^alveiv op'^eofMevoiJ^
KOpo? /mev rovrov
Xoyov
ev

re

"

tov

'

Tolai

\(0(TL Kai

"Ift)z/"?
irpoTepov

eXe^e, otl Brj ol


Be dyyeXcovaTrlaTacrOaL
J^vpovBerjdevTO^;

TolcTi AloXevai
avTov

diro K.poicrov
ovk
"T(f)ea(i

TcovBe

eiveKa

eirelOovTo,TOTe

Be

rjcrav eToifJuoi

TrprjypbaTwv

TreiOeaOab

eXeye a^i TdBe' "lcove";Be


ey^o/jbevof;
OevTODV e?
Td"^ TroXta?, re/^ea re
avveXeyovTo

in

names,

Oriental
^

neither

by

Journal

of the German

Society,xiii. (1859), pp.

According
earth

modern
round
where
"We

fiev

Brj opyfj

'^Kovaavtovtcov

dvevec'^Kai
irepie^dXovToeKacTTOi,

ft)?

Zoroastrian

to

fire may

be

this custom

to

sq.

the

Persians

belief

had

the

359

polluted

Magi

the Zoroastrian

Magi rather than to


generally, so completely
the

become

identified

with

priests,
exaggeration of the religious
of
duty enjoined on the Zoroastrians
mentioned
The
in
the
text.
destroying all animals noxious to man.
Parsis place the dead body on
Sec Appendix V.
Ants
ordered
a
are
to
tower, called a "tower of silence," be killed in Vendidad, xvi. 28 ; snakes,
it is devoured
lizards,ants, rats, and gnats, in Vend.
by the vultures.
nor

with

corpse ; the only way


of getting rid of the dead, therefore,is
contact

that

ttXtjvlS/itXr]aicov'
Trpo'^ fiovvovf;
olai Trep 6 Af^o?.
eir
KOyoo? eTroirjaaTo

opKtov

the

J^vpo).

tmv

TiavLooviov ol dXXoi

e?

TOVTov";

yap

KaTepyaafxevcov

may

notice

that

Herodotos

ascribes

"^

An

xiv. 10 sq.

HERODOTOS.

84

Be XoiTTOtcFL "lojcTf-eBo^e

Toccn

[book

Xoyo) Tre/JUTrecvdyyeXovs

kolvm

e?

"Icoac Tt/jLcopelv.
Serjao/jbevov;
z^irdprrjv
142

"Ift)z^e9
ovrot,

Se

Ot

Kai

ovpavov

to)V

Kau

rcov

ev

oipecov

KoKXiarw

T(p

7r6Xta"^ TrdvTcov dvOpcoTrcov


rayv
ra)UTO
'ycopla

avTYj^

rd

rjcbovre

T7]v
Kol

Se

y\(Ocraav

ov

rrjv

ovrot

viro

yjrv^povre

koI

av^/jLcoB"o";
rpoirov^

irpciirrj Kelrai

avrewv

fxev

dvo)

rod

dXkd

vevofJUiKaai,

MtX^^ro?

rd

yap

/cdrco,[ovrerd Trpo?

Oeppbovre

rod

viro

avrrjv

rrapaywyecov.

recr(jepa"^

rd

/xey

ISpvcrd/jLevo

rjfjbel'i
ovre
lB/jL6V'

ra
ecTTreprjv,^
fxev

irpo'^ rrjp

icrro,rod

eTvyyavov

ovre
rfj Icovlj]

iroiel

rd Be
TTLe^o/uieva,

vypov

YLavLcovtov

to

fjuerd3e MfoO? re koI Uptrjvrj.avrau


/jLeo-afjL^pi7]v,
Kard
ravrd
BtaXeyo/juevat
rfj Kapirj KarotKTjvrai
a"^icn,^
ev
rfjAvSltj, Ec^ecro?
KoXo^coy Ae^eBo"; Tea)? KXa^o/jieval

'Tro\i"=;
TTpO'^
ev

jjbev

'

aihe he
^coKata'

avrat

Kard

yeovai

Kiov,

Kai

ovrot

/jlovvol.

ev

Betvov

ovBev

avrol

ol

^Icovcov

dXXo

iopvrat,

ydp

Be

Xoyov

fiev

ecf)vyovrb

rjcrav

avroiv

ovBev, daOeveo^; Be

rjv

vrjatcorycrc

eovro^

ovre

dXXcov

rcov

rov

wavro'^

eOvewv
Brjrjv daOeveararov
rcov
rjv ovBev
eXa'^Lcrrovort ydp /jtrj^Adrjvat,
dXXoc

fjtev vvv

"Iwi/e? Kai ol

Kdrjvalot
Kai

dXXd
"Iwz^e? KeKXrjcrOat,
^ovXo/J^evot

(f)aLVovrai
jjtot ol ttoXXoI

al Be BvcoBeKa

aKeirr)

ev

ttoXXw

ov

ovvo/jta,

ecovroiv

UepcrecovKarrjKoot

kw

rjaav

fiev

yivovrat.

yXcoacTTj^reaaepe^

^OLVtKe";

dXXo

Kar

jS^lol

Be eir
Sd/jLtoc
BcaXeyovrac,

Be diro
Tiepaat vav/3drat. direa'^io-Oricrav

ovrot

Zd/xov

oiKearat,

rjpvopai.

^Icovcov ol yitXTjatotfxev

TToXtcr/iia
Xoytfiov. ol

vvv

rjireipw

rolcrt
TTOtrjcrd/jbevot,

ovre

^IcovtKov Kai

ro

al Bvo fjuev vr)aov"s

roovro

roiv

'^XXijvtKov yeveo";,

rore

ry

'^apaKrrjpe'^

(po/Bov,
opKtov

rov

144

jjuia

Br) S)V

^ovrwv

143

oe

rj

^^pvOpaloLKard

/cat

vvv

\e')(Oe[arjai
o/jloXorrporepov
he
Be
ovSev,
en
yXoicrcrav
rpel^
cr^iai ofMocf^coveovcn.
rfjat

TroXte?

'laSe? 7r6Xte"i,
ra)v

viroXoLiTOL
re

Be al

7r6Xte";avrat

rS
erratcr'^vveaOat
ovvofMarc

avrcov

rcS

re

ovvo/mart

rjydXXovroKai lepov

erri a^ecov avroiv,


rcS ovvofjta edevro
TLavtcovtov, e/SovIBpvcravro
Be avrov
dXXotat
Icovcov (oi)8
Xevcravro
fxeraBovvat/jiTjBajnocat
Be ovBa/xolfjueracr'^elv
ort
eBerjOrjcrav
irep ol
fjurjZ/Jtvpvatot)'
Be e^a7roXto"^
eK
rrj"^TrevrairoXto'^ vvv
'^wpr]^ Acoptet";,
irporepov
Kara

slightlydifferingdialects."

"Four

Scarcely any

trace

be detected

can

tions which

we

possess.
the same

"

In consequence

And

use

of

these

differences

in the Neo-Ionic

inscrip-

duct
Ionic

of the

cowardly con-

lonians

revolt, which
of ''Ionian"

name
an

dialect."

of the

earlier

Hymn
title.

at

the

brought
into

of the

time
the

contempt.

very
At

date, the i)oetof the Homeric

to

Apollo

is

proud

of

the

T/}9

avTTjf;

Se^aaOao
fcal

TrpoaoLKcov

avTMV
a(f)6(0V

eTiOeaav

fcal K")9

e?
Upov, aX\a
TpLoircKov
Acoplayv
i^eKXrjtcrav
lepovdvojijL7]cravTa"^
irepl

tc3

TptoTTLov AttoXXwi^o?

tov

tov

he irpo^;
KaTrjXoyqae, (^epcov

vo/jlov

tov

TpLTroBa,Sta
irpocrenracro-dXevcTe
tov

TroXte?, AtVSo?

irevTe

re

re
^Irfkvo-o^

koL

tovtol"tl

ovtoi

vvv

fiev

eaBe^aaOai

BvcoBeKa

Zlkvwvo^,
7rpb";

TrpcoTrj

KpaOi^;

TovBe

rjv avTcov

^ovpa

ecT'^e, kol

Qvvojjba

jJueTa Be

dir

7roTa/jio"; detvaof; ecrTt,

BvcoBe/ca fiepea

Br]etveKa

TovTcov

ol "Iwi^e? BvcoBeKa

kol

Yayve^ etau
fjbdXXovovtol
ovacTL,^
iroXXr]Xeyetv
/mcoplr]
TL

Ye

TL

yey

'^

The

Triopian
promontory

stood.

An

which

on

inscriptionfound

.states that

three-

the

was

cape

forked

five years.
Lindos, lalysos,and

the

place

Kameiros

were

foundation, but

occupied by

the

other

Phoenician

settlements

in

the

still exists

on

the

Lindos

southern

coast

tombs

save

southward
Kameiros
coast

ern
^

made

This
the

Dorians

after-

wards

iEgean.

like the

Rhodes, but

of

of

remains

fcal

TOTe

ye

^Icovcov

rjv.

eirel 146

TroXia^

eiroirjo-avTo,

dXXcov

Icovcov i] KaXXtov

invasion

Argolis,Lakonia,

from

Messenia, expel the


part of the

lonians

northern

from
of

coast

the

known

afterwards

Peloponnesos

nothing
lalysos(a little

The

Krathis

as

Magna
history and
originalKrathis

his

"

That

Ionian

than

in

(near Kalavarda)

ing

Aristotle

the

lonians

Homer,

driven

which

by

the

rest,

(alsoin Khios,
ii. 536.

"

at all

are

in

or

any

of whom."

the

historic Thrakians

legend

days.

The

more

way

better."

to

on

his

in

finished

in Arkadia.

was

the

As

of the island.

Herodotos

ended

these

Thurii

past

ran

Grsecia,where

''

to

to

fjuecroyacoc olfceovcn.

the north-

refers

kol

KaTecfyvyovla)ve";

Trjv

Rhodes) and

town

Akhseans, when

IleWrjvrj
Alyau, ev Trj

/juepea,

^iToXtrj7roTa/JLO";

ev

of

of the

vvv

irep

Akhsea.

there every

all of Phoenician

Dorian

at Knidos

KaTo,

oTe

"A^avTe";fjuev ef ^v/3oi7]";

tcov

and

dy(hv took

yvfxviKos

tcov

Knidos

fcal

'

eaTV
^A'y^atMV

vvv

'

0)9

ecrTt

^apet"i/cal "nXevo";, ev
KoX TpcTatet^;,
Av/uLT]
oc
fJLovv.oi TovTcov

UaTpel*;kol
TaoTa

145
^ijfjLLrjv

'PuTre? kol
Aiycov kol
tc3 llelpo";
Trora/AO?
/jbeya";

kol

icTTL,KOI

ttoXcv

e/CT7)v

eXveKa,otl

Acyecpa

oTeo

e"Jcr(oOevTe"^,
fid-^r)
^A'^aLcov

V7T0

ttjv

fiepea,

'RXlkt],e?

kol

ttjv

Y^ajjueipo^i

TavTrjv

"lcova"iBvcoBe/cd
T(x)v
e^eXacrdvTcov
^A'^aiwv
^

Ta

ir6\ia"^iroLrjaaadaLol "l(ove";

Be fioc BoKeovon

lle\o7rovv7]cr(t)
oiKeov,

fjuev ye

TavTTjv

koI

Ki/tSo9,e^eKkrjicrav
Trj"^fxeTO'^rj'^
ttjv

kol

ifkeova^;
e6e\rj(Tai

ovK

dycovL

Kau

eireOr^Kav'SvcoSeKa

ev

to

yap

AXcKapvrjcraov.

fcal

icrfjLrjSa/jLov";

cov

Tolai viKoyaL,
'yakKeov;
tovtov^
Tpiiroha^
aXX
Ik
avTov
XafjL0dvovTa";
lepovfir] eK^epecv
S)V
to5 Oeoo,
tS
dvrjp
A\L/capV7](Ta"v";,
ovvofjua
rjv

oiKLa

alTL7)vat
^

ev

Kya(Tiic\erj"^,
vLKTjaa^

ewvTov

85

iraXat

to

T0v";
XPV^
civaTiOevac
^

EAST.

to

tov";

tt}? fieToyT)^.

THE

"^v\aaaovTat
Kakeofiev7}";,

TavTr}";
tmv

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

who

Pans.

Accord-

Abantes

were
presettled in Euboea

vii.

4, 9).

See II.

HERODOTOS.

86

elcn

eXa-^iCTTTj
/juotpa,

ovK

ovBev, yiivvai

he

ovSe rod

^Iwvir)^fiera

ten

to

[book

koI
J^aSfjuetot
crcfyc
ava/jbefjul'^aTat
^Op'^ofjuevioi^

yioXocrcrol
Kol
^(o/cet^ aTrohdafJUOL
kol
Apvo7r"";
aXXa
eOvea
re
UeXacryol kol
Acopiel^;
^YiirihavpiOi,

Kol

ol
yiefxiyaTai'

Se

Se

rfjcrtOvyarpaai,,
/jurj kot"
tov
l3o)crai

ovvo/juaTL

TOL/9
cr"peci)V

avTrjai

The

menos

wealth

Boeotia

rivals
The

Mykenifi.
rock

were

{II. ix. 381), and


the

been

in

the

of Orkho-

famous

of

have

to

seem

the

shafts

for their

Akhseans

of
the

through
neighhourhood of Kopse

{Topolia) in order

cut

to let off the

of

water

the

Kephissos may have been their work.


A
alliance
between
prehistoricnaval
Orkhomenos,
Athens, Epidauros, Hermione, Prasipe (afterwardsSpartan),and
Nauplia (afterwardsArgive),which met
year

every

historic
of Dr.

island

in the

Argolis, was

of Kalauria, off
in

preserved
The

times.

Schliemann

excavations

recent

have

shown

that the

has

shown

been

to

chamber,
consisted

of four

marble, while
slabs of the

have
the

huge

the walls

led into

ceilingof

angular
rect-

which

blocks
were

material.

of green
lined with

The

ceiling
sculptures
in the
form
of rosettes, spirals,and
mentation
sphinx tails, resembling the ornaand

slabs

same

adorned

were

"

with

"

of

one

of

the

tombstones

yiCkrjTw.

Mykense, as well as of
gold objectsfound in one
there.
The
tombs
Minyans are
founded
Teos
have
(Paus. vii.
the Phokians
Phoksea, while the
helped to found
Khios, and

of the
said

to

3),and
Abantes

the Kadmeians
with

Priene.

It is

2).

Attica

filled

was

all parts

fugitivesfrom

(Thuk.
that

i.

the

probalde, however,
Minor
were
occupied by
Greeks
long before they were
the
by the fugitives from

of Asia

coasts

"

Ionian

reinforced
Dorians.
^

the

When

to
or

The

fire,which

founded,

Prytaneion,was
city.

"Nor

call

her

Kafir

of her

any

Bogo

husbands

women

may

(Munzinger, Sitten

his

allowed

mentally,

even

male
not

from

by

is not

woman

husband's

taken

husband

her father-in-law

name

of

some

always kept

was

the

alightin
^

colony was

sacred

name."

implements, similar to those found


been brought to light.
at Mykense, have
of
The
Minyas," a gigantic
"Treasury
beehive
suries
tholos or
tomb, like the Treaof Mykense, only built of well-cut
of white marble,
and well-fitted blocks

iv

at

Orkhomenos.
stone

TdoTa

of the

the mother

pottery and

irape-

eireiTev

Se rjv yivofxeva

Minyan cityoccupied only the southern


part of the later historical acropolisof
Prehistoric

ov

otl

iralha'^ kol

some

into

name

eiveKa

discovered

"

Be

dvSpdcn /jL7}Se
e^ovevcrdv

rolcn

ojjbocnTrjaai

TdoTa

^AOi^valcov

iirrfKaaavkoX

TovBe
dvSpa,^

crvvoLKeov.

prehistoricMiiiyans
in

tov

opKOV^

dvSpa"^koX

kol

iraTepa^;

7roir)aavTe";

e(cvTrj";

ava-

Kaet/^a? eayov, twv


(^ovov at yvvdlKe"^

aXka

Sea tovtov
"(f)0V6Vcrav
tov";
yovea";.
avrrjcn
avrat
vofjuov depLevaicr(f)i(rc
Boaav

ttoWo,

^Icovcov,
ovroc

elvac

airoiKiiqv

Trfv

"9

riyayovTO

'Ap/caSe?

kol

rod
7rpvTavr]Lov^

rod

anro

avrcov

kol
opfirjOevre'^
vofJbil^ovT6"=;
yevvaLoraroL

yvvoLKa^

ovvofxaTO^;

relations.
name

und

their
Recht

Elsewhere, as in
Bogos, p. 95).
of their
America, persons avoid the use
der

own

names,

while

the

Tahitians

disused

all words

containing a syllableof the


reigning sovereign. It is
clear,therefore,that the custom
ated
originin a fear lest by mentioning a name
of the evil spiritsmight
the attention

name

be

of the

attracted

belonged.
forgotten.

to

In

the person to whom


Miletos
its origin

it
was

^acrCkea^ Se iarriaavTO ol

'IttttoXo^ou
yeyovora^;,
M."\dv6ov,

01

fcal

Se

ol

KaOapM"iyeyovoT6"!;

fjuev

THE

EAST.

87

Avklov";

avrwv

VXavKov

airo

147

rov

ol Se }^avKcova"^ TIvXlov^; airo

K^oBpovrov

aWa
o-vva/i^orepov^;.

irepie'^ovraL
Srj Kal

ovv6/jLaTO";
fjuaWov

rod

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

rwv

yap

^Iwvcov, earcocrav

dWcov

'Icoz^e?*"Lcrl Se

irdvre^ 'Icoi^e?,
baoc

fcal

air

he
i
^Airarovpta'^
ay
eoprr^v
ayovai
irdvre^ irXrjv^^(fyealcov }^o\o(j)0)Vi(ov'
ovtol
yap /jlovvol ^Icovcov
Kal ovtol
/cara
ovK
^Airarovpca,
g-kyj-^lv.
(f)oi'ov
ayoucrc
148
Be TlavLcovLov ecrrl r^}? Mfy^aX?;? p^w/oo? lepo^;
Trpo?
ap/CTOv

*A07]V6(ov
yeyovaai

ova

kol

rtva

to

^Icovcov UoaetSecovc
vtto
e^apacp7}/jievo";'

TeTpa/iifievo";, KOivrj
KCJVLO).

Be

t)

^vfcdX?] icTTL T^9

dvefjLov
"9
lidficp,
KaTTjKovaa
Tyv
eOevTO
"I"jz^e?
dyecTKovopTrjv ttj
he

rjTreipov

Trdaat
6/Ji0LC0"^

dWd

fjbev al

AvTai

[rreiTovOacn
'^Wrjvcov TravTcov

Kal

KaTd

TeXevTcoac,
ypdfi/jia
ovvo/iiaTa.^^

TOL

aecov

ttoXlcov

tmv

Tlavtcovta.^

ovvofia

tmvto

e?

^ecjyvpov

irpoq

diro

avWeyofievot

fjbovvat al ^Icovcov opTaltovto,

ovTL

a/cpi]

*^EXfc-

irep

Tiep-

to)v

149
'laSe? iro\ie"; elat, a'lhe he al Alo\ihe"^,J^v/jlt]

KlWa,
^pLKwvl^ KaXeo/mevT],A7]pcaac,Neoz^ Tet^09, Ttj/jLvo'^;,
NoTtoi^, Alytpoea-cra,
TiLTavrj,
Alyalai,M.vpiva,Tpvveta.^ avTai
evheKa
AloXeayv
7roXte9 nl dp'^alai'
[Mia ydp cr^ecovTrapeXvOr)
^loovcov rjaav ydp Kal avTac
hvcoheKa
al ev
Trj
Z^fivpvTj
77

viro

OVTOL

7)Treip(p.

he ol AloXel^ '^coprjv

he
*l(t)VQ)v,
(hpecov

ovk

rjKovcrav

fiev

Z^fivpvrjv he

ojjboiw^;.

dfjueivco

KTiaavTe^

eTvyov

o)he dire- 150

Kal
dvhpa";crTdaeL e(T(7(jo6evTa"=;
IiLoXo^wvlov^;
virehe^avTO. fjueTa he ol (pvydhe^;
eKirecrovTa^
T7]"^ iraTpiho'^
TO)V
%/bivpvatov"^
}s.oXo"pci)VLQ)V
^vXd^avTe";
tov";
opTrjv e^"w Te['^eo"^

AloXel"^.

^aXov

eK

7roLeo/jLevov";

Alovvo-o),Ta9

irdvTcov

he
^07]67]o-dvT(ov

irvXa^i

d'TroKXrjiG-avTe";
ea'^ov

AloXecov

Apatiiriawas the annual meetwhen


the children
ing of the phratries,
born
during the two or three preceding
The

enrolled

were

years

as

citizens.

It took

o/noXoyir)

This

have
^

Eltea.

place

in

site of

lasted

three

miles

Pyanepsion (November), and


days. On the first {dopiria)
of each phratry dined
the members
tosacrigether ; on the second (avappvais)
fices

the

on
names
^

off'ered to Zeus

were

were

seded

and

the children's
(/cou/jecDrts)
registered.
time of Thukydides (iii.
104)

third

In the

this

Phratrios

feast

by

was

the

in

great

Ephesia.

measure

super-

the
has

Ta

truism

by a Greek,
jEgiroessaother

to

written

place of

In

have

ttoXlv.

e^y^prjaavTo,
absurd

too

seems

been

ttjv

discoveries

Recent

writers
fix the

Kalabassery, a few
of
Kyme, at the mouth
IMr, W.
M.
Koja Chai.
Ramsay
Myrina

north

found

northern

at

of

the
side

site
of

of

the

Temnos

on

the

Boghaz or Pass
leading into the western
part of the
of
plain Magnesia. Menimen, with which
Texier identified it,had no
existence in
Greek
the
period. Phoksea,which intervened between
Kyme and Smyrna, must

HERODOTOS.

88

airo^ovrwv

"7ri7r\a

[book

^Icovcov

tmv

i/cXtireiv

ZfjLVpvrjv AtoXea?.

al evSeKa
ZfjLVpvaicov eTrtBtelXovTo cr(^ea"^
avricov irdXirjTa^;.avrau
7roXt69 /cal iiroirjaavroacjyecov
vvv
fjbiv
Se rdora
'TTocrjadvTcov

151

al

AtoX/Se?
7]7TeipcoTLhe^
avrao.
Ke^copiSarai
yap

7r6\c6";TTjv Aeor^ov

iro\Le"^,e^cotmv
al

Be

ra?

vqaov^

{jrjvyap

ve/jLovrat

rfj "IS?;OLKrjfjbevewv

ev

irevre

e'^ovaav

e/crrjv

puev

olfceorfjAecrj3(p

ev

6 v/jLVa
M.7]
rjvhpairohiaav

iovra^; o/xa/yLtou?)
col
fjbivqv^Apia^av
OLKelrat
iv Tei'eSft) Be fJbla
7roXf-9,fcal ev
rfjac '^Karov
vrjaoLaL
Kal TeveSlotac,
/caXeofievrjat oXXt} /Jbla. Aea^LOtcrL fiev vvv
^

Kara

Icovcov rolau

irep

ra*;

rfjcTiSe XoiirfjaLiroXicn
e^Tjyecovrai.
'^Q9 Be

152

aTTLKovTO

(Kara

ayyeXoL

rrpo Trdvrcov

6?

)jr]crov";
e^ovat,

eaSe

TTjv

Xeyeov

rov

ovBiv

tmv

rdora

^co/caea, rep

ovtol

Kal AloXecov
'Icoz^q)!^

ZiTrdprrjv

ol

elXovro
Trpijcrcrojjbeva),

ovvo/ia

re
elfiaTrept^aXofievo'^,
av
")?
7rop(j)vpeov

6 he
TivOepfjio^.

rjv

rrXelaroL
irvvOavofJuevoL

Kal Karaara"^
%7raprcrjrea"v,'

avvekOotev

hetvov

"Icoctl evrecrdat rfj av


/coLvfj

Srf rd'^o^;
rjv

yap

rjv

eXeye TroXXd

rLfJiwpelv

'^prji^cov.AaKeBacfiovtoLSe ov K(o"; ecrrjKovov, aXX'


"Icocri,,^ ol jjuev Brj aTraXXdcrcrovro,
direBo^eacf)C/jltj rtficopelv
he dirwadfJievoL
^l(ova)V rou";
AaKehaifjiovLOL
rcov
dyyeXov^ Ofico^
ecovrolcri,

drrecrreiXav
roiv

TTOf?
ovroL

re

^coKaiav

69
ro)

rarov,

prj(Tiv, yea";
153

epuolhoKel, KaraaKoKal ^Icovltj^;.


diTLKopbevothe
K.vpov TrprjyfjLdrcov
")?
dvhpa"^,

TrevrrjKovrepcp

ovvofia

/jiev

rov
hoKC/ji(ozdphi^;acfyecov
rjv AaKpivr}^;,
drrepeovra}Lvp(oAaKehac/jLovlcov

eirejJbiTov

rrjf;'EXXttSo9

avrcov

"9

iroXiv
fiTjhe/jblav

atvaficopetv,

ft)9

avrcov

rdora
elrrovro"; rov
wepcoylrofjievcov.
Kr)pvKO";, Xeyerat J^vpov
eovre^
rive";
irreipecrOai
dvOpcoirot
rov";
7rapeovra"=; ol 'l^XXijvcov
rdora
ecovr^
AaKehatfiovLoiKal koctoc
ttXtjOo^;
irpoayopevovcn.
he /jLLV elirelv 7rpo"; rov
rov
TTVvOavo/ubevov
Ziiraprtrjrrjv
KTjpvKa
ehetcrd kco
earl
rolcri
ovK
ev
dvhpa"^roLovrov"^,
'^(bpo";
p^ear] rfj
iroXet
rov
aTTohehey/jLevo^;
69
avXXeyofievoL dXXr]Xov"; ofivvvre";
vyialvw, ov rd ^IcovcovirdOea earac
rotat,
e^airarSyat'^
rjv eyco
^
rd olKrjia.^^
rdora
rrdvra"; ^XXrjvaf}
e"^
rov";
eXXeo-'^a dXXd
ov

"

'

have

been

their

capture of Smyrna.

founded

Oppositethe

'' "

by

tlie lonians

northern

In order that most

after

to assist

time
end
of the

of Lesbos.

Spartiates
might hear of him and come
together."
A
been
to have
a
purple robe seems
in Sparta.
luxury unknown
*
Yet
they had been willing enough

' '

"a

Into
and

swear
^

"

club

").

which

they

cheat

matter

Phoenician
ber

foreigndespot,Krcesos,a

short

before.

to talk

-room,"

come

togetherto

another."

one

seems

(Heb.

about."
borrowed

lislicdh

"a

AecrxVf
from
cham-

HERODOTOS.

90

fievroL

iroiXtv
Ovfim XP^o,/jLijSe

fjbrj iravra

iovcrav
dva/JidpT7]T0L"
fjuev yap

TCI

koL

Se

vvv

tmv

iyco re

irporepov

^epco' rd

irapeovra

dTTeiire fjuev a^i

KLdcovd"^
a(f)6a";

Se

UaKTV7]"i yap ecrrt 6 dScKecov,toS crv


Sotco tol Sl/ctjv.AvBoIo-l Be crvyyvoyfJLijv

vTroSvveiv

VTToSeLcrOat,nrpoetire S
KaTTTfkeveLV iraiheveLv

diroarewai

/mrjre

fjbrjre hetvoi

KeKeve
jjut)eKTrjo-Qat,

Kal
elfJuacrL

rotcri

Ko6opvov"^
Kal
-xjrdXkeiv

Kt6api^"LV
c5 /SaatXev
Taykw'^cr(j)6a";

avTolcn

Kal

re

iralha'^. Kal

tov^

ovBev Setvot
1
cocTTe
dvSpcovo'^eat yeyovora^;,
yvvaLKa";
ol vireTlOeTO,
eaovraL
l^polcro'^
/jlt] diroaTecoaL.
fjuev Sr] rdord
AvholcTL rjdvhpairo^LcrOevTa^
1
evplcTKCov
alpeTcoTepa
nrprjOrjvaL
otl
e7rL(TTd/uL6Vo"^
a"^6a"^,
TrpoTelvr),
rjv fjur)d^LO'^peov
irpocpacTLV
dvaireLoreL jullv fJueTajSovXevcracrOaL,
Be firj Kal vcrTepov
dppcoSecov
ol AvBoi, Tjv
dirocTTdvTe^ diro tmv
vTreKSpd/uicocrL,
Trapeov
dvT

156

tol

dprjia

oifKa
7reiJby\ra"^

re

i^avacmjcry^

ap^airjv

koI
tcov
vvv
earecoTwv.
irporepov
f
cal
eirprj^a iycoKec^akfjdvafid^a^^'^

ovto"^
eirerpe'y^a'^
Z^dpSc^;,
rdSe avroccn
iirira^ov,a)";
e^ft)i^
ecocTL.

[book

tol

TaoTa

ovk

TO

KOTe

diroXwvTaL.
Kal V7rel";
Trj vttoOtJktj
K.vpo"^Be rja6el";
TIepo-ecov
TrelOecrOaL.
Be
ol
Ka\eo-a"^
Ti)? opyri"i ""pr)
M.a^dpeadvBpa M.7]Bov,
TdoTd
iveTelXaTo
AvBolctl
6 Kpotcro?
re
vireTldeTo,
Ta
ol
irpoeLTrelv
ot
Kal Trpo^; e^avBpairoBlcracrOaL
7rdvTa"; fierdAvBmv
aXXov^
tov"^
iirl

Z^dpBL"i
eoTTpaTevaavTo,

dyayelv Trap
15/

/juev

Be

avTov

UaKTVTjv TrdvTco^; ^covTa

ecovTov.

Br)TdoTa

eV r?}? oBov

evTeL\d/jLevo"^
dTrrjXavve
7]6ea
e?

TTa/cTf?;?Be irvdofievo'^
dy^ov etvaL
Ylepaecov,

Ta

lovTa, BeL(Ta";oo^eTo

ecovTov

M^So9 eXdcra^ eirl Ta^


Br) KOTe
e'^cov, ft)? ovk

ZidpBLcrL,
TrpcjTa
iiTLTeXelv,eK

Be
69
}^v/jL7]v.
M.a^dp7]";
(f)evycov

"TL

evpe

6(T7)v
K^vpovcrTpaTov fjuolpav
eovTa"^
tov";
dfi^lTlaKTvrjv
ev

AvBov"^

K.vpov evTo\d"^

rjvdyKaae Ta^

[xo(Tvvr)"^ AvBol

Be KeXeva

tovtov

eir

zdpBL";tov

tov"^

fJuev

crTpaTOV

Be
Tr)9 ^077?fJbeTej3a\ov.M.a^dp7j";

Trjv

tovto

fJueTa

BlaLTav

irdcrav
eirefjure

e?

Tr]v

TlaKTvrjv. ol Be J^VfialoL
}^v/jLr]v
dyyeXov^ eKBLBovaL KeXevcov
crvfJijBovXrj^
ev
rjv
^payx^BrjcrL'
eyvcoaav
irepL e? Oeov dvolcraL tov
'

yap

avToOL

Kal

AtoXet?

^^

The

M.a.(X(T03 is

i(o0ecrav

phrase occurs
to
"rub,"

"smear";

Skt.

Kecf).avaix.

is not

"to

"to

incur

head,"
but

"to

i.e.

knead"

iraXaLov

eK

ixavTrjLov

mach,

or

y^pdaOaL,

in the

Odyssey.

"knead,"

"work

hence
small":

"grind
rub

tS "Icove";
re
IBpvfievov,

off

on

the

responsibility,"
up

with

the

Be

head"
was

instead
the

making
and
means

think

of

with

difference
and

in the

the

between

hands.

T779

It

thought

-making. Both here


the phrase
Odyssey,therefore,

"what
of."

earl

ovto";

^copo?

irdvTe^;

bread

one

will

have

reason

to

"'

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

THE

EAST.

91

S)v ol YLvfJualoi
158
irefju-^avre'^
M.i,\r}o-Lr]";
vTrep Uavop/jiovXifJievo'^.
e"? Tov^
l^pay^lSa^;
Oeoirpoirov^
etpcoTeov irepi TlaKTvrjvokoIov to
Si
Oeolcn fJueXXoiev
iTretpcoTMcn
'^apiela-Oai,

7roieovT"";

opjubrj/ubivov
TrXtJ^eo?,
Apto-To8tKO"; ^Upa/cXelSeco
avrjp tmv

amcrrewv
Kuyu-a/oi;?,
SoKCfjuo'^
^^X^ 1^'^TTOirjcrai raora
Sofcecov
koI
ov
tol/?
Xeyecv a\7]9eo)"i,
OeoirpoTrov^
'^pTjcTfiS
OeoaWot
hevrepovireplTlaKrveay iTrecprjcro/jLevoL
r^iaav

To3
ro

69

eoav

acrrcov
re

co?

rod

Tavrr)

Se

raora

eKScSovao'
op/ubiaro
Js^vfiatoL,

ol

aireveLydivTa
r]Kovaav
Be

TlaKTvrjvTlepayai.

iyepero eKhihovai

yprjaTTjpiov

acpcrdora

he e? ^pay^lSa^
Api.(7r6BcKo"^
aTTiKOfJievfov
rjv.
iravrcov
eK
"cbva^,159
KpiarohiKO'^
i'^pTjcrrrjpia^ero
eTretpcorecov rdSe.
Odvarov
jBlatov
rj\6eTrap*
TlaKrvr]^ AvSo";,(j)ev"ycov
r]ixea"^ l/cer7](;
Kal

ro)v

TrpoTTOc,

Tiepaeayv ol he fjuive^aireovrai,
irpoelvacKu/^atou? KeXevhe heifiaivovref;
ovre";.
r}fiel";
iKerrjv
rrjv Hepcrecovhwafxiv,rov
diro
rohe
eKhthovai,
ov
av
ro
aeo
reroXfiTJ/ca/Juev
rj/julv
irplv
e?
rdora
o
7roiw/xez/." fxev
hrjXcodfj
drpeKeco";
eiretpcara,
oKorepa
7rpo9

S*

avri^

TVaKrvrjv Ileparjcrc,Trpo^
errolec rdhe.
Kal dXXa
he

ovro";

rdora
vrjov

rdora

avrov

irpo";

ApiarohiKO^^

irpovoir]"i;

e^alpet rov"^

crrpovOov'^

eK

kvkXo)

opvlOcov
yevea

i)v vevocraev/Jbeva

(f"epovcrav
jxev
accorare

rov

rrepacov

ocra

Xeyerac

eK
(pcovijv

iv

rdora

eiTrelv

he
J^v/jLalov^

Mva^,

avro"^

KeXeveL"^

rov

rolathe
dfjLeiy^aaOaL

*'

diroXrjcrde,
w?

Xoirrov

/jlt]ro

rdora
'^prjarrjpLovr

PovXofxevoLovre

va\

co?

/juev

ovrco

iva

yeveaOat

rdhe

'*

dvo-

lKera"; fiov

eK

diroprjcravra
irpo'^
iKerrjat^orjOel"^,

rolac

iKerrjveKhthovai
KeXevco,

rov"i

irote-

vrjay,

he

^AptcrrohiKov,
Xeyovaav

rov

rdhe
ru
roXfia^ irouelv
dvOpooTrcov,
Kepat^ec^
AptarohiKov he
;
VTjov
"

ro)

dhvrov

rov

ovk

rov

eKhchovat

KeXevcov
"j(^i'^pTja/iop ecj^atve,

avrov

rov

'

rov

he

avrc";

Odaaov
do-e^7]cravre";

ye

eXdrjreeirl rb
rrepliKerecov eKh6(Tco";

direvei'^Oevra
7]Kovorav

eKhovre"^drroXeaQai

ovre

ol

160
ov
J^v/Jbaloc,

Trap*ecovrolai,

e'^ovre^

e?
M.vrLX7]V7]v. ol he IMivrtXT}TToXiopKelaOai
eKTre/JLirovcrt avrov
valoc e7ri7re/jL7rovro"; rov
dyyeXia";eKhthovai, rov TlaKlSAa^dpeo";
eirl fitaOcoocro)
h'^'
rvr)v TrapecTKevd^ovro
ye
yap
e^co rovro
elirelv drpeKe(o";' yap
ereXecoOrj. J^v/jtatot
efjtaOov
w?
yap
ov

ov

rdora

Aea^ov

irXolov e?
IS/LvrtXTjvatcoVf
7re/JL'\jravre";
he ef lepov
evOevrev
eKKOfxt^ovatTlaKrvrjv 6? X/oz^.

irpTjaaofJieva

eK

roiv

^Adrjvatrj^;
rroXiov^ovd7rocnraa6el"^

This mistrust

messengers

even

of their oracles and

is characteristic of the Greeks.

The

vtto

^tcov

oracle of

fied the

e^ehoOr]'e^ehoaav

Delphi only too well justichargeof briberyand corruption.

HERODOTOS.

92

Be

"7rl

^Lot

oi

earl

rov
^Arapvei/jLLcr6o)'^

Tw

^valrj^;,KeajBov

T7j";

^w^o?

[book

Se

rovrov
^Arapveo^;

YlaKTvrfv fjuev

avrio^i.

ol Tiepaau el')(^ov
iv (fyvXaKy,
Oe\ovTe"; ^vpo)
7rapaSe^dfi"V0L
rjv Be y^povo^

Be^ac

eK

Tov

tovtov
A.rapveo'^

6eo)v ovSevl

6Ki^o"^'yevofjuevo^;, ore
Kptdewv irpoj^vaLV

ovre

iravTcov

iiroLelTO

ovXa^;

irefJUfJiaTa iireaaero

ovre

tmv

re

yero

ovto"^

ra

iepo)V

fcapTTOv

iravra

ivOevrev, airel-

rov

Trj"; ycoprj^;

eK

airo-

ovBel";

^lo)v

ovk

vvv

ravrrj^;

^Lvo^eva.

Xfcot

161

TlaKTvrjv e^eSocrav. Mafap?;? Be

yikvvvv

rdora

fiera

TdffaXov, koI tovto


iarpareveroeVl rov"; av/ji7ro\topK7]aavTa(;
Be M.aidvBpovireBiov Trav
tovto
i^rjvBpaTroBiaaro,
fjuev Tlptrjvea^;
Xrjirjviroueofxevo^;
^ayv7)crL7]vre oio-avTco';.
eireBpafie
crTpaTM,
^

tm

Be TdoTa

162 fieTa

avTiKa

d7ro0av6vTo"; Be

TeXevTa.

vovacp

tovtov

'

iwv
tt}? aTpaTijylrjf;,
Apirayo^;KaTe/Sr]BcdBo'^o';
"yevo"; Kol avTO";
eBauae,
M77809,TOV o M.7]Bcovl3aaLXev"^AaTvdyijf;dvo/jLO)
Tpaire^rj
ToS Kupo) Tr]v jSacTiXTjLTjv
o
avy/caTepyaadfievof;.
ovto^
6)V7)p
VTTO
T0T6
K^vpov crTpaT7]yo^ diroBe')(6el"^
")? aTriKeTO
e? Tr\v ^Icovirjv,

163

7roXLa"; '^cofiaai'

ra?

aipec

evOevTev

'

okco^;

tt/oo? ra

'^cov
'^^co/j^aTa

TeL')(rjpea";iroiricreie, to
eiropOeu.irpcoTrj Be ^coKatrj

yap

ret^ea

ol Be ^coKatec";
^l(ovir}";
eTre'^eiprjcre.

^^XXrjvcove')(^prjaavTo, kol

TrpcoTot

fcal
^l^Tjptrjv

l^vpcrrjVLTjv Tyv
evavTiXXovTO
KaTaBe^avTe"^'^
Kol

aTri/cofjievoL

TrevTTjKovTepoLcrc.
eyevovTO
^

j^aauXeu

to3

Be
Be

ol ^(OKaiel^;
(f)LXe2(;

Be

CKeXeve
^Icovlrjv

eKXcTTovTaf;

as

"On

condition

of

recompense."

to

seem

have

koL

visited the

TapTrjaaov oyBco/covTa eTea,

does

not

perpetrators of

pieceof treacherywith the punishinflicted by the Eiimenides


npon
the Alkmseonids.
Atarneus
was
opposite
^Mitylene.
^
Magnesia ad ]\I{eandrum, with its
temple still surrounded
by a. pcribolos,
not Magnesia ad Sipylum.
^

AVhen

"Who

he had."
made

the
Tartessos,

known"

Tarshish

0)9

ment,

the

was

haps

far

as

north-western
Anakreon

made

as

irpoiTdcr(f)ea";
okov

which

neighBonr-

extended

per-

Cadiz, Iberia being the


coast of Spain,
(ap. Plin. N. H. vii. 48)

A. live 150

years.

The

same

age

assignedhim by Phlegon of Tralles.


evidently not
Registers of birth were
roundkept in Spain at the time. The
"the
sided
merchantmen
were
shipsof

Avas

"

"

"

{KaTaSeiKvv/j.i).Phoenician
Testa-

fxev

district in the

of Gibraltar

hood

tcl

%ft)/37;9 oiKrjcraL

Tarshish

of the Old

BrjtS dvBpl irpocr-

tovtol)

ment

"

tov

e?

Trj"; ecovTov

this

ttjv

elcrc ol

aTpoyyvXrjcn vrjvcrldXXa

ov

eyevovTO

receivingAtarneiis
Athena

kol

TapTycrcrovovtol

tov

eKaTov.

Brjtl

ovtco

^ABpLTjv

Te

tm

tcjv

elKocri

tov

TapTrjacrov
Trpocrcj^cXel
TapTijcrcricov, ovvofxa
rjv
fiev

Apyav6(""vio";,^
eTvpdvvevae

ejBiwae Be irdvTa

vavTiXlycn /jLaKpycrc

ovtol

voyages

of the Old

Testament, i.e. the

trading-shipswhose

-westwards

were

furthest

to Tarshish.

^ovXovTai,

Se,

fxera

rov
7rv06/iepo";

he

yprjfjbara retvo?
Kal yap fcal r)
Be

tovto

w?

eirrfkaaettjv

ehlSov Se

ttoXlv

a"pi

a^etSew?*

oXlyoccrrdBiOL elcrc,tovto
164
to
fiev BrjTely^o^
avvapfioo-fjuevcoi^.

ev

ovk

'

6 he Apirayo^ o)?
e^eiroirjOri.

eirea
irpola'^oiJbevo^
eiroXiopKetavTOv^;,
^a)Kate2";
/SovXovTat
/xovvov
Trpo/jua'^ecovaeva

w?

aTpaTirjv,

el

ol KaTaj^pa

^o)Katea"^,6

rov^

av^oiro, eSiBov

")?

avTMV

TOiwBe

Tpoirco

93

eireiOe

ov/c

Trepi^aXecrdaL
rrjv
rov
7repLoSo";
Teiyeo"^

^coKaievcrt

Toldi

EAST.

THE

ye

yirjhovTrap

Kal
Xtdcov /jieyaXcov

Trav

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

he

epel'^au Kal

tov

^w/catets"

ev
ol
o'lKrifia
KaTLepcocrai.
OeXeiv
j^ovXevaaaOai
7repirjiJueKTeovTe"^ ttj hovXoavvr) e^acrav
he
Kal eirecTa
ev
o)
/SovXevovTat
viroKpivelaOaL'
r}/iiepr]v filav

Teiyeo"^

avToi, airayayelv eKelvov

eKeXevov

ttjv

Kpirayo^ eiprjelhevai fiev ev


^ovXevaaaOac.
TraptevaL
ojjbo)^he o'(j)L
6 K

ttjv

T6tp^eo9 aTTTjyaye

TOV

airdcravTe^
Kal

Ta

rjv,Ta
Xtou.
he

irdvTa

creptXtot

^coKaLeL"s,eireiTe

e/3ovXovTo

ovk
KaXeofjueva^^

al fjiev e/jLTTopiov

tovtm

Kal
e/c

KaTa-

yvvaLKa";
tcov

tepcov

ypacprj
"

eirl

ecr/SdvTe^eirXeov

v^cov;

ra?

wveofjuevotai

rj he

yevcovTat,

avTMV

Olvovo-aa";

Ta"i

'

165"

TrcoXeiVyheLfjLaLvovTe";
fjurj

vrjao^

ol ^coKaiel'^ icTTeXXovTO

TdoTa

e'lveKa,
Trpo^

Apirayo^^airo

^coKaiTjv eprj/jicoOelaav
dvhpcoveaj^ov ol Tiepaai.

he

TTjv

TeL')(eo"^.

r) Xi6o"^ rj

'^aXKo";

avTol

Kal

eaOevTe^

'

cov

^coKace2"^ ev

oi

6 tl
dvaOrjfjLaTa,
'^(opl"i

he aXXa

o5

ev

tov

fjueXXotevTrocelv,

eKeivot

TeKva
iade/jLevoL
Ta
dydXfxaTa tcl

7revTr]KOVTepov";,
irdvTa, irpo"^ he Kal

dXXa

Ta

aTpaTirjv,

tcl^;

eTTiirXa

Kal

ol

aTrb

orTpaTcrjv

''

diroKXriLcrOr]
tovtov

K.vpvov' ev

e?

yap

dveaTrjOeoirpoiriov
irpoTepov
he TrfviTToXtv, Trj ovvofia
rjv ^AXaXiT]. ApyavOcovLO^;
aavTO
KavTa
ijhrj
TeTeXevTrjKec. (TTeXXofievothe eirl Trjv K.vpvov,
irpwTa
KaTairXevcravTe^i
^coKalrjv
e?
TLepo-ecov
KaTecpovevcrav
ttjv
Kpirdyov ttjv
TTfv (pvXaKrjv,
rj e"ppovpeiirapahe^afjuevrj
irapa
iroXtv,
he,
w?
tovto
la'^vpa"s
acpt e^epyacTTO,
eTroirjcravTO
/jueTCL
he
cttoXov,
tov
KaTdpa";
vTroXetTTOfjuevo)
7rpo"^
Kal fivhpovach^peov KaTeirovTcoaav
Kal
TavTr)(Ti
cojjuocrav [xrf
tovtov
dvaepavrjvac.
irplv69 ^coKairjvij^ecvirplvr) tov fjbvhpov

Trj K.vpvqyeiKoat

eTecrt

eK

tovtcov

tcov

tm

ecovTcov

aTeXXofxevcDV he
^

Old

of Kew
Venetians
of

lies

Fokia

Fokia,
or

temple

exist

front of the harbour


"

founded

town

on

The
a

Writing rather than


being on stone
inscriptions
-"

the

substructions

small

of Old

by
island

or

in

GInussse

"

Corsica.

tmv
rjiJblaea"^

(now Spalmadori) are

between

the

mainland

and

part of Khios.

Alalia,afterwards Aleria,
in B.C.
originallyfounded
572, on
the east coast
of the island, was
dostroyedby Scipio(b.c.262), but restored
and

painting,
bronze.

The

five islands
the northern

Fokia.
"

K^vpvov,'^
virep

Trjv

little to the south

Genoese,

eVl

avTwv

HERODOTOS.

94

eXa/Se iroOo^

aaroov

oIkto"^ Trj"^TroXto?

koI

re

[book

rjSicov

tcov

kol

Be yevo/xevoL
oirlcrco 69
airenrXeov
TTJf;'^ciop7]";,yjrevSopKtoc
rrjv
oi
Be
i/c
avrcbv to
^(OKalrjv.
aepOevTe"; tojv
opfctov i"^v\a(Taov,
166

Olvovaaecov

eirXeov,

KOLvfjfxera

tcov

eireire Be

eviBpvcravTO.

r)yov

Tvpa7]volfcal
^WKatel'^

Brj

jap

d7ravTa";' aTpaTevovTat

eir

o)v

eir

e^rjKovTa,dvTia^ov

avTov";

e?

at

elKocTi al

/juev yap

rjaav

Td"; yvvalKa^; /cal

Kol

T"Kva

eirXeov

6?

vee^

TrXe/crrou? Kal
^

Ay

vXXa

to i(TL

tcl

iravTa

'

irapuovTa

tcl

eXayov

dvBpa"^
oi

tov^;
re

'^copov, iv

tov

iroXXm

avTcov

e^ayayovTe"s KaTeXevaav.

tovtov^

fieTa

Be

ol ^a)Kaiel";

tq)

Kal
diTOTrXriKTa,
o/jLolco";Trpo/SaTa

Kal
Kal
BcdcTTpocj^a
e/jLwrjpa
viro^vyia Kal dvOpooiroL.ol Be

by Sylla. The Delphic oracle largely


promoted colonisation at this time, urging

of the

name

xxvii.

10

KaTaXevadevTe";

of Greek

the foundation
the

part of the

western

eytveTo

eKeaTo,

colonies

(as,for example, at Kyrene), which


hitherto

been

cians.

The

in the hands

these

in

handsome

had

of the Phceni-

merchants
pilgrims and
settlements
brought
trading

from

Hence

in

Mediterranean

to

revenue

Ax)ollowas

the patron

the

oracle.

god

of

new

colonies.
^

The

Traces

the Etruscans.

Tyrseniansmean
of their trade

have

been

with

The
less

was

Carthada

; Isid.

''Old

(Solin.Polyh.
xv.
1, 30).

Hisp. Et.

Town

"was

either

Utica

or,

probably,the

mother-cityTyre.
^
i.e. a victory which
produces more
harm
than
The
rived
profit.
phrase is defrom
the combat
between
Polynikes and
Eteokles
by Plutarch, from
the conquest of the Seven
Heroes
by
the Thebans, which only led to the return
of the Epigoni,by Eustathios
(ad Horn.
II. iv. 407).
"^

The

lacuna

has

been

conjecturally
supplied thus : SteXaxov, tQiv 5k Tvparjextended
vQv
southward
to Campania,
oi 'AyvWaioL. Agylla was
said to
have been founded
with the Carthaginians
and their fleets contended
Pelasgians."
by the
command
The
for the
of the
of its port, Pyrgi, and
its
name
basin
of the Mediterranean.
consultation
of the Delphic oracle, go
north-western
far to show
that it was
The Latin Carthago is the Greek
not
originally
Caere
Karkhedon, both attempts to reproduce Etruscan, and that the later name
indicates its passingunder
the Phcenician
(now Cervetri)
Kiryath-Khadashath or
as

far north

as

Belgium

; their

met

tion
colonisa-

"

"New

Town."

The

older

Latin

form

dXXrjv KTrjcrcv ocrrjv olai re


direvTe"; ttjv l^vpvov
eireiTa

ttjv

Kal ol Tvpcrrjvol
J^ap^TjBovcoL

re

^AXaXlrjv dveXa/3ov

cF"pLdyetv, Kal
'^Vrjyiov,tcov Be Bia^Oapetaecov
veoov

iyivovTo al
167

at Be
BiecpdapTjaav,
direaTpdc^aTOyap tov";

a^prjaTOi'
Be e?
t7]v

/caTa7rX(o"TavTe"i
e/jL^6Xov";.

ctv/jl-

^(o/caievat

cr"pci/ee?

TecraepaKOVTa

TTepieovaai

TreXayo';.
Tolcrc

vlkt)

Be

dpcO/jLov

iovTa

%apBoviovKokeofjuevov

to

ol

e^rjKovTa.

TrXola,

tcl

irepLoiKOv^;

Xoyo) y^pTjadfJuevoi

kolvm

avTOL

tov";

lepa

kol

irevTe,

e^epov

kol

Be Trj vavfia'^lr)
K.aB/jbeirj
fjLL(T"y6vTcov
rt?

iyeveTO'

eTea

vrjvcrleKOLTepoL
K.ap'^rjBovtoi,'^

Kol
7r\r}pc6cravTe";

otKeov

K.vpvovairiicovTO,

rrjv

aTn/cofievcov

irpoTepov
koI

e?

Etruscan

rule.

THE

I.]

^AyvWacoo

OF

EMPIRES

THE

EAST.

95

AeX^oi'? eirefxirov jSovXofjievoLaKeaaaOai

e?

dfjuaprdBa.r) Be

e/ceXevae
TLvOltjcrcj^ea^

eTTLreXeovcrc'
^AyvWaloc en
/cal LTTiriKov
Kol dyoiva yvjJivtKov

rd

Trotecp

Kat

ttjv

ol

vvv

evaylt^ovala"^i fJbeydXoi^

/cat yap

eiriCTTdcri.

ol Be
^(DKaueOdV
TOLOVTM
fJiOpM St"'^p7]cravTo,
ivOevrev
KaTa"^v'yovTef;
opfjueofjievoieKTrjaavro

kol

ovtol

aVTMV

"9

tmv

fiev

VrjJiOV

TO

ttoXcv

tt}?

"yea";

Be ravrrjv
^Te\r}^Kokelrai' e/crtorav
OlvcoTpirjf;
Tavrrjv
rjTi"s vvv
HoaetBcovcTJTeo)
[xa6ovTe";
K.vpvovcr"pi
0)9
rj UvOlt]
7rpo9 dvBpb";
aXX'
eovra,
TJpcov
rrjv vrjaov.^
e'^prjae KTiaac
168
^o)KaL7]";
ovtco
^Icovlj)
jjbev
irept ttj'^
ecryjE,irapaifkr^o-ia
rov

ov

ev

vvv

^e

TovTOiac

eTTolrjaav. eTrelre

^rjioi

kol

elXe
cr(f"e(ov

yap

eajBavre^ 7rdvTe"; "9


Tefc^09 '^Ap7rayo";,
Kal ivOavra
eKTtaav
olyovTo 'TfKeovre"^ iirl T7]"; ^pr][fC7]";,
tovtcov

TTporepo^
dW^
viro
dir(jiivr}To,
TO)v

L7}Lcov

AporjpoLai

ev

Ovtol

0)9

rjpcof; e^et.

^Icovcov fiovvoc

vvv

fiev

ttoXlv

Tcfi'^aioi;
KTtaa^;
KXa^o/jbevco^;
vvv
viro
%pr}lK(ove^e\aa6el";Ti/jid";

"A^Br]pa,"TTjv
ovtc

ifkola

ra

TO

ycofiari

ttjv

BovXoavvrjv ovk

169
dveyojxevoi

ol B dWoc
Bed
"I")z/69ttXtjv M.i\7]aLcov
7raTplBa"^'
Apirdyw /caTd irep ol eKXiTrovre^, Kal
/jLd^r}";
fiev diTLKovTO
dyaOol ireplttj^ ecovTov
CKaaTO^
dvBpe"^eyevovTO
fjua'^ofievoCy

e^eXcwov

Ta9

'

eaacoOevTe^

Kal

Be

d\ovTe";

KaTa

efievov

Kal

eKacTTOo

'^coprjv
Kal
009

Ta

Be,
IsJiCkrjaLOL
fxot
irpOTepov
avTO)
iroirjcrdfjuevoi
ovto)
etpTjrac,
K.vp(t),
opKtov
rjav^tTjv r^yov.
eBeBovXcoTO.
Be
Brj TO BevTepov^Icovli]
ev
tol'9
ct)9
rjirelpw
Ty
eireTeXeov.

eiriTaaaoiJLeva

'

"I")z/a9

ol Ta9
i'^ecpdxjaTO
Ap7rayo";,
TdoTa
avTov"i
KaTappcoBi]oravTe"i
a(f)ea";

Be ^Icovcov Kal
J^eKaKcofievcov

known

Better

whence

the

phanes

and

Parmenides

Eleatic.

given by

that

known
^

or

as

**The

Peestum, southward

Kyrnos

was

colonists to

into which

they had
is better
of

the oracle had

hero,

was

Naples.
bidden
not

the

of
convenient
Avay
very
explainingaway the failure of the oracle.
island."

Kyrnos
i.e. the
had

was

called

sun-god

discovered

the

of the

and

son

of

Herakles,

Phoenicians

colonised

1|

The

ruins

miles

south

land

name
"

Poseidonion

vine,

establish

them

the

Vineland

the Greek

part of Lucania

imported the

took
"

the

of Xeno-

who

the island.

Kupo).*

eBoaav

ovBev

avWeyo/mevcov

Elea,

or

philosophicschool

CEnotria

name

Velia

as

e'^ovTe"; "l(ove";

vr](TOV^

north

of Teos

of

of

lie

rjaaov

on

an

Sighajik
They

of

consist

theatre

the

isthmus
the main-

on

Samos.

little else besides

"9

and

the

temple of Dionysos.
Abdera, originallyfounded
by the
Phcenicians,and the birthplaceof Protagoras, Anaxarkhos, and Deraokritos,is
-

lost in the

now

marshes

of

Bulusra

or

Balustra.
^

H."

"Entered

Compare

into
vi.

9;

struggle
^skh.

with

Prom.

121.
^

Samos, however, continued


pendent until the reign of Darius.

inde-

170

HERODOTOS.

96

[book

avhpa Uptrjvia

TIavtcovLov, TTvvOdvo/jLai
yvco/JLTjv ^lavTa

TO

airo-

dv a^u
rfjel eireiOovro,irapel'^e
he^aaOai "Iwcrt '^prjcrcfjbcoTdrrjv,^
(ttoXo)
b? eKeXeve
"Iwz^a?
kolvm
evZaifJLOvelv
'^jWtjvcov
/judXicrra'
iroXtv
irXelv e? SapBo)koL eiretra
fiiavKTi^ecvTrdvrcov
depOevra'^
KoX ovTco
SovXoavvr]^evhatjxovrj^\(tiV(DV,
d'jraXka')(6evTa'^
cr(f)ea";
aeiv,

dW(ov'
"TL

diraaewv

re

vrjawv

he

fxevovau

Btayro?

fiev

eirl
TIptr)veo";
yvwfjLrj
Kal irplvrj StetpOapTJvat

tov

"Icoat yevo/juevr], 'y^prjarr]Be


Si,e(f)Oap/xevoL(TL
"aXeoj
^IcovLTjv
dvBpo";M-cXtjctIoveyevero,

i6vT0";^olvLKO^.

Kal

dp'^ovra';
e"p7]evopdv e\evOepi7)v

vepLOfjuevov^

ovk
ev
rfj Iwz^tT;
cr(f)L

avrrj

ecrofjLevrjv.

fie"yiaT7)v

dveKaOev

to

yevo^

"Icova^
/BovXevTtjptov

iKT7]cr9ac,
Be dWa^
ev
ra?
(Tecoz^
"Icovirjs;),
TO
yap
elev.
TToXta?
ouceofjLeva"^ rjacrov vopn^eaOai KaTa
irep el Brjfiot
TOcdcrBe direBe^avTO.
ovTOL
yvcit)/jLa"i
fiev Bijcrept
09

ev

/juecrov elvac

Tea)

Be elvat

171

eKeXeve

Be KaTacrTpe'y^dpLevo'^
^Icovirjv
eiroceLTO
"ApTrayo";
(TTpaTr)[r)v
eirl Ka^a? fcal YLavvlov^ Kal Avklov(;,^
Kal "l(ova";
d/xa dy6/jLevo";
5

{Hist, of CI, Greek Lit. i.


Maliaflfy
p. 178, edit. i.), comparing the verbally
of Diog. Laertius,i. 5,
similar statement
concludes
that in Theognis 757-68 we
actual fragment of Bias prehave
an
served,
describingthe blessingsof the
proposed Ionic settlement in Sardinia.
^
it apComp. V. 106, vi. 2, whence
pears
that Herodotos
thought Sardinia
But
the largestisland in the world.
be
to
seems
larger,
even
Sicily
^ The
Phcenician
ancestry of Thales,
of Greek

science,and

ruins of their

capitalKaunos being upon


ing
a
stream, the Koigez, and includlearn from
We
Cyclopean walls.
isted
exThukyd. (i. 8) that Karian tombs
in Delos.
Kohler
has suggested
that the remains
found
at Spata and
small

Menidi

in Attika

settlers ;

but

artistic

nor

Lydos,

and

may be those of Karian


of this there is neither

architectural
Kar

were

proof. Mysos,
(cp. vii.
called Lydian

brothers

74, where the Mysians are


colonists); but while the remains

of the

of

one
Lydian language preserved in Greek
of the
cant.
signifiglossesare Aryan, the remains
Karian
See note 1 on the first ch. of this
to be so.
tongue hardly seem
Thirteen
Karian
book.
His
philosophic system, which
inscriptions,in an
of
from
derived
the world
water, was
alphabet only partiallydeciphered as
Phoenician
in
mogony
cosyet, have been discovered, all except
Babylonian origin:
the watery chaos from
the
Mot was
one
(from the ruins of Krya, on
evolved.
Gulf of Skopea), in Egypt, where
has been
which
the universe
they
The
inscribed by the Karian mercenaries
were
astronomy of
Comp. Gen. i. 2.
from Chaldea, where
of Psammetikhos
and his successors.
A
Thales equallycame
list
of
Karian
had
been
is
contained
names
regularly predicted long
eclipses
in the inscriptionfound
in the castle of
centuries before.

the founder
the

seven

The

follow
was

lived

men

statements

have

better
most

wise

native

of Hellas, is

of Herodotos

he

of Halikarnassos, and

so

acquainted with

other Greek
between

which

specialimportance,as
the Karians

writers.
Karia

and

The

than

Kaunians

Lykia,

the

Budrum

(Newton,

Archceology, pp.

Essays on Art and


semi427, etc.) The

mythical Lelegesare as ubiquitousas the


Pelasgians. They turn up in Lykia and
Akarnania
(Strab.),
(Aristot.),Karia
Ida (Nymph.), Samos
Mount
(Menodot.),

HERODOTOS.

98

elat ol

[book

TTOLrjad/jievot
TrpcoroL'

Se

o^dvcovi"pop"ov
ol irep icodeaav
dairiCTL 'y^pdaOai,
do'7r[Ba";iravre^
ra^;
reXa/jucoai,
TolcTL
KOl
T6
TOtCFC
(TKVTlVOLaL
olr)/c[1^0VT""^,
TTEpl
dpLCTTepolcrt
aV'^eCTL

ovTOL

pberdhe

wepL/cei/jLevot.
cofJbOLCTL

Awptet? re

yevecrOai'ov
TOO

Kara

avrol
vofjLi^ovcro
tc3

Se

SecKVvcn

alel

^vXacroiac

iv

^vcroLCTL fJLev /cal AvBolctl


^
K^apcTL' TOP yap AvSov
tovtocctl
dSe\(f)60V(;.

hrjKapa?

0)9

he

kol

yivaov

tov

elvai.
}^p^T7]";
cj)aal

Srj /jberecrTi,

K.dpe";,

iovcrc rolcrc
elvai

8e

ocroo

Kape?

he
avrol

ov

jjuera.
eK

fxevToi

he y\o)(Taav puev wpo^


YiavviKOV
{tovto yap

to

7rpo9

K.apo";

iovre^; dWov

tovtolctl

irpoaKeywpriKaGi

ol

}LapLKov e6vo"^,rj

ol

Xeyovat

J^apal iyevovro,
avro^Oove'^hoKelv e/xolelai,

}^avptoc

e?

Xeyovac
K.prjT6";

ovrco

KacrcyvrjTotaL

e6veo"=;o/Jioy\coaaotrolcn
172 ol

ovrco

koL
avro'^Oova'^
rjireLpd^Ta^,
roS irep vvv.
diroBia'^peco/jbevov'^
Ato? J^aptov lepov dpyalov, rov

/jberecm

fxev

ttoWo)

elvai

ecovTov"^

avro)

vrjcrcDv, koI

twv

o/jLoXoyeovcrtrourocai

"ye

avroi

ixevroi

ovvo/iart

{juev

avev

Ka/^a?')(^pov(i)
varepov

tov";

in:
^'lcove";
e^avecrrrjcrav

kol

TTjv 7]7retpov diTLKovTO.

dWd

Tew?

to

ovk

hcaKplvat).vo/ulocctl he '^pecovTac Ke'^copccr/jievoLcn


dTpe/ceco"^
Kal J^apcov. Totcn
dXkcov dvOpcoTrcov
koXTToWov
TOiV
re
yap
e^ft)

XiCTTOif
"9

eaTi

Kal

iTocTiv,

Kal

r]XLKLr]v re

KaT

dvhpd(TCKal

elXahov
"f"t\oTr]Ta

yvvai^l

(T^t,lepcov^etvcKMV,pbeTeireiTa,

a"9

Kal

iraial.

yjpaGQai Qeolaiy evhvvTe^i


r)^7]hov,
TVTTT0VTe"^
hopaau tov rjepa,

KaXvvhtKMv
173

Kal

elirovTo,Kal ecpacrav
eK/SdWetv

OVTOL

p^ev

TpoTrotcn

thinking
Armenians

tolovtokti

oifka

Ta

aTravTe^

p^e'^pc ovpcov

tmv

6eov";.
^etvcKovf;

tov";

ol

'^pecovTai,

Tolai

he

Kvkioi

Ik

l^prjTrjv
et^ovto iraXatov
he ev J^pTjTrj
irepl
/Sdp/SapoL)hcevec^OevTcov
Tr}"^(^aaiKriirj";

l^ptjTTjf;
Tcop'^alov
yeyovaai
irdaav

he
IhpvOevTCOv

eho^e he
cr^t aTreho^e,

iraTpioiGi
PjOvvov
J^avvioo

crvyyiveaOac

(ttjvyap

that

the

Hittites
to

the

and

Proto-

into

the

same

race.

distant

houses.
the

About

ruins

of

twelve

miles

temple which
the site of the temple
probably mark
Perhaps the devices on the shields of
Herodotos
which
speaks were
originally of Zeus Labrandeus
(derived from the
Hittite hieroglyphics,
which
borKarian
were
an
lahranda, Lydian lahryn,
rowed
Asia
axe
by the people of Western
"). Karios was made a son of Zeus
Minor
and
Torrhebia
during the Hittite occupation of
by Xanthus, and was
the country.
Compare the devices on
worshipped in the Lydian district of
the shields of the seven
Torhebia, according to Steph. Byz. As
champions in the
Thebes.
of informaHerodotos
had special
war
legendary
means
against
2
is
about
his
assertion
of
tion
about
the
Melassa,
Karians,
Mylasa, now
twenty
miles inland, with a pyramidal mausoof the common
their recognition
kinshij)
leum just outside the walls, and numerof the Karians.
Lydians, and Mysians
is valuable.
ous
fragments of ancient buildingsbuilt
belonged

are

"

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

THE

OF

EAST.

99

Kal MtVo), o)? eTreKpdrrjcre


TTalScov %apiT7)h6vo";
re
EupcoTT?;?

TO)V

rfj crrdcreo MtVco?, e^rjXacreavrov


aracTicoTaf;

avrov,

Avklol

vvv

rrfv

yap
ol 8e MtXmt

MtXua9,

Tfv

ol he aTTCoaOevTe'^ diTLKOVTo

MtXuttSa*

Tr)v

^^

Kal

ovvofia

KaXeovTat

"T0

vvv

'^

Be

Avko^; o
ef ^AOrjvecov
Kal ovTO^
viTO
cnTLKeTo
Tov
Alyeo";,
d8eX(f"eov
Avkov
tov
ovtco
Srj Kara
Trapd ^apTTTjSova,

Tep/jblXat'
ft)9

t"

fjuev

Sr)

rjveiKavTO

ol
Avkcoc,
Trepcol/ccov
TlavSiovo";,e^eXaaOel^;

tcov

viro

reojf;

Trip

to

TraXacov

to

vefJbovrai, avrrj

eKoXeovro

Tov"i

rrj^ Actlt]^69 yrjv

aoXv/jlooeKaXeovro.

tote

Z^apTTijScov
^px^) ^^

avTO)V

/cal
Z^apTrrjSova

re

"9

Tep/jbtXa(;

tov^

ttjv

eTroovv/uuLrjv

dvd 'xpovov eKXrjOrjcrav.vojjbOLcn he tcl


AvKLOL
jjuev J^prjTLKolai
Be roBe
Be
cBiov vevo/jLiKacri
TO,
ev
l^aptKOLcrc-^pecovTai.
dnrb
olXXoktl
Kal ovBajJbolcTi
KaXeovcro
dvdpcoTrcov.
crv/jL(f)epovTai
Kau

fjbrjTepcovecovTOV^

TMV

The

"the

plain

still known

was

time

as

The

of Herodotos.
extended

province
Justin

' '

Asia

of

continent
Minor.

"

"Asia

(see
that

seem

name

(in Asia

speaks

denoting the

is called

"Asia"

denote

to

of Asia

first

Kayster

in II. ii. 461

4), and it would

ch, 104, note


it

of the

mead"

Asian

airo

ovkl

in
was

the

the

wards
afterRoman

According to Pliny {N. H. v.


Steph. Byz., the Pisidians were
Khoerilos

(a poet of the fourth

B.C.) stated

that

the

Hebrew

27) and

sulldm,

ladder.

by the
Solymi

name
"

The

vi. 184, sq. ;

mentioned, II.
"^

The

Tramele

Od.

v.

Herodotos

is the

and

in
was

rule

among
descent

the

trace

of the

Tremileis

native inscriptions
Steph. Byz.
mistaken
here,as it
primitive tribes to
through the mother

Even
through the father.
Sir
J.
hunting tribes," says
among
unable to
were
Lubbock,
though men
maintain
so
a
s
wives,
still,
changes
many
of frequent occurrence,
the tie between
are
' '

not

' '

mother

stronger than

Solymi.

to its father."

century

Africa

Solymi formed
part of the army of Xerxes, inhabited
of a lake (supposed to be
the shores
Egridirby Leake),and spoke the Phcenihowever,
cian language. The last assertion,
was
probably due to the fancied
of the word
Solymi to Hierosimilarity
form
the
Greek
of Jerusalem.
solyma,
rate
At
Josephus {Cont. Ap. i.)
any
takes it for granted that Khoerilos meant
the inhabitants
of Judsea, though he
describes the Solymi as having "sooty

latter

' '

283.

In the

extended
xiv. p. 952), who
once
from
the
Tauros
Lykia to Pisidia,
along
904

single tuft of
Solyma were

and

explaining the

in contradistinction

the

except

Klimax

As

different mountains, there is little reason


for

as

Augustan
plateau,4000 feet
age Milyas was
is
the sea, the capitalof which
above
bounded
Almali.
It was
now
by Tauros
and Solyma
Klimax
the north, and
on
Strabo
makes
the Milyans
the east.
on
well as the Kabalians
as
Solymi (xiii.
p.
to

heads," all shorn

Be

V
eipo/jievo

iraTepwv

hair.

are

and

Minor),
Major"

tcov

and

that which
On

man's

children,

as

child

is

binds

also

sister's

Central

in

of

coast

his

are

child

the western
heirs

much

Africa

the
Travels, i. p. 153), on
(Caillie's
gascar.
Congo, among the Berbers,and in MadaDescent
mother
to

among

reckoned

was

the

Polybios, and

from

Lokrians, according
is

still among

Kasias, Kochs, and Nairs of India.


is transmitted
alone
Tr(ms.
chiefs

on

the Malabar
Ethn.
successor

the Battas

the

Soc.

through females
(SirW. Elliot,
1869, p. 119). A
coast

is his sister's son

of Sumatra

the
perty
Pro-

and

other

amonsr

Malay

HERODOTOS.

100

/cal t?)?
ttXt^ctIov
KardXe^et ecovrbv /xrjrpodev
Ti"^ elt],

rov

erepov

juLTjrepa^;. koI

ra?

/jL7]Tpo";avav"/jb6LTat

Sov\(p crvvoiKijarj, yevvala


aarb^

koI

ra
dri/jba

Ol

174

[book

7rpa)To"; avTMV

vvv

ovhev, 0VT6
Be Kol dWoL

KaX

avrjp

^eivr)v
rj iraWaKrjv

e^^,

tjv

ol

aTroBe^d/jLevoc
Ka^oe?dTroBe^dfievoL

'^(oprjv olKeovai'

rrjv

diroLKOU J^vISloc
AaKeSat/JLOvlcov

e?
Tr)?(T^6rep7j";
T"TpafM/jLev7j"=;

Be eK
dpy/jLev7]";

aarr)

he

avrol

'^Wrjvcov ravTijv

oaoi

yvvr)

Xafiirpov epyov

ovre
Apirdyov,

viro
iSovXcoOrjcrav

ye

vevo/jbio-rac'

yvvacKa

ylverai.
K^dpe^;ovSev

reKva

jxev

reKva

ra

rjv fiev

KaXelrat,'
BrjTptoTTcov

to

ttovtov,

oiKeovcn

ol Tr]"; p^co/??;?

l^epcrovrjaov
Trj"i^v^acrairj^;,
eovcrT]^;

Tri"^

re

7rdo-7]";
ttXtjv 6\ly7]";
T^9 Kz^tSt?;?
avrrj^;
irepippoov (rd jxev yap
rd
Be
atoXtto? direpyet,
o
K^epajjueiKOf;
7rpo9 ^operjvdvefjuov
7rpo"^
koI
re
%v/jbr]v

Tj Kard

voTOv

oaov

eov

TovTo,

re

to
ddXacraa),

aTdBua,

nrevTe

evrt

^VoBov

oiv

Br)oXiyov

ol ILvlBlol

copvcraov

ev

ocroy

"

/SovXofjuevoi
Kp7rayo"^T7]v ^Icovltjv
vrjcrov ttjv
KaTecrTpe^eTO,
Be
irdad
evT0";
eyiveTO'tj}ydp y J^vlBlt)
cr"^L
'^(oprjv TTOLTJcrat.
ecrTi
tov
X^PV ^"""^V^ TjTreLpov TeXevTa, TavTr} o laOfjio^
oypvaaov.
Kol
K.vtBL(ov,
Br] TToXXy %etpi. epya^o/jievcov
tcov
fxaXXov ydp tl
ol
oI/coto"=;
KOL
tov
e^alvovTOTiTpooaKeaOai ipya^ofievoL
decoTepov
Td
dXXa
Ta
tov
re
fxaXuaTa
irepltov^ cx^OaXfjuov^i
crcofJLaTO"; Kai
6pavo/jLevr]";
OeoirpoTTOv;
ttj^ 7reTpr]"^,eirefXTrov e? AeXcpov'^
eireiprjBe
Ki^tStot
avTol
TO
UvOlr] crc^i,
dvTi^oov. r)
")?
GOfxevov^

Xeyovcro,%/Oft ev

TdBe.

tovw

TpifieTpw

Be firf irvpyovTe
Icr6/JL0V

Zeu?
^vlBioi

"

tov
T[vd[r)"^
t"
6pvy/jLaT0";
'^prjcrdcrr]'^
"

ttj^

'ApirdycpeiriovTL
irapeBocrav.
rjaav

Koi

eiravcravTO

175

ydp

fjiev TdoTa

/jLtjB^
opvcro-eTe'
eQt)Kevrjdov, el k e^ovXeTO^
tm

avv

d/jLa')(7]T

aTpaTM

Be

T\.7)Baael"^
oiKeovTe^
virep
tl
tolctl
\
ok(o";
/jueXXotdvenriTrjBeov
eaecrOai,avTolcri re koX tolcfl TrepcoLKOtcn, r) leptr)
ttj^ A6r}pa[7j"i
ovtol
tmv
tovto
irepl
cr(f)i
Xayei. Tpi"^
TTooycova pueyav
eyeveTo.
avTov";
cr(f)ea"^
AXiKapvTjcrcrov
/jueaoyatav,

'

'

Kal irprjy1
')(^p6vov
dvTecr'^ov
Apirdytd
'^

dvBpoivfiovvolre
l^aplrjv
tribes

(Marsden's Sumnti^a, p. 376),and

descent

is in the female

Iroquoisand
Indian

line among
the
other North American

most

tribes, as

Tongans

of the

well

as

the

among

Pacific and

some

of the

Australians.
"

"Even

though

he

is their

leading

man."

.*^

"As

looks

for

towards

,e

of

the

sea

it is called

now

"

Triopian peninsula and juts out


(apx^)from the Bybassian Khersonese
between the mainland
e. the peninsula
{i.
Se ch, 144, note 2.
and the Trioj^ian).
the

"

"

"

isthmus,

Dig

not the

An

island it

.^"^"^-^^.tS**^

"

them, since their country

"MsLj/a,^,,
-^:^

were

had

nor

build

Zeus

will'd."

ifkelaTa,

irapeayov

fjuara

Il7jBa(T6t";
jxev
^

advOcov

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

vvv

101

ovvo/xd

ro)

Se, (w?

Avkcol
i^aipeOrjaav'

'^povqy

TreSlov rjKaae 6

EAST.

rec^La-avref;

opo^

^'

THE

rov
Ap7ra"yo";

iaTC

69

to

176

ical
i7r"^L6vT"";

arparov,

direSeifcvvvTo,
icrcrcodivre^
dperd^;
fxaj^ofjievoLoXlyoc7rpo"; ttoWov^;
dcrrv avvrfkiaav e? T7]v aKpoirdXiv
Se Kal KaT"ik7)0evTe'^
e?
to
T"

ra?

Kal

Kal rd

^vvaiKa's

virr^-^avttjv

eireuTa

Se

rdora

Kal rd

reKva

aKpoiroXiv

Kal

7rotr}aavTe"^

irdaav

avvo/xocravT6";

Trdvre^;advOioi

dovT""; direOavov

Kal

'^pyfjuara

rov^

otKera^;,

KaieaOai.

ravrrjv

Secvov^;,
iire^eX-

opKov^

Se

iJLa')(oiJbevoL.rcov

Avklcov

vvv

^avOlcov elvat ol iroXkol,ttXtjvoyScoKovratcmaicov,


(f)a/jLev(ov
at
he oyScoKovra larlaL
avrat
iTTTjXvSef;'
Kal ovrco
iKS7]/jL"ovaat
irepceyivovro.
rrjv

erv^ov
jxev

rijviKavra

Stj^dvdov

"

Se Kal rrjv J^avvov


7rapa7r\7]aLa)";
ecT'y^e6 Apirayo^;,''
rd TrXico.
ydp ol J^avvtot tov"^ Avklov"; ifjbc/ji7]cravTo
Td
he

jjiev

dvco

ovSev

Karco

vvv

'7raptei";.

ra

fjuev

TrXeco

Kal

irXelarov

irovov

re

rd
iirolei,

177

KaTao-Tpe^ofxevo^Kal

eOvo^

avroyv

vvv

ovto)

ecr'^6' Kal

'Acrrr;?ApTrayo^;dvdarara

irdv
lLvpo";,

avTO"^

avT7]";

TTapecrye

ttj^

elcrl

rd

'Traprjaofjuev

d^LairTjyTjTorard
eari,

he

ol

rovrcov

eirijjLvrjaoiJLaL.

eirelTe rd iravra
l^vpo";
AacrvploLaL eireTideTO.

dWa

evOa

^aatXijtaKaTeaTrjKei,
iv

KetTat

ecrrl jjuev
^A(TcrvpL7)";

NtVou
(T(f)L

The

town

native

of Xanthos
coins

is called Arina

TOiavTrj

pbeTcoirov

Kal

Britisli Museum

yevofievr]";

hrjtl^

rd

ttoXl^.

eXKocri Kal

eKacTTov

aTahtot

ovtoc

TeTpaycovov

Kal

kov

ovofiaaTOTaTov

dvacTTaTov

eovcra
Trehicp
fxeyakw, /jLeya9o";

the

he

to

rjv ^a/SvXcov,eovcra

(TTahiddv,eova7](;

eKaTov

"

Tr]"; he

fieydXa iroWd,
TToXla/jLara

IcryvporarovKal

178
iirocTJcraTO,
viro'^elpia

Tr]"; rjireipov

Trj";

mentions

ireptohov

Kaias, "the

and

to
inscriptions son of Harpagos"; but as this seems
100
also
later
to
a
(Arna in Steph. Byz.)
Kopiile
periodnearly
belong
years
the coins of the place,and
than
the Persian
on
conquest of Karia, a
appears
the district in which
denote
different Harpagos must
be meant,
Arina
may
^
Rawlinson
the Babylonians
Canon
Herodotos
stood, as
means
suggests.
Xanthos
of the
who had succeeded
to the power
was
primarilythe Greek name
which
of the river on
Arina
stood, and
Assyrians. The same
inaccuracyoccurs
called Sirbe or Sirbes by the
The
which
in 2d Kings xxiii. 29.
was
conquest of
See
natives (Strabo,xiv. p. 951; Steph. Byz.
Babylonia took place in B.C. 538.
ad
II.
xii.
Eustath.
II.
907s.v.
Appendix
TpefiiXr)
;
on

"^

30).
1
,

"Belonging

to

the

"families," a peculiaruse
v.
Comp. iiriaTia,
The
Lykian
-

hearth," i.e.
of the word.

obelisk

native texts
and
of

72.
now

in

the

Nineveh

Ninua

"

"

was

or

of Accadian

Nina

in

the

foundation,

representedby the mounds


Kouyunjik and Nebi Yunus
opposite
is

Mosul.

now

HERODOTOS.

102

Tr)9 TToXfco? ^ivovrai


TO

ixev

Se
iK6Koajiir]TO

ovBev

ft)?

ean

dXXo

irpcordjjllv ^aOea

fiev

oyhcoKovra koX

avvairavTe^i

rocrovrov
fJLeyaOo";

vvv

[book

?7//,efc9lS/ul6v.

rcov
TToXtcr/jLa

KaX

re

rerpaKocnoi,^

dareo^; rod ^a^vXcovlov,

rov

evpea

Td(f)po";
irepiOel,

TrXerj vBaTo";

koI

iov to evpo^i,
fierdSe retp^o? rrrevr^Kovra
fiev 7r7]^e(ov /Sao-cX'tjicov
6 8e /3acriX7]Lo^
vyjro^Be Sltj/coctlcov
Tnr^ecov
tttj^^v^;tov
fxeTpiov
SaKTvXoLcro.
Bel
179 ecTTl irrj'^eo';
Brjfxe tt/oo? tovtolcfl
/jue^cov
Tpial

f^pdcraiIva

eTi

ovTLva

Tec'^of;

re?

yijvT7]v

Trjv

ifKivOov^

ioiTT7]aav

Ta

Tac^pov

Trjv

iK(f)"pojjLevr)v,
ev

avTa^;

Kafiivoicn'

Bid

koI
da(f)dXTa)
Oeppufj

Be

tov

fjbovvoKcoXaeBeifjiav,
TeTpa/jL/jLeva

avTo

Be

jxeTa

Bopbwv

Tpir)KovTa

Ta

dXX7]Xa'

e?

fjuev

tov
avTov
Tel'^o";
ecr'^aTa olKTjfxaTa

to

irapd

ret^eo?

to

Be

fxeaov

tcov

Be eveaTacn
eXiiTov
OLKTjfidTcov
TeOpiTTTTM
TTepteXaaLv. irvXai
'^dXKeai
Trdcrac,Kal aTadfiol re
eKaTov,
irepL^TOV
Telyeo'=;

virepOvpa waavT(i"";.
rjfjuepecov oBov

OVTO^

69

7roTa/xo9
^

of

about

200

368

the

7)

himself

states

Ion"

that

occupied

"

360

(vi. 1, 26)
(ap.Diod.

Nebuchadrezzar

the citadel of

space

the

(xvi. 1, 5)

Curtius

stades.

365

of

circuit

Kleitarkhos

stades, and

Sic. ii.

is

third

evidence

(42 miles), Strabo

stades, Qu.

which

adds

the

to

makes

monuments,

385

miles,

square

but

area

of

4000

Babysquare

height

The
feet

385

Ktesias

would

(the width

made

the

then

be

about

being 85 feet);
height 200 cubits,

at about

the

from

name

Jiid

ever,

named

exact

determine
two

the

reeds

have

cubit

or

of

the

word

been

of

courses

ruins

found

crude

brick

possiblethat

after the river

As, how-

iddu.

the Accadian

wsis

on

for "a

term

the

town

which

was

it stood.

Aeipolis by Isid. Khar.,


by Ptolemy.
Euphrates was called by the Acthe Pur-rat or
winding water,"
the Assyrian Purratu
; Heb.,

The

cadians

'*

; Old

Persian,Ufratu

Euphrates (with a play on


of
waters
to the "good
"

measures,

ammat

is called

It

Idikara

P'rath

impossible to
equivalentsof these

7roXXov";,

Babylonia, and so
among
them
together. Asphalt (iddu
binding
in Semitic, ebu in Accadian) was
plentiful in the Babylonian plain,especially
at Is, now
Hit, which
j^robablytook its

{Anab. iii. 4, 10).


is

the

6 '^I?

0)V

twenty inches,

Layers of
bedding the

whence

It

reckon

In the time of
only 50 cubits.
we
Xenophon,
may remember, the ruined
feet high
150
wall
Nineveh
of
was
Strabo

may

river,"it is

cubits,
^

we

iaTl

iajSdXXeo Be

ovvofia'

TO

miles, enclosingan

wall, contrary
stades

to

^Vipp'^TTJV
peWpOV. OVTO^
TTOTa/JLOV
vBaTi
dvaBcBol
tS
d(T(j)dXTov
d/jia
6po/jL^ov";

Ktesias, who

absurd.

7roTa/jL(p

TOV

is 56

That

tu)

evOa

avTrj.

ovvofxa

Kal

6ktol"
dire'^ovo-a

ttoXc^;

aXXy

Ba/SfXcoz^o?*'^I?

diro

/jieya"^' '^I? Kal

ov

7roTa/jLo";

Be

ecTTt

to

ekKvcrav-

opvyfiaTo^;

'^elXea, BevTepa Be

iirdvco

TpoTTOv.

tov

dfia

opvacrovTe^

KaXdficovBtacrTOLffd^ovTe";,^
eBet/uiav
TrpcoTa

Tapaovf;

Td(f)pov

T7]";

eK

LKava"^

TeXfiaTL '^pecofievot
irXivOov

epyacTTo.

Tpoirov

iirXivOevov
Be

Kal
tt)^ Ta(f"povrj "y?}dvaocn/jLooOrj,

"K

re

; and

Greek,

ed in reference

the

river).

THE

I.]
evOev

r)

'^laro

EMPIKES

iv

to
e?
a"T(f)a\TO";

fxev

vvv
TO

THE

EAST.

roLwBe,

rpoTTM

103

irereiiKOfiLcrOr).
relyo'^

^a^vXcovc

^a/3v\cov

r)

tt}? 7roXto9.

OF

he

ean

hvo

180
cpdpcrea

tS
Stepyec,
ovvofxa
koI
^aOi)^zeal
ef ^Ap/j.evLcov, fxeja^
Oakacraav.
mv
hi]
to
"9
ttji/ ^EipvOprjv
avT7]";

fxeaov

jap

7roT"xyL609

^v^pt]T'r]"^'
pel he
Ta'^v';' e^Ui he ovto";
he
Tel^o^efcaTepov tov^
ay/ccova^; 69 tov
nroTajJiov e\rj\aTaL'
al iTTLKafjiTral
airo
TOVTov
TroTafiov
nrapa '^eTko^ e/cciTepov tov
avTO
onvTewv
TrapaTelvec.to he aaTV
aifiacrtr] ttXlvOcov
TfKrjpe^ol/CLcov Tpio)po(j)cov
TeTpcopo^cov KaTaTeT/jir)Tao
ecTTL

eoov

to

eov

"

re

ohov(; I0ea";,tol^

Ta";

TTOTa/Jiov
tov

irapa

a\Xa9

re

Koi

hrja)V

KaTa

e^ovaa^;.

Trvkihe^

TroTajxov

apcO/jbOvrjcrav he

ToaavTau
avTai

69

avTov

icTTL,"Tepov

kol

tov

he ecrcoOev

ohov

eVl

tcl^

eiriKapaLa^

eKaaTrjv

tov

ttj alfjiacnfj
ttj

ev

iirrjcrav,
oaai

Kal

iroTafjLov,

Ta"^

al

irep

Xavpat,

Kai
yoiXKeai^ (fyepovcrac

avTat
tovto

hrj to

fxev

ttoXXgS
ov
TrepiOet,'^
Te2'^o";

181
OcopT]^
Tel'^o'^

acrOevecTTe-

reo)

iv he (pdpcret
Tel'^eo^,
eKaTepw
cTTetvoTepov he.
iv t"2" fiev to, ^ao-iXrjia irepL[ivpbeacii]
TTfi; 7roXio"; eTeTei')(^i(TTo
iv he tc3 eTepcp Ato9 Bt^Xou lepov
/3oXo[) fieydXa)Kal la'^vpo),
hvo crTahlcov iravTrj,
iov
i"^ ifie"ti
'^aXfcoTTvXov, Kau
tovto
eov,
iv fieacp he tov
TeTpdycovov.*^
lepov7rvpyo"; "TTepeo9 olKoh6fji7)TaL,
TOV

pov

eTepov

Te

Babylon, now

representedby Hillah,
Babel, the Assyro-Baby-

is the

Hebrew

Ionian

Bab-ili,"Gate

Semitic
Accadian
known

Accadian

country under

"

"Three

This

Winding

"

times

as

also

was
"

E,

the

cityof the
the capital
Khammuragas, the
dynasty.

with

and

shows

It

first became

leader of the Cassite


2

god," the
original

the

Din-Tir, "the

(oflife)."It

of the

of

Ka-dimirra.

name

in

hollow," and
tree

of the

translation

the river.

four

that

the

than

is

more
city was
usually supposed,
and
that the
system of building in
stories which
had
prevailed in Rome
known
in
been
Babylon.
already

densely built

The

salJchu

or

outer

wall

is called

("foundation of Bel ") in


the inner wall being
the inscriptions,
of Bel").
called Imgur-Bilu (" habitation
Both were
built by Nebuchadrezzar.
^
Now
or
represented by the Kasr
Nimitti-Bilu

"Palace"

mound,

correctlytransfers

the

river.

(ii.8, 4) it

According

by three
being sixty stades

walls,the outermost
(seven miles) in
walls
and

circuit.

adorned

were

of its

two

which

Herodotos

to the

western

inbank

Diodoros

to

surrounded

was

with

The

inner

painted bricks,
shut l)y
It was
begun

gates, opened and

of brass.
machines, were
by Nabopolassar,and finished in fifteen
calls it
days by Nebuchadrezzar, who
mankind."
It
"The
of
guardhouse
overlooked
the Ai ipur sabu, or
great
reservoir of Babylon, and stretched from
the one
this to the Euphrates on
side,
and from the Imgur-Bel to the Libil or
-

high."

stories

of

canal

eastern
were

the

means

of

palace

is

mound,

the

Within

other.

it

hanging gardens, watered


a

earlier

An

screw.

by

ruined

the

Amram

part

of

represented by
palace of Neriglissar

the smaller

standing
city.
^

on

in

the

western

represented by the Bahil


Bel {Bilu in
Mujellihelimound.
is
the
word
as
same
inscriptions)
Now

Phceniko-Hebrew

Baal,

"

lord," and

the

or

the
the
was

HERODOTOS.

104

crraSlov

firJKo";koI

to

kol

kol
'7rvpyo"; iiri/Se/SrjKe,
6/CTQ)
avdpaaL"; he
TTVpycov.

toik;

dva/SaivovTe^. iv he

OTL
dvdpcOTTCOV

/cvKXoy

ire

pi

6eov

T7)";

k\Iv7)"^,
KaTa

")?

evavXl^eTac

avToi

ifiol
fiev

ovtol,

ov

irtcrTd\eyovTe";,

dfJuraveaOateiri
^rj^rjcrtTrjcn AlyvTrTirjcn
KaTcu
tov
irep ev
hrj iiceWt
Xeyovcro ol KlyvirTioi' /cal yap

w?

Tpoirov,
iv toS
KOLfJuaTai

ovhel^

ovk

TMV

/JLOVVT)

(^oltclvre

avTov

avTov

dyaKjjbahe

'^pvaerj.
vvKTa

ev

6 ^"0?
ilTC^O)p LCOV
T1-]V CiV
e6vTe"^lepel";
tovtov
Xeyovcrt ol ^aXhaloi

he ol
(j^acrl

TOV

TeXevTalo)

tc3

kXIvt)/jueydXr)
KecTat

vrjco

evihpvpLevovouhe

iraaecov,

Tov

tm

Tpaire^aTrapaKetTac

[JLTj yVVT]

6eov.

he

ev

ixeya"^'

/cal ol
e(7Tp(o/jievr}
avToQi
ovhev
evi

182

e^oyOev

avTov";

^^
fiixP^

tovto),

kov
fxeaovvTi
Trj"^
e'^ovcra TreTrocrjTac.
Oco/cot
toIgi
re
kol
ev
dpbTravcrTrjpLOL,
KaTaycdyrj

eTrecTTt

vr}0";

eic

e?

Trvpyo)

Se

KaTit,ovTe^ diMTTavovTai ol

eXrjTai

/xaXa iirl

"Tepo";

tm

tovtm

irvpyov^;

eVrl
dvaj3dcrL0"i

irvpyo)

eirX

6vpo";, koI

to

dWo(;

TrdvTaf;

[book

Aio'^

tov

tov

"?

kol

vrjov

he avTau
dficpoTepai

%r]^aieo";yvvr)'

tov

dvhpoyvovhafiMV e? o/jlcXltjv
(pocTav koI /caTd irep
Oeov, eiredv yevqTai
TiaTdpoiat T?79 Av/cltj'^
rj iTpo[jLavTi"^ tov

\eyovTac

ev

ov

yjpri(TTr]piov avToOc

"TvyKaTaK\7][eTai,
ra?

MV

183

alei Igti

a)V

yap

vvKTa'^

lepov /cal aXXo9

^a/SvXcovc
A.i0(;evL

/caTTJ/juevov
'^pvcreov

'Xpvaerj,

Kal

eXeyov

/3d9povol

to

e^co he

TaoTa.

Kai
Kal

l^aXhalot, TaXdvTcov

ol

tov

lower

world

also called

was

Bel

Assyro-Babylonians,and in later
times was
distinguishedfrom Bel-Meroolder."
dach
the
epithet of "the
by
Bel
still
In saying that the temple of
existed in his time, Herodotos
betrays
fact
he
had
the
that
never
really
ch.
visited
183, note
Babylon; see
by

the

with

ev

vrjo^;,

ol

he yevrjTac,
TOTe
he tov
tm
ev
eaTC
vtjm.
evOa
dyaXyua pueya tov

Tpdire^a /jieydXr)
TrapaKelTau

6povo";'^pvcreo';

in the

Kal

ecrTC

o)?

ofCTa/cocrlcov y^pvaiov
ireTroirfTaL

whole

and

magic

of

astrology caused

Khaldagan

become

to

'"priest"and
The

passage.
ment

the

"

the

synonymous
"

soothsayer,

Casdim

as

of the Old

be identified with

cannot

dfeans, but

name

with
in this
Testa-

the Khal-

probably to be explained
Cftszc^i or Semitic
"conquerors"

of Accad

and

Kal

it among
the Greeks,
reputation of the Babylonians for

The

as

he

ecTTi

^pucreo?.

the

to

1.
''

eiredv

eaTi
^co/jio";

vrjov

specially
appliedto Merodach, the patron
god
deity of Bal^jdon. The Accadian
of the

ecrco

fcdTco

'

are

and

Sumir.

Still called Patara


marked

on

the

sea

coast,

Under
their chief,
century B.C.
Merodach-baladan, they conquered Babyso
Ionia, and became
integrala portion

tombs, temples,
by
and other buildings,besides a theatre,
of seats,
containing thirty-fourrows
Apollo was supposed to dwell here during
the six months
of winter, deliveringhis
oracles at Delos
during the summer,

of the

(See Hor.

The

Kaldai

as
inscriptions
on

the shores

are
a

first met

small

of the

non-

Persian

Semitic
Gulf

tribe
in the

ninth

population as

to

give their

name

ruins

Od.

of

iii. 4, 64.)

HERODOTOS.

106

185

'^(o/nara

ava

to

7roTa/jLo"^

ava

to

he icoOei o
a^coOerjra'irporepov
TreXayl^eiv.rj Se BrjSevTepovyevo-

tteSlov iovra
TreBiov

irav

^iTcoKpt^;,
avTT) he
tovto
ap^d(T7](;
/juev fiVTj/jioavva

^acrtXeia,Trj ovvofjua

fJuevT)TavTTj^

yevofJbevT] T7j"; irpoTepov

he
tovto
iycb CLTTTjy^crofjLaL,
re

Kal

ev

he

[book

T7]V

rjv

M.r)h(ov
opeouaa

eXlireTO

tcl

ap'^rjv /jbeyaXrjv

aXXa
aW
aTpefJultovaav,
apatpij/jbeva dcTTea avTocat,
ehvvaTO
7rpoe"pv\a^aTO
fioXiaTa,
tt/v ISllvov,
re

ovk

hrj Kal

ocra

^ixppT^Trjv
TroTa/jUOV

jULev tov

irpMTa

crvveTcoTepij

hia T7]^ TToA-to? fjLecr7]";pet,

hrfTi eirolrjaectkoXlov

peovTa

tovtov

cr"^t

o?

hccopv^a^;
opv^acraovtco

hr) Tpl";
e?

oxTTe

Wvv,

irpoTepov

dvcoOev

tmv

Tiva

ev

KO)/jLeci)vtcjv

Trj ^Kaavplr)aTrtKvecTat
"?
ecrTC,
ttj he /cco/jLtjovvofjud
pecov
ttjv
Kal
ot
dv
diTiKvelTai 6 ^v^pr}T7]"^,
vvv
KOjJbi^wvTai
KphepiKKa.'
^

diro

^a/3vXa)va, KaTairXeovTe^i
tov
TTjcrhe
e?
"9
ttj^; 6a\dcr(J7)";
e?
^v(f)pi]T7jv
t7]v avT7]v
TavTTjv
iroTapLov
kco/jltjv irapaTpi"; re
Kal
eTrolrjcre,
ev
yivovTau
Tpcal rj/jbeprjcn. tovto
fiev hr) tolovtov
'XMfJba he irapeyoDGe

^a^vXcbvo';
tov

he

TOV

irapd

avTov

date

assignedby
**

Nitokris

eK

^ovv

tov

Semiramis

is

while

an

this

From

the

himself

we

learn

that
his

ence

wasting
Babylon, his mother
encouraging the army by her presin the camp
near
Sippara, where

she

died

time

king

was

in idleness

the

was

at

5th

of Nisau

B.C.

It is therefore

probable

that

works

which

on

of

claimed

very
defence

to have

of the

Persians

energy

of

otos

states.

the

made

the

Nabonidos

against the attack

reallydue
queen-mother, as
were

547.

to

the

Herod-

dvaicTLfJiov

opvyfiaTO'^

he ol opco-

eireiTe

TreplavTrjv

kvkXw

(NeitaEgyptian name
did not belong to the
krit). Nabonidos
his mother
might
royal family, and
been
an
easily have
Egyptian. She
who
be the queen -mother
must
figures
so
prominently in the tablet of Kyros,
fall of
which
records
the
reign and
Nabonidos.

tov

irapa'^eovcra,

classical author,

is

(TTahiwv
TeTpaKoalcdv

koX

re

tovtov

TTOTafiov

which

to

no

eaTi,

dyayo\jiev7)
KpijTrlha

Xl6ov";

1000,

eiKoai

iroieovaa

'^elXea

pvKTOy

tl

d^iov

he ttoWm
KaTVTrepOe

diro
oXlyov tl irapaTeivovcra
eXvTpov Xi/jivrj,
he to
j3d6o"^fiev e? to vhcopalel opvcraovaa,
evpo";

opvcraofjuevov
Ta

ocrov
vyjro'^

'^elXo^

to

iroTafiov

copvcrae

TTOTafJiov,

Trepi/jueTpov

eKdTepovtov

irap

Kal
0c6vfjbaTO"?
/jLeya6o"^

rjXaae.

Arderikka
is not yet identified,
and
probably is imaginary. Sir H. RawlinNo
such cuttingsas those
son
says :
here described
can
ever
by Herodotus
* '

have

existed."

In

placesArderikka
^

If

vi.

venture

we

all the MSS.

haiiser,and

omit

the

meaning
simple enough
from

with

Schweig-

of
:

es

before

the

aside

throw

to

authorityof

go

Herodotos

119

Susa.

near

Ev^pTjTrji',

tov

would

the

passage
who
"Those

would

be
now

to
(Mediterranean) sea
the Euphrates."

our

Babylonia, sail down

Retaining is, however,


late:
this

"Those

the
the
but

sea

we

would

must
now

trans-

go

from

Babylonia, sailingdown
Euphrates." In this case

into

sea

it into

Avho

the
would

writer
some

quoting.

be

would
unknown

the

Persian

Gulf, and

be

Herodotos,

not
one

whom

he

is

iiroiec Be

afK^orepardora,

eXo9,

iTCLV

re

")?

kol
dyvvfievo"^,

rov

THE

EAST.

rrXooi

(tkoXioo

ecocrc

107

Trora/uLov ctkoXcov

re

"9

Kai

to

opvyfia

ireplKapbira'^

^pahvT6po"^
etr}

iroTafio^

ol

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

iroWa^

^a^vXcova,

ryv

e/c

re

Kara
tovto
eKSefcrjraL
r^? Xifivrj^;
irepioho^
fxaKpr],
koI
to,
epyd^erottj^; ^wp?^? rfj at re ia^oXal rjcrav
avvTO/jia
ol
oSov,^Lva fiT) e7rifiL(T"yo/jievoc M.rjSoc
ifCfiavddvoiev
T?}?"K M.7]Scov
'

ifkowv

TMV

Be

rd

avTYj^

rdora

TTprjypbara.

186
Brj etc fBdOeo'^irepie^dXero,

fiev

he e^ avro)v
t?}? itoXlo^ eov"i7j"^
roLTjvBe
irapevOiJKrjv
eTroirjcraro.
Svo (f)apcrecov,
rod
Be irorafjbov jxeaov e'^ovro';, eVl rcov irporepov

^ao-iXecovokco^

eOeXoc

rL";

Be

avrrj

e?
irepov (fydpaeof;
rovrepov

rov

koI rjv,
BiafBalveiv,

Bia/3r]vai,
xp^jvirXola)
rovro.

eK

koI

eireire
rrpoelBe'

rovro

yap

Mpvcrcre

ro

eXvrpov

rfj Xlfxvr],
/jLvrj/jioavvov roBe

eXiirero.

Be ol rjaav ol XlOol
XlOov"^ 7reptjUL7]Kea"^,^
ird/jivero
")?
Ka\ ro
ro
rov
yayplovopcopv/cro, e/crpeyjracra
irorafiov

eroL/jLoc

rov

diro

avrov

rov

epyov

ev
'^coplov, o5 eTrt/jLTrXaro
rovro,
rov
pkv rd '^eiXea
dTre^TjpaafJbevov
dpyaiov peiOpovrovro

peWpov
rovrcp

dXXo

BoKeco,o^Xypov

(jo"^ eyco

rrdv

e?

Kara

TTorafJiov

ttvXlBcov

rov

69

ev

copvaore

ro

rrjv

rroXiv

rd"; Kara/Sdcrta'^
rd^;

kol

etc

royv

TrXlvOotat oirrfjat
dvoLfcoBo/jbyae
(jyepovcra^;

nrorafjuov

Be Kara
kov
reiyei,rovro
pbeariv
XidouaL
tol'9
fidXicrra
copv^aroOLKoBo/Lueo
ye(f)vpav,
rrjv rroXiv rolcrc
Beovaa
eTTireivecrKeBe eV
XlOov^ aiBrjpwre Kal /jLoXv,8B(p.
rov";
eir
^vXa rerpdycova,
okco^
avrr)v,
jxev
rr]v
rj/juepr]yevoiro,
Kara

tg3

Xoyov

avrov

rov

mv

ol

Btd/Sacrcv
erroieovro
rovBe
drraLpeecTKOv
KXerrroiev

irap
viro

eyeyovei

lva

eiveKa,

dXXrjXcov.

^vcl)p7]rrjv
'Trorafiov

rov

"^
^

rd
rd

69

"

of the voyage.
*'In that part of the country where
'*

At

the end

the

passes were
into Media."
north-east.

The

the

and
That

shortest

would

camp

be

on-

roads
the

pitched near

was

Sippara(now Abu-Habba), and the efforts


made
by Kyros to penetrateinto Babythe north-east
Ionia from
proved unII.
See
Xenophon
Appendix
availing.
{Anab. i. vii. 15) passed a wall sixtyhad
been
nine miles in length, which
from
the
built to
Babylonia
protect
Medes, and
been

the

discovered

remains

by

of which

Lieut.

Bewsher

have
be-

rd

vvKra";

ro

ireplrrjv ye^vpav

dp'^alapeWpa
the

tween

Nahr

{Jrl.R. G. S.
^

'

'

Such

rdora

rrj"^

Malcha

the

and

Xifjuvrj^

Bagdad

defences

she

made

had

never

the soil,"

It is clear that

visited

eK

eKeKoo-p.r]ro,

xxxvii.)

Avere

by digging out
^

^vXa

rd"; vvKra";
Bia(f)OLreovre";
re
7rX'^pr]";
opv^Oev Xlfjuvrj

firj

Be

ft)9

rrorafjuov Kal

rov

rd"; Be

^a^vXcovcoc

Herodotos

he would
Babylonia, otherwise
have
stones"
not
spoken of "immense
hewn
in
which
is
a
being
country
devoid
of
them.
The
few
absolutely
stones
brought from Babylonia are either
or
boundary stones, the smallest
gems
It was
no
pebble being of high value.
doubt the rarity
and consequent preciousof stone
which
caused
the Babyness

HERODOTOS.

108

Kal
i^rjya^ye,

3' avrrj

'H
craro.

virep

opv^Oev eXo9

to

/cat toIctl

jeyovevac

187

ovro)

avrrj

jBaatXeia koI aTrdrr^vrotrjvherova

TruXew^'
/JbdXtcrTa
\"co(f"op(ov

twv

fjuerecopov

iBoKec

eiJbrjyavr)-

dcrreo^; rd^ov

rod

iiTLiTokri*^
avrecov

Xeyovra
rd^ov ypd/jb/jLara

Tov

69

Beov

e?

ycvofMevov

irdXirjrrjcn,
yec^vpa rjv KarecrKevao-fjuivrj.

eoovrfjKarecTKevdaaTO

"V"Ko\a'^6Se

[book

irvXewv^

tmv

rdSe.

"

tmv

Tt";

ijjbeo
vcrrepov yivoixevoav BaySuXcoz^o? jBacrCkewv rjv criravLcrr)
y^pt)(BovXeTai '^pij/iiaTa'
Xa^eTco oKocra
dvoi^a"^ tov
/jbdrcov,
Td(f)ov
jjLT)jjbevTOi

airavicra'^ ye

aXXo)?

Td"j)o";
rjv dfCivr)TO";
p^ey^pt

ovTO";

purj

ye

dvol^r)'ov yap dfjuecvov.^


ov
e?
Aapelov ireptrfKOe
rj

^acrtXrjlrj'
Aapelo)Be Kal Secvov eSoKet elvai TfjaiTriiXyatTavTrjao
Kal '^prjp.dTcov
p^rjEev
'^pacrOau,
Keip^evcov

eTTLKaXeop^evcov,
p^rj

avTd.

Xa^elv

ov

Kal

avTcov

'^prjp.dTcov

tcov

TrjcrtSe irvXyat TavTycrc

ol iylveTO veKpo";
i'^paToTovBe elveKa, otl vTrep KecpaXrjfi
hie^eXavvovTL. dvoL^a";Be
Td"^ovevpe '^ptjp.aTa p^ev ov, tov
Se veKpov
Kal ypdpupbaTa
el pbrj dirXrjcrTOf;
re
XeyovTa raSe.
dv
Kal
ea?
'^prjpbdTwv alcr')(^pOKephi]";,
veKpcov 6r)Ka^dvewye^^^^
KvTr] puev vvv q (BaaiXeia TOiavTrj rt? XeyeTai yeveaOac 6 he
St]KOjOO?eirl TavT7)"i Tr]"i yvvaLKO"; tov iralha eaTpaTeveTO,
e'^ovTd
ecovTOv
Aa^vvrjTOv Kal ttjv Kcrcrvpmv
Tovvop^a
iraTpo^
dp'^Tjv. (TTpaTeveTai Se Srj ^acnXev^^ 6 p.eya"; Kal (jLTLOicn
Kal StjKal vScopdiro tov
e^ oIkov Kal TrpojBdToiai,
eaKevaapbevo^;
XoacTTreft) iroTapuov
dp^a dyeTai
irapd Zovaa
peovTO";,
ovSev

tov

"

ovk

188

re

TOV

tov

ev

tov

ovSevo";

tovtov

iroTap^ov.

Se

vSaTO"^

TroXXal
d7reylr7)p.evov
KdpTa dpua^ai
ev
dyyrjtoKJi
dpyvpeonjLeirovTeTpdKVKXoi qpLioveiai Kop^l^ovcrat
dv eXavvrj eKdcTTOTe.
Se o K.vpo"^
eireiTe
TaL,
oKrj
iropevopuevo^
eirl
eirl Trjv ^a^vXcjva
VvvSr) TroTapuo), tov at puev Trrjyal
eyiveTO
XoacTTreft)

TOV

189

dXXov

(^aaiXev'; Kal

TTLvec

pLovvov

tov

tov

lonians
engravers.
2
This

is

evidently

stories"

"moral

famous

become

to

one

Greeks

the

as

gem-

of

those

were

inventing. It is needless
that the inscriptions
are
wholly
in styleand conception.

fond

of

Herodotos

means

Nabonidos

so

to say

Greek

and

the

So far from

of the

Babylonians.
empire
of another
Nabonidos,
being the son
did not belong to
however, Nabonidos
the royalfamily,but was
elected to the
throne

khod, the
is

murder

after the
son

of

of Laborosoar-

Neriglissar.Herodotos
king he has miscalled

thinking of the

Labynetos in ch. 74. His ignorance in


regard to so comparatively well-known
a
portion of Babylonian history proves
that

we

need

not

regret the loss of his

Assyrian history. The father of Nabonidos was


the
reallyNebo-balatsu-ikbi,
Rab-Mag.
"*
Kerkhah.
Apparently the modern
Strabo

(xv. p. 1043) tells the story of

the Eulaeus

(Ulai),supposed to
dried-up channel

sented

by

eastern

side of

Pai Pul

on

branch
^

The

Susa, from

the Kerkhah

to

the
the

be reprethe
on

bridge of
Shapur,

of the Karun.

Gyndes

is

usually

identified

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

THE

EAST.

109

eKSiBol Be
yiaTirjvolai
pel 8e hia AapSavecov,'
opeat,^

iv

6 Be irapa
TiyprjVj

irorapbov

eTTetparo
iTTTTcav

XevKoov

6 Be
iiretparo,

v^pio^;ecr/5a9e?

VTTO

irorafjLM

ro)

Be

pLeTCL

evirereco^;

pav

dadevea

ovrco
Brjpav
eirrjireiXy^cre

'yvvalKa^

to

KO^o?

VvvBeco

7]veT0

ola

e/ce\eve.
op^co^

epjov,

TO

fiev

rc";

rcov

tepcov

Bta^aiveLv

eirX

rod

ware

oi

Xocttov

kol

l^a/3v\(ova aTpaTevatv

Be

KaTeTetve

eKaTov

a'^oivoTevea"^
to

eKUTepov

nrap

BcaTd^a"^Be tov
opuiXov iroWov
epya^opuevov

Be

puevTOt

Kat
v^pLcravTC,

tovto

irdvTa

TeTpapLp,eva";

opvacreLv

(TTpaTov

w?

Bca/SrjcreaOat.
jSpe'^^^ovaa^;

ov

yovv

BceXodv
BcalpetTTjV aTpaTtrjv
Bl'^a,
oyBcoKovTa koI
vTToBe^a^Btcopv^a";
'^el\o"^ TOV

SLa/Satvetv

irorapiov

'irocrjcretv

direCk'qvpueTel^;
tt^v

TTjv

tov

^^pvOprjv

rrjv

ol

erepov

/cdpra
ol'^coKec
(j^epcov.
avjji'^^rjaa'^
viro^pv'^Lov

jmlv

Br) eyakeiraLve

re

e?

pecov

vrjvo-CTreprjrov,evOavrd

K^vpo";eovra

TMV

ttoXlv

VvvBrjv Trora/Jbov

Brj tov

eKhiBol,tovtov

daXaaaav

'flinv

e?

TpOTrov,

iraaav
Oepeirjv

ttjv

avTOv

TavTrj

epya^opbevoi.
BteTpLyjrav
'n? Be

TvvBrjviroTapuov

TOV

koX
eV TpiTjKocria^
J^vpo^;

eTioraTo

190

koX to BevTepov
e^rJKOVTaBccopv'^d";
puiv Bia\a/3cov,^
eap virekapLire,
iirl ttjv l^a/SvXcova. ol Be ^ajSvXcovtoteKCTTpaBt)'}jXavve
QVTO)
eirel Be iyeveTo eXavvcov
Tevadpuevoiepuevov avTOv.
dyyov Trj";

Diyalah, but

the

with

is divided

which

into

view
a

legend probably
the Giiigir,

number

The

Araxes

also is said to rise in the


Samas-

Khana(b.c. 821) defeated


tains
tsiruca,king of the Matai, in the mounRimmon

to

sacked

north-east

the
his

Urumiyeh

classical

to

Matai

the

known

See iii. 94, note


''

Assyria, and
Lake

as

be

to
in

Lake

Matiana

The

geography.
seems

(Madai)

Medes

of

capitalSagbita, and
was

place of
by the
inscriptions.

taken

later

unknown.

Herodotos

must

is
of

the whole

story

proved by
Kyros, from which

now

Persians
the

marched

south,

believes

not

it

tradition

Hamaran

the

has

mean

that

Opis (Upe
Gyndes joinsthe Tigrisnear
after which the Tigris
inscriptions),
But Xenophon {Anab.
flows southward.
that Opis lay near
ii. iv. 13-25) shows
the
the junction of the Physkos, not
miles
to
the
with
Tigris,many
Gyndes,
the north of the Diyalah,

should
or

the

to

confused

as

as

great

Diyalah
the

below

river

has

raise the level of

as

his

should

narrative,

be

of

year,
fact that the horse

stream

the

just 360,
days in the old Babylonian
perhaps suggested by the

number

may

popular

some

to

that the channels

We

the

been

the

be

that

of
perfect network
from
out
it
on
opened
It is not surprising,
fore,
thereof
Herodotos
geography

water, and

the

' '

the

on

across

either side."
that

learn

we

hills,where

dammed

been

inscription

Babylonia from
upon
from
the north.
He
regard

hydraulic works
the

tablet

embodies

with

fable," as

"a

was

the

canals

9.

Otherwise

in the

By stretching ropes he marked


straighttrenches."
Sir H.
Rawlinson
rightly divined

180

out

that

mountains, eh, 202.

Matienian

"

of small

at Mendalli.

streams
^

in

has

rather

the

well
his

was

doubt

sacred

to the

whether

Gyndes reallyexisted

sun.

such

at all.

HERODOTOS.

1 10

itoXlo"^, (Twe^oXov

KaTei\rj6rjaave?

^a^vXcovLoc

dcrrv.

to

Se

oca

KO/ooz/

ecro-coOivTe^;ry

koI

e^einaTd^evoL en

aX)C
aTpefJbl^ovra,

ov/c

Tov

ol

re

[book

opeovre^;

ovroc

ovSev

T"

TOiV

TrpoKOTTTO/jievcov." elVe

TrprjyfiaTcov

elVe kol
diropeovTLvireOij/caTO,
iiroiet Sr)TOCOvSe.
Td^a"^ttjv
TTOTa/jLOV,

T7J 69

Tjj i^letck

Td^a"; "Tepov^,
"9

TavTj)

Sta/3aTov

oTav

(TTpaTM,

TToXiv.

Tr]v

dTrrj\avveavTo^

vecra"^

TocavTa'

"T"pa

iovaav

tov

eXo9

tS

irep

Kal

yap

tov
d^prjio)

tov

ol rjv,

Trj"; 7ro\to"s

avTL"^

Trpoelireto5
icnevaL

yevojuuevov,
KaTO,

TaoTa

irapat-

d7rLKOfjLevo"

aTpaTov.

^a^v\a)VL(ov ^aaiXeta iiroiTjae

tmv

rj

ol

tov
i^ ifjL^o\7]";

TroTafjuof;,

St)Td^a";fcal

T"

crvv

tScovTat

peWpov

to

OTTLcrOe

KaTa

eirolei koI 6 K.vpo(;


\[fiv7]v,
icrayayojv
69 ttjv XI/jlvtjv
Stcopv^t
T7]v

TroTa/juov

elvat

dpj(alovpeWpov Bca^aTov

to

voaTTjdavTO^

tt}? 7roXf,o9

ovTco

Td
Se eVl T7]V XifjLvrjv,
/caTd T" TOV
TTOTajuLov

Kot

aXXo"^

TTOLrjTeov

diracrav

aTpaTtrjv

dvcorepco

Srj a)V

to
ejjbaOe

avT0"s

ia/SdWet,

TToXtv

TTjv

ttoWcov,

i'yyLVOjjbivov
av^vov

')(^povov re

are

edvet

Se
ovheva, }Lvpo";
el^ovTrj"iiro\iopKi7)"^

\oyov

ivel'^ero,

aTropirjat
191

fjuev

Trporepov

iravrl

iricov Kapra

cnna
ofioico";
eTTL'^etpeovTa, Trpoecrd^avro

evOavra

avrbv

fj^axV

Se
yevofjbivov

TroTafiov.

vtto-

eiroirjae,

tovtov

ol

tolovtov,

ol irep ETeTd'^aTOiir avTM


tovtm
to
KaTa
Tlepcrat
peWpov tov
dvSpl 009 6'9 fjueaov fjuTjpov
^v(j)p7]Tea)
TTOTa/jiov
v7rovevoo-T7]KOTo";
6*9Trjv ^a/3vXo)va. el fiev vvv
tovto
fjbd'kicrTd
KT}, KaTa
earjicrav
ol V^ajBvXaoviot
Ik tov
to
7) e/Ltadov
irpoeirvOovTO
J^vpoviroceoK
ol
eaeXOelv
av
Tiepaa^^
7repuhovTe"=;
tov";
e"; ttjv ttoXlv
fjuevov,

Bie(j)6eLpav KdKcaTa'

KaTaKXrjlaavTe^

av

TOV

iTvXlha^

TTOTafjLov

^dvTe"i Ta.9

Trapd

a^ea^ o)"^ ev
ol Tlepaai.
TavTrj

KvpTjj.

Se

viro

OLKrj/jievcov,

T0i)9

Se

vvv

dXXa

'Xpovov

Kal

avTol

ev

69

alfxaatd^dva-

Ta^;

av

i^ drrpocrhoKrjTov
cr(f)L
'irapeaTrjaav

irepl

tcov

Ta";

eXa^ov
eXrjXa/juevaf;,

iroTafjuov

Ta

tmv

vtto

tcov

ti)^ ttoXlo^; eaXcoKOTCov

eayaTa

Ba/SvXwvlcov

ov

fiavOdveiveaXco-

opTr)v)yopevetv

(rv^elvydp ac^t eovcrav


Kal

eirl

/Lieyd9eo";
Trj";7roA.to9, ct)9 XeyeTat

jjiecrov OLKeovTa^;

TO

KOTa^;,
TOV

to,

eyovaa";
'^elXea tov

Trdaa^

av

yap

evTraOelyaoelvat, 69

Kal

By

Te

tovtov

KdpTa

to

iiTvOovTO.

from

All
the

this is
tablet

unhistorical,as

we

learn

inscription(see Appen-

of Babylon,
s^'ege
the
and Kyros did not enter
cityuntil
three months
after it had opened its gates
to Gobryas. The account
given here by

dix 11. )

There

was

Herodotos
the
^

no

The

whole
of

be

must

siegeof

confused

Darius

Babylon by

unhistorical

narrative

entering into

the

culties of this passage.

us

from

of

Hystaspis.

character

relieves

echo

of

the

the need

geographicaldiffi-

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I]

EAST.

THE

Ill

"^
Se 192
rrjv
apaiprjTO'
irpMrov
ttoXKoIctl fiev fcal aWoccn
t6)v l^a/BvXcovlcov
StjXcoctq)
Suvafjiiv
octt)

Kal

Ba^vXcbv
Se

icTTL,iv

Tt?

Kol

T6

iraaa

o(Trj"; (ip')(ei'SvcoSeKa

Teaaepa";

XoCTTT] TTaaa

^^^dfiett??9
ol Hepaat
rrjv

'AacrvpLT]
x^PV

X^PV^

S)v /jirjva)v iovrcov

rpecpec/jlcv

firjva^

fJbrjVCJV 7]

TOiV

OKTO)

'^V

Tavrr)^,

Tpo(j)rjv
"\"opov,
yrj

irdpe^ rod
8LapaLp7]Tac,
cTTpaTLPi'^

avTOv

Tov^

^aaiKel to3 fjueyaXo)e?

rSSe.

Srj koX

T^9

rore

ovrco

fxev

rj

iviavrov

rov

e?

^a^vXcovLT] x^PV"

'^ov^;

Se

^AcTLT].OVTCO
TptT7]fJL0pir}7)
Kal
dWrj^ 'Acr/779.
rj dp^r]t^9
/caXeovat,

crarpairrjir^v

earl

TpiTavralx/^V
Tc3 ^Apra^d^ov "K
rov
^acriKeo^iexovn
dpyvpiov
vo/jlov tovtov
Se
"Kd(TTr)";
dprd/Sr]^
dprd/Sr]fjuearrj' rj
TTpoaijce
rj/jueprj^;
fiev
Attlkov
ibv UepcrtKov %"/3"t /jLeSl/jLvov
irkeov
^otVtft
/jbirpov
Se 01
avrov
rjaav IBlr},
irdpe^ rcov
Tpial ^ArrcKfjcn. lttttoc
diraaecDV

roiv

iroXkov
dpx'^^^v

okov

KpartarT],

al

ol fiev dva^aivovTe^; rd^; 6r]\"a";


oKraKOcnoi,
TroXefMia-Trjpicov,
k^gX fivpoat'
jBaivofjievaL
e^aKcaxi'^i^^^i'

he

dve^aive

he "Ivht/ccbv

'

eiKoai
lttttov^;.
ipaevcovtovtcov
ht] TO 7r\r]6o"^
erpe^ero cocrre
reao-epe^; rcov
dWcov
dTe\eL"^,toIctl
eovcrac
rcov
/jbeydXai,
kvvmv

TMV

airla

vrapex^i'V.

vTTTjpx^

eovTa'

7]

roiavra

he yrj

fxev

tmv

iv rS
Kval

dp^ovrc

tm

^AaavpLwv

"KaaTo";

yap

rocrovro

irehtM KodfJiai

irpocreTeTdxci'TO
t^9

^a^uXcovof;193

oXlyw,^Kal
dpho/juevov
fxevTOi
irapayiveTai (7lto(;,

verac

jjuev

to

crlrov earl tovto'


e/c
iKTpe"pov
Tr)v pi^av rov
to
Xtjlov Kal
TTora/ubov dhpyveraire
Kard
tov
69 Ta9
iroTafjuov dva/3aivovTO";
irep iv AlyvirTcpavTOv
dWd
dph6fjievo";.
dpovpa^;,
X^P^^ '^^ ^^'^ KrjXcovTjloKTt
rj yap
Kard
^a^vKcovlr)X^PV '^dcra,
"9
irep rj Aiyvirrlr],
KaTaTeTfjurjTaL
0

Tov

ov

ignorantof the nuraerthe


of
ous
cityby the Assyrians,
captures
of Tiglath-Adar
with
that
beginning
with
that
of Sennacherib.
and
ending
he
wished
tliis
to
contrast
Probably
capture of Babylon with that by Darius
Hystaspis(seeiii.159),though the legend
have intended
he borrowed
nothing
may
Herodotos

than

more

reference

to the two

captures

See iii. 159.


reign of Darius.
5
old
the
Persian Ms^ais
Satrap
of
for
khshatrapdwan, "defender
tra^Ki
the empire."
^
Hence the modern
Egyptian ardeb
(nearly5 bushels). The artabe would
have contained
If bushels.

in the
"

is

"

See

Mr.

the Mammalia

tions,in the

W.

Houghton's Papers
of the Assyrian

Trans.

on

Inscrip-

Soc. Bill. Archceol.

(1877).
A good deal of rain falls in Assyria,
In Babylonia it is rare
during the
though there is plenty in the
summer,
winter and spring.
^
The
Egyptian shaduf. An early
Accadian
collection of agricultural
proverbs
"The
-machine
irrigation
says:
he
bucket
he
puts together; the
and
the
he
water
will
draw
hangs,
up."
Irrigation naturally played a
of Babylarge part in the economy

v.

Ionia.

HERODOTOS.

112

KOI
Si(opv^a";'

[book

earl vi]vai7r"pr)T0";, irpo";


Bicopv'^cov
Se e? dXXov
rfKiov rerpa/jb/jLevr)
'^eifxepLvov, icre'^eo
irorafjuov eV
Tov
e?
TOP
Trap* ^lvo"; TroXt? olktjto} icrro
Tiyprjv,
^v(f)p'^T"(o,
Be '^(opecov avrrj
tB/Juev
At^/at^t/jo?
pbaKpco apLCTTr) to)V
ri/ii"i";
BevBpeaovBe ireiparaL ap'^r)v
eKcf)ep"CV yap Br)dWa
Kapirov
Be ttj^;
ovre
iXalrjv. rov
ajJuireXovovre
(pepeiv,
avKerjv
oyBe ayaOrj eK(j"6petv
icm
eirl BajKoaia
wcrre
A7]/jLT]Tpo";
Kapirov
diroBiBol,eireuBav Be dpicrraavrrj eajfr?}?iveLKy,
irapdirav
fiev
iirl TpLrjKoaia
eK"pepec. rd Be (j)vWa avroOi
re
irvpSiv
BaKTvXcov.
nfkaTO'^
yiveTai Teaaepcov
TMV
Kpidewv
euTrerew?
baov
i/c Be Key^pov
Koi
arjcrdp^ov
BevBpovfiiyado^;
ylveTat,
/jlv^jultjv iroirjaoixai, ev elBo)^ otl
i^e7ri(TTd/ji,evo";
tolctl
fjurf
/cal
Td
^a(3vK(""vLrjv
e?
diriyyukvoKTi
elprjfxeva
ttiv
'^coprjp
Kapiroiv
rayv

7] fxeyio-Tri
rov

ov

iracrecov

ra

ovre

TO

to)v

kol

TO

tl

ov

e?
(iTTLCTTLrjv ttoWtjv dirlKTat.
e')(0[Jbeva
dXk'
eK
TOdv
arjadfjLcov
Troteoz/re?

'^pecovTac

elal

dvd irdv
7re(f)VK0Te"^
Tcbv

Kol

olvov Kol

Kau

(TLTLa

TreBiov,ol

to

dWa

Be ovBev

Be

a"pt "^0iViKe'^

Tfkeove^

e'/c
fcapirocpopot,

avTcov

fxeXi iroieovTau'

iXaiM,

tov";

avfcecov

Tpoirov

(^olvlkcovtov^;
epcreva^ "^Wijve^
tov
/caKeovcTL, tovtcdv
Tjjcrc^a\avrj"j)opoi(Ti
irepuBeovai
Kapirov
Iva
re
o
TOiV
crc^L
yjrrjv
(poLVi/ccov, ireTralvr]
ttjv /SdXavov ecrBvvcov

OepaTreuovac

re

Ta

koi

Kal /jLTjdiropper)
o
KapTTO"^ tov
ol
194 ev Tft) fcapTTO)
epaeve^; KaTa

dayvfia fxeyiaTov

Tcov

TToXiv, ep'^ofiac

(ppdacov.

TTopevop^eva

TTOTa/jLOV

eiredv

(TKVTiva,

/jlol

e?

ydp

'\jr7]va"^
ydp Brj (f)epovac
"^0iVLK0"=;'
oXvvOoi.^
ol
Be dirdvto
irep Br]
TavTrj

irXola

Ta

Trjv

tcov

eo-Ti

^a/3v\(ova,

ev

pueTa

ye

eVrl

avTolau

ra

KaTa

KVKXoTepea,

eovTa

tolctl
'Ap/jLeviOL(TL

toIcfl

avTr)v

ttjv
tov

irdvTa

KaTvirepOe

^Aaavplcov OLKij/jbevoLcrL vofiea'^ lTer)"^Tap^ofievot


rroLrjcrwvTaL,
e^coOev eBd(f"eo"^
BL"^6epa^aTeyacTTplBa'^
irepLTelvovaL
ovTe
ovTe
TpoTTOv,^
'jrpcoprjv avvdyovTe"^,
7rpv/jLV7}v diroKpLvovTe^;
dXX' dcnrLBo"^ Tpoirov KVKXoTepea iroLr]aavTe"^
kol
KaXd/jL7](;
ttXt]divLelorL
irdv to ttXolov
tov
tovto
aavTe^
TroTa/jLov (f)epea6aL,
tovtolctl

KaTa

"

The

Tigris,on
stood."

Nineveh

nothing to
Babylonia,
Nahr

structed
^
^

which

"At

course

the
was

of which
this

great canal

probably

has
of
the

"Royal River," called


first conby Pliny, and
by Khammuragas.

Malcha

Armalchar

with

do

the banks
Of

or

all."

This, as Theophrastus pointed out


The
error.
[Hist. Plant, ii. 9) is an

fruit

of the date-tree
only needs
pollenof the male palm,
"^
They stretch a covering of
"

on

these

boats,

or

still used
The

floor.

river, supported
when

up
The

floated

are
on

nation.

skins

Circular

kind
are
kufas, of the same
the Tigrisand Euphrates,
on

rafts which

broken

"

outside,like

the

inflated

they

reach

down

the

skins,
their

^Ikol carried by them

are

destiseem

HERODOTOS.

114

[book

iadjeaKov 6Xea";,Trept^Be avrd"; io-raro


'y^coplov
dvLcrrd^; Se /card jxlav e/cdarrjv
dvSpcjv,
Krjpv^ircoXeecnce,
ojjLiXof;

irdaa^^i69

ev

p^ev

Trpcora

"K
eveiBecrTdrriv

ttjv

dXkrjv
TrpTjOelr],
'^pvcriov

ttoWov

evpovaa

rcov
evSaipLOve^i

fcal

'^prjpLard

ol h' dv

re

o/co)?

avrrj

ffpuer
dveKrjpvo-ae

eVl

KaWcarevo-ucra'^'

he eXheo^ puev ovhev

ovtol

eTTiyap^oL,

dv

crvvoLK'^cn.oaoi
^a/3v\a)VL(ov eTrlyapLOi,
virep^dX-

e^coveovro ra^
dX\.r]\ov";

ecr/cop
Brjpuov

Se

eveiheaTdrrj' eircoXeovro

ecTKe
i/ceLvr]v
pLev Sr) ecTKov

XovTe";

puerd he,

nraaewv

Be

oaoo

eheovro

tov

'^prjarov,

irapOevov^;
ekdpL^avov.
al(T'^[ova"^

")?

'ydphrjhte^eXOoL KTjpv^TrcoXecov Ta"; eveche(TTdTa";


irapOevoav,
koX
dvL"TTr]dv ryv dpiop(f)ecrrdTrjv
rj et tl"; avrecov
epbirr^po^ etrj,
o

bcrTL";
dvefcripvcrae,

ravTTjv

crvvoLKelv
dv

he

TO

tc5

deXot

avrfj,e?

'^pvcTLOv

iycveTOdjro

at

evpiop^oiTd";

he

TTjV

dvev

roiv

ekd'^iarov'^pvcriovXajSoov

eXa'^icrrov
vTriarapLevo)

to

eveihecov

to)V

irpoaeKeiTo.

koX
irapOevcov,

ovtco

eKhovvac

koI
dpLop(j)ov";
"pL7rr]pov"; e^ehlhoaav.

^ovXolto eKaaTO^
OvyaTepa oTeo)
ovk
e^rjv,ovhe
aXX' iyyvT]dirdyecrBaiTr]v irapOevovTrpcdpLevov,

ecouTov

eyyvi^Teco

dirdavTrj, ovto)
crvvoLKrjG-eLV
XP^v KaTacTTrjcravTa
rj puev
e/cecTO
diro^epeivto '^pvcrlov
yecrOai. el hr] pur) crvp^epolaTO,
v6pio"^.
jBoyXopuevov
e^Tjvhe Kol i^ aXX?;? eXOovTa
Kcopbrj^; tov
KdXXi,(TTO";
wvelcrOai.
vvv
o
rjv,ov puevTOi
vopbO"^ ovto^;
piev
cr(f)i
dXXo
he
hceTeXecre
vecoaTl
tl
ecov,
vvv
e^evprjKaai
yevecrdat
ye
dhcKOtev
avTd";
ttoXlv
pur^Ket? eTepav
dycovTat]eVetre
[ Lva pbrj
dXovTe"^ iKaKcoOrjcrav
koI olKOi^doprjOrjcrav,
7rd"; tl"^ tov
hrjpuov
yap
Ta^;

"

197

cTTravi^covKaTairopvevec

^iov

OrfXea

Ta

he
hevTepo";

TeKva.

ohe dXXo"; a(f)C


KdpuvovTa^e? Tr)v
tov";
vopLo"; fcaTecTTrjKe.
(ro(f)ir}
ov
hr] '^pecovTat IrjTpoLcrt.
dyoprjviK(f)opeov(7L'
yap
7rpocnovTe";
el tl";
TOV
crvpL^ovXevovcTL
KdpLVOVTa
i
repl
Mv
Trj"^ vovorov,
7r/909
hiTaOe okolov
ethe
av
o
TOiovTo
Kdpbvcov,
KOL
avTO"s
k'^rj
rj dXXov
iraOovTa'
dcraa

e^e(j)vye
op,oi7]v

he
cri^yfl

Trape^eXOelv

tov

ecovTOv

Nik.

Damasc,

Herodotos,
existed
p.
be

vovaov

KapuvovTa

Trapatveovac,

rj dXXov

elhe

e/ccjiv-

acpt e^ecTTC,
irplv

ov

he
Tacj^al

ev
pbeXtTi,Oprjvoc
a(f)c
AlyvTrTO). ocrdKL";S' dv P'l^X^V
7^^"^^^^
ireplOvpblrjpba
KaTayi^opuevovi^ec,
dvrjp ^a/3vXcovLO(;,

dv eTreiprjTat rjvTiva vovaov


he TrapairXrjcnoi
Tolai ev

Trj

avpu^ovXevovcn Kal

irpoatovTe^

iTOLr}(Ta";

avTO";

yovTa.
198

TaoTa

states

in his

1058).
doubted.

But

four
that

e'^et.

centuries
the

custom

after
still

day (see,too, Strabo, xvi.


its actual prevalencemay
At

any

rate

no

reference

to

it is found

mercial

tablets

in

the

that

Bab3'lonia. Herodotos
esteem

did

Avomankind

Euripides.

numerous

have
does
more

com-

from

come

not

seem

highly

to

than

he
erepcoOi

tovto

rayvro

rj yvvr)

afK^orepoi'dyy"0(;yap

Kol

he rdora

ravra

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

THE

EAST.

iroiet,opOpovSe yevo/juevov Xovvrao


ovSevo^ cfy^ovTai
irplvav Xovacovrai.

iroieovcn.
^Apd/Stot

kol

115

Se

8r)aL(T'^i(TTo";roiv

199

oBe.
Set iraaav
l^a/SvXcovlotcrL
yvvaiKa
ev
dira^
rfj ^oy fjn'^drjvaL
i'C,o\xev7]v
e?
lepov^AcjipoSlrrjf;
eiTiyodpiriv
i
roWal
Be
koI
ovk
dva/jLtayeo-Oat
d^ceo/jievat
rfjai
dvSpl ^eivay.'^
eirl
ola
ttXovto)
dWycro
vTrepcj^poveovaai, t^evyeoivev Kajjudprjat
Si (T(^l
oirccrOe eirerai
eKacraaai
lepoveo-rdcTL' 6epa7r7][r)
vrpo? to
vofjiwv

icrrl

TToWr)

at

irXeovef;

V0TeveL";
o)v

at

/xev

ev

A(ppoSLT7j";

Tefjuevei

yap

diraXXdaaerai

irpoTepov

rd
ifx/SaXotiv
"9

yovvara

elirelv roaovhe,
he

o)Se.

TTOieovat

al he dTrep'^ovrai*
Trpoaep'^ovTaL,
o"%othud rcov yvvaoKMV,
he hte^ohooirdvra rpoirov ohojv "')(^ov(Ti
ol ^etvoLhie^iovTe^
iKXeyovrat. ev6a eiredv 't^Tjrao
yvvt],

yvvalKe^'

ov

Se

iroXXau
ireplrfjatKe(pa\fjcrc
(TTe(f"avov
e'^ovo-ac Oco/jLcyyo^;

Karearac

hi

toIctl

KaXeovcTi

"

e?

roc

rrjv

^etvcovdpyvptov

oi

Ti";

lepov'e/ju^aXovrahe

e^co tov
yLttp^^^

eTrcKaXeoy

rrjv

ol/cla rj

to.

Mi/\tTTa."

Oeov

^A"ppohlT7]V
^Aaavptot.

yivXirra
he

to

het

dpyvptov

ov
ocrovcjv
eaTt
/uLeyaOo";
/jLtj dircocrrjTat' ydp ol OefjUt^;
yap
he TrpcoTO)
to
ecTTt'
ylveTat ydp lepov tovto
dpyvptov. tm
ovheva.
ovhe dTToho/ct/jta
erredv he /jtc^Ofj,
eireTat
e/jLJSaXovTt
fcal todtto
ra
ttj deM diraKKdcraeTat
diroa-tcoaafjuevrj
"?
oiKta,
ov

TovTov

OVK

ovTO)

he

oaat

t/ ol ho)(Tet";
w?

eTra/jtfjtevatelal /cal

eXheo'^t"

vvv

fjbeya

avTecov
d/jiop(f"ot

oaat
/jitv XdfjU^freat.

[xeydOeo^,
Ta^v

elcrt,'^povov

ttoXXov

hvvdjjbevat
tov
eicTrXrjaat'Kal ydp
vofxov
he
fieTe^eTepat
evta'^fj
jjLevovcrt.
'^povov

kol

TeTpaeTea
*

l^virpov ecrrl
elcrl he 200

KaTecrTaat'

at

Tov^

ear^aXXovat
Kat

09

e?

fjuev dv

dpTOV TpOTTOV
^

And

also,it

This

custom

(xvi.p. 1058).

oXfjuovKal XeijvavTe"s
virepotcrt

jBovXif^Tat
avTMV

was

htd o-tvhovo"^,

acocrt

^ ^^
fid^av fjLa^djjbevo'^
^'%^^'

are

OTTTTJcra'^.

may be added, the Jews.


is mentioned
by Strabo

in tlie Assyrian inscriptions)


the
among
Assyro Babylonians, the Phoenicians,

It

and

the

who

lived around

practisedin the
of religion,
the woman
thus placing
name
herself under the protectionof Istar,the
goddess of love (cp.Numb.
xxv.
1-15).
of

ov

Trpoa/jtevovat

ovhev dXXo
el [mt] I'^Ov^
crtTeovTat
TraTptal
fiovvov,
Tpet"=;
dv Or^peva-avTe^
Tdhe'
eiretTe
avijvcocrt
irpo^; rjXtov,iroteovat

avTMV

It

dTraXXdcraovTat,

TpteTea
Kal tt]^

tovtw
v6fjL0";.
irapairXriG-to^
No/xotjuuev hrj TOtcrt ^a^vXcovtotcrtovTOt

fjuev

the natural

was

result of the existence

religiousprostitutes(called Kadisti

Hebrews

Istar and

or

the

(see Dent.

See ch. 131, note

i.e.

Com

p. Justin.

the

18),

temples of Astoreth
sun-god.

in

xxv.

the

4.

Phcenician

18, 5.

colonies,

HERODOTOS.

116

K^vpcpKoX

II9 Be T(p

201

e6vo"; KarepyacTTO,
iireOvjJLrjae
Se edpo"; tovto
koI
to
iroirjcraaOai,.

ecovTw

XeyeTai elvai kol


rfKiov avaTo\d"^, ireprfv

202

e6vo"; elvai.

Be

tt/oo? rjco

Apd^eco iroTapLOv,

tov

elcrl Be

dvSpMV.

3e

oXkl/jlov,OLKij/jbevov

fjueya

Sovcov

TO

TOVTO

yiacrcrayera';vir

[book

oiTLve^;

ZiKvOlkov

Kau

XeyeTat
^Apd^7)";

Xeyovcrc

^Ycrar]-

tovto

to

eXdacrcov

fjue^cov
kol

Kai

he

dvTLOv

/cal

re

elvac

Be
Kecr^cpjxeydOea irapaTrXrjaia^
^'IcTTpov
VTjaov^
elvau, ev Be avTrjai dv6 pcoirov^ ot cFiTeovTat
(f)a"7L
(Tv^vd^;
fjuev
Be
diro
iravTola^,
TO
pL^a";
BevBpecov
6epo";6pV(TcrovTe";
Kapirov'^
KaTaTiOeaOai
koX
tovtov^
^op^rjv
e?
i^evprjixevov^
cr(^i
wpaiov^,
Be "t(^le^evpi)a6aL
(TLTelaOaL
BevBpea
ttjv
'^et/iieptvijv. dWa
avTco

ev

TOV

TLvd";

TOLovaBe

KapTTOv^;

crvvekOcoau

(pepovTa.

el'Xa? koX

KaTa

eVl
/jievov"; iTTCjSdXXetv

irvp

eVe/re

tov";

dvaKavawvTai

dv

irepLL^o-

kvkXw

Be
irvp, oa^paivoiJLevov^

to

to)vto

e?

/caTayc^o/jievov

/caTd irep
eTTi^aWo/jLevovpbeOvaKeaOaiTrj oBfjifj
^Xkrjva^ TM oivw, ir\eovo"^ Be eirL^aWofxevov tov fcapirov fJbdXkov
dvlaTaaOat
koL
o
re
(jbeOvaKeaOaL,^
doiBrjv
e?
e?
e?
op'^rjaiv
TOV

TOV

/capiTOv

aTTiKvelcrdaL.

tovtwv

BlacTa

XeyeTat

avTrj

/xev

elvai.

Be

66ev irep
VvvB7]"^tov
M.aTt7]va)V,
Apd^rji;7roTa/jLO(; pel fxev
BteXa/Se
e?
c^tj/covto.
TO.?
Ta'^
TpirjKoala'^
Bi(opvya"^
irdvTa
Be
e^epevyeTai TeaaepdKovTa,tmv
K.vpo";,
(TTO/Jbacn
'

eK

teat

re

Ta

The

regarded as
Massagetse were
the Thyssagetre (iv. 22)

Skyths,

like

and

Getse.

the

they

lived

Herodotos
the

on

Araxes, opposite

the

of

The

Prokonnesos

be

lest they
arm
the
birds,
by
away
griffins
originatedin

legend of the
discovery of

mammoths

rhinoceroses,whose

horns

posed to

be bird's claws

by

fossil

still sup-

the

Siberians,

colonists

ii. pp. 263

Greeks

and

have
these
from

of

knowledge

of the

Euxine, however,

legendsthrough
Eastern

Asia.

zoology

claims

of the Issedones

eastern

previouslybecome

mythical
which

their

to

on

acquainted with
caravan-trade

the

Chinese

A
and

have

must

book

on

anthropology,

been

written

the

and
are

neighbours the
Baldheaded
Men, the Arimaspi or Oneeyed Men, and the gold-guardingGriffins
Greek
(see iii. 116, and iv. 27). The

the

seems

first spread among

in

arm

carried

the
of
gold bearing
Siberian rivers (see H. Howorth
the
on
Geol. Mag., Sept. 1880).
"Mammoth,"
For the various forms
assumed
by the
legend of the Kyklops see Sayce, Introdudion
to the Science
of Language,

(iv.13)

to have

The
the

Issedones.

of Aristeas

Arimaspeia

that
of the

states

bank

western

said to walk

6) are
should

This

sq.

use

could

not

America
''

of

eyed men
(or Kyklopes), described as
living beyond the deserts to the west,
and
of their neighbours tlie Pigmies.
The
latter (alreadyknown
to the II. iii.

the

made

has mixed

Aras

Erzerum,

or

and

Caspian, and

easterrt side
to

ch.

Jaxartes,

confused

account

its

way

from

at this time,

to Asia

gether,the

tobacco, which, however,

have

Herodotos

1100, and is at least as old as the time


of Confucius, has picturesof the One-

near

like

sounds

of the

B.C.

banks

of the

202), which

two

rivers to-

Araxes, which

rises

flows

into

eastward

large river on the


Caspian (according
was
probably the

irXrjv

evo(;

eXea

e?

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I]

koX

t"

EAST.

THE

117

revdyea i/cScBoi,iv

KarocfcrjcrOat
Xeyovat lj(6v";
w/z-ot'? (TtT"0/ii"vov";,
^ovra^;'^paaOac(f)a)Kecov
Sepfiaao.to Be hv tmv
Bed

^Apd^ecopet

fcaOapove?

toIctl

av6pco7rov"i
icrOriTiSe vofjuL
orTOfiaTwv

rov

OaXaoraav.
K.acTTrlrjv

rrjv

77

Be 203

6d\a(7(7a
earl eir
ov
rfj erepy
J^ao-TTLT]
eoyvrrjf;,
(TV/jb/jiL(7"yovcra
irdcrav
vavTiWovrai
Kai
OaXdaarj. rrjv jxev "ydp^'Fd\X7jve"i
rj

e^o)o-rrjXecovOdXacraa
^

rj

77

8e

'ArXai^Tt? KoKeofxevT] koI

t)

^pvOpr]pula

erepr] iir e(ovTrj"^, eovcra


irevreKaiBeKa
elpealrj
fjbrjKO^ fxev ttXoov
rjfjiepewv,evpo";
'^pewfjievcp
he, TTJ evpvrdrr)earl avrrj ewvTrj^, 6/ctco rj/jiepecov. Kai Ta
fxev

rvy^dvei

iovcra

"

KacrTrt?;eaTi

Kaf/cacro?
o
rrjf;Oa\dcrar)";
(f)epovra
TavT7]"^
fcal irXrjOeL
eov
Traparelvei,
v-y^rfkofieyio-rov Kai /jueydOec
opewv
irpo^; TTjv

eairepr^v

eOvea

rarov.

rd
Kav/caao';,^

koX iravrola

iroXkd
dvOpcoircov

Be

iroWd

Trdvra

dir

iv

ecovTM

ep^et

v\r)"; dypi7]"i
^coovra' iv Tolao

elvai Xeyerac, rd
lBer]";
BevBpea (f^vWa rocrjcrBe
irape'^ofxeva
e?
Tpi^ovrd";re Kai Trapa/jLio-yovra^; vBcop fc3a ecovrotcn
rrjv
rd Be ^(""a
iKirXvvecrOai,dWd
iaOrjTa iyypd(f)etv'
avyKararoS dWco
yrfpdcTKecv
elpuoKard nrep ivvc^avOevra
dp'^^^v./jll^cv
Be TovTcov
elvai i/ji"pavea
Kard
Tcov
Trpo/Sd
dvdpooTTcov
nrep rolau
Kai

ovk

Tocao.

the

The

circumnavigation of Africa by
ships of the Egyptian king Necho

(iv.42) had
the

Indian

same
^

that the Atlantic

Ocean

were

and

and

one

the

sea,

The

famous

Kaukasos
the

as

different
have

shown

races

become

ridates

has
been
always
refuge of numerous
and
languages which

last

extinct

knew

elsewhere.

twenty

spoken by

his

H.

states

that

than

300

vi.

5)

four

subjects,and
in

Mith-

languages
Pliny (iV.

Colchis

there

Lesghic, (2) Ude,


Thushian,
rodian.

and

(3) Circassian,(4)

(5) Kartwelian

Under

or

Ala-

Lesghic
comprised
Dido, Kasikumuk, and
Akusli ; under
or
Circassian,Abkhas
Absne, Kurinian, Cherkess, Bzyb, and
Adige ; under Thushian, Thush, Chetchenz, Arshte, and Ingush or Lamur
;
and under
Kartwelian,Georgian,Lazian,
Mingi'elian,Suanian, and the extinct
of
language of the cuneiform inscriptions
Avar,

are

Audi,

Van.
^

This is not very probable. Almost


the only well-authenticated
of the
languages, and
case
with
the
kind is that of the Arctic highlanders,a
interpretersfor intercourse
Romans
(x.p. 498) asserts
degraded branch of the Eskimaux, first
; while Strabo
that seventy distinct tribes gatlieredtovisited
gether
by Ross and Parry. For the
Dioskurias.
into
The
Greek
Bushmen,
Andamanners,
Nairs, and
of Oude, Californians,
Techurs
and
caravans
along the Volga employed
tives
naof Queen
Charlotte
seven
(Herod, iv, 24). The
interpreters
Island, see
known
Lubbock's
Third
solve
relanguages of the Kaukasos
Origin of Civilisation,
themselves
into five groups, which
83.
Strabo
the
asserts
Edit., pp. 82,
were

more

tribes

speaking
requiring 130

different

have
another

connection

no
or

with

any

either
other

with

tongues

one
:

"

(1)

same

Herod,

of
iv.

the

Garaniantes.

180, and i. 216.

See

also

HERODOTOS.

118

Ta

204

fiev

Srjtt^oo?

[book

ravTTjf;
ecrireprjv Trj"; 6aXdcrarj"^

K.avKaao"^ aTrepyet,
0
Ka\"0jJb6V7j";
irehlov i/cSeKerac

avareXXovra

hrj ireSiov

MV

revcracrdat.

iroWa

eirorpwovra

rjv. irpcdTov

re

airetpov

koI

re

rfkiov

rod
a7ro'\JrLv.

e?

ovk

fcat

/uutv

yap

^w

tt/do?

K.acr7ri7}";

Trj";

pbolpavfxereeKa'^larriv
KO/oo? ecr^e TrpoOvfiiriv
crrpafcal
fxeyaXa
iiraelpovTa

fieyaXov

ra

fjuev 77 yevecrcf;,

Sevrepa 8e
av6p6)irov,

elvao

ra

ttX^^o?

yiacraayerai,iir 01)9

01

'yovat

rod

tovtov

Se

BoKecv

to

irXeov

evrv^lri77 Kara
rom
TroXeftou?
6/cr]yap
arparevecrOail^vpo^,ayir]yavov
yivofievT]'
rjv
Be
i/ceivo
e6vo"; Scaipvyelv.tjv
airoOavovro^ yvvr)
rev
avhpo"^
ol
yiacrorayerecov(BaaiXeua' To/jLvpi^; rjv ovvofia.
rcov
ravrr)v
6i\(ov
6
i/JLvdro
Xoycp
Ys^vpo^
rjv e'^euv?rj
irejjbircov
yvvacKa
8e TofJivpL^
avvielaa
dWa
avrrjv
fjbiv fjuvcofjuevov
rr]v Maccrad'TreiTraro
^acnXrjiijv,
rrpoaoBov. J^vpo^;Se jxerd
yereofv
rrjv
SoXqyov irpoe'^copec, iXdaa^ eirl
ci)";
rovro,
Apd^ea eTrotelro
rj

Wvaeie

205

ro

rw

ovk

ol

"K

rov

iiri
epii^aveo^

rov

^evyvvcov em

rov

eirl rrXoiwv
206

M^aacrayeraf;G-rparrjtrjv, ye^vpa"^ re
Kal irvpyov^
Scd/Saaiv rw
arparco,

rov"^

irorapuov

hiairopO
[JLevovrwv

royv

rov

olKoBopLeopbevo^;.

Trorajjuov

rov
ttovov
eXeye
7re/ji'\lracra
77 To/jLvpi^;
KTjpvKa
e'^ovrc Se ol rovrov
rdBe,
arrevhcov
crTrevBet^;'ov
ffaa-cXev M.ijScov,
0)
ra
iravcrai
"

etSe/779
et
roL
"9
Be
^acrlXeve rcov
fjLevo";
av

yap

rcov

irdvrw^

eOeXrjcreL^
viroOrjKrjau
rfjcrtBe
'^pdcrOat,

rj Be

fxaXXov

reXeofieva' iravcrd-

Kal rj/jbea^;dve'^eo
opecov ap'^ovra^

aecovrov,

dpyofxev. ovkcov

irep

dXXa

rdora

ecrrac

Kacpov

elvac
rjcrv^LT]':;

Be

av

el

fjueydXcof;

M.a(Tcrayereo)v
ireiprjOrjvaL,
irpoOvfieai
"^epe,/jlo'^Oov
fiev
Be
dire"^,
irorafjuov
rj/jiecov dva'^coprjadvrcov
e^6t9 ^evyvv"^
oBov
diro rov
irora/jiov rpicov rj/juepicov Btd^acve "9 rrjv r]iJberepriv.
rov

rov

el

iroieir

rovro

Tiepaecovrov"^
irpoeriOeLro
Kara

rdora

Kal

rov

Kal TTporepov

"

On

the

olkco

iovra

avr7)"^

arparov

ravrrjv

yvcofirj,

ore

rot

K{;po9 avveKoXeae

rovrov";

69

eirei

69

rr]v

iroLrj.

fie

'^coprjv.

*^

o)

Zev"^ eBcoKe

Be

rcov

iaBeKeaOat

AuSo9
0
K.poLao";

Xeycov rdBe.

a^i

fxeaov

KeXevovrcov
avve^eircTrrov

yvMfjLai

fjLe/ji(j"ofjLevo";
rrjv yvco/jLijv

eov
a(f)dX/jLa
ra
TTaOrjixara

dKOvaa's

vjjbereprjv, av

rr)v

av/jb^ovXevo/uievof;
oKorepa

irprjyixa,

ivavrlijvrfjTrpoKetfievr}
fxev

Be

Be
7rpcorov";, avvayelpa^;
al

rcavro

re
To/JLvplv

Kal

eo-Be^aaOai/jLoXXov 69

r]iJbea"^ /SovXeat

rwvro

207

crv

Trapecov

Be

direBeuKwro

/SaaiXev,elrrov

rot,

ro

av

opeco

Be /ulol

ra
Bvvapav aTrorpeyfreLV
el
d'^dpcrapbaOrnxarayeyove.
fiev d6dvaro"s

toS

crc3,Kara

pretext that he wished

to make

her his wife."

Reflexive

7]u, as

in Homer.

elvau

SoKeU

Kal

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

THE

119

crrparoTJi;
TOiavTii"^ ap'^etv, ovSev

el S
crol cfTroc^alveaOai'
i/jL"

yvcofjia^

EAST.

eh fcal erepcov Toiwvhe

av

ecTj

Trpcorov

/judOe,
")"?

ap^ecf;, eKelvo

Trprjj/jba

Kal
av6po)7ro";

e'yvwKa"^

on

av

/cvk\o"; tmv

he ovk
alel rov^
ecrrl Trpi^yfjudrcov,
ea
dvdpo)7rr)ta)v
irepL^epofxevo'^
avTov";
evTV^elv. r^hr]a)V e^co yvcofirjv irepltov
irpoKeifJievov
el yap eOeXija-o/jbev
rd epLTrakLVrj ovtol.
eahe^aaOat
iTpr}"y[iaTO";

7ro\e/JiLov";
e?

Tov^

'^(oprjv, oSe

rrjv

roc

irdaav
eo-(T(odel^fjbev 7rpocra7roWvec";

dpyd^

rd^i

Wij
Kal

eXcocrt*

cra9

ov

(pev^ovracdW

ottlo-o)

to

he

vlkmv

dp'^rjvhrfka yap

rrjv

ov

viKa"^

eir

ocrov

roaovrov

Stj
el

eiroio
yia(TcrayeTa";,
(pevyovaf
e\a";
ore
dvTiOrjaa}i/ceiV(p,
dvTiovfJbevov"^
viKr)"Ta"^ tov"^
yap
"^^^ dTrrjyTjfievov
'^^
T^9 dp^Tjf;
alcrxpov
X^P^'^
Tr](; To/jivpio"^.
tov
K.afi^v(Teco
OVK
el^avTa
dvaorxerovJ^vpov ye
yvvatKL

8ta/3d"^69
ToyvTo

^laaaayerac

vcK(bvTe"s

ore

/clvSvvof; evi.

avrco

ev

i/cetvcov,vlkmv

rrjv

VTroycoprjcrao
ttj^ ^^PV^'
6(Tov dv

^^^

^^

evOevTev
Ste^Loxn,,

eKecvoc

/^^^ SoKel

Se

raSe

hLaj3dvTa"^
irpoeXOelv

ireipdcrOao

iroteovTa';

^aacrayeTat
")?
ydp eyco irvvOdvofiai,
TrepcyevecrOat,
Kal
dXcov
dira6el"^^
KaXcov
dyaOcbv re TiepaiKwv direipoL
/jcey
TolcTL
TToWd
TOVTOicri
dvSpdcTLTcov
TTpo/SdTcov
d(f)eiSe(0"^
to3 crTpaToireSa)
KaTaK0'^avTa";Kal aKevd(TavTa"^ irpoOelvai
8e Kal KprjTrjpa'^; a^etSew?oXvov dKprjTov
rjfjieTepo) SacTa, Trpo?
eKeiV(ov

elal

wv

ev

Tft)

Kal

crcTLa

aTpaTLTj^
TOV

Be TdoTa, vTroXiTro/jLevov^;
iroc^o-avTa^;
t^9
eirl
'Koiirov^ avTi"^
e^ava^^^p^^v
(pXavpoTaTOv,tov^
Kelvoi ISofievot
rjv ydp eyco yv(o/jLr]";/jlt]dfidpTco,

jravTola'
TO

iroTa/jLov.

avTd
re
TpeyjrovTat
tt/oo?
'keiireTai dirohe^i^;
epycov /jueydXcovJ^

dyaOd

iroWd

Kal

evOevTev

to
rj/julv

Se

yLterel?
ttjv irpo- 208
Tofivpc
K.poi(rovSe eXo/xe^o?, 7rpo7)yopeve
Teprjv yvco/jL7)v, Trjv
^9 avTov
eir
SiafBTjaofievov
eKelvrjv. t] fiev Stj
i^ava^oyp^^^v
KaTa
"9
}^vpo";Se J^potcrov
Ta9
i^ave^dipeL
irpMTa'
virea^eTO
VvMjJiaLfxev

Xelpa'seaOel'^

avTao

tm

Ku^o?

o-vveaTaaav'

ecovTOv

irauSl

tco
^Lajx^vcrr),

Trep

Trjv

^acri-

\rjirjveSiSov, Kal TToWd

ol Ti/ndvre
Kal ev
avTov
evTeoXd/jLevoi;
TdoTa
iTOielv, Tjv T) Scd^acTLf;
fjurf 6p6a)6fj,
rj eirl M.a(TaayeTa(;
Kal dirocTTeiXa'^
Sie^aive
ivTei\dfjLevo";
tovtov^;
69
Tlep"ra";,
avTO'^
TOV

TTOTa/Jbov

'Apa^e"x,
vvKTO^

Kal

(TTpaTo";

avTov.

Se

eireLTe

elSe oyjnv evScov


eireXOovar^f;

ev

iSoKei, o Ki}|009
tS
ev
"TotrjvSe.
Tecov
Trj yciipV
^To-Tdo'Treo";TratScov tov
irpeajBvTaTove^pvTa
Kal
ttj [xev Tr]v ^Actltjv
TOVTecov
7rTepvya"i
tj/
^TaTdairei
Se
roJ
eovTO
iTTio-Kcd^ecv.
^Kpadfjueo^

tov
eirepatcoOi]
tcov

virvcp

eirl
Se

209

M.aaaayeopdv tcov
tcov

cojjlcov

^vpcoinjv
dvSpl 'Ap^atyu.ettjv

HEUODOTOS.

120

eiKoai
ov

ecov
Aapelo^}Trpea^vraTO'^,^

TraiScov

vlSrfrjvTMV

/jLaXiCFTaerea,

Kov

[book

koX

KareXeXecTrro

outo?

iirel

a)V
rfkiKirivarpareveadai.
el^e
ehihov
Ys^vpo^,
Xoyov ecouTcp ireplTrj";oyfrtof;.
0)9
kco

jap

TcrraaTrea

eivau rj oyjri^;,
/cdXeaa^
/jueyaXr)
elire
"T(jTacnre"^,7raL"; cro'^

GoXcoKE.

Se

ct)9

KTjhovTai Kai
iv
i^epofieva. tjStjmv

"/ji"o

6eol

iraihwv

iv

Yleparjcrf

Srj i^rjyepdrj
Be

ol iSoKet

anroXaj^oov/iiovvov

kol

iin^ovXevojv efioLre koI rfj i/jufj


Tciora
olha, ijo) crrj/jLavico
arpeKew^

"

^PXV

rj\LKlr)v
e?

Tore

/jLOi

irdvra

irpoheLKvvovai
ra

rfj Trapoc^o/jLevrj vvktI

"vBo)v

eTTi-

elSov

TrpeajSuTarov e'^ovra eirX tmv


cofxayv
KoX
Be
Tovrecov
^Ao-irjv
rfj fiev rrjv
rfj
TTTepvya^,
rrjv ^vpcoTrrjv
ecrrl
diro
eTTtcTfCLd^ecv.
ovkcov
Trj";o'\^LO"i
TavTr)"; ovBefxia
firf'^avr]
ah
ifcelvov
rolvvv
TO
eirLpovXeveiv ifJuoL
ra'^larTjv
/jLT]
rrjv
Tcov

acbv

rov

iyco rdBe
ne/)cra9fcal Trolet 6k(o";,
e\6co "Kel, W9
rbv iralBa "9
Karacrrpeylrd/jLevo^
fioc Kara(TTijcreL";
oTTio-co

TTopeveo

210

69

eireav

BoKecov

eXey^ov.^ Ki)/309p^ev

ol

Aapelov eiri^ovXeveiv eXeye


rdBe' Tc5 Be o Balp^cov
avrov
Trpoe^aive")9 avro^
puev reXevrrjaeLV
avrov
pieXXoc, rj Be /SacrcXTjiT]
ravrr)
TrepL'^aypeoc 69 Aapelov.
rolaiBe.
o
By wv
d/jLei/3erac
^Tardcrirrj^
w
/SaacXev, /jlt) elrj
drroein^ovXevcreL, el 3' ean,
yeyovd}";
oari"=;
roc
dvTjpUepcTTj^;
"

Xotro

Tiepaa"^elvai,dvrl
el Be

Tt9

rrepl
creo,

211

dvrl

rd^tcrra'09

ct)9

roL

BovXcov

jxev

Be

vir
[rod]dp^^eaOai
rralBa
rov
6-\^l"=;
dirayyeXXec

iiroLTjaa^;
eXevOepov^

dXXcov
ep^ov

drrdvrcov.
dp'^ecv

vecorepa

^ovXeveuv

/SovXeac.
n
TrapaBiBcop^c
'^pdaOaiavrS
Kal Bca^d";
TcrTacr7r779
^Apd^ea
dp.ec^dp.evo^;
p^ev rovroiau
rralBa Aapelov, K.vpo(;Be
Tiepcra'^
(pvXd^covK-vpcp
r]ie "9
diro
irpoeXOcov
Apd^eco r)p.ep7j"ioBov eiroleu rd"^ J^polaovviroeyco

rot

rovro

crv

rov

rov

rov

Darius
calls himself
the
of
son
tobiilus,the companion of Alexander,
the tomb
of Arsames
of Kyros at
not
Hystaspes (Vishtaspa),son
only saw
Ariaramnes
but
his
of
(Arshama), son
(Ariya- Pasargadre,
corpse also (Arrian,
which
of
vi.
ramana), son
effectually
disposesof the
Teispes (Chishpaish),
29),
whole
Akhajmenes
of
son
(Hakhamanish).
story. Xenophon makes
Kyros
whose
die in
bed
name
Akhfemenes,
{Cyrojy. viii. 7), but his
probably
means
"friendly," or perhaps having
authorityis small. According to Ktesias
the
leader
of the wounds
received
have
been
he died in camp
to
seems
friends,"
he
of the Persian
in battle againstthe Derbikes,whom
tribe at the time of the
the
of
westward.
with
the
Baktria
had
help
conquered
Aryan migrationfrom
The
tomb
shows us
at
The introduction
of the dream
Sakian
king Amorges.
of
that we
are
Murghab, long supposed to be that of
again in the domain
legend, even
Kja-os,must be referred to a later prince
apart from the fact that
the story of the death
of Kyros reof the same
probably Akhsemenes,
name,
of
Xerxes.
See iii. 12. and
counted
Herodotos
the
brother
out
was
only one
by
of many
V.
different ones
ArisAppendix
(ch. 214).
"

HERODOTOS.

122

"Kvpov V6KVV,

Se

fo)9

ivaiTTjKeavTov

"vp6,

Be
\vju,aLvojLi6V7)

acTKOV.

real viKOdcrdv

^(haav re
8oX")'

S'

ere

Br} Kara

/juev

[book

To5

K"^a\r]v

rrjv

veKpS eTreXe^e rdSe.

crv

iralha
cL7rco\ecra";,
jJ^^XV

ae

e?

rbv

i/Jie

"

fiev

e\(ov
ifjiov

rov

ra
Kara
eyoii,
aiiJiaTO"; Kopecro),^^
irep r]iTei\7]cra,
Xoycov
K.vpov reXevrrjv rod ^lov, ttoWmv
rrjv

oBe
Xeyo/juevcov,

jjlol

Tri6avcoTaT0"^ eipijrac.

Be ecrOrjTOb
re
M.a(T"TayeTac

215

Biairav

Be

e'^ovcrc, lirirorai

ro^orat

kol
pbere'^ovcTi)

'^pvcrcp Be

e'^etv.

fcal
al'^fid'^

o/jbolrjv
rfjZiKvOlkt)(popeovackoI
elai koI dvLinTOL^ (dfi(f)OTepo)v
yap
kol
vofjul^ovre^^
craydpt";
al'^fio(^opoL,

re

rd

'^oXko)

kol

irdvTa

oaa

'^pewvrai'

apBc^;Kal

rd

fiev

yap

irdvra

aaydpi"^,
ycCKKw
'^pecovrac,
Kal
^cocTTrjpa^; /jiacr'^a\i(TT7]pa";,
'^pvcro)
3'
rd
co?
avrco^;
rcov
ra]
Kocr/jueovrai.
puev [irepl
arepva
rd
Be
'^a\ivov'^
'^aXKeov^ 6(op7]Ka"^
Kai
irepltov";
irepifBdWovcn,
(fyaXapa'^pvcro). aiBrjpwBe ovB dpyvpo) '^pecovrat
aro/jbta
ovBev
ovBe ydp o-uBe a(f)c
^^ y^pvao'^
icrrl
rfj X^PV'
aTrXero?.*^ v6fjL0L(TC
Be
roiolaiBe.
yvvalKa jjbkv
%aX":o"?
j^pewvrai
Be eTTLKOiva
ya/juel
ydp ZKv6a";
"Ka"TTo";,
'^pecovraf'
ravrrjcn
dWd
Macrelal ol 7roteovTe";
ZKvOaL
EiW7]ve"^irotetv,
(pacrl
t^9 ydp e7rc6v/ui')]crr)
dvrjp,
yia(7(Tayerr)"^
yvvaLKo";
(rayerac'
aSew?.
dfjud^rj^^
(paperpeoovadiroKpepbdo-a^
ttj^
fiLcryerai
irpo
69

Be

ocra

Kal
irepl/ce"pa\7]v

Lirircov

Kao

ev

216

Kai

to

'

ov

rov

ovpo^

Be

yepcov

yepTjrac

r/XLKir}";
cr(f)t
irpoKelraidWo";
ol

Kapra,

They fightboth on horseback and


on
usuallyemploying the
which
also used
was
sagaris,"
by the
the Persians, Mossynoeki, and Amazons,
and
according to Hesykh. was
singleedged (see Herod, iv. 70). Sir H. Raw-

the

linson

others

"

suggests that

Persian

We

khanjar.

it is the
may

short
the
^

dagger worn
by the
Hittite sculptures.
Gold

mountains,

and

the

of

names

pounded
As

the

wdth
tumuli

Skythians of

and

Altai

large proportion

Tatar
the

modern

the
compare
of
warriors

in the Ural

abounds

heroes

word

of the
Herodotos

are

of

com-

alten, "gold."

steppes show, the


were

still in the

bronze
^
^

age.
See ch. 203, note
Here

that the

Herodotos

Massagetse

are

latter

iii. 101.

distinctlystates
not Skyths.
By

crvve\OovTe";

iravre'^

he

Be

the

means

and

nomade

half-settled tribes which

spread over the


Russia, extending on
side to Thrace, and on the other
the one
of
into the steppes of Tatary. Many
southern

these

or

part of

were

no

doubt

Turkish

perhaps belonged

other

served

whose

races

in

the

relics

Kaukasos

the

to

are

Tatars

now

but

Mongol
a

pre-

large

been Sarmatians
to have
or
part seem
the
latter
Slavs,
inare
Among
Aryan
eluded the Budini, Neuri, etc., of Herodotos (bk. iv.) The
Massagetse,like the
whom
Sakse with
they are associated,
were
probably connected with the modern
to
Kirghizes. At all events, they seem
have

1, and

ol

irpoarjKovTe'^

' '

foot"

ouSet?* iiredv

jjuev

triana
"

Tatars

been

founded

the
between

Greeks

like

Turanian

"

mean

B.C.

the

Sakae

kingdom
165

and

who

of Bak-

150.

perhaps Hekataeos.

The

OvovcTi

dWa

KOI

/julv

Karevay^eovTaL.^
he

vovacp

Te\evT7]cravTa

(TvfJb^oprjv

Troieofjievoi

aXX

ovoev,

(T(f)L

etc

"LcrL
Be

TO

So

the

old.

See
1

Fijians

after

death,

"

Xenophon

38,
of

their

put

feast,

iii.

Plenty

Kpea

oi

top

KpvTrrovai,

cnrelpovai
be

acpuovou

yaXaKTOTrorac
L7r7rov";.^

6vovcn

ro)

irdvrwv

6v7)tmv

tmv

ra'y^icrTfp

v6o"i

haTeovTai.

Ta'^LG'TOV

'"^

rS

ra

vevofjuiarai,
yea

vy^ovcov

Trapayivovrai'

Oecov

tmv

Kai

he

rvOrjvai.

to

e?

ae^ovrat,

rj\iov

dvcri7j";'

Trj(;

ovTO"^

cKero

Trora/JLOv

fxovvov

cr"pc
aXXa

^ooovcn

Krrjvecov

he

OeMV

ovk

123

k'^rfcravTe'i

avTM,

/caracnreovrat

ov

^Apd^eco

EAST.

oX^tcorard

ra

fjuev

on

airo

rod

d/jua

Trpo^ara
rdora

THE

OF

EMPIRES

THE

I.]

note

when

parents

they

to

become

Rigiv.

5,

35)

found

horses

sacrificed

were

Armenia.
could

8.

fish."

(Anab.

that

The
be

Veda

noblest

offered

was

by
the

the

horse.

to

the

sun

that

sacrifice

Aryans

in

of

the

HERODOTOS.

124

BOOK

[book

11.

TeXevTTjcravTO^Se K^vpov irapeXajBettjv jBaaiXrjirjv


"ia/jLkoI
li^a(7cravSdvrj"i
Trat?
^vcrr)";,J^vpov ea)v
rrj'^^apvdcTTreco

K.vpo"iavTO"^
Ovyarpo^,Trj";irpoairoOavovcTT]'^
iiroirjaaTOteal
irotelcrOaL.

toIctl

TavT7}";

ttclctl
irpoelire

aXXoicn

8rj rrj^i yvvaLKo";

re

jjueya

irevOo^;
rjp'X,'^

twv

iral^

ecop

7rev6o"^

K.vpov

koI

"loji^a?/juev kol
AloXea^; ft)9 SovXov^ irarpwlov^
eovra^
}^ajjL^v(Tr)";
iirl he Alyvinov iiroielro (TTparrjXao-irjv
aXXov";
ivo/uLt^e,
twv
irapaXaj^cbv
eTreKparec.
rjp'X,^icai Br)/cat ^^Wrjvo)v tcov
2

re

Ofc Se

AlyvTTTtoc,
/SacnXevcrai,,
irplvfiev ij ^afjb/Jbrjrc^ov
cr"pecov
eTretSr)
eo)VTOv";
ivo/jit^ov
dv6pco7ra)V'^
yeveaOat ttclvtwv
irpooTOV^
^

Three

exist
the

Babylonian

dates

British

the

in
"

(1) "the
of

contract

Museum,
first year

tablets

bearing
of Kam-

his father

Babylon,
Kyros
byses,king
(2) "the
being king of the world;"
eighthyear of Kambyses, king of Babylon
the world;"
and
(3) "'the eleventh
of
Kambyses, king of Babylon."
year
Trans.
in the
Soc. Bib.
(See Pinches
Archceol. vi. 2. ) This supports Africanus
in making
the length of the reign of
eleven
as
against the
Kambyses
years
the
and
eight years of Ptolemy's Canon
seven

otos.

and

years
We
must,

five months

of Herod-

therefore,suppose

that

that, like Nero, he

was
popularly supposed
cording
living. Manetho, acto Africanus, made
Kambyses
reign six years in Egypt, which would

to

make

be

still

his invasion

of the

country take

place in B.C. 528 (b.c. 522 being the


eighth year of Kambyses as king of
Babylon, and the date of the Magian
probably the
usurpation). This was
of Kyros.
On
the
year of the death
other
hand, Egyptian scholars
agree
with
Eusebios
and
Diodoros
in placing
the

depends
date

invasion
on

of the

in

B.C.

accession

But

525.

assigning b.c.

664

as

this
the

of Psammetikhos

his son
I.
Kambyses Icingof
According to Clem. Alex. {Sir.i. p.
Kyros made
perial 395), Kambyses reigned nineteen
Babylon, reserving to himself the imyears ;
Ktesias says eighteen.
title,in B.C. 530, since we possess
the accession
selves
themfrom
The
tablets dated
Egyptians considered
year
ninth
created
the
of
have
been
to
Kyros as
by the
(B.C.539) to
year
the
demiurge Khnum
king of Babylon, and that Kambyses
; while
supreme
considered
of Asia
and
to be king up
races
was
Europe were
only
officially
of the goddess Sekhet,
the formations
accession
of Darius, after the
to the
of the younger
overthrow
zar
and
the negroes
of the pretenderNebuchadrezgod
III. in B.C.
It is very possible
Horus.
519.
-

LAND

THE

u.]

OF

EGYPT.

125

^aaiXevcra^; rjOeKrjaeelSevao
'^a/jbfjLr)TO'^o(;

8e

aiTo

TTpMTOt,

Se aXXcov

T(ov

ecovTMV,

vofii^ovcTC^pvyu^i

TOVTOV

ovSeva

Be

areyri

KelaBai

iir ecovrcov
ipi]/^rj

aKovaai

Be

rdora

eVo/et

TraiBicov,
rcov
diraWa'^OivTcov

rcov

Bc"T7)(;
'^povo"^

rdora

eyeyovec

6vpr}vfcal icriovrc

rr]v

rd

prj^ovG-i
(f"covrjv
irpcoTTjv

r}VTLva

rd

rd";

icfxoveov,
opeyovra

rS

rraiBia

iraiBla

avro'^

KeXevaavro^

U)V

Buairprio-OeXcov
^a/jL/jL7]Ti'^o(;
raWa

daTJfjicov
Kvv^TjfjbdToyV
koI iyevero. cb? yap

iroiijuevi irpr^aG-ovru,

dvoiyovn

dfju^orepa
irpocriTLirrovra

rd
'^elpa"=;.

^eKo"^

By irpdra dKOvaa"s
iroXkdKL^ (pocreovnKal eTrLfxeXofievo)

ijav^of; Tjv o iroifjirjv co? Be


TToWbv
eVo?, ovrco
ro
rjv rovro
rd

irep

ra

/ubrjSefJLLav
(f)Ci)vr}
avrd, /cau ttjv ioprjv

ivereWero

kol

re

dvOpooircov
TroL/jLVia Tpo(f"ijv

veoyva

avTwv

eirayLvelvorc^ialya'^,TrXtjcravra Be yaXaKTO^
crecrOaL.

ihvvaro

avevpelv,ot yevolaro irpcoroL

tovtov

avrlov
TOLT^vhe,
[xi-jheva
ivreCkdiMevo^i

levai,iv

yeveaOat

TTpoTepov^

TracBia Svo
rocovSe.
dv0p(O7r(ov,
iTTcre'^vdrat
BtScoac iroLfjievi Tpe^etv e?
TMV
iirtru'^ovrcov
Tcva

yevotaro

Se co? ovfc
^ajii/jL7]Ti'^o";

ecovTov^;.

TrvvOavofxevo^
iropov

oItiv"";

e?

/jiev

Bij crrjfjbr^va^;rw

o'^^lvrr]v eKelvov.

Beairorr}yyaye
dicovaa^

Be

Kal

o'irLve"^dvOpcoircov
^e/c6";re

iirvvOdvero
'^afJLfJbtjri'^o^

Bre evpicTKe ^pvya"^KaXeovra^; rov


irvv6avo\xevo"=;
dprov.^
ovroy
rrprjy(Tvve'^coprjcravAlyvTrrcocKal rocovrcp crraO/jirjcrd/jLevoc
a)Be
elvac
^pvya"^TrpeorjBvrepov^; ecovrcov.
jjLari rov^
fxev yeveadai
^
'^
rod
rod
iv
ro)v
"^Wi^ve^ Be
'H^atVrou
Me/A"^f.r^Kovov
lepecov
Kal w? yvvacKcov
rd(; y\(oaaa";
re
fidraca rroWd
Xeyovcrc aXXa
KoXeovai,

the

"At

fixed

adverbial

time"

(viii.19).

the accusative
dKfxrjv,

So

to

(= ireK-yw),treirojv, Skt.

irecycro}

2"ach,Zend

jjac,

Lat.

culina, but

coquo,

the

hacken
English hake, Germ,
Psaminetikhos, no doubt,
(Gk. (pdjyo}).
obtained his knowledge of Phrygian from
not

to

the Karian
him

from

cry

bek

merely
the

and

Ionian

Lydia.
uttered

an

by

imitation

the

children

of the

sent

that the
was

bleating of

Papyrus Ebers, the


standard
on
medicine,
Egyptian work
sixteenth
the
in
compiled
century B.C.,
says : If "a child on the day of birth
it will live ; if it says ha, it will
says 7ii,
goats.

The

mercenaries

It is evident

CZo?wfe,
Cp. /3e/c/cea-eA??j'e,
Aristopli.

398.

ex-

pressinglimitation.
*
BeKos is said hy Hi2:)ponax(fr.82,
])ergk)to have been also used by the
The
word
is
Kyprians for "bread."
akin

die."

is, Ptali, identified with Heof the


phrestosby the Greeks on account
the
between
two
similarityof sound
That

names.
^

Egyptian Men-nofer, "good place,"


corrupted into Ma-nuf, Copt. Menf and
Memfi
(Moph and Noph in the Old
of
Testament). The most ancient name
the
"the
white
wall," the
city was
Ptah
and
specialtitle of the citadel.
his son
AskleImhotep (the Egyptian
his] "great lover,"
pios),along with
It was
Sekhet, were
worshipped there.
built by Menes, and was
the capitalof
the Old Empire.
the worship of
From
Ptah Memphis received the sacred name
of Ha-ka-Ptah, "city of the worship of
Ptah.

"

HERODOTOS.

126

'^afjifM'^TL'^of;
eKTafJbcbvrrjv
ravrrjo-L

irapa

Kara

Tolai

Me/x^^*

ev

rd

eiTLcrTaaOaL'

oi

ra

elSevat el

Oela

vvv

o-vfjbjBrjaovTau

'HXiOTroXtraf-

yap

fiev

irdvra^
vo/jLL^cov

fjiovvov,

avTMV

eXeiyov,

Tooravra

Xeyovrao

dTrTjyrjfidrcov

tmv

rd

e^rjyelcrOac,
elfJLi
e^co rj
7rpo6v/Jio";

ov/c

7]Kovov,

iraihcov

eOiXcov
iTpaTTO/jLTjv,

elvat XoyLcoraroc.
Aljv/TTicov
ola

Traihcov

tmv

ev

TolcTL

\oyotai

eTroLrjaaro

Tpo"pr)v to)V

rrjv

eiV"K6v

TOVTCov

ovro)

Me/z-^iiXOcov e? Xoyov^; rolai lepevaotov


Bt) koI [e? ^rj^a^; re KaX\ e? 'HXtoi; iroXiv

oXka

koI

'H^aiarov.
avTMV

Brj

Se Kol

7]K0V(Ta

hiairav

yvvao^L

Tycrt

/juev

[book

dvOpcoirov^taov

ovvofiara

ireplavTwv

viro
eTTC/jUvrjcrOeo)
tov
avrcov,
Xoyov e^avaySe dvOpwirrjia
iiri/jbVTjcrOTJao/jbai.
ocra
Ka^o/juevo^;
nrprjyfjbara, S)he
AlyvTrrlov; .dvOpcoTrcov
eXeyov o/jboXoyeovTe"ia^icn, Trpcorov^
dirdvTcov e^evpelvtov
ivtavTOv, SvcoSeKa jjuepea haaajxevov;tmv
TdoTa
Se e^evpelv e/c tmv
avTov
dcTTepcoveXeyov.
a)pea)v 69
he
Bo/cetv,
'^XXrjvcov,
dyovcTL Toau"he ao(f)G)Tepov
efiol
^'^XXrjve^;
oaw
eVeo? i/ji/3oXi/jLov
eTrefi^aXXovcntmv
fiev 8cd TpLTOV
oipecov e'lveKev,
SvcoSeKa
AlyvTTTCOi,Be TpL7)KOVT7]/jLepov"; dyovTe^ tov";
/jLrjvaf;
dva
Kai
ttolv
irevTe
eirdyovau
eTO";
dpcO/juov,
rj/juepaf;irdpe^tov

6
a"pi,
''

The

Us,

the

of the

kvkXo^

tmv

Egyptian
sacred

the

Nia

the

in

Ammon

or

aypecov

of Thebes

name

quarter

"9

the east

on

ToyvTo

was

bank

being T-Ape, "the head,"


Greek
Q^^ai. It is called
NoAssyrian inscriptions,

Nile

whence

av

"No

"

of Amun

in the

Old

Testament, from the popular Egyptian


name
Nu, "the city,"or Nu-a, "the
Amun
was
great city,"also Nu- Anion.
its patron deity. It first appears
in
Middle
of
the
the
as
history
capital
Empire. I have bracketed the words is
Qrj^as re /cat for the reason
given in ch.
29,

note

7.

close to Cairo, the ancient


Heliopolis,
marked
seat of Egyptian learning,now
the
o
belisk
of
Sesurtasen
L,
by
solitary
the oldest known.
Its Egyptian name
was
Ei-n-Ra, "the abode of the Sun,"
"

or

Anu, whence
^

This

may

the Old
be

Test. On.

rendered

' '

Consider-

irapayiveTai}Svco-

Trepacov
for

ignorance.

So

chh.

45, 46,
47, 48, 61, 62, 65, 81, 132, 170, 171.

cover

Wiedemann

As

pointsout,

part of the work


which

"there

of Herodotos

betraysso

is

no

[on Egypt]

much

ignoranceas that
religion." He is not
therefore likelyto have known
anything
of the mysteriesof the Egyptian faith,
more
especiallyas his only informants
half-caste dragomen.
In cli. 86
were
he says he will not divulge the name
of
the deity who
and
was
embalmed,
yet
that it Avas
every child in Egypt knew
Osiris,and the name
appears on myriads
of sepulchral
monuments.
It is clear,"
which

deals

with

"

says
not

Wiedemann,
understood

conceal
tion of
^

' '

the

that

Herodotos

name,

and

ignorance under
secret knowledge."
his

Herodotos

understand

shows
the

that

to

affecta-

an

he

had

tried

does

Egyjitianmethod

not

of in-

that
tercalation,which must have been by the
ing that all people are convinced
intercalation
of the quarter days. He
they ought not to be talked about."
This affectation of religious
scrupulosity equallyforgetsthe claims of the Babyon\the
lonians to earlyknowledge of astronomy
was
probably
part of Herodotos

SeKci

iircovvixla^;
eXejov

decov

re

"KX\7]va"^irapa
deolcrt

vrjov'^

eyyXvylrai.
Isillva'^eVl

kol

jJbev

tovtcov

koL

eirrd rjfiepecov icrrl dvd

tov

crvveaLV

eVrl

Xovrai,

Kol
fjLOV,^

e^eo,

KaTel"; KaraireLpTjTrjpLTjv
The

calendar.

and

the

Egyptians

Sothic
that

proves

kol

would

what

them
them.

Hence

interest

cycleof
they had

the

or

of the text.
^

Menes

was

not

the

first "human"

king of Egypt (afterthe demigods and


of all Egypt.
gods),but the first monarch
Herodotos
wrote
Mrjva (as in
probably
three MSS.), which
the copyists have
assimilated
**

to the

This, of

of Minos.

name

course,

is

fiction,based

Trj"^

irora-

H'^XP^rpLMV

roLovSe

en

earl
(f)VcrL^

eXeyov,

ean

X^^PV^TOLrfhe.

dvoiaei^ /cal iv evSeKa


on

conclusions

wrong

of nature.

appearance
found
at

opyvLfjac

drawn

fronr

Pottery has
by Hekekyan

Memphis
thirty-ninefeet below the colossal
of Ramses
II.,which would have
deposited there 11,646 years B.C.
of increase

rate

the

before

same

it has been
the

to

desert

north
which
had

countless

ages

Bey

statue

been
if the

of Nile

mud

had

been

the

of Ramses

that

age

Memphis itself is far


of Lake
Moeris, and the
the necropolisof
formed
been
dry and bare for
before the time

Bubastis,Pelusium, and
the

the
been

since.

Memphis

Delta, existed

in

other

of Menes.
towns

the

of

of
the

days
Empire, and Busiris,near the coast,
supposed to be the burial-placeof

Old
was

Osiris.
^

This

is taken

from

flatter

astounding statement

vavriK'^EXXi/i/e?

rrjv

diro 760.9,
hpopuovaTri'^cov
rjfjLepr]^;

nTTfXovre

an

ISovtl Se,

yrj fcal Scopovrod

re

ouSev

early date that 1460


Sothic
equal to 1461 vague
years were
In reckoning the dates of a king's
ones.
reign, however, they used the year of
of
the months
360
days, and reckoned
his accession, but
from
his reign, not
from the beginning of the year in which
The
he
the throne.
ascended
lonians
Babytimes
later
in
distinguished
the year of a king's accession
between
and
the first year of his reign. The
Zodiac was
a
Babylonian discovery,not,
as Herodotos
imagines,an Egyptian one.
^
The ciceroni employed by Herodotos
than
about
Greek
probably knew more
about Egyptian mythology, and, as their
Greeks, took care to tell
employers were
from

known

ev

Trj(;XL/jbvr)";
TavTr}"^

eKetvoi

OaXdaayf;

jjuol iSofceov Xeyetv 5

jitj irpoaKovcravro

AlyvTrrov yap

irpoairXeooven

the

icau

Atyvirrof;,"9

KarvirepOeen

rotovrov.

fiev

irpMTa

avd7r\oo"^ diro

ryv

Srj koI

on

rjfjLepeoyv irXoov, T7]"; irepu

he erepov

e?

AlyvTrrtoccrc
eTrLKTrjTOf}

rd

epyw

^(pa iv XlOoiai
iSrjXovvovrco

Klyvirrov avOpwirov eXeyov


^Tj^atKov vofiov, Traaav
Klyvirrov
ovhev
vvv
evepOe
vir"pe')(ov tcov

irora/jbov.

ireplrrj'iycoprj^;' Bi]Xa yap


ye

TrXeo)

ra

ayaX/jLara koX

kol

irpMTOV

avTrj"; elvai
iovrcov,
Trj"^yiolpLo";
\ifjLvr}(;

oan^i

127

AlyvTrrlov^vo/jblo-ac
kol

Trpcorov;

vvv

ttXtjvtov

TOVTov,

eXo9,^

elvai

EGYPT.

re
^co/jlov;
dvaXa/Secv,'^
(T(f)6a)v
7rpa"rov"; Kau
airovecfjiac cr(^ea"=;

jBacrCkevaai 8e

yevofieva.

OF

LAND

THE

II.]

No

doubt

by

the

not

Hekatseos
the Delta

Nile

found

have
before

without

at

existed
the

ment
acknowledg-

(see Arrian.

v.

6).

formed
originally
but as marine
depositsare
depth of fortyfeet,it must
for

was

thousands

foundation

of the

of

years

Egyptian
monarchy. The land is sinking along
the north
of Egypt, so
coast
that the
Delta is reallybecoming smaller instead
of larger. See also ch. 10.

HERODOTOS.

1 28

ecreai.

fjuev eTrl

tovto

3e avT7]"^

avTL^

elcri

yecoTretvai

ol

CITTO

0)V

TaVTT]^

e^aKoaioi kol

Kol

(TTaBta,

AtiyuTTTO?,eovcra

nracra

iroXio's
re

virTirj

69

ttiv

koX

/Scop^ov (pepovcrj)
e?

OXvpLiriov. (TpbLKpov
oBmv

TOiv

TovTecov

Ti

iirl

kol

tov

ZXv?.

koI

ecTTi

BvcoBeKa

Oecov

tov

tov

Ato?

tov

vrjov
TC"^

elvau,ov
p,rjfco(;

puT] laa"^

TO

tcov

Bid^opov evpob

TO

ecTTl evpea

dvco Iovtl irapo.irXrj"j[


6aXdcrcr7}"^

TLlaav

re

evOevTev

pbeaoyaiav

evvSpo^

Tjj i^ ^A6r]vea)VoBo) ttj diro


p,rJKO";
^

OaXacraav.

nrapa

TO

diro

TToXiv

Se

(T'Xp'lvo"i
eKacTTOf;,
p^eTpov
ovtco
av
AIjvtttov
ecrjcrav

oBb'^

'HXtou

SvvaTac

axpivoiai.

Be

"9

ttjv

Se

TpLax^^Xioito

'^HXtoL'

p^e'xpi'

6(TO0

opyvi,fjcrc
avOpooTTWv,
pbepbeTprjKaai

KlyviTTiov,e^TjKOVTa crTaSca.

fiev

K^dcrcov

to

k^rjKOVTaGyolvoi eld I.

Xltjv,
d(f)6ovov

7rapaadyyrj"^
TpLrjKOVTa
7 (TTdhioi

TlXtv-

rod

ot Se ttoWtjv
(TTaStOLcrc,
yecdirelvat,
expvcri,

Be r^crcrov
yoopTjv, o(TOi
Se
ot
irapaadyyrjai,

eov

airo
A.X'yvTTTOv

\ipLV7]"^,
Trap'rjv
P'^XP^Sep^covlBo';

6pO";T6LV6C'
yap

roaovro

eivai
Stacpeo/jLev
rjfjbel^;

6cv7]T"coKoXirov

p^ev

SrjXolirpo'yyaiv rrjf;
yea"=; iovcrav.
Alyvirrov/jb7]K0"ito irapa Oakacraav e^rjKOVTa

earu

Kara

a'^OLVOL,

[book

Xoyc^op.evof;

av

TrevTCKalBeKa

irXeov

KaTaBel
TrevTe/calBeKa
yap e? Tllcrav i^ ^AOrjvecov
CFTaBicov purj elvat TrevTaKOcrlcov fcau x^Xiayv,rj Be "9 'HXlov
itoXlv
(7TaBi(i)V'

Plintliine

The

Serbonian

Mediterranean
It

water,

lake.

into the

is

"),

Tsephon,
{Bahli-Tsapuna
The

bronze
the

with
of

is

god
that
the

the

upon

it.

as

the

mountain

of

of

North"

the

in the

of

Zeus

is

name

Kais,

Arabs,

or

Kd(rios

on

Pieria,where

represented by

The

stone.

of

"Baal

in

not

conical

connected

deity
pre-Islamitic

Ko^^,

an

stadia

or

Idumsean

"

The

Herodotos

it

the

miles.

Syrian coast,

coins of Seleukia

makes

300

stood

and

makes

Phoenician

the

Syrie centrale,4),

10, xii. 14), whereas

v.

here

real

Assyrian texts).
god Katsiu is found in
inscriptions{e.g.de Vogiie,

Nabathean

H.

the

of the

name

divinity (Joseph. Aiitiq. xv. 7, 9), as


been
sometimes
supposed. The
skhoenos
varied
or
Egj^ptian kheniiah
from
to
stadia
thirty
forty
(Plin.N.
has

promontory,

on

also known

was

Baal

stretches

("Baal

which

Kasios

Mount

the

Baal-Katsiu

promontory
Like

of

the

fresh-

Kasios

from

name

of

not

sea-water,

Mount

its
of

temple

exists,as Mr.

eastwards

in the form

sea

took

and

still

explorationshave shown,
the sea
strip
by a narrow
extending along the coast

sand, and

Delta.

Lake.

the Mareotic

on

Lake

from

of the

it

was

Chester's

G.

divided
of

rj puev

He
sixty stadia.
of
the
coast
length
more

length

Flat,and
roads

than

400

is

hardly

without
of

thus
3600

miles, while
than

more

spring water."

Attica

were

due

to

who
unified and centralised
Peisistratos,
the country, making them
all meet
in
the market-place of Athens.
^
Olympia was orginallythe suburban
temple of Pisa, which it supplanted and
destroyedwith the help of Sj)arta. According to Pausanias, Pisa Avas razed to
the ground in b. c. 572.
Its site is no
The
road must
have
longer traceable.
continued
"Pisan"
to the

to

rather

bear

the

than

age of Herodotus.

of

the

"Olympian"

up

name

HERODOTOS.

130

10

a)V
TavTTjf;

Lep6L"seKeyov,
TO)v

TO

[book

Kara
rj iroXXrj,
tt]^ y(t)pr]";
Trj"; "tp7jfjL6vr)";
irep ol
ehoKei koI uvtm
KlyvTrTioLCTi.
/jloc eivau e7rlKTr]T0";

tojv
TroXto? /cec/jLevcov
elprj/juevcov
virep yie/uLcpiO'^
/coXtto? 6aXdaa7)";,^
fiera^vicpalvero
fioi elvai kot6
axTTrep ye

yap

rcov

opecov

"Wlov
irepl

ra

TreSiov,W9
rdora

yap
rod

kov

/cal yiatavSpov
Koi "F^cfyecrov
TevdpavtTjv
re

elvat a/jLCKpa rdora

76

/jueyaXoicrt

'^copia irpoa'^(oaavrwv irora/Jbcov

ra

Ne/Xou, iovro"^

tcov
crv/jb^aXetv

evu

ovhel^iavrcov

nrevraaropbov,

crrofidrcov

rcov

irXrj6eo";
rrepi

elori^e Kau
aXkot
ecrri.
d^co(;
(Tv/jL^\r)drjvai
Trorafjboi, ov Kara
l^lelXov iovre";jxeydOea,
oXrive^epya aTroSe^d/juevoL
rov
fieydXa
elcTL ra)V iyco(ppacrac
aX\o)v /cat ov/c
Kai
rjKiara
e^") ovvofiara
/cal e^tet?e? ddXacraav rcov
09
*A^eXft)ou,
pecov St AKapvapirj";
earc
vrjacov ra";
r]iJLLaea"^ rfhrj
^^'^ivdScov
rjrreLpov rreiroiifjKe,
Be
Be rrj^i^Apa^ir}";
OaXdaAlyvrrrov ov irpocrco,KoXirof;
'^coprj^;,
"

11

i/c rrj";^^ipvOprj^
OaXdaarj^;,fiaKpo^
Ka\eofjLev7]";
icre-^cov
koI
n
o-recvo^;
")?
ovrco
Brj
/jbrjKO^
/xev ttXoou,
ep^o/juat(f)pd"Tcov.
"K
e?
dp^afjiivcp
rrjv evpeav 6d\acrcrav,
rjfiepai
/jbv^ovBce/CTrXcocrat
dvatcTifjiovvrat
recrcrepd/covra
elpecrlr)
'^pecofxev^' evpo^; Be, rfj
^' ^'^
irXoov.
koXito^;,rjpbLav '^fieprj^;
pVX^''^
evpvraro"^ eart
dvd iraaav
yiverai,erepov roiovrov
'f]iJbep7jv
avrcp Kal dfjuircori'^
(rr}";

fcoXirov Kal rrjv

AlyvrrrovBoKeco yevecrOac
kov,

OaXdaar]^;koXttov
fioprjir](;

eK

fiev

T779

Be
eir
AldLoiriT]'^,^
icre'^ovra
rov

Xe^cov,
e?
ep'^ofjuac

^Apd^cov,
rov

rov

irrl
t?}?vorirj^;
cpepovra

jjbev dX\r)XoL(TL
(T'^eBov
cTvvrerpaLvovra"s

Svplrjf;,

/xu^ou?, oXiyov Be

roif^

rrj";'^copr]";. el S)v iOeXrjcret


7rapaXXdcr(Tovra(;
eKrpe-^at
ri
NetXo?
koXttov,
e?
rovrov
^Apd^cov
pelOpov
/jlcvKcoXvet
erecov
evro";
; iycofiev
ye Btcrfjuvpicov
eK'^coaOrjvai
peovro";
dv^ kov
evrb";'^cocrOrjvai,
ye Brj
ye Kal /jLvplcov
yap eXTTO/jLal
rt

ro

rov

rovrov

ev

TO)

TrpoavatcTi/jLco/jLevcp
j^povco irporepov rj

See ch. 5, note 5.

Mr. F. Calvert has shown

has

been

no

Trojancoast.

Red
that there

increase of land
The

on

the

increase at the mouth

has been
now

and

The latter signified


the Indian

Ocean, but also included


Gulf

av

and

our

Red

Sea.

the
The

Persian
Gulf

of

Suez is included in it in ch. 158.


^

gulf which stretched


sea
(the Mediterwhile the other."
between the
three miles of marsh
ranean) to Ethiopia,
and Stein reject
the words
and the ruins of the ancient city, Schweighauser
has silted
rov
Xe^ov.
at Miletos the Meander
^pxofxai
'Ap^jSiOf
^
for a distance of twelve or thirteen
Leavinga little stripof country
(whereTeuthrania stood)
small.
At Ephesos there are

of the Kaikos

sea

Sea.

ovk
yevecrOai
i/jue

"Forming

from

the

northern

"

up
miles from what

was

the sea-line in the

time of Herodotos.
''

The

Gulf of Suez, running into the

between
-^

were

them."

ideas of Herodotos
geological
somewhat
certainly
vague.

The

THE

KoXirof; koX
'vcoaOeir]

ttoXXo)

KoX

TTOTafjiov

T"

EGYPT.

en
fjue^cov

;
ipyaTiKov

ovTco

koL
TretdofjLac

XeyovcTi avra

OF

LAND

".]

ra

avro^;

131

vtto

tovtov

SoKeo)

KapTa

Tolai

(batvofieva eTrl

tolctc

Kai

opecn

aXfirjv iiravOeovaav,

fcal -^afxiJiov
BrjXeio-Oat,^
fiovvov
iTVpafJuiha^

12

elpat,IScov

AtyvTrrov TrpoKecfjLevrjvTrj";e'^ofjuevrj^7ea9^ Ko^'yvKia

rrjv

ra?

re

koX

Alyvrrrov mv

irepi
ovtco

roaovrov

re

Kai

coare

Alyvirrov 6po";

Be

ovre
[rfj'X,^pv\
rfj
Me/i(/)to9
"'^ov^ 7rpo";
rfj
Apa^ly irpoao'upqi iovcryttjv AiryvTrrovirpoaeLKeKrjv ovre
ovBe rfj ^vpiy (rrj^;
ra
^Apa^Lr]";
Ac^vrf, ov
"yap
irapa
fiev
/cal
aXXa
OaXaaaav
re
fieXdyyeov
Xvpotve/juovrac),
KarappTjyvvkoI
iovaav
iXvv
re
KareMcrre
fjbivrjv
irpo'^vcrcv e|-AWioTTirj^;
Be
Al/SvtjviBfiev
tov
ipvOporeprjv
rrjv
Trora/JLOv.
VTjvecy/jLevrjvvtto

virep

TO

TovTo

re
V7ro'\]rafji/jLOTepr]v,
rrjv Be ^ApajBirjv

yrjv Kai

re

Kai
re
apjc\a)Be(rTep7]p

roBe

"EiXeyov Be Kai
ol

TavT7]";

eVl

009
lepel^,

rafjLO"; eirl

vTroireTpov

iovcrav.

TeKfJbrjpuov ireplrrjf;'^oopTj^;13
^a(rcXeo";,6kco"; eXOoi 6 ttoM.oipio"^

apBecTKeAiyvTTTOV ttjv
eXd^ccTTov,

to

elvaKoaia

Kai M.olpcovkco
evepOeyie/ncpco^;
rjv eTea
KOTi
lepecovTaoTa
eyoi tjkovov.
"

OTe

rj irevTeKaiBeKa irr)yea"^dva^fj to

ovK

ol

KaXeofjLevov AeXTa,

eTTiBcBo)
^

"

v'^o";Kai

69

Juts out

beyond

The

shores."

the

coast-line

rjv

to

ovtco

o/jlocov

neighbouring
of

the

Delta

little beyond that of the desert

projects
a

on
^

Herodotos

refers to the fossils of the

nunimulite
tertiary
placesthe desert is
and

covered

could

to the south

of

eyes.
the western
on

is

not

Memphis

Sand-drifts

Moeris

In many
\^ith a solid

saline crust.

gypseous
"* Herodotos

limestone.

are

with

common,

travelled
observant

side of the Nile.


one

of

the

imaginary

meri

AlyvTTTicov
Kai
'^copla

Xoyov

KaTa

avTT)

2900).
in

older

tween

two

23

of

of

instead
than
and

of

em

at

that

the

being only

Herodotos, he

hat

Semneh

the Second

made

(about
required. In

now
-

the latter

as

have

900

be-

was

three thousand,

27 feet 3 inches

and

to

cubits 2 inches

Amen

KaTa-

He, therefore, will

Herodotos,

ch. 101

but

years

especially day

In
kings of Herodotos.
signified"a lake," and
therefore applied to the great artiwas
ficialreservoir oftheFayum, whose proper
name
was
hun-t, "the discharge lake."
constructed
It seems
been
to have
by
Amen-em-hat
III. of the twelfth dynasty

Egyptian
Egyptian

(about B.C.

inches)are
have

fJbOL

dXXa

re

be the Moeris

lake ;

either side.

re

69
aTroBiBcp
av^rjcrcv,
fir]

is stated

eir

/jurj

%oop?;

rj

el

eXdyj,aToviroTafJio^,

BoKeoval
virep^aiveL69 Tr]v '^copijv.
evepOeXl/jLvrj^;
Trj"; Mo/pto9 olKeovTe"^ tcl

TO

TeTeXevTT]-

Be

vvv

TMV

eKKalBeKa

AVplrjv

[jlol \xeyo.

7r^^ea9

okto)

Kai

III.

the

41

feet 2

the

time

river

higher than it does


(thirtymiles south

rose

to-

of

Cataract). Between, his date


of the

eighteenthdynasty the
First
Cataract
was
formed, reducing
Nubia
to a desert,and no doubt
causing
the rise in the height of the inundation
in Egypt mentioned
in the text,
^
"If the country goes on
increasing
in height as
it has done, and
grows
equallyin amount."

HERODOTOS.

132

k\{)^ovto"^
avrrfv

AlyvTrrtotto

iiriXoiirov

TTvOo/jbevot
yap

0)9

irdcra

Kara

iOeket, Xeyeip

co?,

el firj

y^povov top
""^acravTreicreaOat.

^Wr}va";

tmv
^^W'^vcov aXX'
')((iipri

rj

irep

irdvra

tov

ov

(nperepr},
""paaav "'EXX'/^z/a?

7)

eXTrtSo? fieyoKT]'^ Kafca)";

/core
ylrevaOevra^
TOVTO

'

avrol

Kore

verai

irorafjiolcrL
apherai

TrelaeaOai

NetXou

rod

[book

ireLvrfaeiv.

Be eVo?

to

ede\r)crei
vetv
cr(f)i,

6eo"; cCkXa

"^

14

EXX77z^e9 aLpeOyaovrat'ov
Xc/jum 01
avy/jiS Biay^pacrOaL,
yap
earl vSaTO"^ ovSe/Jbla
iic
Ato^
B7] a(f)t
tov
on
oXXt) aTrocrrpocpr)
fir]
Kal
TaoTa
EXXT^z^a?AlyvTTTLOLo-c
eyovTa
6p6o)"^
/juev e?
fjLovvov.
'

Se
cf)epe

ecprjTac'

OeKoi, ")?
(r(f"L
icTTi
{avTTj yap

ei

Kal

vvv

A.lyv7rTi0iai
co?

avTolcn

Kal TrpoTepov

elirov, t) ')((opr)t)

(ppdcro).

evef-

evepOe M."/Jb(f)io

KaTa
av^avofjuevrj)
Xoyov tov
Trapot'^ofievov
dWo
ol
tl
69
av^dveaOat,
vyfro^;
oiKeovTe^;
rj
TavTrj
'^povov
^
el
vaeTal
TreLPijaovcrt,
AlyviTTicov
crcjyc
fJbrjTe ye
rj yo^prj
fJurjTe 6
ecTTac
e?
ra?
Brj
dpovpa"^VTrep^aiveiv
;
7roTafJbo"^ oto(; r
rj yap
eK
dirovrjTOTaTa Kapirov
ovTOi
re
vvv
KOfxl^ovTai
tcov
ye
yea";
dWcov
Xocttcov AlyvTrTicov 00 ovTe
Kai
TravTcov
tcjv
dvOpcoTTCov

rj

av\aKa"s
dpoTpo)dvappr]yvvvTe";
dWo

ovTe

ovSev
epya^ofievoi
aXX'

Trjv

eiredv

Se

Tjjcrcvcrl

to

^l

diro tovtov
to
dfjbrjTOv
ovtco
KO/XL^eTat.

aireppba,

Be TTJai val
15

tov

atTOV

AeXTa
to
(j)acrl

fxovvov

was

prodigy

at

abundant

the sea-coast, rain is more

cutting of
canals, heavy

the

Cairo
due

On

show

by

most

to the

the Suez
rains

and

have

; and

freshvisited

The scarcity
of rain is
years.
absorbingpower of the desert.

the

that

the

AlyvirTov,diro

contrary,

the

plough
Egyptians.

the
was

to

Thebes

fall in Upper
(Herod, iii. 10). Showers
several
times
during
Egypt, however,
in April and May),
the year (particularly
there is heavy
time
to time
and
from
rain.
In Lower
Egypt, especiallynear

water

elvai

eivac
irapd OdXacraav
avTr)"^
TirfXovcnaKOiV,^
tmv
Tjj Br] TeaaepdKovTd elau
Tapij(7)i(ov

Rain

since

Trepl
TLepaeo^

'^

cr/coTrt^?XeyovTe^;
Ka\eo/jLevr]"=;
p^e'^pt

dirohLvrjaa"s

fievet,

/SovXofjLeOa
yvaifjurjat TTJac ^Icovcov 'ypdadac tol

o)v

AlyviTTOv,OL

dvdpcoTTOC
TreplXtjlov
eTreXOoov
dpcrrj
avTOjiaTO^

tmv

0
crcfx,
7roTa/JLo";
dTrdXlirrjoiricrWy TOTe
dpovpa^;,dpaa^
cr7reipa"; eKacrTo"^
eTredv
he KaTairaTTjar)
ecovTov
dpovpav ea/SdWet e? avTrjv v"s,

TTOveovac,

Td"^

aKoXkovTe^

ovTe

ttovov;

e'^ovat
ol dWoL

monuments

largelyused

Oxen

and

used

were

sometimes

Other

Greek

for

this

but

asses,

writers

copied
(see ^1. Hist.

of Herodotos

purpose,
SAvine.

not

the

mistake

An.

x.

16

Pliny, 18, 168).


^

can

Col. Mure

has shoMm

hardly be

meant

the

world

other

into

Ionian

that Hekatseos

here, as he divided
parts, but

two

divided

writers who

some

it into

three (ch. 16).


^

The

of the

watch-tower

Abukir.

113)

of Perseus

Canopic mouth,

were

The
near

the

was

west

point of
salt-pans(seech.
marked
Pelusium, now

Pelusiac

on

ayolvoL,

Se

TO

EGYPT.

133

QaXdaGT]^ \e^0VT(dv

a/Ko

TroXto?,
f^^XP^K."pfcacr(opov

avTTjv

TLrjXovcTCov
pecov

T6

OF

LAND

THE

n.]

/cat

rjv

/car

relveiv

/mecToyeav

(Tx^^erac

NetXo?

Be

"Kdvco^ov,ra

e?

e?

aXXa

e?

Xeyovrcov t"}9

8e

elvac, diroheLKVvoifjuev
Apa/3Lr}";
iovaav
ov/c
AlyvTrriOLort
av
Xoyo) ^/D6ft)/"tez/ot
irporepov
TovT(p TO)
AeXra,
avTOi
AlyviTTiov
TO
w?
V^V
Xeyovac
^o^pV^'
ycLp cr(j)C ye
Kal vecoaTl ")? Xoyco elirelv
fcal ifiolSoKel, icTTl KaTappvTov
re
el toivvv
tl
irepuepyddvairei^rivo^.
virijpxe,
cr^tx^PV 7^ firjhefjbia

AlyuTTTOV ra

ra
At/Svrjf;

fxev

^ovTO 8oKeQVTe";

iraihlwv

tcov
SiaTrecpav

"9

a)OC

dvdpcoTrcov
yeyovevau

irpMTOU

levai,TLva

AlyvTrTiovs Bofceco dfia tm


yeveaOai alel t" etvat e^ ou
KaXeojJievcp

yj^PV^

eSel

yXoycrcravirpcoTrjv
AeXTa

ovTe

Se ttj^
irpoiovcrijis:

ovSe

ttoWov^

tco

cr(j)ea";
dirrjcrovcn.
Icovcov

vtto

dvOpcoiroyv
yevo"^ iyeveTO,
v7ro\ei7rojjbevov"^

tov";

/juev

vTroKaTa/SalvovTa^;.to 8' mv
aTaBiOi
irdXat at S7]^at AlyviTTO';eKoXecTO,'^
Trj"^to Trepl/jLeTpov

yiveaQai 7roX\,ov"; Be

avTOiV

elcn

Kal

"LKO(Ti

tov";

el
e^aKiaxi^^t'Oi.

koL

eKaTov

mv

6p6o)^16

rjfiei^;

"Icove";
ycv(6(T/cofiev,
TTeplavTMV
(ppoveovaoireplAlyvTTTOV*
el Be 6p6r}ecTTC
^Icovcop,
''EXX77z^a9 Kal avToi)^
rj yvcofir]
ot (paalTpla
"Itwi^a?diroBeLKVviJbi
ovk
\oyL^ecr6ai,
eTrio-Tafxevov^
ovk

ev

tcov

fjbopta elvai

re

Kal
re
yijv irdaav, JLvpcoirrjv

^Aalrjv Kal Ai^vrjv,


Bel TTpoaKoyl^eaOai
AlyvirTov to AeXTa^
TeTapTOv
yap Brj(T(f)ea";
el jJLTjTe ye
eaTl Trjf;^Acrirjf;
Brj o
fJurjTe Tr]"; Ac^vt)^;'ov
yap
NetXo9 76 eo-Tl KaTa
tovtov
tov
Xoyov 0 ttjv ^Aairjv ovpi^cov
At^vrj'

Tj)

NetXo?,
Kal

M(TTe

Be

Ae^Ta

TOV

o^v irepipprjyvvTab
Kal Ai^vrj^;yivotT
re
fieTa^v ^A"7i7j(;
av.

to)

ev

T7)v fJbev

^Icovcovyvcofjurjv

\eyofxev, AtyvirTOV

TovTcov

KaTa

tovtov

by

AcravpLTjv
t7]V

the ruins

el-Farama.
kesoura

of Tel

by

Strabo.

Trep

and

Geziret

is called
The

name

Ker-

(Ker-

to mean
seems
kosiris)
"split of Osiris,"
the Nile splittingat its site into the
Kanopic and Pelusiac forks.
*

This

called

is

mistake.
in

Homer

The

Nile
iv.

is

{Od.
^Egyptos
477,
257), the latest conjecture about
the latter word
being that it is Ha-kaof Memphis (see
ptah, the ancient name
ch. 2, note
The
6).
Egyptians themselves called their country Kliem, the
xiv.

elvai

a)Be Kal

TavTrjv

J^cXckltjvttjv
Be

^Aao-vplcov,
ovpiafxa

vtto

el-Herr

Kerkasoros

dTriefiev,
r}p,eL"; Be

/juev Trdaav

KaTa
AlyvTTTiOivolKeofievTjv

Kal

to

irepl17

ttjv

vtt

J^iXlkcov

vtto

^Aaly

Kal

At/3vy

"black," from the black


deposited by the Nile.
During
the New
Empire the Delta was known
Phoenicia"
Keft-ur or
"Greater
as
(the
Caphtor of the Old Testament),from the
Hebrew

Ham,

mud

number

of

Aristotle

that

says

called

thus

Thebes,
understanding the
We

must

Herodotos
views

of

settled

Phoenicians

note

Egypt

in

geographers.

Greek

and

mis-

of Herodotos.
what

distinguishes between
the

once

still further

mistake

that

there.

was

of

the

follows
the
Ionian

HERODOTOS.

134

ovBev
ooSa/jbev
8e

TM

ibv

6p6u"Xoyqy

'^Wtjvcov

VTT

ap^d/jLevo";
OaKaaaav.
"9
(T'^L^cov
NetXo9

airo

6 NeZXo?,

eu)v

airo

Be
Tj

oBcov

to)V

Be

to
6vop.a(TTr}v

OoXacraav

"f)epovTa69
ZalTLKov

Be
T(p

avTMV

^ovkoXlkov

toIctl

Wayevea

ovk

ocTTjv

TLva

tj}

eyo)

to

cTTrjpLov yevop^evov

ol
AlyviTTOv "7rvd6p,r)v.

e^lei,
ovTe

Tavrrj
eaTU

Be

to

raSe,

Kelrat,

ovvop,aTa

aX)C

Be

p,ev

\oyq), Kal
ep^ecovTov

Kal

opvKTa.

ccttI

AlyvirTO^
*'Ap,p,o)vo^
XP^~

ToaavTrj

Brj eK

tw

l^o\^iTivov "TTop,a

eaTi

otl

yvcop^y,

yap

OoXaaaav

"9

dirocryicrOevTa,
%e^evvvTLicov

tov

t?}9

Ne/Xw

tS

airiKvelTaL,

irape'^op^evo^;

aTop^aTo,

eyo)

oBmv

Ae/3evvvTLKov crTop^a.

tS
d'jroBeiKVvp.i

Be

tovto

eyei'

AeXra

tov

AeXra

to

^evBr](JLov.

Be puoi
IS/LapTvpel

18

diro

Bicpdcrta
aTop,aTa

eTepa

o^v

to

KaXelrat

'

rjKLCTTa

ecTTreprjv
Be
Br)Idea tmv
t)

vBaTo^

pbolpav tov
eka'^iCTTrjv

ovTe

pel

UijXovatov

KaXelTat

to

7ryoo9

g-'^l^wv
p^ecrov

tovtov

airo

ra

t^9 7roXfc09 ayl^erac rpccpa-

TavT7]";

K.avco/3cKov (TTop^a KeK\7]Tat.


eVrl 7]Be'avco6ev
"9
^epop^evo^;

TO

J^epKaacopoviroXio^

vvv

/^e^pi' p^ev

rj jjuev irpo"; rjoi rpaTrerai,

eTeprj

eyeaOai'

eircovvfjawv

8e

Brj
Trj";'Acrt?;?.o yap
K.aTaSov7rcov pel /JLecrijv AtyvTrrov

twv

Be

to

TroXto?
^^\e(j)avTLV7]";

kol

oSovf;. Kal

aTOfjba,

Kal

re

avT7]"; elvat Trj"iAl^v7]";ra

fjuev yap

TO

tcjv
a/jL"poTepecov

kol

(Tia"i

el
AlyvTrrlcovovpov^.
'^prjcrofjLeOa,
vo/JLiovfiev AcyvTrrov

J^araSovTrcov

Si'^aBcacpeladat

"t9

el /jlt) tov";

vevojuiCT/jLevw

airo
ap^afjLevrjv

iracrav

[book

to

wepl

yvcop,7j"; vcTTepov

M.ape7}"i

7roXi09

re

Kal

"A7rt09 olKeovTe";

AlyvTVTOV to, Trpocrovpa At^vy, avTol re BoKeAtySue9 Kal ovk AlyviTTLOiKal d'^Oopbevoi
tj}ireplto,

elvat

ovTe"^

6r)Xea)vfioMV purj epyeaQai^eirepu^av


/SovXopievot
lepdOp7]o-K7]Lrj,
ovBev
69
Apupbwva (pap^evoc
a^lat Te Kal AlyvTrTioiGikoivov
^

olKelv

eivai'

Te

jBovXeaOai Te
5

i.e. the' First

e^cotov AeXra Kal ovBev opuoXoyelvavTolai,


irdvTcov cr^icne^elvauyevecrOai. 6 Be 6eo(; a"pea"^
yap

(7)

Cataract.

the Egyptian Kah


enKanSpos was
sacred
the
or
name
Nub,
golden soil,
"

"

of which
east

of

Edku.
The

was

was

Busiritic,or

passing by

or

Saitic ;

were

; (2)the

"

(4) the

(1)

Tanitic,
Bukolic

Phatnetic, enteringthe sea at Dami; (5) the Sebennytic ; (6) the Bol-

etta

bitic,entering the

sea

at

other
''

Kosetta

eleven
"false

Marea

; and

Herakleotic.

or

artificial canals.

were

otis, and

(3) the Mendesian,


;

Kanopic

last

reckons

Lake

near

of the Nile

Bubastic

Mansurah

stades

120

site is unknown.

its exact

mouths

the Pelusiac

or

It

Alexandria,probably
But

seven

Pakot.

the

two

besides

mouths,

The

Pliny
four

mouths."
its

gave

to

name

celebrated

was

Lake

for

Mare-

its wine.

Strabo^(p, 799) places the villageApis


the

on

{Marsa
west
^

Berek),

and

about

Parsetonion
160

miles

of Alexandria,
'''Not

to

the flesh of
to

stadia from

coast,100

Hathor,

"

be

prevented

cows," which,
not

Isis,as

as

from

eating

being sacred

Herodotos

says

dpSet,koI KlyvirTLov^elvau

eTTLcov

oIk60VT"(;

TToXfcO?

EGYPT.

AiXra

ro

fjbovvov

elvai

KoX

oBoVy

/cat TrXeov

ToO

dWd

Be

Xeyofjbevov '^copuov

re

eirl Bvo

e/carepcoOc

r/fiepecov

^vctlo^rrepc

ovre

re

rcov

TTvOecrOai,6

rt

rdBe

fiev

Karep'^^erac

Trap

ttXtjOvcovdrro

NetXo?

19

aXXov

ovre

cepecov

Be ea
irapaXa^etv eBvvdo-drjv. irpoOv/jLO^;

ovBevb^;

(7(f)l

'TrXyOvrj,
ov

eireav

eXaaaov.

koL

rovrov

ere

rrorapuov

avroiv

Ao/Svkov

^Apa^tov ivca^fjkoI

rov

oitTO)

TTLVOVCrC.

NelXo?,

/cat rod

NetXo?

rrjv

o'levepOe Fi\6"pavTLV7]'i

TOVTOV

TTOraflOV

TOV

CLTTO

ravrrjv

tovtov^

Be
i'^pTjadr].
irrep'^erac

rdora

135

rdora, (pa^ AtyvirTOV elvac

TTOielv

ea

ovK

OF

LAND

THE

".]

dp^dfjuevo^eirl eKarov
6eptve(av
rj/xepa^, ireXdcra^
rpoirewv
oirlcrci)
diroBe "9 rov
dptOfibvrovrecov
direpyerai
rj/jLepecov
Xeiirayv
peWpov,coare
/Spa'^v^rov '^ecficova diravra BiareXet
rcov
ecov
avrt^
Oeptvecov.rovrcov
rpoirecav
irepL
/^e^/ot qv
ovBevo"; ovBev 0I09
ro)V
Alyvireyevo/jiyv rrapaXa^elv [nrapa]
rd
rloyVy Icrropecov
avrov^
Bwa/jucve'^ec NeZXo?
e/JbiraXcv
rivnva
rcov

rcov

ro

cov

re

dXXcov

rcov
irecf^vKevai

elBevai
^ovX6fjuevo";
rrdvrcov

rrorafjuMV

laropeovKal
ov

irorajjucov

rdord

'

rt,

rrape'^erai.

By rd

re

Xeyofieva

drroirveovda'^ p^ovvo^

avpa^
dXXd

^KXX'ijvcov
/juev

eXe^av
ao(j)i7]v
e7rL(T7)/jLoc ^ovXofievoo yevecrOai,

rcve^;

20

vBaro^;

ireplrov

oBcov ouS' d^cco


oBov";' rcov
rd"; fiev Bvo rcov
rpo(j)acrLa";
el jj^rj ocrov
rcov
fjLvrjaOrjvac
cr7]/jL7]vai ^ovXofJLevo^
rj
fjuovvov
elvai
alrlov^
TrXijOveiV
rov";
er7]o-La"; dvefjuov^;
/xev Xeyec
erepTj
OdXacrcrav
iroXKcoXvovra"i
e?
rov
eKpelvrov NetXoz/.
irorafiov,
rovrov

Be

Xa/ct?

^eraL.

irrjcTLai,
fiev

Kara

Be, el errjaiat

Trpo?

TTorafjiOv^,

oaoL

avrd

ra

iovre"i

rS

alnoi,

rjaav, XPV^

dvrloi

peovai,

NetXo), Kal fjudXXoven

rd
dcrOevecrrepa

rfj ^vplj}

ev

6 Be NetXo?

eirvevaav,

rolcTL err^airjaL

fjuev

ovkcov

opuoico^

Kal
irdo-'^eiv

iXdcrcrove";

ocro)

elal Be ttoXXol
rrapeyovrai.
ttoXXoI Be ev
ol ovBev
irora/juol
rfj Ao/Stij},
pevfjuara

Kal o NetXo?.
8' ereprj
rj
rraayovcri olov n
X6y(p Be elirelv
fjLovea-reprjfiev icrrc rrj(;XeXeyiJLev7)(;,

dvemarr)-

roiovro

(cli.41),
"

to

forbidden

were

food, though

oxen

At the First Cataract


rise towards

Memphis
is at

towards

to

the
the

used

be

as

be eaten.

might

the Nile

end
end

of

begins
Ma}'-,at

of June, and

the
end
of
highest about
September.
^
has sailed on
the
who
Every one
Nile and felt the invigoratingbreezes of
its

dXXovf;

'^ov?

'^^'^

roaovrco

epyd-

rcovro

will know

the desert
is not
^

west

Ocovfjuaacco-

that this statement

true.

This

of Thales

is

supposed

(seeAthen.

winds

blow

inundation,but

not

also

to

be

the

ii. 87). The

opinion
north'

only during the


during a good part

of the winter.
^

Herodotos

rivers of

21

has
forgotten that
Syria face west, not north.

the

HERODOTOS.

136

[book

^flKeavov
rod
avrov
r) Xeyet airo
peovra
Se
^O^/ceavov
vacrOaL,rov
pelv,
yrjv irept iracrav

rdora

reprj'
22

oSojv TToWov

Bt) ovB^
'^tovo'i'

pel fjuev

09

AcyviTTOv.

Ka)";

Tcov

rd

e?

pecov

diro

nrveovre^

dvo/jb/3po";
7] X^PV
dv

vero

Kavfiaro";

iv

23

^^^^

Xe^a"; e?
riva

o)?

olBa

irporepov

ol

Oepfjuord-

Toyv

dve/biOLirape'^ovTaL

BtareXel
iv

vaac

ore

iovcra, iirl Be yj^ovL


el
r)fjbepr)a-c,^
oiorre,

irevre

rd

Be

el

rov
(pevyovcrac

e?
"poLreov"7L

yi'VOfievov

e^toz^t^eKal

roivvv

rrorafjuov

oaovcov

rov

rov";

ravrrjv

rrjv

NetX-09, ^v dv

^flKeavov

rrepl

rov

eXey^ov

e^eo

rt

ydp

ov

'

^flKeavov

iroirjrecDv

yevo/xevcov

x^i/jicova

e?
p^etyLtacrtT/z^

Be

dvdyKT] eXey^et. o
puvOov dveveiKa^; ovk

rj

toz^
ac^az^e?

eycoye

e?

dvBpl ye Xoyi^ecrOaL

pel Kal iK rrj'^dp^eracpecov

tj'^ re

ovBev

rovrcov

T7]K0fjbev7)";

Oepfjuoi'Bevrepov Be

aKpyaraXko^

rdora

rovrov";y

Be
xdyprjv

ecm

rovrecov

'^copecov

rfj ZiKvOiKfj
x^PV

ro7rov"^

airo

'^tovof;,

fiaprvptov

drroXeirrovGi,yepavoi

ovk

yap

virb
^J^P^^' Tplra Be ol dvdpcoTroi
Be eVeo?
LKrlvoi Be Kal x^XtBove^;
jxeXave^;eovre"^'

exi^ovL^e
eovre"^

jjueyiarov

dvdyKT) icrrl

irdcra

Treaovarj

cltto

iovTiy dx; ovBe ol/co(;diro yjLOvo"^ [xlv pelv,

re

rcov

airo

iroXkd

yfrv^porepa

pelv

/juecrcov AWlottcov, iKScBol Be

civ

ra

irepi
Kal
fiev

iTpoiTov

rov

Brjra peoi

mv

otft)

TOLOVTCov

Sea
Ac/3vr]";

eK

Tplrrjtcjv

eyjreuo-Tat'XeyeL

NetXoz^

ovhev, cjyafievT]
rov

rj

fjUTj'^a-

iovcra fiaXLara
iTneLKeaTCLTrj

avTTj

Be

Be r}
iovra, O/jLTjpov

BoKeo)

ro

ovvofia

riva

rcov

e?

evpovra

iaeveiKacrOai.
irolrjCTiv
Be Bel

rd"; irpoKetfjuevaf; avrov


pbefi'^dixevov
irepl
yvcDjiaf;
Bi
6
BoKel
re
dcf)avea)v
(f)pdcTa)
yvco/iirjv diroBe^acrOat,
jjlol

Et

24
rcov

6 NetXo?
7rX7]6vecr6ai
^

rov

6epeo^.

The

rrjv

coprjv drreXav-

x^^H'^P^^V^

''

is probopinion of Hekatseos
ably referred to (Fr^. 278, ed. Miill.).
^
This was
the opinion of Anaxagoras
38
i.
Fr. 293), and,
(Diod.
; cp. ^skh.
little as Herodotos
approved of it,was

Herodotos
knows
nothing of
tropical rains and
icy mountains
Abyssinia. But frost often occurs
in the desert,and
in
night even

nevertheless

the Nile

is caused

the

tropicalrains

of

denly

swell

before

they join

way

from

Africa.

The

correct.

by

the

Atbara

and

the White

and

Blue
Nile

is hard

its

refer the inundation

to

the

Strabo,

all

rainy season

Ethiopia.
^

The

wind

quently very

he

Kites

idea

cold.

the

desert

is fre-

that

longs

such

arguments of Herodotos
not

it

to

scientific

do

moreover,

not

the whole

the negro or
by the heat
a

show

profound logician.

swallows,

in Africa

blackened
from

to

came

meteorologicalconclusion

was

and

remain

the

far up

as

to say.

These

that

found

was

Herodotos

Nile
on

ice

of
at

Girgeh.

as

How

wonderful

lakes of
great inland
Kallisthenes,the pupil of Arisand

of 1880

sud-

the

totle, Agatharkides,
in

inundation

melting snows
Abyssinia,which

winter

the

very

inquiry.

year, and the


Nubian
has been
of

infantile

the

sun

period

beof

HERODOTOS.

138

fiLV Bia

av

27 irep

iroLelv
TrdcTTj^;
eXiro/JLac
^ypwirrj^

aTTo
dTroTTvel,^
ol""; fcdpra
T7]vSee'^co'yvcofjbrjv,

oIko"^ i(TTL ovhev

av

Trepi,

on

ov/c

Oepfjuecov
'^copecov

Be diro

diroirvelvyavpr)

"larpovrd

rov

T779 avp7]"; Se

NeZXoz/.

rov
ipyd^erai

vvv

[book

tlvo"^
'\jrv'^pov

ovk

(fnXel

TTvelv.

Tdora

28

Be NetXou

ecrro)

vvv

fiev

eart

""?

re

Kai

ovre
ovre
AlyvTrricov
7rr]yd";

ra?

iyevero'rov
dp'^rjv

to?

At^vcovovre

^l^Wijvcov

el /jltjiv
ijjLol
aTTCKo/jLevcov "9 X070U9 ovBeL";vTrecF'^eToelBevac,
irciXei
Z^di
o
tmv
ev
AlyvTTTq)
lepcjv
'^pTj/judrcov
T779
ypafJL/narccrTrjf;
TMV

8' e/jLocye irai^eiveBoKec (j)d/jLevo";


elBevai
ovTO"^
^A67]vaL7]";.^
eXeye Be coSe,elvat Bvo 6pea e9 o^v Ta9
Kopv(j)d";
drpeKeco^;'
7roXto9
re
aTTrjy/jLeva, jxera^vZ,vrjv7)";

Koi
Kelfjueva
ttj^ 0?;/3aifl8o9

Be elvac toIgl opeai too ^xev K^w^t to3


'Ei\e^avTLV7j(;,
ovvofiara
Be Mca"^f Ta9
o^v
Brj777770.9 tov Ne/Xou eovaa"s
ajSvaaov^ "k
Kal to fiev Tjficcrvrov
v3aT09
Tov
TMV
/jbicrov
pelv,
opecov tovtcov
eV AlyvTTTovpelv Kal irpb^
S' eTepov rjixiav
dve/juov,
to
jSopeijv

Kal
re
AWi07rir)(;

eir

tovtov
BidireLpav
e(^7}

TToWecov
vac

Kal

TavTrj

Kd\ov
ifke^dfievov
6
(Svaaov. ovtco
"9
e^VKecrOao
puev Brj

ovk

pbaTLcrTrj"^, el

01)9

'^ikidBcdv opyvtcov

avTov

yap

TdoTa

dpa

i.e. Neith.

sacred scribe
he

seems

whom

by

high one, and


only priestof rank with

was

the

eovcra^

the

Herodotos

very

into contact,the
by him being

came

"

other "priests mentioned

merely the

custodians

of the

temples,

who
knew
little Greek, and showed
a
them to travellers like the custodians
and

guidesof

the

sacred

have

our

scribe

own
was

churches.

As

quainted
probably unac-

with Greek, conversation must


goman,
carried on through the dra-

been

that
conjectures
mouth
the story put into the priest's
of the
due to a misunderstanding
was
interpreter's
meaning. The stele of
and Wiedemann

Kedesieh

springin

states

that

the

water

of

up like that
of the Kerti of Elephantine,

the desert bubbled

from the bottom


where
fountains"

reference is made
or

kerti.

to

"two

Every Egyptian

ypafju-

ifjue
")9
dwecpacve,
Kal
lcr-^vpa"^ TraXcppolijv,

knew

See ch. 19, note 1.


The office held

KaTel-

eXeye,

yivofieva

KaTavoelv, Biva^ Tivd"iTavTrj


4

Be

d^vcraoielao at irTjyai, "9


AlyvTTTov
^acnXea dinKeaOai'
^afjufiyTi'^ov
votov.

that the

of the Nile

sources

were

Syene (Assuan)by hundreds of


and
that Elephantine(Egyptian
miles,
"the
not
was
Abu,
elephant-island")
but an island,
between which and
a city,
Syene there is only the water of the

not

near

Nile.

But

divined

that the sacred scribe

Herodotos

seems

to

have

only
cording
answering the inquisitive
stranger acto
his folly. Krophi and
Mophi may be a reminiscence of the
two
peaks which overhang the Third
Cataract, and
rock

be

can

of Abusir

seen

the

at

was

from

Second

the
ract.
Cata-

The jingleof names


is one
in
more
Arabs,
Orientals,
especially
Kabil for Cain
delight,
e.g. Abil and

which

and Abel.
^

The

This, of

course,

was

sacred scribe must


about

Herodotos

the

pure invention.
have said something

First Cataract,which

misunderstood.

LAND

THE

II.]
ola Be

vBaro^
rov
i/jL^dX\ovTO"i

fievTjv

KaraTreipTjTTjpLrjv

ovBev

EGYPT.

OF

dWov

livat.

7ro\co(;
inTvOofirfv,
fiev ^^Xecf^avrlvrj^;
l^6')(^pi'

rov

Be diro

TO

dvco

aKorj

tovtov

lovTL dvavTe";

iiri /xaKpora-

e\6(ov,

avroirTT]'^

TToXto?
^\e"pavTLV7j"i
Bel to
irXolov BcaBrj-

o)p

ravrr)

'^coptov

ovB6vo"i 29

rfBy]
Icnopecov.airo

ean

Kane-

Be

fjuev dWo

roaovBe

dXKa

nrvOeaOai.
iBvvdfxrjv

/jltj BvvaaOab

rolcri opecn,

^vaaov

e?

139

/caTd irep j3ovv iropeveaOai'


rjv Be diropdfjL"j)OT"po)6ev
to
tov
vtto
1(T'^vo";
payfjy ttXolov oty^eTai, "f)epo/jLevov
poov,
aavTa";

TO

Be
r)iJbepa";Te(7aepa"i 7r\oo"^, crKo\Lo"?
Be Bvd)etrrl o NetXo?*
aj(olvoi
irep 6 M.aLavBpo"^
BceKTrXcocai.
el(Ti ovTOi
Bel tovtw
Kai
tm
tov";
Tpoircp

Be '^copLOv
KaTd
TavTy
BeKd

io-TL eV

TOVTO

ireBlov Xelov,

dirl^eaie?

eirevTa

avTrj ecTTt,}

Ta'^o/juylro)
ovvofia
^

dvco AlOlo7re"^

e'^eTat Be

yvTTTCoc.

The

words

by

MS.,

be

cannot

true.

he would

Elephantine
it was
an
island,not
he
the

have

cared

sacred

would
the

monuments

has

actuallyseen

town,

of

dwelt

have
of

them.

been

the

length
rinth
Laby-

silent about

Thebes
At

story of
traveller,

at such

and

that
would

nor

the

Sais.

of Sais

not

known

mention

to

moreover,
the wonders
on

have
a

priestof
who

sake

be hoped that they


originaltext^ as they
Had
he reallyvisited

it may
in his

not

for the

if he

Be 7]/jLL"rvAl-

/jueydXr],
\lfxv7]
ttjv irepi^vo/jidBe^;

t^"?vrjaov

"

and

^^ike^avTivrj^;

diro

Ta

7]/jLCorv,to

to

vrjaov

tt;?

Be

obKeovai

ted
avrSirTTjsirdXios are omit-

one

Herodotos
were

Kal
rjBrf

NeZXo?*
o
v7)aov irepippel

tco

ev

had

miles,which

88

below

far

far south
at

Philse

ar

or

from

would

the

First

Kalabsheh.

as

mention

arudr

of

twelve

sides of the

Nile

(Takhompso),
paid to Isis of

Takamsu

to

tithes

Inscriptions

district

both

on

Assuan

where

carry the traveller


Cataract, and as

were

Philae.
1

There

which
after
river

the

way

plain through

smooth

no

Nile

flows

passing

the

is shut

in

the

Second

to

Elephantine,

is

around

First

by

an

island
The

Cataract.

cliffs most

of

the

Ptolemy
Kohhan) opposite

Cataract.

places Metacompso (now


Pselkis (Dakkeh) ; but the river
of
the southward
is no
of
there
here
flows between
knowledge
course
cliffs,
the Nile
than
that
fortress
a
displayed in his
island,and Metacompso was
See
of brick,built in the time of the eightch. 3, note
following remarks.
eenth
7.
still
exists.
which
By
dynasty,
^ So far this is
tended
inhave
must
quitecorrect,the boats
Takhompso Herodotos
being dragged through the rapidsof the
tine,
Philee,five miles from ElephanFirst Cataract by the aid of
But
Pilak
the
and
called
Egyptians.
by
ropes.
it does not take four days to pass them.
Mr.
Bunbury, however, would identify
The "shooting" of the rapidscan easily Takhompso
islet near
with
Derar, an
be performed in five hours.
Dakkeh, considering that Herodotos
^ The
boat has to wind
the First Cataract with
considerably has confounded
in order
avoid
the
rocks
of the
to
the
district called Dodekaskcenos
by
When
the cataract is passed,
Pselkis.
cataract.
and
between
Ptolemy
Syene
scribed The
district is named
in a Greek
however, the Nile can no longer be desame
skcence,
as
at Pliilse of the age of Tiberius.
"winding." Twelve
graffito
would
be 720 stades (ch. 6), i.e. about
Nubians, not negroes.

too, he would

have

gained more

accurate

HEKODOTOS.

140

vefiovrat'^
rrjv

AWioiref;
TO
rj^Gi"^,

69

[book

SL"/c7rXco(Ta";
e?

eKStSoL.

Xijjbvrjv
TavT7)v

Tr]v

NetXof

rov

teal

pelOpov

ro

a7roj3a";

eiretra

rov

irapa

Troc^aeacrj/jiepecov reaaepaKovra'
o^oiiropirjv
Kal
NeiXo)
iv
ofet? ave'^ovcn
'^ocpdSe^;

Trora/jiov

CTKOiTeXoL

re

TToXXat

tw

yap
ot

eucTi,

ov/c

cov

t6

oca

be

oce^eXucov

irKetv.

ecm

ev

to
rfjcrt
T"(7(Tepd/covTa
r]fjbepr)ai tovto
'^(opiov, avTi"^
ttXoIov
ia^a^ SvcoSeKa rj/juepa^; TrXevaeai, /cal eireiTa

fjbejaXrjvtj) ovvofidicTTL

iroXtv

elvaL

Kal

Oecov

Alovvctov

aTrb Be

30 KeXevrj, eKelcre.

There

between

Alo";

small,

no

Second

be described
of

and

Magan

of the

usual

is the

for Khartum

caravans

is

The

round

noticed

; its

Helfa

is well

navigablefrom

is not

side of the

after

forty-five
there

that

rapidstill the Third

are

Cataract

"The

of

rest

the

opposition to
of Meroe

The

Denkaleh,

the

Its

(or Mer,
to

seems

main

have

island
rivers

"

Astaboras
of

stream

of

its

Egyptian

pyramids
was

name

city"),and
the position

the white
succeeded

to

Napata, the capitalof Northern


Ethiopia (To-Kens) up to the age of the
the
Ptolemies.
came
Beyond Meroe
Arab

of Alo

(the Aloah

time

mediaeval

geographers). According

phos, Meroe
Old

of the

Testament
of

was

the Saba

or

to

Seba

Joseof the

(cp. Is. xviii.) In


Assur-bani-palEgypt seems

the

Meroe

thither after the conquest of


country by the Egyptians.

was

The

the
to

oracle of Meroe

The

moving
by
priestsof Meroe succeeded in
the kings to mere
puppets,
even

at

were

who

has

It

famous.

was

and
priests

worked

lives

of

land

identified with

originally
Magan was the Accadian
of
the Sinaitic Peninsula,
designation
the land of "copper" and "turquoise,"
be sought in the
that Melukh
must
so
tween
same
region. There is no likeness beBerua.
Melukh
and
Ethiopia is
the
the Egyptian and
Kush
in both
Assyrian inscriptions.
^
and
But
Osiris.
Amun
they were
the only gods worshipped
by no means
in Cush
or
Ethiopia. Besides the native
gods, the Egyptian pantheon had been
but

the

modern

the

near

several

and

The

by
el-Azrek),

city was

still remain.
Berua

the

in

three

nomads.

(Bahr

(Atbara), and
Nile.

Ethiopians"

the

formed

was

Astapos

Lcrq) '^povcp

transferred

passed.
^

it

Testament

number

(on the northern

distant, and

occasional
is

Old

the

Cataract)to Semneh,

Second
miles

Nile

across

rejoined.
be
forty must

indefinite

express an
known.
The
Wadi

in

use

it
the

river is

number

to

; hence

weeks

a
journey of three
desert,after which the
^

starting-point

ev

av

consistingof the countries


cordingly
acMelukh, and Melukh

as

has been

Korosko

Se

cTTpaTevovTaL

7r6XL0";TrXecov

T779

/jLeydXa)";

te

Kal Trj
OeairLcriJidTWV,

Cataract.
*

tovtov";

KaTeaTrjKe'

KeXevrj Scd

TavT7}";

lake, great or
Elephantine and the
is

Be avTT} 97 TroXt?
ol 8' iv TavTjj
Ala

ae^ovTaiJ

/jlovvov";

Kal (t^l fiavTrfiov


TLfJLoyaL,
iiredv cr"pea"^
6eo"; ovto^
o

"T"pov

rj^eu^"";

XeyeTai
yiepoTj'

AWioircov.

aWcov

toov
/jLTjTpoTToXt^;

"?

statues.

their

ing
reducwhose
until

mercy,

left his

in the

Ergamenes,
Nubian
temple of Dakkeh, rebelled in
of Ptolemy Philadelphos,entered
the time
"The
Golden
Chapel," and put
them
here

to
was

The

death.
not

the

of Strabo

Nap

or

and

Napata,

by the Egyptian kings on the sacred

Gebel-Barkal.
stood

intended

Meroe

Meroe

but
the later geographers,
built

name

at

the

The

temjjle of

foot of the

Amun

mountain, and
"

sect,
inscriptiontells us how the
called
odious to God,
Tum-pesiu-Pertot-

an

LAND

THE

11.]

OF

EGYPT.

141

avrofJioXov^ iv bafo irep i^ ^^\e^avT[v7]"^


7]^"c";
69
Tov";
rolau
KIOloitcdv.
Se avTOfjioXoicri
tmv
rfKOe^i
"9 rrjv fX7)Tpo7ro\iv
8e rovro
to
TOVTOiaL
ovvofxdian 'Acrytta^/hwarai
"7ro9
Kara
ol i^ apL(TTepr}"^ '^"Lpo"; Trapio-rd/nevo
Tr)P '^WtJvcov y\M(T(7av
dWo)

dTrearrjaav Se

^aaCkei.

avrac

/cat

recraepe'^

jjuvpidhe'

ec/coac

hi

KWiOira'^ TOVTOV^;
alroTjv
69
TOL'9
AlyVTTTLCOVTMV
/jUa'^L/jLCOV
ev
Paori\eo"^(f)v\aKal
TOiTjv^e. iirl '^ajJUfJiriTLj^ov
Kareo-rrjaav
Kal

AWlottcov
7rpb(;
irpo^ ^Apa^lcovre

TroXeu
^^Xecj^avrlvrj

re

YlrjXovcTLrjaLoXXt)
"

("cook not, let violence slay,"


probably in reference to the Abyssinian
forbidden
habit of eatingraw
were
flesh),
The
it.
enter
to
descriptionof the
states
election of Aspalut to the crown
that the "royal brothers"
passed before
selected
who finally
the statue of Amun,
and
him
declaringhim
Aspalut,seizing
The
Theban
to be king.
priestshad
which
could
invented
statues
ah'eady
the
to
the
move
legend
head, according
the
XII.
and
of Ramses
princess of
Bakhten.
King Horsiatef consults the
oracle before going to Avar
against the
See Maspero in the
lands of Khedi."
Khaiu

' '

Ann.

VAss.

de

1877, pp. 124

grecques,
^

VEnc.

pour

des

Et.

As, accordingto Herodotos, it took

days
fifty-six

to

to

Meroe, another

be

requiredto

Deserters.

get from

Elephantine
fifty-six
days woukl

reach

This

would

Asmakh

Abyssinia.
by De Horrack

the

high ; and
so
large a
suppose
could have peacefully
body of armed men
marched
through the whole of Egypt,
the
evading
strong fortress of Memphis,
and
running away into the far south,
whither
they were
pursued by the king
with a handful
of foreign mercenaries.
The
longest of the Greek inscriptions,
of
however, wi'itten on the leg of one
the colossi of Abu-Simbel, goes to show

bring

us

into

connected

that

to

that Psammetikhos

actuallymade

But

and

Herodotos

the cartouches
found

not

mercenaries
case

Nubia.

of Psammetikhos

further

Herodotos
to

soldiers

tion
inscripEthiopian expedition of
11. (b.c. 594), mentioned
Aristeas.
(ii.161) and

Psammetikhos

are

his Greek

indeed, refers the

the

to

and

expeditioninto

an

Wiedemann,

country of the

has been

but far too

one,

it is absurd

by

sq.

Ad^vrjac rfjcri
Kal iv
^Aacrvpicov,

Kal

round

only a

iv

south

than

expresslyascribes
the

south

Avith

the

II.

Philse,
the

pedition
ex-

Greek

to Psammetikhos

the Ionic

I. In any
Abu-Simbel
of
inscriptions

the earliest Greek inscriptions


Egyptian seinhi, are among
read 'Acxa/i, known, and, scratched
left" ; but the best MSS.
as
they were
by
reminds
of
the
old
shoAv
that
which
us
mere
soldiers,
Abyssinian
reading and
Moreover, Egyptian h is
commonly taught at the
writing were
city Axum.
the
schools
a-^d
the
time
in
of Ionia.
The
serters
"denot
representedby Greek
%"
with

the

"

story of Diodoros
because

that

the

Asmakh

the Greek mercenaries

were

placed on the rightof the king is plainly


left being among
the
the
fictitious,
mann
WiedeEgyptians the post of honour.
and
doubts the legend altogether,
believes

it to

have

been

an

"

serted
de-

attempt

to

nists
explain the existence of Egyptian colosettled in the
in Ethiopia, who
country in the time of the Ethiopian
240,000 is not
dynasty. The number

also

are

called

Sembrites

or

Sebritse,meaning "strangers" (Strab.


xvii. p. 541), living in Tenesis, inland
from

the port of Saba,

as

Avell

as

Makh-

Iseonians

(Hesykh.) In the time of Strabo


they Avere governed by a queen.
1
Daphne, the Tahpanhes of the Old
Testament,
Pelusium.

was

sixteen Roman

miles from

Brugsch identifies it with


the Egyptian Tabenet, now
Tel Defenneh.
the
side of," i.e.
7r/)6shere is "on

HERODOTOS.

142

[book

Be
Kara
aXXr}.
Tiepcrecov
yiaper)7rpo"; Atl3vr]";
e/jueo koL
ravra
rjcrav koI yap
"^v\aKa\eyovcri 6i";koL eirl '^afifjbrjrl'^ov
Ad"j)vr)cri,.
o)V
^^XecpavTivy
Hepcrai (ppovpeovcrc
tov";
direXve
St)AlyvTTTiovf;
(ppovpijcravTa^; ovBel"irrj'^(f"povprj";
rpla
eir

en

at

/cat

ev

ev

"

erea

Kal
^ovXevad/jievot

ol Se

diroardyTe's
^a/ji/jLTjTi'^ov
ehicoKe'
7rv6ofjLevo(;

/careXa^e, iBetro

diroXiTrelv
"T"^ea^Oeov"; irarpayiov'^
Be

roiv

Xeyerac Be^avra

TLva

evOavra

""Te(rdai avrolcn

Kau

ovk

Kal

reKva

iroWa

Kal

ea

alBolov

to

rod

he
AWco'rrirjv. '^afJbfJbrjTL'^O

69

rjiaav

Be

o)"^

Trdvre^; diro
'^prjcrdfievot

Xoyw

kolvq)

Kal

reKva

Kal

Xeycov

yvvalKa^.

elirelv,evOa dv

yvvalKa";.

tovto

ovtol

y,

eireiTe

AlOtOTTOyV
TU"
AWcoTTLTjv diTiKovTO, BiBovcTi, a(^ea^ aVTOV"^
rjcravol Bcd(f)opol
jBaaiXev o Be cr^ea^rwBe dvrcBcopelrai.
rtz/e?
"9

AWioirayv'^

tmv

yeyovore^

olKelv.

yriv

e^eXovra^;
rrjv

eKeXeve

e(TOCKLcr6evTcov

e?

rj/juepco-

Kal oBov ycvcoorKerac


Me^yofc
fjbev
jjltjvwv ttXoov
reaaepoyv
6 NefcXo9 irdpe^rod ev Alyvirrcp
toctovtol
avfjupevjjbaro^'
yap
^aXXofjuevo)pir}ve"^ evplcrKovrai
e^ ^^Xe"pavTlv7](
dvaidLpLovfjuevoL
vvv

pel

avTOfjLoXov";tovtov^.
iropevo/jLevw 69 toi'9
Be o-tto
TOvBe
Kal
to
re
rjXlovBvcrfieo)v.
32

AWloira^

rov^;

eKelvcov

Al6lo7re";,
r)6eafiaOovTe^Alyvirna.^

repot yeyovacTi
31

Be

tovtcov

tovtov^;

Be

ovBel^;

diro

eo-7repr)";

^X^^ "Ta(f)eco"

^'^o

dXXd
(ppdcraf"pr}/uLo";ydp ecrTC rj ycopV ^^'^V
KavfiaTO^.
TdBe jjuev r^Kovcra
eirl to
eXOelv
(j^afievcov
dvBpoivK.vprjvalwv
'^^^ dTTLKecrOai e"; X6yov";^^Tedp^oy
"Afifjicovof;
xpV^'^lp^^v
Te

tm

^acriXei, Kal
^Afjbfjbcovlcov

kq)";

l^elXov, ct)9

Xecrxv^ Trepltov

^^Teapxpv(pdvaciXOelv

Tov

Be edvo"; tovto

TO

"against";

eaTl

cp. i. 110. ;

fxev

Tlmkyd.

KOTe

i. 62,

otos

We

of the

been

not

heard

mam,

this that

of the

theory which

civilisation

"blameless

Herod-

to

have

Ethiopians."
Ethiopianswere models
of virtue,like the savage of Rousseau,
though found in II. i. 423, is reallya late
philosophy.
one, the product of Greek
"*
The
of
in the
Ammon
was
temple
oasis of Siwah, fourteen
days' journey
from Cairo,and about
78 feet above the
come

from

the

idea that the

ter, being a
the

god

of

seems

mixture
"

fiery

the

Greeks

Zeus,

and

name

Greek

temple still
hybrid characBaal-Kham-

Amun

of

identified

was

shows
in the

Egypt,

with

original Libyan

of Etearkhos
influence

sun-god of the Cartha-

whom

Greek

the

of the

ram-headed

an

^vpTcv Te

ttjv

ginians,the

The

i"i

Ta9

Be

Traces

The

"

infer from

may

had

Ethiopians had

him."

with

imagined Egyptian
The

sea-level.

diTiKecrOaL

Kal
irrjyd^i,
^acra/jLayva^;
dvBpa";.

ve/neTac

exist.

"Some

at feud

olBe

irap'avTov

Ai^vkov,

iii. 21.
2

dXXcov

Xoycov
ovBel"^avTOv
eK

how

their

deity,
strong

oasis,where

garrisonshad been j)lantedby the


kingsof the twenty-sixthdynasty. Max
improbably
Biidinger, however, very
would
with Taharka.
identifythe name
Oasis is the Egyptian uah
"dwelling,"
Arabic

el Wah.

THE

11.]

LAND

EGYPT.

OF

143

eirl ttoWov.
irpo^ ?;") '^(oprjv Trj";Z,vpTio"^ ov/c
Be tou?
ical elpcoreofievov^;
rt
et
^acrafjucova'^
e'^ovcn
/jLevov";
Kol

cvmico-

TTjv

irXiov

tt}?Acl3vr]";,
cpdvatirapa ac^lair^eveaOat
irepltmv iptjfjLcov
aXka
Swaarecov
TratSa? v^pt(TTd";,
re
tov(;
/jbrj^avdadai
avBpMV
koI
ecovTMV
Brj koI diroKXripSycraL
dvBpayOevTa^
irepLaaa

Xeyeiv

irevre

rd eprj/xa tt}?At/Sv?;?,
/cat et rt
o'ylrofievov's
rd
Trj";
yap At^vr/^
/jLaKporara IBo/xivcov.
Oakaaaav

edvea

fjuev Kard

iroWd,

"^Wrjve^; koI

ifkr]v oaov

to,

^opr)[rjv
dKpr]";,
rj

Ai^ve^

irapdirdaav

tmv

rrjv

ZoXoevro^
AlyvTrrov dp^dfxevoi
/-te^^^pf'

air

Tr]"; Alj3v7)";,
jrapijKoucn,

Tekevra

thotev

ifkeov

koI

AljBvcdv

^olvck6"; e'^ovat'

ra

Se

iirl OdXaaaav
kol
re
tmv
dvOpcoTrcov,
KarrjKOvrojv
virep Oa\dcrcrr]";
Be KarvirepOeTrj";
icrrl rj Ac^vr)' rd
rd
KarvTTepOe07]pta)S7]";
earl
re
$r]pca"Beo";
yjrd/jifiof;

koI

dvvBpo^Beovco^ Koi

eprj/jio^Trdvrcov.

vtto
tmv
verjvla^d7ro7refjL7rofjievov";
rfKiKOiv,vBari
levai rd Trpcora /juev Bca Trj";
icaX criTLOiai
ev
re
e^riprvfjuevov^,
Be Bie^eXOovra^e? Tr]v OrjpLcoBea
dnTiKeadai,
olK"OfjLev7j";,
ravTTjv
oBov
Be TavT7]"^ rrfv eprj/jLov Bce^cevac,
"K
ttjv
iroieopbevov^
irpo'^
Be '^oopov ttoXXov
kol
dvejjbov,
Bie^eXOovra^;
'y^afJUfxchBea
^e(f)vpov
ev
BevBpea ev ireBiw 7re(j)VK0Ta,
iroWfjai rj/jLeprjaoIBetv Btj Kore
eirl tojv
dirreo-Oai rov
Kal cr(f)ea";
eireovro^
BevBpeayv
7rpo(Te\6ovTa";
eireXOelv
Be
dvBpa^ ar/jLifcpovf;,
fJberpiwv
(t^o
Kapirov, diTTOfjievotG-t,
Be ovre
Be
eXd(T(Tova^ dvBpcov,^
Xa^6vTa"^
dyetv "T(j)ea";'
(f)(ovrj"i
Ti
Nacra/Awz^a?ycvaxTKecv ovre
rov'^
dyovTa";
Trj";iKecvcov tov^
Be eXeayv fieyio-TCOV, Kal
dyecv re Brj avrov^;
TOiV
l"^a(Ta/jLa)Vcov'
Bte^eXOovTa^rdora dirifcecrOao e? ttoXcv ev rfjirdvTa"^ elvai rolac
Be fxeXava^;. irapd Be rrjv
I'crof?,
dyovai to fieya6o";
'^pcofia
iroXiv
pelv Trora/jiov pueyav, pelv Be diro ecrirepT]^ avrbv 7rpo"s
Be ev avrut
rjXtovdvareXXovra, (j)aLvecrdac
KpoKoBelXov^. 6 fiev 33
Br} Tov
'AfjLjjbcovLOV
X0709 e? tovto
'EreajO^of
/jlol BeBrjXtDcrOa),
ol
re
TrXrjv OTb
ax;
dTTovocTTrjcrai
^aaaii(t}va"^,
"(pa"TKerov^

elirat

wv

rovs:

eXeyov,
K.vprjvaLoc

See

iv.

The

Akkas

Either

43.

Mogador,
Tangier.

near

Kal

or

Cape

e?

tov";

ovtoc

Cape Cantin
Spartel near

in Central

Pygmies
men

supposed to

are

far north

as

Pygmies south of the


cannibal
north-west
of
Nyam-Nyam,
Lake
Victoria
described
Nyanza,
by
Miani.
Krapf speaks of the brown
Dokos, four feet in height,to the southwest
of Abyssinia in Sennaar, and
Du
Chaillu of the Obongo (calledMabongo)
or

dvOpcoirov^,
yo7]Ta";

awLKOVTO

as

Africa.
have

the

and, with the dwarf

confines
races

be the descendants

may

once

The

Bush-

extended
of

Nuhia,

ah"eadynamed,
an
aboriginal

of

race.
^

Possibly

which

the

Niger or Joliba ; in
citymay be Timbuctoo.
Waube, flowinginto Lake Chad,

case

the

But

the

may

be meant.

HEEODOTOS.

144

elvac

3e

rov

aTravra^.

[book

hrjirora/jLov

tovtov

tov

/cat

irapappeovra

crvve/SdWero elvac NeZXoj/


SrjkoL 6 X6yo";
^reap'^o';
/cal fiecrrjv rd/juvcov
Al/3v7]"; NetXo?
alpel. pel yap
Ac/Svrjv
toIctl e/JLcj^aveon fir] yLvwcrKOfjueva
009
e^ft) crv/jb/3dWo/JiaL
e/c rcov
tcrcov
"Icrrpo)
"Icrr/ao?
reKfjuaipofMevo^;,
fxerpcov opfjudrac.^
re
TroXto? pel
Trora/jLo^i dp^d/jLevo"; J^eXrcov fcal Jlvp^jvrjf;
yap
ol 8e KeXxot
elcTi e^co 'UpaKXecov
TTjv ^vpcoTTTjv
fJbecTTjv(7'^i^cDv
ol ecryaroi
(TT7)X60)v,ojJbOvpeovcTL Se K.vvrjaiotcn,
irpb^Bvapbicov
iv
Be 6 "Ictt/jo?
reXeura
OLKeovcTL
TMV
rfj^vpcoTryKarotKrj/jiivcov.
Sea Trdarjq^vpcoirrjf;
OdXaaaav
^v^eivov ttovtov
"9
pecov ttjv
ol IS^IlXtjcfIcov
olKeovai aTroc/cot} 6 fiev 8rf"larpof;,
rfj ^loTTpiyv
pel yap St oiKeopuevr]'^, nTpo"^ ttoXXcov yivcoaKerai,
ireplSe
NetXou
doLKr)T6"; yap Kal
TOV
TTTjyecov ovSel'^ ^X^^ Xeyetv
Si ^? pel. ireplSe
ecTTL
7] Ai^vT)
"p7)fjio"=;
pev/jbaTO'i avTov,
eKSiSol
eir
IcTTOpeovTa
r)v i^LKeadac,ecprjTaL*
fxaKpOTaTov
Se 69 AlyviTTOV. 7] Se AlyviTTO^Trj"; opecvi]^
K.iXlkl7]";
/judXtcTTd
kt)
Se
tS ^v^elvcottovtco
dvTirjKelTat' evOevTev
69
Zitvcoirrjv ttjv
kol

etc

ovrco

Kai

ra

tq)

etc

tov

34

tmv

re

tov

oaov

ev

TrevTe

eKSiSovTi
Sta

ddXaaaav

e^

ISielXov /juev

vvv

"

Xoyov,

TOV

another.

one

It

necessary
they should

each

equibalance that
by a largeriver,which

much

the

same

length.

whether
the

course,

same

It

Pyrenees

is

had

the Kelts

To

otos.

in

call the

the

better known

Nile.

"

of the

was

doubtful

penetrated as
time

latter

be

followed

very

the

that the Danube


suppose
the west, does not show
"

and

this

to

was

divided

was

far

of Herod-

city,and

rose

so

to

far to

that the Danube

to Herodotos

than

Bunbury points out,


imagined the Nile to flow due
east from its sources
to Elephantine.
the two
The pillars
of Herakles
are
peaks of Kalpe and Abila, which face
As

Mr,

Herodotos

one

of

OTL

parallel to ^tlie Ister."


regarded Europe and Africa
equal, and consequently balancing
Runs

Herodotos

as

Zlvoottt}tq)

ovtco

l^elXov

tov

i(TTp(p
SoKew

another

on

Gibraltar.

either side of the

Straits

The

termed

Phoenicians

elprjaOw ep'^ofiac Se irepl


TrXelaTa Ocovfidcrta
e^6t [rj77

ToaavTa

irepi

AlyvTTTOvfM7]KVvecov

as

7) be

7rd(r7](;
ty]"; Al^v7]";Ste^tovTai^taovcrOaotS "IcrTpw.

35

ev^oovo) avopi'
dvTLov fcelTat.^

0009

rjfjbepecovtuea

the columns

them

god,

and

the

Greeks.

called
a

Melkarth
The

of
was

Melkarth, the

sun-

Herakles

the

of

also
Kynesians are
of Herakleia,
Sokrates,mentioned

KvpTjres. Herod6ros

contemporary of
{F7\ 20), and

them

stated

that

their

the

northern

TXrjres.
neighbours were
the Anas
or
on
places them
Guadiana.
They represent the praeAryan population of Europe, and possiblywere related to the ancestors of the
Basques.
^
founded
about
Istria or Istrianopolis,
of
of the Skythian invasion
the time
modern
the
near
Kostendje,
lay
Asia,
and
consequently sixty miles to the
Avienus

south

of the most

southern

mouth

of the

Danube,
^

See i.

This

otos's

72,

note

5.

flagrantinstance of
ignoranceof geography.
is

Herod

HERODOTOS.

146

alhola

ra

koX rrjv Koirpov


he tttjXovt^ctl'^epal,

TTOcrl,
Tov

TOLcrc

mWol

Tou"i

KpiKov^

Be

AlyvTmoL

Be

tmv

ecrcoOev.

avrol

jjuev

jpdcf)
ewl
dpt"JTepo)V

avTOdv

Be
Seo(Te/3eL"^

37

iovre^;

irepiaao)^

vofjLOLcri TOLolaiBe

fxev

avBpcjv

Xoyt^ovrac

Be^od (^epovre^

ra

rd

dpoarepd'^koX

cfyaatiirl Be^cd irotelv,"^^Xrjva^^Be

fiev

Be ypafifjuacrt
dptarepd. Bi"^a"JiOLat
/caXelrat.
lepdrd Be By/jLorc/cd

eiT

tovtcov

koI

overt

Be^ocoveVl

tmv

'^etpa,

rdora

oi

airo

[cttlcov
eKacTTT]} tmv
aXkot
e^coOevirpocrheovaLy

ypajUL/JLara

'^EXA-T/z^e?
'yjrijcfyoLCTc
fjuev diro tmv
AlyvTTTtocBe dirb
TTjv
iroieovre^

ocfol

ev

ryvvacKcov

KaXov"^

Tou";

KOI

avaLpeovrai.^

elpbaratmv
irepirdiMvovrai.

Se

"y(eL Svo,

ifXr^v
i'^/evovro,

co?

ewai

[lev

ejJbaOov,
Alyvimoc
etcaaro^

[book

/cal rd
'^picovrai,,

/jidXiarairavrcov

fxev

dvOpcoircov

^aX/cewz/ TroTrjpicov ttlvovo-c,


dvd TTaaav
iravre^;}
ov/c
o
BLa(T/jLeovTe"^
7)ijLep7]v,
fxev 6 8' ov, dWd
Be Xivea
e'lfxara
tovto
(popeovcnalel veoirXvra, eirLTr]BevovTe"^
eXveKev,
fxdXiara. rd re alBola TrepLTd/jbvovrai,
KaOapeiorrjTO^;
ol Be lepel"^
^vpcovTrpoTL/jbcovre'^ KaOapol elvai i) evirpeirearepoi.
Bed
tW
irdv to
dXXo
rat
/juijre
crcofjua
rpirrj^^ '^fiepy^;,/jLrjre (pOelp
6eov^.
/xTjBev
/jbvaapbv
icrOijra
(T(f"c
rot'?
Oepairevovo-c
eyyivrjTai
Be (f)opeov(7L
ol /epet?
/cal
Xtverjv /jlovvtjv
viroBrjixara
(Bv^Xiva'
the

by
^

modern

Mud

with

mixed

was

hands,

the

re-

presentationsof brick-making show.


^

Does

Herodotos

people took
^

See

ch.
for

grounds

101.

with

their feet ?

Herodotos

had

assertingthat

{i.e.the Hebrews

other

that

mean

manure

up

and

the

no

Syrians

Phoenicians),the

Ethiopians, the Kolkhians, the Makronians, and the Syrians {i.e.the Hittites)
of
Josephos,
Kappadokia (to whom
Antiq. i. xii.,see also Cont. Aj). i. 22,
the rite of ciradds the Arabs), learned
the Egyptians.
cumcision
from
This,
the
in
the
of
was
case
impossible
indeed,
Kolkhians
tised

by

the

; and the rite is found


pracvarious tribes in different parts

world

course

with

traced

to

an

who
one

have
another.

earlier form

tion, and has survived


tary reasons,
distinction.

partlyas
The

had

inter-

no

It has

been

of self-mutila-

partlyfrom sanimark of religious

first instinct

feet,not

monumental

the

as

to

Avas

give the deityhis

best and

dearest,

See ch. 104.

the

with

they

when

Egyptians
buy wheat.

afford to

cannot

e/c

'^pecovrac.

of

man

The

men

wore

but threw
loin-cloth,
The
classes
upper
tional garment,
^

The

from

hieratic and

right

to

long

robe

it off when
often

wore

demotic

left, the

over

addi-

an

are

the

at work,

written

hieroglyphics

either from

rightto left,or from left to


of
vertically.The statement
Herodotos
about
Greek
shows
writing
that he
was
unacquainted with
any
specimens of writing which either ran
in the old direction from
right to left,
right,or

in

or

We

the

later

houstrophcdon fashion,

infer therefore that all the MSS.

may
accessible to him

written

were

from

left

right.
Really three, but demotic had proof
bably entirelysuperseded the earlier
to

hieratic cursive in the time


See
"*

Appendix I.
Gold, glass,and

of Herodotos.

porcelainwere

also

used,
^

See ch. 81.

Cotton

upper-garments

LAND

THE

II.]
Se

oXKtjv
dWa.

a(f"oiaOrjra
Se

Xovvrat

t^?

dWa^;

"Kd(TTr)"^
vvKTO"^.
elirelv Xoyo).

147

ovSe

viro^rjfiaTa
yjrv^pM Kal Sl";

e^ecrrc Xa^etv

ov/c

8t9

EGYPT.

OF

rjfieprjf; eKacTTT)'^

eiriTeXeovcTL
OprjaKrila^

t"

Be
Trda'^ovac

dyaOd

kol

oXija'

ov/c

SaTravcovrac, dXkd

oIktjlcov rpl/SovaL
ovre

fivpia'^
ovre

tl

0)9

yap

acj^t
io-rl lepd Treaao/Jieva, Kal Kpewv
n
^oecov Kal '^rjvkwvir\rj6o"^
hihorai
3e ct^l Kal
ylveraL iroXkov
eKacncp
rj/jueprji;eKacTTrj^,
Be ov
olvo";dixireXivo^'
Kvd/jLov";
a^i e^ean TrdcraaOac.
I'^Ovcov
Be ovre
re
tl
jjudXacrTrelpovat
tov";
KlyvTrriotev rfj ')(Odpr],
yevool
Be
Br) LepeL";
irareovraL'
ovre
e^^rovre^;
jjbevov^ ovre
rpcoyovac
ovBe
ov
vofil^ovre'^
KaOapov elval fiiv oairpiov.
opeovTe"; dve^ovrai,
rcjv

Be

leparat

el? eKdarov

ovk

eiredv
dp'^iepev";'

Be

Toi;? Be jBov^
Kal

iBrjTaceireovaav
TdoTa
Tov

eVl

Tov'^

Trat^;

el? iarc

twv

avrLKarlaTaTai.^

elvau vo/jll^ov(tc,
38
""Ejirdcpov

rov

epaeva^i

wSe.

BoKCfid^ova-o
avTov^

Kal

VTTTLOV,

Kal

fjulav
vo/jLL^ec.Bl^yTao Be

Tpl'^a
tjv

elvat

KaOapov

Kal opOov ecrrecoro?


lepecov
el KaOaprj
yXcoacrav e^etpv(Ta";,
dW(p Xoycp epeco' KaTopd
Ti";

tmv

TeTay[Jievo";

Kal

KTTjveo^

diroOdvy,tovtov

pbeXatvav, ov

TovTO)

ttoWol,

eiveKa

tovtov

tl"^

Oeoiv aXka

to)v

aiTia

kol

Tr)v

TTpOKeLfjiivcov
eyo)
Be Kal ra?
el
Trj";ovprj'^
Tpl')(a^
(^vatve^et 7re^vKVLa";. tjv
Be TovTcov
TrdvTcov y Ka6apo";,
^v/3X(pTrepl Kepea
aTjfiaiveTao
Kal eirecTa
eircTrXdcraf;eTri^dWet tov
eiXiaacDv
yrjv crrj/jLavTplBa
TOiv

ev

crrjfiTjLcov, TCL

KaTcu

tcl

BaKTvXcov, Kal
also

were

worn

dTrdyovcrc.darjiiavTOvBe

ovtco

linen

the

over

under-

clothing. We find the high priestwearing a leopard'sskin over his dress. The
linen was
frequentlyso fine as to be semiThe

transparent.
and

leather

those

well

as

made

of those
of

palm

leaves

of papyrus,
classes
upper

as

up.
the

worn

times

the

even

inhabitants
^

*'

of

Their

This

extended

when
eat

parts

majority of
Egypt.

and

"

there

rest of the
a

fish,such
the

survival
a

was

not

was

community,
from

time

superstitiousdislike

still exists in many


world
well as
eastern
as
as

The

fever, or

cause

Fish

son

priestof

alone

might

some

off"ered to

not

were

supsimilar

some

the
only become
god, and so enter
also practisesome

not

other

another

college,but
other
profession,such as that of the
called
soldier.
The
high priest was
and
there
five
were
Serii,
priestlygrades,
^ i.
was
e. Apis, Egyptian Hapi, who
identified with
of
Epaphos on account
of name.
The monuments
the similarity
show
that bulls with
black, red, and
white

prohibition,which
to the

of

went

the modern

property.

own

probably

was

richer classes often

like the

barefoot

posed to
malady.
the gods.

who

and
by the
had
the
turned
generally
points
No
foot -covering was
until
worn
time of the fifth dynasty,and in later

women

to

sandals

priestswere

were

not

Highlanders,fish being

the

among

OdvaTO'^

OvcravTi

hairs

temples and
stood

at

were

for the

the

head

killed

both

privatehouses.
of

the

four

for

the

Apis
sacred

(Apis of Memphis, Mena or Mnevis


Heliopolis,Bak of Hermonthis, and
Tamur).
Compare iii. 28.

beasts
of

HERODOTOS.

148

[book

iirLKelrai.
^Tj/Jii'T}
SoKt/nd^erao
jxev vvv
Si (Tcjio
OvcTLT)
7]B"fcaT"crTr]K".
aya'yovT""^

to

7]

39

OKOV
^(Dfjiov

Tov

TTyOo?

olvov

roiSSe,

crecrrj/jLacr/jLevovKTrjvo";

to

Se

avaKalovcTL,eiretTa

6vo)cn, TTvp

av

rpoirrcp

kttjvo^;

iir

iiriKCLkeo-avTe"i
Kai
eina7rei(TavTe";
leprjiov
Se diroTd[xvov(Ji
Oeov a(j)d^ov(rL,
TOV
/C6(f}a\r)v.
(T^d^avT"";
ttjv
Se
TroWd
K6(f)aXfj Kelvrj
KTrjv6o"; Seipovat,
acofia fjuev Sr)tov
toIctl fiev
EXXT^i^e?(K^lewcru
prjcrd/jievoi
(f^epovac,
y dyoprj
ol he (f)epovT"";
dir cov ehovTO,
iTriSrjjjiLOi
e? ttjv dyoprjv
efJUTTopoi,
avTov

"

TOV

KaTCL

fcaTa-

'

av

'

St) dv

Tolcrt

TTOTa/jbov

firj Trapecocrc

Se

KaTapcovTat

^Wrjve^;, ol 8' eKJBdXKovai

TdSe

OvovcTL

fiiWoi
yeveaOai, e?

Tolat
7] a(j)i(7L

kol

40

tov

et
KecpaXycrc,

XeyovTe'^ Trjau

tl

AljvTTTCpTj} (TvvaTrdarjKaKOV
fiiv vvv
ra?
TpairecrOai.KaTa

Tj

KecpaXrjvTavTrjv
koI
tcov
Ovojjbevwv
Ke(paXd";
KTTjvecov
ttjv
toIctl avTolau
irdvTe^ KlyvTTTioi vojxoicn
irdvTa

e?

iirlcriTeLcrivtov

oXvov

y^pecovTai ofioLO)"; e?
dXkov
ovhevo^
vofjuov ovSe

tovtov
tov
lepd,
Se St]i^aLpecrL"i
ouSet?.
AlyvTrTicov
/C6"pak7]";
ifiylrv^ov
yevcreTao
rj
dWrj TrepldXko lepovcr^v KaTecTTrj/ce'
lepoiv
7] Kavo-i";

diro

koL

Ta

KOL

TO)v

re
ol
iiey[aTr)v
halfiova7]y7]VTat elvat Kai
/uLeyoaTrjv
iiredv dirohelpwaL
opTTjv dvdyovai, TavTTjv
ep^ofjuac ipecov
TOV
jBovv,fcaT6v^d/ji6V0L
KoiXiTjv fiev K"LV7]v irdcrav i^ ayp etkov,

TTjV

o)v

(TirXdy^vaSe
Se

(TKeXea

iv

XeiTTOvac

avTov

diroTdixvovai
kol

Tr)v

crcofjbaTL koI

tm

ocr^vvaKprjv

Se iroirjaavTe^
Tpd^r)\ov.
y8oo9 TrtjJLirXdcTi
dpTcovKaOapoiVkoI fieXcTO^i
Kol

TOV

TaoTa

tov^

Xi^avwTov

Kol

Se
7r\7](TavT""^

41

lepMv,

TMV

ol
/jiocr'^ov"=;

e^ecTTC

uvetv,

dyaXfia
^lovv

"

the

Toif^

Se

Ovovat,

fxev

TrdvTe^;

eicrt

lepat

Kal
ypdcpovcTL,

ra?

**

of wine
the

vie-

Sell it
so

monuments

thereupon," an

called
show

Homeric
that

frequentlyplaced on
other joint.

example

tmesis.
the

the

head
altars

to

of

The
was
as

as

any

cow

Trj(;

yap

(T(f)c
Icrto?

Trep

Isis ;

means

see

in ch. 41 he confounds
to

and

whom,

sacred.

was

Isis

KaTa

Herodotos

; but

61

Hathor,
"

6r}\ea";ov

tov^;

'^EXXT^z^e?
ttjv
/SoO? Td"; 67]\ea";AlyvTTTioc 7rdvT"";

jSovKepcovecTTi,

yvvaiKrjiov

Kal

epaeva^;

he

Ta^

Icrio?*

riy?

'

Ta

^ov^; tol'9
Kadapov";

vvv

OvcofidTcov,

d(f)Oovov
/caTa^eovTe";
he
lepcovTVTTTOvTac
TrpoTidevTai eXlirovTO

AlyviTTLOLOvovcn,

aXXa

kol

dXXcov

TCOV

tov

tmv

Katofxevcov

haiTa
aTroTV'yjrcovTac,

Having poured a libation


it {i.e.the altar),over

upon
tim."
3

iov

KaTayl^ovai,eXaiov

tovtcov

7rpovr)(TT6vo-avT"(;
irdvTe^, eiredv Be

a/jLvpv7](; Koi

Koi

crco/jLa

re

dcrTa(f)i8o";

kol

(TVKWV

a)fiov";

aXXo

to

7n/JL"\r)v,

ttjv

koX

not

the

As

chli.

59,

her with

to

Isis,the

recliningcow,

called Heset.

was

Keally Hathor,

16

was

the

moon

see

last note,

-goddess at Argos,

according to Eustathios, her

connection

to3
av
(f)iX7]cr6ce

ov8e

o^eXotcrc

BiaTeT/xTjfjLevov
'^XXtjvcktj
Kpeco^ KaOapov /Soo^;
^evaeTai} Odirrovcn Be tov"; diroOvrjCTKOVTa^/SoO?

fia'^aipr]
TovSe.
rpoTTov

Ta9

aairfj koX

"wpocrir)
^

jBapi^

TToXiv

T7JV

fjuev iv

eaTL

ocTTea

he avTr]^; elal

ireplTdoTa

evetcrc

e?

ToXXa

Kau

fiev

77

cryolvoievvea.
aXXat

7roXce";

dXXa"; iroXia^,
eva

e?

KTTjvea

'^copov

OdTTTovcn

irXa-

Tr]"i ttoX^o?

TavTt)'^

he
dvopv^avTe"^

tcl

Traz^re?.

TavTo,

/caTa

6"TTea
he

Kai
dTroOvrfCTKOvTa'

KTeivovaL
crcpcvevo/jLodeTTjTac

ovtco

eKacr-

iv 8' avTjj
^ATdp^7)'^i,"i,

ttj iroXet

XhpvTai, eV

OdTTTOvai

/3oval KOL

eV

tol

ovvofia

TToXXol dXXoc

TolcTi

/cepa"^
iireav

(Trj/jirjiovelveKev

jSdpte^;
irapaylvovTau
dvacptjcro/jLevai

at

^A(f)pohLT7)";
lepov ayiov
dirdyovGi Kol

to

'^povo"^, diriKvelTai

AeXTa, irepifxeTpov

to)

^OMV,

TMV

vcovTac

rolcrc irpoacTTeioicn,

TeTay/jievo^;

he

ciTnelcn,tov"^

irorapbov

KaXeofievrjf;
tt}? TlpocrcoiriTiho";
vrjaov.

eK

iic T7]"; he

(Tv^vai,

iv

eKaaroi

Trj TLpoacoTriTihi
vtjctw

wv

TavTr)

top

dfji(j)0T6pa
virepe^ovTa

rj Kol

6T"pov

07)Xea"^
e?

/juev

"p(T6va"^ Karop-ucrcrovcn

iv

avSpa KWrjva

ovSe
Xe^'TjTC,

ovSe

S'

yvvr)

eXveKa

fxaXiGTa yuaKp^' to)v

''^Wr)vo";
avSpo";
fia'^alpri
"^prjaeTat

G-TOfjbaTL, ovSe

he

149

'

ovre
AlyuTTTto^;

avr)p

TO

EGYPT.

iravrcov
cre^ovrai7rpo/3drcov

oyLtotw?
0VT6

OF

LAND

THE

II.]

hrj

yap

yap

ovhe

TdoTa.

^'OaoL

hrj Ato?

fjiev

%7]^aiov elori,ovtol
Ovovai.

6eov"; yap

%rjl3aieo^ihpvvTaclepovrj
vvv

jiev

hrjov

tov^;

Traz^re?

with
Argos being really due to the
of
identityof sound between the name
the cityof Argos and that of Argos, the
"bright" sky, with its thousand
eyelike

stars f which

Here

(swara, "the

heaven,")had deputed to watch 16. 16


"the
meant
originally
wanderer," from
"to
go" (whence el/xi,
ire, etc.);
ya
hence the story of her wanderings. The
moon
goddess was
given the horns of a
from
her crescent
cow
shape. Southward
of Cairo,the new
rests on
moon
its back, instead
of one
of its horns,
making the likeness to the horns of a
it was
that
cow
very complete. Hence
the

cow

was

sacred

probable,however,
which
derived
of

the

the

connects

from
moon

to

the

the

cow

It is

moon.

that the Greek


with

Phoenician

legend
16

was

conception

-goddess "Astarte,

with

^Oaipio^,tov
the

o/jiOico";AlyvTrTCoc

hrj Atovvcrov

crescent-horns."

See

ch.

elvau

153,

note

9.
"^

The

Egyptians considered the Greeks


unclean, not only
foreigners)
because
they killed the cow, but also
because
they ate swine's flesh,and did
not practise
circumcision.
In this they
with
their
modern
Mohammedan
agreed
(likeother

descendants.
^

Egyptian "aW,

found

on

monuments

"a Nile

boat," already

of the

eighteenth

dynasty.
^
Prosopitislay between the Kanopic
and
of the Nile ;
Sebennytic branches
Atarbekhis
"the
or
beingAphroditopolis,
of
Hathor."
is
It
city
impossible to
that
all
the
bulls
of
Egypt were
suppose
buried there, or that the Nile Avas
polluted by the corpses of heifers.
Herodotos

42

alya";
dTreyofievoi

diravTe^

avTov^}

Kal

cre^ovTac, ttXtjv"lo'to? re

oicov

tov

vojjlov

has here found

another

mare's

nest.

HERODOTOS.

150

XeyovcTL'

3e

tovtov^

[book

cre^ovrat}

airavre^

oyLtotw?

Be

oaot

elal,
Mei^^T^TO?
lepovrj vojxov rod yievBrjcTLOv
eKTTjvraL
koX
Sij/Satoofiev vvv
alycov aTre-^ofievot 6t"; Ovovai.
Bca rdBe

aTreyovrat,

oicov

TOVTOv;

Xeyovao

IBeaOai

OeXijcracTrdvrw^

redfjvai. 'HpaKXea
iOeXeiv

Bia

octol

Ala

tov

Be

ovtol

vo/jlov rovBe

tov

rod

a(f)L(TL

koX

tov

Be, iireiTe Xirrapetv tov

ocj^Orjvat avTov'
Ala jjuriyavr^aacrOat
tov
Trpoi'^ecrOa
'Hpa/cA-ea,
/cpcov e/cBelpavTa
ovK

Te

vir

Ke(pa\7]vdiroTafiovTa tov

Tr)v

ol

ovTO)

Te\o^

diro
iiTcBe^ac.^

ecovTov

tovtov

evBvvTa

Kai

Kpuov,

to

fcpioirpocrcoiTov

vd/co"^
Ato9

tov

diro Be KlyviTTlwv^A/ificovcoc
AlyvirTiot,
TcoyaXfia iroieovcn
i6vTe"; AlyvTTTlcovTe /cai KWlottwv
airoiKOi
Kai
fieTa^v
(f}cov7]v
.

BoKelv Be [jlol, Kai


vofjil^ovTe'^.
d/ji^oTepcov
diro TOvBe acplai,
eiroirjCTavTO'
Tfjv iircovv/jilrjv
KaXeovcrc

TtoL

a(j)ilepolBed

elal

At09, KpLov

TOV

Ala.

tov

evBvovai

to

^A/i/mcovtot
^Kjjlovv
yap Alyvirovvo/ia

Be Kpiov^
Ovovac %ri^aloi,dX)C
ov
iv opTrj
tov
[xtfjBe 'rj/jLeprj
eviavTov,

tov";

tovto.

Kai
KaTa
KaTaico'\\ravTe's
d'TToBeipavTe"^

eva

TwyaXfJia

Ato?,

tov

Kau

Kpiov

TO

dWo

eireuTa

Be

TdoTa

irpocrdyovcn
7rpo"; avTO.
irepl lepovdiravTe^; tov

Kai

tol"vto

dyaXfia Hyoa/cXeo?
^

iroir]aavTe"^

iv

eTreuTa

TvizTOVTai

ol

OdirTovai,
OrjKrj
lepfj

avTOV.

TovBe

Be irept
'Hpa/cX-eo?

43

6eMV'^

BeKa

eTepov

tov

tov

Be nrepi

\oyov

'

^UpaKXeo^;,
tov

Bvco-

e'lr)
tcov

otl

rjKovaa,

olBaai,
^Xk')]ve";

^
The ruins of Mendes
(Egyptian Pibioriginally
h
ave
been
excavated
eleven
neb-tat)
lately
united into one
pantheon
local,but were
of
miles
Mansurah
the
east
Damietta
(on
after the unification of the empire. The
branch
of the Nile). The
god Mendes
however,
specialgod of a cityor nome,
is probably the Egyptian Ba-en-Tat,
its chief
continued
as
to be honoured
1

The

Egyptian

deity,as, e.g.
at Memphis.

deities

Amun

at

Some

were

Thebes,

Ptah

or

local deities

never

national, and the sacred animals

became

also

called

lord of
^

Ba-neb-Tat

Abusir")

Amun

means

who

("the soul, the


is ram-headed,

'"the

hidden

one,"

as

rightlystated,and this,coupled
with his ram's head when
crocodile was
representing
the
Thus
in another.
doubt
Khnum
no
the
or
and
Knuph,
gave rise to
worshipped at Ombos, Athribis,
Herakles
Khunsu
Khons
the
is
or
myth.
regionof Lake Mceris, but abhorred and
and
the
with
Amim
at Dendera, Herakleopolis, (also Shu), who,
hunted
down
maternal principle
Mut, forms the Theban
and
Magna. The extenApollinopolis
''the destroyerof
and
as
the
Triad,
being
Osiris
sion of the
myth throughout
and
the
enemies
wandering moon-god,
whole
of Egypt indicates its rise after
Heracles
wasidentifiedwith
by the Greeks,
of the united monarchy
the foundation
"*
See ch. 32, note 4.
Goats were
naturallyoffered
by Menes.
s*'
themselves
Strike
{i.e. lament)
who
Amun
to the ram-headed
(-Knuph),
or

totems

of

one

district

were

not

sacred

Manetho

"

came

the

to absorb

all the

pantheon after
dynasties.

other

members

the rise of the Theban

of

for the ram."


^

The

invention

twelve

gods

of the

Greeks

are

probably
comp.

an

the altar

OF

LAND

THE

II.]

EGYPT.

151

Kai
ovSafiyAiyviTTOV ihvvdcrOrjvaKovaai.
/jLtjv ore
"ye ov
Trap
aWa
'^Wrjvcov e\a/3ov to ovvofia
Klyvimoi rod
Upa/cXeo^,
/
cat
ol
^Wrjvcov ovtol
6e/jL6vot
'''EiW7}V""^
AlyvTTTiCdv
/j^aXXovTrap'

aXXa
Upa/cXea,TroWa
^AfKpLTpvcovo'^
pLoc
Tovvofia
yov(p
Se Kal ToSe, OTi
icTTL TOVTO
T6
TefCpLTjpcd
"^"iV, iv
/cai
rjcrav Apb(f)LTpvcDv
yovel^;dpb(f)OT"poc
'HjO"z/cA,eo?

tS

/cat

TOV

OVTCO

TOVTOU

ol

dveicaOev
dir
TO
AlyvTrTOV, fcal Slotc
^A\/cpi'i]V7j
ryeryovoTB^
HocretSeMvo^; ovt6
Ta
AlyvTTTiOL0VT6
Acocr/covpcov
(f)acn
ovvopiaTa
6eol
elBevat,ovSe "t(J)L
/cal pbr)v el ye
ov/c

Tcov

Kal
ft)?

iv

ovtol

dXXd

Kal
vavTLXlrjcTL
i^pecovTO

Teo

^XXtjvwv

rjcrav

TLve";

Kal

ipur]
yvcopLT] alpel'6)(JT6 tovtcov
i^eTTLCTTeaTO
AlyvTTTLOLrj
ovvopuaTa

eXiropiaLre

diroSeBe'^aTac.

tovSaLpLovo";,
pbdXLCTTaepbeXXov pbVTJpurjv
e^eLV,et Trep

eXa(3ov ovvopud
irap^'lLXX7]vcov

7]KL(TTa

TOTE

OeolcTL

aXkoLaL

tolctl

vavTLXoL,

piaXXov

Kai

av

^i{paKXeo";.
Se auTol
icTTL Bed's AlyviTTLOLorL
")?
TL^
'}ipaKXe7]"^'
dp'^alof;
Kal puvpLa e? "ApuacTLV
^acTLXevXeyovcTL,eTed ecTTL eTTTaKLG-^iXLa
Oeoiv

Tcov

Ta

tov

aXXd

iireiTe

aavTa,

eK

Oecov

oktco

tcov

vo/jll^ovctl.Kal

*}ipaKXea

eva

elSevaL

i^ ojv olov re
avToOL
Trvv6avopievo";

gods

twelve

of

gods

the twelve

Accord-

tovtcov

iyevovTOtmv
4:4:
tl
irepL "Tacf)e";

e?

ttoXXolctl

re

''

the

presiding over

of the year.

months

9eol

Tvpov r/}? ^olvlktj^^,


'H^a/cXeo?dyLov. Kal elSov

lepov

Troad, and

in the

Etruria

Se

Kal

dXXoLal

7rXovcrLco"; KaTecTKevacrpLevov

of the twelve

OeXcov

rjv,eTrXevaa
elvaL

SvcoSeKa

ol

Because

phitrjon

the

the

mythologistsmade Amof -^gyptos,

descendant

Alkmene

and

dvaOyp^aaL,Kal

of

Perseus, and

of

so

quoted by Syncellus,
after the seven
gods for 13,900 years,
a
came
dynasty of eight heroes (Ares,
Anubis,
Herakles, Apollo, Amnion,

JEgyptos. The Greek Herakles


(correwith
Sansk.
the
sun,"
sponding
swn/as,
like Hera) is the Tyrian
for swar-yas,
Melkarth, the sun-god, and his twelve

Tithoes, Z6sos, and

labours

have

twelve

labours

ing to Manetho,

(reduced to
were

as

Zeus), for 1255

years

by Syncellus). These
by other kings for 1817
Memphites for 1790 years,

189

followed

years, then 30
10 Thinites
next
"manes"

350

after whom

years,

and

demigods for 5813.


These
prehistoricdynasties ended with
succeeded
by Menes.
Bytis, and were
From
were
Hephpestos (Ptah) to Menes
came

24,900 years.
the first divine
rus

gives
and

Thmei,

after whom
of

the

After

Thoth
then
seems

demigods

of Menes.

Horns, the last of

dynasty,the
for

7226

the
to

come

Papy-

years,

then

Horus,

younger

followed

See the end

Turin

summation

by

the

of this ch.

name

"

their

prototype

of the

solar

in

hero

the

of the

great Chaldean

epic,
the Egyptians."
^
The
first divine
dynasty contained
not eightgods; and the demigods
seven,
not twelve, but eight,accordingto
were
Manetho.
The
secondary deities were
from
not
the primary. In ch.
sprung
^

145

"If

indeed

Herodotos

reckons

to
Dionysos (Osiris)
was

included

while

Osiris

dynasty,
belonged to the second
has
heroes, Herodotos

demigods or
again misunderstood
See ch. 145.

Since

in the first divine

Herakles

of

15,000 years from

Menes.

his

informants,

152

ev

HERODOTOS.

avTO)

(TTrjkaihvo,

rjaav

Sou Xldov

lepov

elvai
IBpvOrjvaL,

he

Bio-^ikia, elhov
eirwvvfJLirjv

vvKra";

to

ovBe

dir

eTea

Be

^olvlkcov

Kat

Tft"

e/CTcaav^

KaT

TdoTa

kol

tov

kol

Tjpcot evayil^ovcn.Xeyovcrc Be
Be avTcov
ol
EXX771/69,
evrjOr]^'
'

7rL(TKe7rTai"^
TOV

Kal

ev

too

""?

eTepM

ol
IBpv/uuevov,

tcl

eovTa'

TaTa

^dcrov,

e?

''AfjL(j)LTpvci)vo"i
'UpaKXea
yeveaOai.
vvv
BtjXolaa^ew^i
/jbiv
lo-Toprjfjieva
Oeov
BoKeovcn Be fioc ovtol
UpaKXea
opOoKXXrjvcov iroielv,ot Bc^d 'Upd/cXeta
IBpvcrd/jbevot
eKTTjVTaL,
Be
Be
dvovcn,
puev CO? d6avdT(p ^OXvfjbiricpi7ro)vvfii7]v

Tjj'EXXaSt

iraXaiov

45

vtto

kol

lepov 'JipafcXeo^;

oKXo

Be Kal
diriKopbrjv

lepov Hpa/cXeo?
Sdaov
eKirXioaavTe's
^rjT7]crLv
YivpcoTTTji;
icTTt rj
irevTe
yevefjaidvBpcovirpOTepd
ev

olfceovcrt TpirjKocrca

Tvpov
^vp(pkoI

ov

elvai.

e'^ovTO"^ "aaiov

rolcrc

tovtov^

Trj

ev

evpov

Tj]

cr/jbapdy-

^'^WrjCTL(rvficpepokoI to
d/jiaTupro olfci^ofjuevr}
lepovtov Oeov

ecpacravyap

/Jbevov^;'

Be

aire^Oov,rj

r\ fjuev '^pvaov

iJLeya6o"=;}
e?
Xoyov^; Se ekdcov
oko(to";
elpo/jiTjp
(T(f)i
"i7) ef ov
'^povo^

Xd/jL7rovTO";
ra?

lepevaLrod deov
ISpvrat. evpov Be

Toldi

[book

Trepi

Y{paK\eo^ Xeyovcrt,

TOV

co?

TroWd
Kal

Acl'

Be

tov

Teco";

fiev

oBe

avTov

AlyviTTOv (TTe'^avTe"^ol KlyviTTLOi vtto


6vaovTe"^ tS

Kal
o

dve-

eaTi
fivdof;

aTViKOfjievov

TTOfjuTrrj^

rjav^iyv

dWa

e^rjyov

e'^eiv, eirel Be

e?
")9

avTov

69
oXKrjv TpaiTOfxevov irdvTa^ o-(f)ea";
/3copb(p
KaTdp^ovTO,
BoKeovcrc
TdoTa \eyovTe";Trj"^ AlyvirKaTacfyovevcrat.ifzol
fiev vvv
Kal TMV
ol ^'^XX,7]ve";
Tiwv
Trd/jLTTav
"^v(Tio"^
direlpco'^
vojiwv
e^eiv

TTjOO?

TO)

TolfTL yap
^

The

insular

upright

Asherim
Old
dess

KTTfvea

oalr) Oveiv

stood
in
temple of Melkarth
Tyre,probably a little southward

of the ruined
two

ovBe

Crusaders'
cones

Cathedral.

of

stone

The
the

were

(mistranslated "groves") of the

Testament, the symbols of the godof

which
fertility,

stood

at

the

eaTi

The

worked

%ft"/)t9voyv

Kal

epcrevcov

gold-mines of Thasos were


by the Phoenician colonists.

first
The

Melkarth
temple of the Thasian
perstood
the
little
hill of Elon
haps
Ma'shiik ("the beloved," i.e. Adonis
the
sun-god),facingTyre at the eastern end
of the isthmus
which
joins the island

The title "Thasian"


to the mainland.
temples of
has
probably nothing to do with the
"pillars"
sun-god. Compare
island of Thasos.
Jachin and Boaz ("establishment" and
Europa, the daughter
of Agenor or Khna
of Solo(Canaan), and sister
"strength") at the entrance
of
Phoenix
and
built
mon's
was
Kadmos,
by
represents
Temple, which
under
the
form
The
of a cow,
Phoenicians
vii.
(1 Kings
Astarte, who,
21).
bride
the
the
of
the
of
"emerald"
was
bull,
probably
symbol
pillar was
The
the pillars of the sun-god.
first
makes
name
was
green glass. Movers
the Khmmndnim,
or
appliedto Boeotia,where the Phoenicians
"sun-images" of
the Old Testament.
were
Possibly it is the
long settled.
^
"the
"a
is
rock."
Heb.
the
Heb.
west"; to which a
'erebh,
tsor,
Tyre
has
Sidon
considered
the older settlewas
Volksetymologie
given a Greek apentrance

the

ment.

of

the

Phoenician

the two

pearance.

See i. 2, note

7.

HERODOTOS.

154

hiKaievai
avTov

KlyvirnoL, %eX7]vr]Se
8e

Store

KpeMP.

Se

iv

TvyrjKao-L

Aoovvcro)

koI

tov^
rfj avrfj 'jravcreXTjvcp,

y^povov,

TO)V

[book

tov";

iv fxev rycn

t;?

Ovovai,

ravrj]

6vaavTe";

u?

ean

rod

fjiovvoicn
Trareovrac

oprfjatairecr-

ahXyai

\oyo"i nreplavrov

fxev

vtt

ovfc
i/jbol
AlyvTrTLcov
Xeyofji"vo"^,
fievroL iTrto-rafjLevct)
evTrpenrearepo^
vcbv rfj 2,e\rjvr)iroieiraf
ecrrc
XeyecrOat.^OvaiT] he rjhe tcjv
eTriifkoov
iireav Ovay, rrjv ovprjv d/cp7]v
Kai
rov
aifKrjva koI top
avvOeX^; ofiov Kar
irdarjrov
mv
i/cdXvyjre
rfj
KT7]veo"^ rfjirifJueXfj

fcal

ireplrrjv vtjSvvycvo/nevr],

iv rfj av
rfj TravcreXrjvcp

iv

aireovrai

Kpea

aXXrj Se 7][iepr] ovic

av

TrXdcravre^i u?

da6eveL7)";
jStov aTacTLva"^
48 Ovovai.^

he

TM

^WrjCTi' dvrl

hchol

yvval/ce's,

alholov, ov

to

crcofiaTO";.^
TrporjyeiTai

rov

Alovvctov}
49

he

hiOTL

rd

ttoWS

re
fjii^ov

rS

avrco

dvdyovai

tc5

oprrjv

irdvra
a'^ehov

ravra

ocrov
a^t icrrl i^evprjfjbeva

Kara
irepic^opeovcn

e'^et

to

iov

eXaaaov

reco

av\6^, al he

he

tmv

dirocj^epecrOat'^olpov

dydX/juaravevpocnracrTa,
TTTj-y^vala
vevov

vir

(paWcov dWa

he

avroiv

6irTr)aavTe";
TavTa"^

Kai

aTToho/jievM
rcov
(rv^(OTe(ov. ttjv he dWrjv
Kara
Aiovixjcpol AlyviTTLOiirXrjv'^opcov
'

irevrjTe";

tt}? 6pT7]";
rfj hopirlr)
j^olpovirpo

Atovvcray

eicacTTO^
Ovpecovcr(f)d^a"^

lepa Ovccxti,iv

ra

ol he

yevaalaro.

en

he aXka

Karayil^eLirvpi'ra

eireira

re

Kcofxa'^

dXkov

rov

delhovcraL

eirovTat

rov

Kai Ktvel julovvov

alholov

wv
ecTTL
crc6yLKXT09,
X0709 TTCplavTOV
Upo^;Xeyofievo^;. 7]hr}
^
hoKel jiioc MeXayLtTTOU? o ^A/jLv6ecovo";
ovk
Tr)"^ Ovalrj^ TavTr]";

Tov

"^

Isis

Selene

and

Osiris.

makes

Brugsch

the

whose

"

of the

body.
Cp. v. 33.
ithyphallicMin (Khem)
the 26th of Pachon, in

Egyptian Suben,
El-Kab
worship was
(Eileithyopolis).Droves of swine have been found
represented on the walls of the tombs

the

here.

Osiris with

of

seat

otos

Probably another attempt of Herodhis ignorance. See ch. 3,


to cover
9,

note
^

chief

civilisation

The

of

China

has

covered
dis-

of appeasing

equallycheap way
gods with paper figures.
1
Aopiriawas the first day of the Ionic
feast Apaturia. It here seems
to have
of
the beginning of
the general sense
an

the

on

Ramses
^

the

Two

reading of

read
the

but
xoi'pwz/,
three

suits the context, the


the
^

Egyptians have
"

In

no

way

xopwr

is

no

much

best,and most
meaning being that
the rest

place

time

of

has

confused

the feast of

that of Khem.

Melampous, nephew of Neleos, king


of Pylos,and brother of Bias, the soothsayer,
himself
a
was
prophet and a
physician. Serpentshad licked his ears,
and so given him
understanding of the
language of birds and knowledge of
the daughters of
the future.
He healed
Proetos with
of

women

ascribed
the
"

to

myth

hellebore,and

Argos

the
end

him,

their

"

restored

the
The

reason.

worship of Dionysos,
to

seems

embodied

has

statement

of the

to

of the

swarth-footed

''choral dances."
less than

the

introduction

MSS.

feast of

took

III.

Herodotos

' '

the feast."

The

indicate
traditions

that
of

Phoenicians, and justifies


of

chapter.

Herodotos

at

the

OF

LAND

THE

".]

EGYPT.

155

icm
aX)C e/XTretpo?. '^EXXT^cxt
o
StjMe\a//-7rou9
aSar}";
yap
koI ttjv 6v(Tir)v
koI
rod
Atovvcrov
re
to
6^r}y7]adfjb"V0"^
ovvo/ma
crvXXa^cov
(f)aWov' cLTpeKew^ /Jbev ov nravra
TTjv TTOfjbTTTjv Tov
ol eTrtyevofMevoL tovtw
dXV
fJbe^ovw"^
Tov
\6yov e(f)7]V6,
croc^Lo-rai
Aiovvaco
8' wv
tu"
tov
i^e(f)r)vav'
Tre/JbTro/jbevov
cjyaWov tov
diro
koI
eVrl
/jiaOovT"";
tovtov
o
KaT7}y7](jd/jL"vo";,
MeXa/xTTOu?
MeXayu-TToSa
tol
'^EW?;z^e9.iyo)fxev vvv "^77^l
TTOieovcrt
iroieovac
elvai

avSpa crocjyov
juavTLKrjv

yevofievov

icovTM

t"

Kai

crvcrTTjcrac
^

TroWd
dir KlyvTCTOV a\Ka
EiWrjai
ecrTjyrjo-ao-Qat
re
TTvOofievov
Kol TCL irepl
Aiovvcrov, oXlya avTcov
TOV
TrapaXka^avTa. ov yap
iv AlyvTrTO)Troteo/jieva tS Oeco fcal
Ta
re
BrjcrvjULTrecreLV ye cjyT^cra)
iv TOLCTi
/cat
ov
''EXXT^cTfofJbOTpoiTa ydp dv rjv Tolcn ^JXXtjctc
TCL
6/cco";AlyvTTTtooTrap
ov
vecocrTt
iarjy/jieva.
(prjo-o)
jjuev ovSe
TrvOeaOai Se
tl
'^WtJvcov eXajSov rj tovto
kov
rj dWo
vofiaLov.
Alovvctov
Ta
fidXtcTTaM.eXdfi7rov";
irepltov
fioi BoKel
irapa
/cal
i/c
Te
tmv
avTw
^0LVifC7j"i
tov
J^dS/jiov
crvv
Tvplov
aTrcKO/jLevcov
'

e?

Tr]V

^OCCOTLTJV
KaX"0/jL6V7]V
'^COpTjV.

vvv

Se
X'^eSov

Oeodv e^ KlyviTTOV50
ovv6[iaTatmv
hioTi fjuev ydp
eKrfkvOe e? Tr]v 'EXXaSa.
tmv
(Bap^dpcov
So/ceco 8'
dir
iov
/jidXccTTa
rjKei, 7rvv6avo/jL6vo(; evplcTKco
koX AiOorKOvpwv,
KlyvTTTOvdirlyOai. oti ydp hr)pbT) TlocretSeajz^o?
ft)? Kal
Hp-/;?Kal Icttltj^;
fioc TaoTa
irpoTepov
etprjTao,
/cal ^apiTcov/cal l^^riprjihayv,
dWcov
Oeoiv KlyvirTioiai
@e//.t09
tmv
/cal irdvTcov

Ta

e/c

ovtco

mv

Kau

kol

alei

Td

K0T6

ovvofiaTa

AlyvTTTLOL. TMV

avTOL

Se /jlol So/ceovcn
he tov
Sicovo^' TOVTOV

ovTOL

yap

dir

Oeov

Tjpcocrc ovSev.

TaoTa

dir
(ppaao),li^XXr]ve"^

ayaX/iaTa

The

ov

op9a

Chauvinism

aleL

tovtov

'

ever

Td ovvofiaTa,
Oeoiv yivocxTKeLV
(pacFL
vtto
TieXaayMV ovojjiaaOrjvai,
ttXtjvJJocreiOeov irapd Ai^vcov iirvOovTO'
ovSa/jUol
he

TIocreLSecovof;
dp'^rj'^
ovvofia

T(,fjL(x)cnTOV

Trj '^coprj. Xiyco Se Td Xeyovcro

icrTl iv

fiev

S'
vo/jLl^ovctc

vvv

dXXa

Kal

alhola

Herodotos,if

removed
any, had been entirely
his travels,and he had the same
high

by
opinion of the Egyptians that many
Not
Englishmen have of the French.
better
were
there,"
only
"things
managed
but Greece had to go to Egypt even
for
its theology. Of course
the name
of no
Greek deityreally"came
from Egypt."

It is

tell

what

/cat
AL/3ve";,'

AlyvTTTLOiovS*
tovto
lctl, Td iyoo51

tov

ov/c

iroieovTe'^

he

had

mv

tt^o?

AlyviTTiwv vevopbiKacri'

e-^etv Td

of

el /ir)

e/CT7]VTat

pity that

he
drr*

^JLp/jieco
Ta

AlyviTTLcov

Herodotos

the

But

name.

to heroes.

in

was

"

The

Pantheistic

ancestors

very idea was


Egypt. The

was
(tejni)

does

form

Lybian
probably he did
it. In Egypt the sea
was
influence of Typhon (Set),
^
''The Egyptians are in no
us

not

of the

not

under

know
the

way used
unknown

worship of
altogetherdifferent.

HERODOTOS.

156

[book

a)OC airo
/jL6/jia6r]Ka(Tt,

ITe\acr"ywt'
TrpoiiTOt
fiev ^^WtJvcovairdvrwv
he tovtcov
mWol.
AdrjvatoL irapaXajBovre^,
KSrivaiOiac
irapa
reXiovac
^'"iXX7]va";
e?
UeXacryol crvvouKOL
ryvcKavra
ryap rjhr]
oOev
i'yevovTOiv rfjx^PV'
rjp^avrovofitaOTjvai,
irep /cat '^EXXT^i/e?
^

Se

ocrTC";

iTTcreX%a/Jio9p7]LK6"s

ra

fjL"fiv7}Tao,

olSe to \eyco*
TleXaayodV,ovro'^ (hvrjp
oi irep
ock"ov
TieXacryoiovroc
2^afio6pr)L/c7]v
rrjv yap
irporepov
Kal irapa tovtcov
Ta
^KdrjvaloLCTL
avvoLKOi
^afjLO0p7]c/c6"
eyevovro,
alhola
irapaXafx^dvovcTL.
6p6a o)v e'^etv tcl
TdyoXjiaTa
opyta
^AOrjvaLOLirpo)TOi 'YjWtjvwv /jLa6ovT"(;
Tov
E^yLteo)
irapd TleKacrol Se UeXaa-yol lepovTtva
Xoyov ireplavTov
ycov eTTOirjaavTO'
iv tolctc
iv Xa/bLoOpTjiKr]
eXe^av, Ta
/jbvaTTjpiotcn SeSTJXwTac.
he irdvTa
eOvov
ol YieXacryolOeolai iTrev^ofjuevot,
co?
irpoTepov
olBa aKovcraf;,
he ovK
iirotiyo) iv Aci)8a)vr}
iirayvvjjblriv
ovvofxa

7rapakaj3ovTe"^
irapa

eovcrt

52

J^a^elpcov
opyta

ra

ovhevl

eovTo

avTwv

ov

diro
a"^ea"^

cDvofiacrav

Kal

irprjyiiaTa

tov

' '

Beginning

"Has

been

be

to

See i.

Hellenes."

eight

initiated

Phoenician

i/c ttj^;

reckoned

57, note

of the Kabeiri."
the

tolovtov,

otl

Trdcra^; vo/jLd";
el^ov.

iirvOovTO
hte^eXdovTO";

Koa/jbo)

islands ; the scholiast

among

makes

into

tlie teries
mysKabeiri were

KahhiriTn

or

he '^povov

evreiTa

^g-

them

Axiokersa

four,
or

Aides, and
laos and

Kasmilos

Pherekydes reckoned
only two (Zeus and

M.

James

de

iv. 2)
Linguistique,

i.e.
them

The

Astarte.
with

Jsid.)

Vit.

the

Greek
whom

the

of

translation

Sydyk

in Lemnos
these

father

and

islands

supreme
the seven
of

was

' '

god,
Titans

Kabeiri), and

title.

Samothrake

Their

who

(a
of

worship

shows

that

possessedPhoenician
calls Pelasgic,
colonies,which Herodotos
i.e. prehistoric.Greek
writers vary as
to their number
as
worshipped in these
once

' '

of

God

[i.e.the
Lemnos)

seven

them."

the
See

seeks

identify

to

of Gen.

of God"
the

The

legend

men

the

to

have

of God

sons

that

fair,and left for them

slew

of

"Sons

supposes

originally
the daughters

identified
sons

the

run

of

the

with

only three ;
Dionysos).

{Mem. de la Soc.

Darmesteter

vi. 2, and

Astronoe,

Greeks

Dioskuri,

Zeus," i.e. El, the


was

was

them

or

; Akusi-

Hermes

or

whom

with
the youngest.
Asklepios,was
representedthe
Perhaps they originally
planets,Eshmun
being a form of the
god. According to Sanchonsupreme
iathon
(Phil. Byb. 11), they were
of Sydyk or
the seven
sons
Sadykos,
"the
of Eshmun
just." The mother

Demeter,

or

Persephone, Axiokersos

others

strong (or great) ones," of


Eshmun
fied
("the eighth"), identi-

ovvojxaTa

Apollon. (i.917)

on

Axieros

birim, "the

(Damascius,

ttoXXov

tcl
KlyviTTov diriypueva

1.

The

6eov"; he irpoa6evTe"^ tcl irdvTa

dicrjKoeadvkw.

yap

saw

they were
daughters of

Kabeirides

or

daughters
Herodotos,

women

of

God

iii, 37.

(the Vedic
Aryan god Hermes
Sarameyas, the dog of the dawn) was
changed into the Phoenician Kasmilos,
who presidedover
generation.
^
0e6s probably stands for deabs,from
The

old

de-, dha, the

etymology
At
us

and

from

root

of rid-qfn,so

of Herodotos

seems

that
to be

the
rect.
cor-

rate phonetic laws prevent


any
connecting the word with deus

its kindred.

Twv

Oeojv

Kol

fiera

Se

jdp St)/jiavT7]cov

rovro

157

rov

rjv

MV

Tac

rd

rd

ovvofiara

diro

ovvofidrcov iv

tojv

tmv
dp'^aLorarov
tovtov

'^povov

jjlovvov.

ITeXacnyolel dveXcov-

iv rfj AcoSayvrj
oi
"'^pr)(7T7]pcd^ovTO

iirel

iirvOovro.^

ttoWm

varepov

vevoficorrac

"Y^XX7]aL'^p7]crT7]picovelvat,/cat

iv

EGYPT.

i'^pTjo-TTjpid^ovTO
vrepi

'^povov

Aco^coprj'TO

Atovvo-ov

aWcov,

Twv

OF

LAND

THE

II.]

dvelXe

/Sap/Sapcovrj/covra,

tmv

to

eOvov
tov
tolcto
y^pdaOai. diro fiev Srjtovtov
'^povov
he Tl.e\aar^o)v
dewv
EXA-T/z^e?
ovv6/jia"7C
TMV
ypewfJuevoL' irapd

fjuavTYjiov

'

alel yaav
ov

irdvTe^, okoIol
Te

TrpcoTjv

he

odev

i^eSe^avTO vcTTepov.

Te

%^e9

kol

i'yevovTo"Ka(TTO";
elirelv

co?

rjXtKirjvTeTpaKOcrioio-i
"Ojjbripov
koX
fyevecrOat
''FiWrjaiKoX

hieXovTe^ koX elhea

Teyya";

tmv

hoKelv, iyevovTO.^tovtcov
he

Td

ydp koL
irpea-^VTepov^;

fieo

Td

vcrTepa

SoKeco

ol he
(T7]/ui7]vavTe";.^
irpoTepov
dvhpcovyevecrOaivaTepov, eixoiye
al Acoh(ovLhe";lepelau
jnev irpoiTa
HdLohov
Te
Ofirjpov
e'^ovTa

avTcov

TTOLTjTal
Xeyofievoc tovtcov
XeyovcTL, Td

Xoycp,

eTeau

fie'^po

'HaioSov

ovtol

Oeolcn

Tolat

r^TrtaTeaTO

53

he elau ol iroLrjaavTe'^ Oeoyoviyv


Td"; iTrcovv/jLia^;
hovTe"^ koX TOfid";
Te
kol

TrXeocrt'

ov

etSea, ovk

Ta

TLve^;

Oecov, eiTe

tmv

kol

"9

iyo)Xe^ct).
he
lLp7j"TT7jpiCL"v
Trepi
Tovhe

the

Herodotos

of

statement

of the

gods

surmises

about

names

his other

Greeks

brought

of their deities with


where

home

is

the

as

Pelasgians.

from
lived

had

about

incorrect

of the

most

them

they

as

tion, and

from

came

the Phoenicians
^

and

As Homer

otos

formed
must

mass

of

times

was

early

before

the

the east,either from

Hesiod

understand

epic

are

here said to

theogony, Herodby

literature

called

"

the Hittites.

from

the Greek

various

among
Homeric

or

^Wtjctl

1100, the
otos

Aristotle

and

of the

Ai^vy

life of Herod-

Aristarkhos

ninth

1084,

B.C.

in the

age of
(b.c. 1144), the

migration
the

in

century B.C., Eu-

phorion and Theopompos in the age of


Gyges B.C. 670, In their present form,
however, the Iliad and Odyssey bear
traces

of the
of

mass

which
and

under

went

growth.
a

person,

the
age of Perikles, and
and
didactic
literature

epic

Hesiod

in after

distributed

author

Ionic

Khians

which

Cyclic,and

iv

tov

1104, Eratosthenes

B.C.

Homer

authors,togetherwith the

kol

54

tov
S7]^aLeo";
e^acrav ol lepel"^

all that

hymns. The date of Homer


the
birthplace
largely depended on
assigned to him, i.e. to the rise of epic
of guilds of
poetry, or the formation
different
in
localities,
rhapsodists
parwith particular dates being connected
ticular places. Krates
placed him b.c.
"

'

the

names

the

separationof the Aryan family. But


Dionysos certainlywas of later importa-

have

iv

Te

AlyvTTTCOo\oyov Xeyovao.

The

The

tov

the

Homer
and

is

of Homer

names

have

must

been

name

ofiripos,

of

slow

rather

than

"the

j"tted to-

gether," is applied by Euripides {Alk.


870) to the marriage-bond. Why Herodhas fixed on
his particulardate
otos
is clear from ch. 145, where he placesthe
800
Trojan War
years before his own
time.
Dividing this 800 years in half
gave him
Homer,
^'

400

years

before

himself

Linos,Orpheos, Musreos,

etc.

for

158

HERODOTOS.

Svo

Ato9
Kol

T7]v
'

Tov";
ra

i/c (d7]/3eo)v
lepeia";
i^a'^Orjvai ^olvIkwv,

yuvacfca';

vtto

irvOeaOat

avTecop

jxev

Be

"iW7]va"^,ravra'^
Trpcora^; iv

fjbavTrjLa

fjbeo OKoOev

[book

Ai^vrjv irpn^Oelaav
ryv

"9

Ta"=;

elvat

'yvvaiKa"^

Ta";

eOveat.
elprjiMevoidL

toIctl

Be

e?

ISpvaa/jLeva'
Be
elpo/juevov

iTrLo-rd/uievoL
Xeyovac, ec^aaav 7rpo";
^7JT7)crLV
yevecrOac
rcov
rov/JLeyaXrjvciiro
cr(f)ecov
yvvatKCJV
Bvvarol
TruOecrOac Be
ov
KOI
yevecrOat,
dvevpelv fjuev cr(j)ea"i
recov,
rd irep Bt)eXeyov.
rdora
rdora jjbev vvv
ireplavrecov
varepov
ovtw

arpeiceco^

rdora

55

iv

roiv

rdBe
rjfcouov,

%rj[3r]cnlepecov

Be

AcoBcovaucov

Bvo TreXetdBa^; /jueXalva';


7rpofjbdvrte";.

Srj^ecov rcov

eic

dva7rrafjieva";
ryv

neoiv

juuev

Be
diTiiceaOai, l^o/jbivrjv

avrecov

jjutv

at
(f^aal

Klyvir-

Al/Svtjvrrjv Be irapa

e?

"j(j)ea^

iirl

(prjyov avBd^acrOao (f)(Ovf]


avroOi
Kal
Aco'^ yevecrOai,

0)9
dvOpwirrjiYj

'^peov etr)[lavrrjiov
v7ro\a/3eivOelov elvat ro
irrayyeWo/jLevov avrotat,

avrov^

e/c
(7(^ea"=;

ireXetdBa
TTOtetv

irotijcrat.rrjv

rovrov

"

Xeyovat
Be

eart

Be

69

/cal

KeXevaat

Be

AcoBcovatcov

At09.

rovro

Ai/Sva^;ol'^ojjievr

toi'9

A/ji/jLCi)vo";
y^prjarrjptov

Kai

Ai^va";

rov"^
at

lepetat,

rojv

rfjirpecrlSvrdrr]
rfj Be fjtera ravrrjv Tt/jtaovvofia
rjv Upofieveta,
^
avvMjJLoXoyeov
eXeyov rdora'
perrj, rfj Be vecordrrj^t/cdvBprj,
Be
5Q

Kal
(T(j)t

AcoBcovatot

avrcov

Kal

yvvatKa'^

htXXaoa

rr)v

Be

efiot, tj yvvrf

"The

show

who

BovXevovaa

"

"

showed

him

took

at

the

over

heard
and

Dodona,

the

"

The

doves

Phoenician
of

TreXetds

or

from
^

Dodona

its "dark"
The

municated

colour

oracles

was

when

time

in

of

their

to

Dione, the

shared

with
dove

cushat

the
The

Zeus.
took

its

name

(ireXios).

Dodona

were

com-

interpreterspartly
through the rustlingof the oak leaves
(Od. xiv. 327), partlythrough the murto

rrj";

hiXXaoo^;,

vvv

rrprjOrjvat
IBpvcraadatvtto

avrodt

vessel
i. 46,

3.

We

gather from this that the oracle


in the
by three priestesses

served

of Herodotos.

the

prophets
longing to the
the

"washed

of the

At

god

an
were

earlier time
men,

be-

tribe of Selli (laterHelli),

the feet and lay on


not
gTound." {II. xvi. 233 ff.) This
to
disposesof the attempt of Herodotos
rationalise the legend,
^
the Thesprotians in what
"Among
is now
Hellas, but was
formerly called
does not
mean
Pelasgia." Herodotos
called Pelasgia,
that all Greece was
once
but only the district of Epeiros,in which
situated.
It is interesting
Dodona
was
who

sacred

were

note

temples.

putting
guides,who

his

Astarte, who

temple

avrrj

inuring of water, and the bronze


given by the Korkyreans. See

the story

opportunity of

Egypt
leading" questions to
answered
accordingly.
^

does not

the beadles

priests were

probably had

recounts

This

actually visited

Herodotos

The

Herodotos
he

Zeus."

Theban

that

Thebes.

S' e^o)

"70)

lepov.

UeXacryi7)(;
t?}9 avrrj"^ravrrjv,
KaXeo/jtevyf;

eiretra
"ecriTpcorov"=;,

ireplro

dXrjOew'^ol ^otvtKe"^ e^rjyayovrd^


At^vrjv rrjv Be 69 rr)v
avrecov
69

fiev

ooKetv

aireoovro,

irporepov
69

ol

yvci)/Jb7]vrrjvBe. el

irepl
tepa^

dXXot

ot

OF

LAND

THE

II.]

EGYPT.

Acb(; lepov,
t)v
locrirep
nre^vKvlr)
(f^yyo)

%rjl3r](7L
lepovAto9, evOa
i/c Be
'EXXaSa

jXayacrav.

viro

avTCdv

TOiv

^ocvlkcov

ol

e^eiv.

avveXa^e

eireiTe

rrjv

ev
Ao/3vrjTreirprjcrOai
dSe\(f)er)V

Koi

wv

vtt

ev

[Jivr][ji7]vavrov

KaryyTjaaro,

(pdvatSe

dficfitTroXevovcrav

oLfco"^

ivOavra

airiKero,

ypycrrypLov

Tovrov

159

TreXeiaSe?
enrprjOr].

avTT]

AoyScovaicov eVl rovSe


he fJbOL So/ceovcrL KXTjOrjvao
Trpo?
Score l3dpj3apob
OyCto/w?
rjcrav,eSoKeov Se cr"po
opVLcrc

57

al yvvaifce^;.

(f)6eyyea6aL.

TreXecdSa

avhd^acr6ai
dvOpcoTrrjly
(l)covfj
he
ejBap^dpi^e,
Xeyovai,
a(j)t7}v8a r] yvvr)' eco?
eirel reco
dv
opvi6o"^rpoTTOv eSo/cei a^i "p6eyyecr6ai,,
rpoircp
TreXeia? ye dvOpcoirrjlr]
(pOey^aoro
"^(t)vfj
; fxeXaivav he Xeyovre^
Be

fiera

ryv

ypovov

eirelre avverd

elvac

AlyvTrriyr) yvvr] rjv. 97 he 58


Kal rj ev
Acohcovr)
rfjcrcKlyvirrlrjcri,
Srj/Sycrc

ireXeidha

TTjv

fiavrrjir}

re

rj

cryfiaivovcn,

ev

on

iovcrac.
irapairXrjaiaidXkrjXrjairvy^dvovcTL
^

he

ecrri

Kal

tmv

Alyvirrov diriyixevt].
irav7]yvpia^ he dpa
Kal TTo/xTTa? Kal 7rpo(faya)yd"i
AlyvTrriOielcn
Trpcoroc dvdpcoTTcov
Kal irapa rovrcov
ol 7roc7]crd/jievoL,
EXX^/z/e?fJLefJuaOrjKacrL.
reK-

lepcov
7] fiavrLKr)

dir

'

rohe'

ixrjpiov he jjloltovtov

al jxev

eK
(palvovrac

yap

ttoXXov

reo

al he ^XXijvtKal veayarl eTTOcrjOrjcrav.


j^povov TTOieo/jievat,
he Klyvirrtooovk
dira^ rod iviaurov, TravyIlavr)yvpL(^ov"Tt
he

yvpca";

TToXiv

ry

find

to

This

Such

could

"Divination

goes to show that


have visited Thebes.

has been

not

by
practisedwidely over

refers

TTpoaay.

hymns

which

musical

were

possessedby

were

In

principaltowns.
Empire
Memphis was
ning of the
Old

(3) of the
of Sokharis
;

the
:

and

sound

of

Separatecalendars

instruments.

of feasts

burning

sung

litanies
the

to

the

festival

(1)

Feast

each
time

of the
of

the

calendar

of the

of

begin-

year ; (2)Feast of Thoth


Year ; (4) of Uaka
New
;

(5)

(6) of the greaterand lesser


(7) of holocausts ; (8) of the

manifestation

of Khem

of the first of the month

Under

added

Osiris,and

(13)that

The

or

to Egypt
imagined.

the

to

month.

were

feast

hcb

(12)

the
the

'^
ev

twelfth
feast of

of the

Epagomense.
usually lasted five

Sekhet

Bast, the lion-headed and


goddess of Bubastis (Pi-Bast,
Tel
now
Bast, near
Zagazig),to whom
the cat was
sacred, was
daughter of Ra,
and
bride
of
Ptah, and
symbolised
sexual passion. Her
festival took place
the 16th of Khoiak
on
(about Christmas),
Bast
Sekhet
(also called Menk) and
also regarded as sisters.
were
See ch.
137, note 4.
or

cat-headed

the

confined

not

was

Greece, as Herodotos

rjj"lo-f

VtovcnpivttoXlv

e?

days.

of victims."

means

^ov/Sacmv
rfrpoOv/jLOTara
"9

dynasty

assertion

an

globe, and
and

w^as.

Kal

of the half

as
an

sanctuary.

Herodotos
4

however,

Dodona,

Hellenic

reckoned

Thesprotians

the

Hellenes

fidXccrra
crv^vdf;,
fiev
KpTejJbihi,^
hevrepa he

59

; (9) of Sat ; (10)


; (11)of the first

site of Busiris

The

famous

for

its

dynasty.

So

middle

of

the

beyond

it to

The

Busiris

therefore

be

{Ahusir) is now
pyramids of the fifth
far from
being in the
Delta, however, it lies

the

meant

another

south-east

of

by Plerodotos

Gizeh.
must

town, P-User-neb-

HERODOTOS.

160

[book
'

St] Tjj TToXet icrrl /jLeyicrrov Icrto? lepov,


tSpvTaLBe rj
AeXra'
Se icrrt Kara
'Icrf.9
7roXt9 avTT] TTj'^ AlyvTTTOuev p^eacp tm
ArjfXTJryp.
rplra he 69 Zidtv iroXiv rfj
Trjv ^^Wrjvodv yXwcraav
^
Be "9 'HXtou ttoXlv
'HXtw,
tm
^AOrfvalrjiravrjyvpi^ovai,
rerapra
Be
ttoXlv
^ovrovv
tj) Atjtol, eKra
69
UaTrprj/jLLV
Tre/jLTTTa Be "9
TToXiv
Tw
"ApeL. 69 P'ev vvv Tiov/Sacmv ttoXlv eireav KoixH^wvrai,
roidBe.
irXeovai
Brj dfia dvBpe"^yvvai^X koI
re
iroLeovai
yap
iroXXov
ev
Ti
tmv
7rXrj6o";
jSapei'al fjbev nve^
eKacrrr)
eKarepcop
TavTT}

60

ryap

Trdvra

ol Be avXeovorc
KporaXl^ovcn,
e^ovaac
koX dvBpe^ delBovai
ttXoov, al Be Xoiiral yvvalice"^

KporaXa

yvvac/CMV
rov

eireav

'^eLpa"; Kporeovcri.

Ta"^

Be

irXeovre^

Kara

dXXrjv yevcovrat,

ey^plpL'^avTe'^
rrjv ^dpcv rfjyea

al jjbev

yvvauKoyv

tmv

Tive'^

^ovai ^oojaac Td"=;ev


al

Be

rfjiroXei

ravrr)

Troteovcn'

Kal
dvdyovre^;Overtax;,
oprd^ovat/xeydXaf;
irXeoiv

jjbovTai

rfj oprfj ravrr)

ev

al Be

irapd

Be diriKwvTat

eireav

r)

Be

rcoOd-

op'^eovrac,
iroXiv

iraaav

6*9Tr]v ^ov^aanv,

olvo^

dvaicrcdjjLireXcvo";

diravrt

rS

ev

rocdBe.

iroieovcn

yvvaiKa";,

kol

iroXiv

rcva

al
etprjKa,

irep

rdora
dvLcrrd/bbevai.

dvaavpovrai

Trapairora/jbii^v

rd

iroieovcn

Kara

eviavrS

rw

Be, o re dvr)p Kal yvvrj ecrrc


irXrjv
crv/ii(pOLreov(TL
fcal
ol
iratBiwv,^ 69 e^Bo/ji'^KOvra
0)9
[xvptdBa'^,
eirc^copioc Xeyovai,
Be
rdora
iroXec
iroielrai,ev
l^ovcript
0)9 avdyovcru
jjuev Brj ravrr)
Brjfierd
rfj "lore rr)v oprr]v, etprjrac irporepov jjlol' rvirrovrat
yap
iiriXoLiro).

61

rr)V Over i7)v


rov

Be

elai

ev

ov

rvirrovrai,

rd

Kal
ocrcp

Tat,

rather

or

lord.

Tatta,

See ch.

4,

of

note

ovrot

Osiris

"

Neith, the "great cow," which gave


manifestabirth to the world, and was
a
tion of

Isis,was

account

on

Sais

was

identified

of the

already famous

eighteenth dynasty.
north
of Sa el-Eager, on

the

with

similarityof
in the

Athena

Its ruins
the

of
lie

Rosetta

to be Uat
goddess Buto seems
of
the
Lower
or
Uati,
genius
Egypt,
symbolised by the winged asp, who was
worshipped at Tep, at the extremityof the
Rosetta branch
The cityof
of the Nile.
Buto is usuallyidentified with the Egyptian Pi-Ut'o in the nome
of Am-pehu.

The

dvdpcoircov
Be

octol

irXeco

en

roaovrw

Ares

Mentu

was

who

Ra,

the

steers

Yiapchv

iroieovat

Kal

fia'^aiprjo-L.

the

bark

of

rovrw

warriorthe

sun,

and

pierces the serpent Apophis. He


is hawk-headed, and is once
represented
heads.
two
with
to
Papremis seems
stood

have

name.

time

of the Nile.

arm

Be

god,

4.

iroXXal

Xeyetv.

eart

Koirrovrat

fxerwira

which

[ivpudBe^;
Kdpra

oatov

jjlol

AlyvirrcpOLKeovre^;,

rovrwv

was

irdvre^ Kal irdaat,

"

Menzaleh

Dami-

and
pilgrims,reckoning men
only, and not children, amount

"

Osiris ;

see

ch.

Egyptians
naming

about
^

Like

heads

at

'Ashura.

felt

Cairo
The

no

The

scruple

him.

the

Psammetikhos

9.

3, note

themselves

by

and

iii.12).

The

women

to.

between

(see ch. 165, and

etta

fanatics
on

who

the

Karians

I.,ch.

gash their
night of the
were
imported
152.
They are

HERODOTOS.

162

'

fiTjrepa.

Kal

lepa

e?

ol fjL6P yap

Kara

irep

/crrjvea

akovrov^
lepolaifiTjSe
ol Trpcoroc 6p7)aK6vaavT""^.
dvOpcoiroi,
ifXrjv AlyvTrrlayv
airo

elcn

a'^eSovTrdvre^

dWa

ra

iv

Kai

KTrjvea'

o-^evo/jueva
"t

T"fl6V6(TL'

TOLCrC

TrXTjyi^viv rfjopTrj

rrjv

avtcrrdairo
lepolcriKai
yvvacKcov
elvai
e?
icrep'^ovTac
dvOpooTrov^;
lepov, vo/JbL^ovTe";

opvlOcovyevea
ra

eo-tevai

oKkoL

fjuevoi aXovTOL

65

ovrol

"jXXrjvcov,
jJbiayovTai

Kol

ravrrjv

yvvac^l iv
fjLT)/jLLayecrOaL

TO

(yvvaifCMV

Kpei

tu"

(paal.

vevojJiiKevaL

64

tovtov

airo

[book

elvai

MV

iroielv.

ovtol

ev

re

jnev

vvv

TOVTO

fXTj

opdv

KT'qvea

/cal

6eo)V /cal iv

vrjolcn tmv

rotcrt

$60)

TM

dXka

ra

yap

dv

(f)lXoV,
OVK

Ovhe

iroLeovcn
iiriXeyovTe^;

rotavra

rd
dpeard. AlyvTmoL Be OprjaKevovaL
irepLa-a-o)^
/cal Brj /cal rdSe.
dXka
ioucra yap
irepl
Aoyv7rTo";
lepa
iari'
Se
iovra
fJbdXa6r]pi(ohri"^ ra
Tjj Ki^vy
6/jiovpo(;
"T(j)C
diravra
/cal
rolac
avTolon
ra
lepa vevopaaTai,
cnjvTpocpa
fMev
ejJLOLye

ovk

re

ra

ov

Ce

ra

avupco7roi(Ti,

ov.

rcov

dv
/caTa/3ai7]v
XeyoifJLL,

rco

oe

eiveKev

Xoyra

69

aveirac
ra

ra

Oela

urjpia

lepa

ei

iyo)
iTri'yjravora'

TTprjyfJiaTa,

ra

8e /cal etprjKa avrcov


ra
jjidXiara
dTrrjyelaOai'
"^6vy(o
elirov.
Be iarc ireplrcov
dvay/calrj/caraXa/n/Savo/jievo^
vopuo^
o)Be
fieXeScovol
Orjplcov
ri}? rpo^rj^;
'^(opl"=
dTroSeSe^arat
e^cov.
^
e/cdcTTcov Kal epcreve^ Kal Orfkeai
iTal"=;
tmv
AlyvTrrlwv,tmv
irapd
i/cSe/cerat Tr/v rcpLTjv.
ol Be iv rfjav nroXicn
eKaarot
diroreXeovaf
dv fj to
Oeco rov
ev'^a^ rdcrBe (7(f)L
ev'^o/juevoo tco
iraiBiwv rj Trdaav
to)V
Oripiov,
^up(x)VTe"^
rj to
ttjv /ce"paXrjv
7]/jLiav
l
orTaac
TO
cFTaO/jLO)
rj
jubepo^; tt}? /ce^aX?)?,
TpiTOV
tt/do? dpyvpiov
7raTpo";

Td"=;Tpiya^^' TO
"^

"

The

selves into

dv

"

rest of mankind

Babylonians and

tj} /neXeBoyvStcov

eXicvarj,tovto

resolve them-

duei/nepoi in

vii.

103.

Or)pi(ov

Herodotos

Phoenicians

is

probably again making piety an excuse


199.
See
i.
for ignorance. The! true
only.
origin of the
^
All the animals
that belong to it
of
animal-worship
Egypt was totemism.
considered
sacred.
The Egyptian monuments
themselves
are
exS0i is here
plain it on the ground that the animals
sing,in accordance with its originalreankh
fiexive meaning (Skt. swa, Lat. sui,sihi), were
the godliead
ncin
nuter,
which
admitted
of no
forms.
incarnated.
or
plural
livingagain
^
formed
The pluralwas
after the analogy
The guardians of the sacred animals
all priests,
who were
called khnem,
of that of the first and second
personal were
called mendt,
when
the
reflexive
or
"guardians,"
priestesses
signification
pronouns,
"nurses."
had
been lost, the dative crcplai
(which
^
times in Homer), being
occurs
They weigh the hair in a balance
fifty-five
There was
of silver."
modelled
like yavai,
after forms
to disno
againsta sum
shaved
tinguishit from the sing."7(pL.
coinagein Egypt. Though men
9
the whole
left
head, tufts of hair were
"Why the sacred animals are allowed
heads
and
to range
of
the
at
the
of
on
boys,
use
boys
belonging
large.
Cp.
' '

"

' '

"

"

"

LAND

THE

II.]

BlSol, r] he

6r]pLocac.rpo^T)fiev Brjavrotcrc
TovTcov
Ti"i TMV
Orjplcov
aiTOiCTeivrj,
he

Tjv

Tj

rd^covrac.
lepel"^

eKcov

defccov,reOvdvai,

re

rjv

3'

09

Q6
tolcfc
dvOpcoiroLCTL
Orjpicov
o/norpocpcov
el fJbrj/careXafi^ave tov"^
TrXeco ijivero,
ere
aie\ovpov"^
at
eireav
re/ccocri
T0f9
OrjXeai,ovKen
(f)ocTeovcn
nrapa
ol he hil^rjijievoi
fxlo-'yecrOai
avrfjcTLovfc e^oucrc. irpo"^
diro tmv
rdhe.
OrfKecov/cal
dp7rd^ovTe"^
ao(f)l^ovTat

av

TotdSe.
epaeva^'

rdora

wv

"Cprijxlri,

t]

Be iovTcov

dvd'yKT].ttoWmv
iroWS

ol

av

S' civ

to

Odvaro^

e/ccov,

rjv fxev

^7]ixi7]v
ttjv
d
iTOKTeLvr),
tp7]fca
r}V re

/Soprjvroccrc

aTroSeSeKrac

Tocavrr]

deKwv, airorivei

l^LV

av

163

rdfjivovcra
l')(6v'^
Trape^ec

avrov

avr

EGYPT.

OF

vTracpeo/juevoL ra reKva
al he arepccrKOfjbevac
hrj diriKveovTai irapa

/crelvavre^;fievroL

/creivovac,
tmv

dXkoyv

reKvcov,

he

ov

Trareovrac

ovrco
eTrtOv/jbeovcrac,

(piXoreKVOVyap to Orjplov.
alehe ycvofievrji; 6eca Trprjj/jiaTa /caTaXafi/Sdvei
tov^
7rvpKai7](i
tmv
\ovpov^' ol fjuev yap KlyvirTioihcaaTdvTe"; "j)v\a/cd";
e^ovai
d/xeX^cravTe";
a^evvvvac to /caco/juevov, ol he aleXovpoc
aleXovpcov,
hcahvovTe^
TO

epaeva^'

iodWovTac
tov'^
dvOpcoirovf;
v7rep6p(0(T/covTe";

/cal
Tdora

TTvp.

tov"^

he

ytvofjueva

irevdea

h^
KaTa\aiJLJ3dveL. ev OTeoicn
ol "vocKeovTe";
diTo Tov
avTO/jidTov,
fiovva";,

Trap*OTeoccrt

aTrdyovTai he

OLKLOcac

av

7rdvTe"; ^upcovTac
ra?
ttclv

kvcov,

to

OdTTTovcn

iroXeu

e/cacTTOL

ol

reft)

dXcoTre/ccov

eovTa"^

ruling class

It

such
As

ibises

cTTravias;

are

gravely

how
noted

found

at

Thebes

hawks,
and

and

other

not
plain that they were
carried to particular
Herodotos
cities,as
states.
Dogs and jackals,as guardians
of Hades, were
sacred to Anub
(Anubis).
^
in Upper
Hermopolis Magna was

is

pbuyaXd^;fcal
he i^i,";
69
^^pfxeco

/cal

Xvkov^

tol'9

OdirTovcn

T0L7]he.' tol'9

Tjj

av

68
')(eifxepi(o-

Egyptian Sesunnu, modern


Hermopolis Parva, Egyptis
Tema-en-Hor,
cityof Horus,
"

"

"

ian

"

Damanhur,

now

The

sacred

to

Bears

south

of Alex-

(Egyptian Mb)

was

Avas

do

identified with

Hermes,

to Horus.

not, and

did

not

(as the

show) exist in Egypt. Heperhaps thinking of hyaenas.


Herodotos
stole his descriptionof

monuments

rodotos
''

the

Thoth, the god of literature,

the hawk
^

to

ibis

the Greeks

whom
as

ov

old

Egypt,

andria.

story.
of cats,

^e

Eshmunen.

ear.

understand

have

the mummies

places,it

'

could

tcl'^

/xe^ova"^avTov

long plaited

the

is difficult to

Herodotos
down

had

fell behind

ra?

itoXlv,

evpedecocTL
/ceLfievoc.
Tcbv
he /cpoKoheiXcov
eVrl
(pvac'^
the

67

^"

ct)9
LepfjonOrjKrjcrc.

ev

OdiTTovTaL.
I'^vevTol

^ovtovv
69
ip7]Ka(; dirdyovG-L
he dpKT0V";"Ovaa";
TToXcv.
Ta.9

to

fce(f"a\yv.

Trjv

ev

T0U9

lock which

6(f"pva";

ol

TTJcTiKval

TToWft)

(TOifjua Ka\

ev

ecovTcjv

avTcd^

av

AlyviTTtou";
diroddvy
aleXovpo"^
tov^;

aleXovpoid7rodavovTe"; e? lepa^;cTTeya^;, evOa


he Kvva"^
IBov^dcrTLiroXec
ra?
Tapt'^evOevTe'^,

OdiTTOvTaL

TYJ

S'

pueydXa

e?

was

HEKODOTOS.

164

io-rc.
XijuLvalou

/cat

ovSev,^iov Se Terpdirovv
yepcratov

/jL7]va"; Te"Taepa"; iaOlec

TCLTOV^

TL/crec

[book

/juev yap

ev

(pa

Kal

yea

eKXeirei, Kal

^'rjpoy,
Scarpi^ec
rrjv Se vvKTa
ev
hrjicTTi
vScopT779
T(p TTorafio)' OepjJbOTepov
yap
Kal tt}? Spocrov. irdvTCDV Be
XSjxevOvtjtmv
rjfie7,"^
iXa'^iaTOVjJueyLCTTov yiveTai'
jjuev yap
'^rjvecov
TO

TToWov

Trj"; rjfjiepri^;

ev

tm

to

fie^ova

Kal

TLKTec,

Se
av^avo/JLevo^;
^^

^X^^

"TC.

Kal

yiveTau

Xoyov

KaTa

ttoWo)

(oou

yiveTat,

eTTTaKalheKa

69

tov

e(puore. ovSe

tov

e^

tovto

ov

Xoyov

KaTa

TTriyea"^ Kal fie^cov


6hovTa"^ Se jxeyaXov^ Kal

o(f)da\iuLov"i
fjbev vc^,

'^av\to8ovTa";
ovK
Orjplcov

wa

veoaao^

al9pLr}";

re

tmv

tcl

iraaav

yXcocraav Se

crwjJbaTo^.

Ktvel

ttjv

yvddov,

koltw

/jlovvov

Kal

dXXa

OypicovTrjv dvco yvdOov irpocrdyeL


Trj KdTco.^ ep^et
Kal 6vv'^a"^
Kal
SepfiaXeinScoTov
dpprjKTOVeirl
KapTepov^
Se
Se ttJ alOplrj
vSaTt,
vcoTov.
TV(f)X6v
o^vSepKecFTaTov.

TOVTO

[Jbovvov

Se
TOV

ev

Sr] Siv

aTe

vSaTC

ev

ev

SlacTav

Trooeop^evov,

to

evSoOev

aTO/xa

(f)opel

Kal Orjpla
(pevyet
jJuecTTov jBSeXXewv.'^ tcl p^ev Sr)dXXa
opvea
ol eVrl are
avTov'
7rpb";
co^eXeop.ev(p
p.iv, 0 Se Tpo'^iXo^elprjvacov
eiredv yap
Kal
vSaTo"; 6 KpOKoSeiXo^;
tov
e?
Tr]v yrjv eK^fj eK
Trdv

eireiTa

evOavTa

69

(^"^^^7"^/^ tovto

x^^V

Tpo'^oXo^;eaSwcov

Se

/SSeXXai^'

Tpo^iXov.

Tolai

SeiXoL, Tolcrt Se

077/3a9 Kal

to

69

Sr)

dXX

ov,

KaTairlveL

avTOv

aTOfia

r^SeTauKal
dxpeXeop^evo^;
p^ev

^e"pvpov),

iroielv 7rpo"; tov

eiriirav

")?

crlveTac

ovSev

KlyvTTTicovlepolelcrt

tmv

iroXefjUiov^;
irepieirovcn'

aTe

ol

Td"^
tov

KpoKo-

ol Se

irepi

Kal

KdpTa TjyrjvTao
Mo/^to9 Xop^vrjvouKeovTe^
rrdvTwv
Se
avTov";
lepov"^'
eKdrepotTpe(f)ov(TC
KpoKoSecXov SeSiSayp^evov
elvai '^eiporjOea,
XlOiva
dpTrjp^aTd
xyTcu
Kal '^pvcrea 69
S)Ta evOevTe^; Kal dp.^iSea"^
irepltov"^ ep^irpoare

ttjv

elvai

eK

eva

re

Ta

Kal
Olov^ TToSa'^,
iTovTe'^
ev

Hekatseos

Prxp.

ev.

12, 6).
tion

X.

The

shows

trouble

leprjta, Kal

Trepoe-

KdXXcaTa

the crocodile,
hippopotamus, and
from

SiS6vTe";Kal

^wvTa'^' diroOavovTa'^ Se OdiTTOvcrt Tapi')(evolKeovTe"^


OrjKrjai, ol Se irepl
Lepfjcrt
^^XecpavT
ivrjv iroXiv

fo)9

ovTe";

diroTaKTa

aoTia

to

(Porphyr.

3, p.

466

B ;

inaccuracy of
that

he

verify the

ap.

phoenix
Euseb.

Hermog. ii.
the descriptook

never

statements

the
of his

authority,and casts a strong suspicion


of Egypt,
upon other partsof his account
which
have
been
similarlytaken,
may
without
acknowledgment and verification, from

older writers.

The

crocodile

has

now

disappearedfrom

the Nile north

of the First Cataract.


^

Contrary to fact.
Its lower jaw really moves
wards, though the movement
"

downis difficult

to detect.
^

This

equallyabsurd statement.
This is a pure myth.

is absurd.

An

"^

See ch. 42, note

i.e.

glass.

1.

iaSiovcn

KaX

elK,d^ovTe"^
avroiv
heiKoicn

ev

koX

KarecrrdcrL

toIctl irapa

t) K

iiredv
ypd(f)CjO.

e?

jjueaov

rov

/caraTrlvei' ol he

jLvo/jbevotcrt Kpoico-

he

/O

ttoWol
crcfieayp

Kara

he iirl rod

avro^

^etX-eo?
he

eiraKovaa^;

TVTrrei.

^wvrjv,ivrv^covhe to5
he e^e\Kvcr6fj
e?
yrjVy

rrjv

iiredv

eKKovai.

a^Lcorarr]dinf]SeXedcrrjirepl
vo'^

vmtov

irorajjiov,

0
lerat
KpoKohecXo^;
(pQ)V7](;

vcoTcp

8e

KaXeovrau

e/jiOLye BoKet

wv

^(orjvravrr^v
e'^oyv Se\(j)a/ca

TTora/jLov

T7]^

165

a^Lon
rfjcrcalixaaifjcTL.
cfypai

Travrolat'

dyKLo-rpov,
pberiet
Tov

eoSea

elvat, ravrrjv

"yr)(TiO'^

EGYPT.

Se "Iwz^e?onvoyiacTav^
KpoKoheCkov;
'^dfiyfrac
ra

rolcn

OF

r^'yeofJievoL i"pov"; elvai.

ovk

avTov"^

aXXa
KpoKoheCkoi

ov

LAND

THE

TL]

he
TovTo
o(j)6a\/Jiov(;'

S)v eirXaae
avrov
tov"^
Orjpevrr]'^
TrrjXtpKar
rd Xocird '^ecpovTac,
7roLr)aa"^ Kdpra evirereco^;

jjurj7roL7]cra"^ he

crvv

dirdyrccv

TrpcoTov

Ol

rovro

ttovm.

JJ air pTj/jblrr}
TTordfjiLOi
lepol71
vojjlm /juev rS
he irapeTolcTL he dWoicn
ovk
AlyuTrriotcrt
lepoL (J)v"tlv
eiaiy
oifkal
'^ovrat
lhe7j";
roirjvhe'rerpdwovv ecrri, hi'^rfKov,
^oo"^,
^
'^av\c6hovTa"i cj^acvov,
atfjiov, \o(^tr]v
ovprjv lttttov
e'^ov Ilttttov,^
he

Ilttttoool

ocrov
(j)cov7jv,^
/ubeya6o^

KoX
avTov

h^

ovTco

e^
VlvovTai

a/covTta

lepovelvac
elvat, Kal

In

ira'^v

he

Mcrre

avov

^vcrrdTrooelrat

yevofievov

ev
evvhpie";

koI

rS

72
ijyrjvrat
lepd";

ra?

iroTa/mtp,

I'^Ovcov KaXeopuevov XeiTchcoTov


^elXov
he tovtov";
tov
lepov"^
cjyaorl
rrjv ey^eXvv,^
he /cat dWo"; 73
eaTt
')(7)vd\d)7reKa";.'^
opvtOcovTom

koX
tcov

iepo";, tS

old

ean

avrov.

he
vojjLt^ovcTO

elvai.

opvi"^

to
l3ov"^6 /jLeyc(TTO"^'^
hepfia8*

re

kol

ovvojjba

Egyptian

the

tmv

rov

(polvt^.'iyo) fiev

crocodile

trilateral at Mie

was

elhov

ovk

pnv

end, is

unlike

el fjurj

that of

em-suh

horse,
(modern Arabic, timsahh),em-suh
"that
which
from
the
(is)
meaning
eg^.'''' ^ It does
Tlie lonians

the

are

of Psammetikhos
''

In

the

Greek

mercenaries

I.

inhabited

hippopotamus

j^ jg faj. largerthan

ing sixteen

of the

time

Old

Empire

the

the

Delta,

as

Sakkarah.

in

In the time
was

St. John

Egypt.
ing oppositeto
years
north
^

Pliny {N. H.
in Upper

describes

Abu-Simbel

it

as

exist-

fortyor fifty

not
ago, but it is now
of the Third Cataract.

It is not

small

of

still found

met

with

Herodotos

If

To

these

no

mane,

and

the

tail,nearly

otters,he

means

mistake, as
Egypt.
a

should

otters

be

do

added

has

not

exist

the

oxy-

rhinchus,
^

The
Nile-goose was
Seb, the earth-god,but

Ra,

The
was

period of

the
was

hcnnu, ''Phoenix,"

Avorshippedat

is the khol

toes.

It has

cloven-footed,but has four

the ox, averag-

eighteenfeet long.
means
whips ("kur-

bashes.")
made

8), it

or

Herodotos

from
a
picture in the tomb of
appears
Ti (an official of the fifth dynasty) at

xxviii.

neigh.

not

or

500

khul

symbol
not
or

bird

Heliopolis.

of Job. xxix. 18.

years

of

sacred,
of
It

The

represents the 1500

HERODOTOS.

166

koI
"ypa(f)fj'

ocrov

aXiOTroXtTac

ct)9

iiredv

ol

TocroaSe
Be

Xeyovcrc, irevTaKocricov'

diroOdvrj o

rd

Be

Be irecov,
eTrLcfyocra
a(f)i,
(f^acrl
(potrdv Se rore
el
Be,
rfj ypac^fj7rapo/jLoto"^,

avrov

fxev

'^pvaofco/jua
TrepirjyrjaLv

rd

Trrepcov

rcov

koX

o/jLotoraro^;

to

rdBe, ifMolfiev
firj'^avdcrOaL
lepovtov 'HX/of
Xeyovre^;. e^ 'Apa/3t^9
opixeofxevov e?

Tnard

Xeyovai

ov

to

TOV
KOfjbi^eLV

'HXfcOf

oaov

Ti

BvvaT0";

re

Be

TOV

efnfkdaaovTa /cat

ovtco.

irpcoTov

tov

t?}? afjLvpv7)"; (pov

diroireiprjOfj, BrjKoCKrjvavTa
ovtco

afxvpvr)

Be

cobu

to

tov

dXkrj efiTrXdaaeivtovto

eveOrjKetov
eyK0i\,rjva";

(pov

OdiTTecv iv

avTo
jxeTdBe ireipdaOat
(fyepeiv,

eaTi

ivTiOevai,

avTO

e?

afJLvpvr)

Be
Ko/Jbi^eiv

lepw'

^opeovTa, eiredv
TraTepa

ev

iraTepa

Tft)

irXdacreiv

TraTepa,

eyKeifievov

Be

ylvecrOaitmvto
einrXdcravTaBe KOfJUi^eiv
l3dpo"^,
pav
'HXlov
eir
to
AlyvTTTov e? tov
tov
lepov, TdoTa piev tovtov
elcrl Be irepl
Sij/Saf;
lepolo"^t69,
dvOpcoircov
opviv Xeyovac Troielv.
ovBapL(t)";
BrjXrjpiove^.o'l pueydOei e6vTe"; apuKpol Bvo /cipea
OdiTTOvai
diroi^ d/cpT]^
(popiovao
t?}? Ke(f)aXrj"^,
tov";
7re(f)VfcoTa
OavovTa^; ev tm
lepS tov Alo^' tovtov
ydp acpea^;tov 6eov (fiacre
TOV

74

ecrri

fidXicrraalero)

rd

fJbeyaOo's.^
tovtov

KaT

'Trarijp.

fcal roLoaBe'

epvOpd' e?

a7rdvL0";

Sr) koI

yap

[book

'jraTpo's

75 elvac

Be yo)po"^ r?}?

^ovtovv
iroXiv
KaTa
^Apafitrj^;
fidXiCTTdKY] K.eipbevo"^, e?
yoapiovrjXOov TrvvOavoocplcov.aTrt/coyLtez^o? Be elBov ocjTea
/jievo"; irepltmv
irTepcoTMV
Kal aKdvOa'^ 7rX7]6ec
d7n^yr]aaa6ai,
6(f)icov
acopolBe
puev dBvvaTa
/cal eXdcrcrove";eTt
rjcravaKavOecov /cal jieydXoiKal viroBeeaTepoc

lepov^.

eaTi

kcli

TToXXol

TOVTcov,

and

500

death

its connection
to the
sun.

said

with

association

Book

of

after

purification
;

Phoenix

is due

latter with
the

Dead

the
it is

the

"The

is Osiris ; in Helioverifier of things visible and

an

Had

Bennu

is his body
it is an
eternity."
Herodotos
actuallyseen it
...

he would

monuments,

that it
^

the

of the

The

was

not

eaglebut

an

have
a

age

upon
known

heron.

horned

viper was
extremely venomous.
The equallypoisonous asp, however, was
sacred
to Khnum,
and was
the symbol of
the goddess Ranno.
not

cerastes

sacred, and

or

is

It is difficult to believe

that

to

Be

eaTt

In

polis the

the

the soul

in search of

invisible
and

Be rjcravovtol.

requiredfor

years

to wander

tovto

Herod-

'^(hpo^ovto^,

otos

actuallyvisited

He

seems

the

ev

Tcp

al

spot he describes,

have

attempted to give
local
probabilityand
colouring to a
traveller's tale he had heard
by telling
it in the first person.
Neither
Tep nor
Pi-Uto
in Upper Egypt (see ch. 59, note
9) were
oppositeArabia, unless by the
latter

to

Herodotos

side of the

Nile.

means

The

the

Arabian

winged serpents
belong to mythical zoology, and were
perhaps suggested by the monumental
bird's wings and
human
snakes
with
legs. The gorge reminds us of the valley of the roc in the Arabian
Nights.
Herodotos
can
hardly have believed that
entrance
into Egypt
there was
only one
for winged creatures.
the
east
from
See

iii. 107.

OF

LAND

THE

II.]

roLooSe
KaraKe'^varai,
TreSlov /iieya' ro Be irehlov tovto
cLKavOai

Xoyo^; Be iarl
7r"T6a6aL

iir

rS

afia

/cal

Karafcreivecv.

avvdiTTeL
iTTepcoTov^

t/3c";
ra?

rrj^;p^cop?;?

ov

If^tv Scd

rrjv

167

icr^oXy ef

rt?,

8e

AlyvTrrov,Ta";

icr^oXrjv ravrrj^;

T7]v

eapu

EGYPT.

opecov

aretvoiv

e?

Trehiw,
Al"yv7rTL(p
e/c
ttJ? "Apa/BiTjf;
6(j)L^
diravTCtiaa^
e?
opvtOa^
rS

to

tovto

dKXa
6(f)C";
TeTupbrjaOai

tov^

irapievaL

epyov

Be /cal
XeyovcFi ^Apd^coc/ji"yd\co";
7rpo"^ AlyvTrTLcovo/jboXoyeovcrt

AlyvTTTooLBed

TdoTa

Tt/jidvTa?

elBo"^ Be

6pvi6a^ TavTa"^.

tfBio^ToBe' jJueXaiva BeLVM"; irdcra, a/ceXea

Trj^ 76

Be

(popelyepavov,
ocrov
fJudXtcTTa
ybeyado"^
/cpe^. twv
e? Ta
eir[ypv7rov,
tcjv
7]BeIBer),
6"pc";
fiev Bt]jjbeXaivewvtmv
irpo^; Tov"i
/jLa'^o/uievecov
B^ ev TToal jjidXXov elXeo/juevecop
Tolat
dvdpcoiToicn(Bi^alyap Brj
elai i/3ce(i)
/cal ttjv Betprjv
irdaav, XevKij
'yjriXi]
/cecjyaXrjp
ttjv
Kal tov
tmv
TrXrjpKe(^aXrj"^
TTTepolcn
iTTepvycov
av^evo'^ kol dKpecov
irdvTa
Kal TOV
Be
elirov
(rdoTa
Ta
eaTi
jjueXaivd
d/cpov
TTvyaiov
Be
Be
fcal irpoacoTTOV
cTKeXea
Betv6o";),
ttj eTeprj. tov
i/ji(j)epr)";
Be ov WTepcoTa
irTiXa
oXrjnrep tcov
cpopel
6"^Lo^7] /jLop(j)r)
vBpcov,
dXXd
Tolai
fidXcaTd ktj e/ii(f"epeaTaTa,
TTJ^ vvKTepiBo^irTepolcrt

fiev

irpocrcoTTov Be

"

dyptcov
elprjaOw.
irepc lepoiv
Br} AlyvTTTLcovot fiev ireplttjv crTreipofievrjv 77
TrdvTcov
AiyviTTOv oLKeovcTL,
eiraaKeovTe^
iJbvrjiJi7]v dv6pco7ro)v
diriKopuqv,
judXiCFTa
XoyccoTaTOi elai jiafcpco tmv
iyco e? Btdireipav
Be ^07/9ToicpBe
avpfMat^ovatTpel^ rj/iepa^;
Bta'^pecovTat.
Tpoircp
eVe^i}?/ji7]vo";e/cdcrTov,
ttjv vyieiriv Kal kXvejjLeTOicn OijpcofMevoL
ToaavTa

jxev

apbaaiy
Totcrt

Be

AvTMV

diro
vopbil^ovTe'^

otltlcov
Tpe(f)ovTcov
elcrl
ylvecrOai.
dvdp(j07roc(JC
puev yap

irdvT(ov

Ai/Sva^;vytrjpecrTaTOt

jjueTa

BoKelv

irdaa^; Ta^;

to)V

vovaov^

Kal dXXco";AlyvTTTLOL

dvOpcoircov

copecov e/noL

tcov

al aypac
ev
Trjcn
/jbeTaXXdacrovcn
yap
al vovcroo
to ten
jjueTa^oXfjai
jubdXocrTa
ylvovTau tcov
dvdpcoiroco'c
Kal By Kal tcov
dXXcov TravTcov
Te
fidXiaTa, dpTo^ayeovcn
(hpecov
Be eK
eKelvoi
TCOV
kvXXtJcttl^;
dpTov^, tov";
oXvpecov iroieovTe"^

elveKev,

ovo/ia^ovat.

"

Of

among
versari.
^

The

Be

ttj

ev

who

Cp.

most

the

KpiOewv ireiroirjixevM Bta^pecovTac


l^OvcovBe tov'^ fiev 7rpo9
')(copridpu'TreXoc.^
eK

go
use

ov

to and

of the

fro
Lat.

for
givesa varietyof prescriptions

treatment,

which

of
scriptions

Upper

marshes
^

those

men."

ov

0iV(p

elcrl
(T(f)C

ydp

otl

Egypt,

as

opposed

to

the

of the Delta.

the

sixteenth

largenumber

This

vated

Papyrus Ebcrs, the great medical

of
papyrus
describes a

century
of

B.C.,

and
diseases,

is

read like doctors'

the present
mistake.

their
pre-

day.

Vines

were

culti-

throughout Egypt, especiallyin


the neighbourhood of the Mareotic Lake,
Wine
Memphis, and Thebes.
{erp)was
much
drunk
by the upper classes,the

HERODOTOS.

168

'i]\iovav7]vavT6";

[book

Be

tov";

a)/jLov"; acTeovrac,

opvlOcovhe. tov"; re oprvya^


opviOlwvwfjua cnreovrai,
cr/uLLfcpaTo)V
aWa
baa rj opvuOcov
t) lyOvcov cr(f)L
XoiTrof?
rov^
lepolairoSeSe'^araL,
cr(f)t

koL

fjuevov^;.

rai.

he tJJctlcrvvovaL'pcn

ev

heiiTVov

irepi^epeiavrjp

"yeva)VTaL,

ra

ireTTOirjfjievov, fie/jbi/bLTjfievov69

fxaXtcrTa

79

irlve

Xeyet, "9 tovtov


opecov
rdora
airoOavoav
TotovTO";.^^

yap

jnev

TTOieovai.

irarpiOicrL he '^peco/jievoc vofioicn

aXXov

dWa

TolcTL

rai'
ev

A[vo";, oairep

ecTTL,

^vXlvov

aopco

re

ev

eKacrrco

kol

re

repTreo'
crvfjuroaia

ra

irapa

ovheva

eiriKTOiv-

hr) Ka\ deocrfia


/cal ev J^vTrpw
^oivlfcrj
dolhifjio^;
ecm

eird^id ean

re

airo

eireav

koL "py(p/
ypa(j)fj

koI

crvfjLnTorecjdv

eaeac

cnreov"(j)9ov^

ev

veKpov

*'

Toiv

Ka\

voixLiia,

"best kinds

being those of Mareotis,Anand Koptos, the Tenithylla,Plintliine,


Wine
otic,Sebennytic,and Alexandrian.
is representedin the tombs
of the fourth
mention
dynasty, and the monuments
white wine," the wine of Lower
Egypt,

like the

southern

are

Scotland, he would

of

heard

have

lands

"

wine, and

"fisher's

wines

wine,"

from

sides
be-

imported
Syria.
was
only
by the poorer classes
because
it was
It
cheajierthan wine.
Beer

drunk

called

was

time

heka, and

was

as

of the fourth

old
Two

as

the

kinds

dynasty.
imported from Kati
the
east of Egypt), alcoholic
and
(to
mild, the latter being employed in
medicine.
made
from must,
Spiritswere
and
mention
is made
of spiced wine.
of beer

also

were

cellar of Seti

II. contained

ra

heiKvv"^ he
\7rdvTr)\
rj hiTrrj'^vv,
Trrj'^valov

oaov
re
fjie"ya6o"=;

ra

rj oKoaoi
ey^ojjbeva,'ywp\"^

6ittov"^ koI

evhalfioac
avTOiv,

tolctc

/cau

vqaaa^

Ta";

irpoTapi'^evaavTe^.

ecrn

78

i^ aKjJb7)";
TeTapi')("v-

there

the

air.

same

{Deljm.xiv. p.
a
youth who

naius

Maneros

carried

The
be

went

"first

Ptah.

Egyptian ma-n-hra,
the

words

returned,

of

back

"come

refrain

Osiris.

Linos

is the

the refrain of the


"woe

Greece, where
"

mean,

to

us

Woe,

and

it

Isis

husband,

as

same

"),which

Unu,

me,"

to

which

in

A'CKlvos,
{ai

lament

Phoenician

into

is the

Maneros

for her lost brother

mourns

fetch

legend who
the
water-spirits.
by
away
not
king of Egypt" would

but

Menes,

made

to

for the reapers and never


youths of European

water

Athe-

According to
620), Nymphis

introduced

was

supposed

was

Linos."

Hence

to

the

Linos.
The lament
was
mythical name
1600 jarsof wine.
as
throughout the Semitic world by
sung
^
"With
both paintingand carving." the
"weeping for Tammuz
women,
Many months often elapsed betw^een the
sun
(the old Accadian
-god Dumu-zi,
of
the
removal
"son
and
its
of
embalming
life,"or "only son"), called
corpse
to the
tomb, during which
liturgical adonai, "lord"
(Adonis)in Phoenician,
as

many

"

services
funeral

held

were

feasts

over

w^ere

made.

the mummy
and
The introduction

of the mummy
into the banquet, no
took
doubt,
place at the latter.
^

As

"The

air of Linos"

Herodotos
it is

{seeII xviii. 570).

did not understand

only

the

air that

ian,
Egypt-

(whence

the

the

chief

Phoenician

seat

winter

had

Phoenicia, and

in

the

High-

tusk

of

introduction

of

; and

Egyptian
the

of

the

three

Adonis, slain by the

days'mourning

travelled

and
Heb-

(Ezek. viii. 14), Attys in Phrj^gia


in
and
Bithynia, and
Lydia, Bormos
Hylas in Mysia. By bios (Gebal) was

boar's

be

in

rcAV

referringto. The plaintivemelody of


most
primitivepeoples is the same, and

can

Thoas

Greek

Tlieias)in Assyrian, Tammuz

for

Herodotos

he

Duzu

after

influence

the
into

consequent identifi-

no

HERODOTOS.

K0T6

rjv
83

[book

irapairXricnovtovtm

vcrrepov

Kara

yevTjrac,

^ov(TLairojBr^aeaOaL?
/jbavrcKr) Se avTolcri
TTCDV
fiev ovSevl TrpoaKelrai,
rj Te^vrf, rcov

wSe

tojvto

vofii-

StaKelrat.

Se Oewv

avOpoi-

fiere^eTepoccn'

^Upa/cXeo^fiavrrjLov avroOt icrrl koL ^AttoWcovo^; koI


/cat "A^609 fcal Aio?, koI
Kol
^A67}vai7)(;
ApTe/jLi8o";
ye jJuaXicrTa
Kol

yap

to

6"ttL
84

irdvTcov

Tifjifj
ayovrai

ev

ov

al

jJuevTOL

elcTL.
8id(j)opo[
eKacTTO^

vovaov

be

01
Xrj"^,

iTjrpo^;

eorri

oe

rcov

Kara

aWa

a(f)thehacrrai'

ifXeovcov.

ov

iroXeo

ecrracTi,

8'

nravra

KareaTaai,^ol
6(f"0a\/Jicov
Irirpol
oi

ooovTcov,

koX

rayvro

rdSe

Kara
lyrpifcr]

ol fjiev yap

ifKea'

ecTTi

Arjrov^ iv Bouto^

fiavrrjicov,

/mavTrjlaL
crcpLKara

ye

Se

rj

rcop

ol

vrjovv,

IrjrpMV

he

rcov

oe

/jiL7]";

Ke"^a-

acpavecov

VOVGCjdV.

%pr]voihe

85

oIklcdv

i/c rcov
ro

Tj Kal

ro

dva

he rdora
ot

rrjv

rov^;
(paivovcrac

he
erepcoOev
86

rovrcov

ol

rrav

ro

Kar

errXdcraro

mv

Kairetra

irpoacorrov,

avral

ve/cpov

rov

oIklcov

rcov

eK

Kal

elcrl alihe. rolcn av


drroyev7]rai
ra^ai crcj^ecov
fcal
OrjXvyevo^;
avdpcoiro^ Tt9
Xoiyo? fj,
kolI

ev

TrrjXcp
KecfyaXijv

rrjv

oIklolctl Xiirovcrai

rotcrc

rov

rvirrovrai
eTre^coafJievai
arpco^cajJievaL
he (t^lal 7rpocr7]Kov(Tac rraaai,
fxa^ov^,avv

ttoXiv

rvirrovrai
dvhpe^;

rrotrjcrcocTL, ovrco

69

rrjv

Kal ovroi.
erreav
eirel^coafjuevoi
KOfii^ovac. elcrl he
rapi'^evaiv

Kal

ovroc,
re-^vrjv e^^ovcrc ravrrjv.
cr^i KOfiiaOfjveKpo"=;, heiKVVovcru rolcn KOfilcracri
rrapaKal ryv
helyfiaraveKpcov ^vXtva, rfj ypacfyfj
/jue/jLifirj/jbeva
eiT

rovrco

avrcp

icarearau

erredv

elvat
cpacrl

avrecov
airovhaLordrrjv

fiev

errl

ovvofia

roLOvrco

rrpriyixari

ovk

rov

octlov

'

ijvrcvafBovXovral cr^c aKevacrOrjvairov


This

of
See

work

ch.

on

this, the
"^

true

was

Babylonia

rather

note

The

4.

ascribed

anatomy

was

successor

of Menes.
to

more

were

standard
to Atho-

of

the

most

been

"

In the

the deceased

than

twenty different

justified,

famous

oculists

of

the

more

The

diseases.

form

found

supposed to

show

at

Thebes

that the

have

Egyptian

hrj

fiev

had

put

mummies

than

three

According to
expensivesort

show

22

nature

in order

on

kinds

Diod.
cost

"

Osiris,whose

of

"250), the second

Mummies

ol

Wilson,

Obscure

Papyrus Ebers,

time.
^

Kara

avrcov

reap

knew
how
to stop teeth with
This, however, is disputed by

the

of

ro

iroieoiiai

veKpov.

Sir Erasmus

''

eye-disease.One of the prescriptionsgiven is that of a "Semite"


of Gebal, who
to have
been one
seems

kinds

dentists

gold.

77,

According

there

of

Egypt.

hethevreprjv
evreXecrreprjv,
rr]v he rplrrjv

re
viroheecrrepTjv
ravr7j"; Kal
he irvvOdvovrau
evreXecrrdrrjv (j)pdcravre"i

than

he

ovofid^etv,
rrjv

Kvvovcn

that there
of

were

embalming,

(i. 91), the


silver talent
minse

be

to

or

most

(nearly

"90.

For

the

religiousscruplesof Herodotos, see

ch.

3, note

9,

LAND

THE

II.]

171

EGYPT.

ol

airdXkdaaovTat,
6/jio\oy7]cravT6";

eKTroSciiv ficaOS

(TTrovSaLOTara

aySe ra
ol/c7]/jLa(7C

TTOfJievoi iv

OF

he

viroXec-

Trpoira

rapc^evovac.

i^dyovaL rov
iyKecf^akov,
tmv
jJLV^CDTrjpcov
Se ey')(^eovTe"=;
ra
cpapfia/ca'
ra
ovrco
i^dyovre'^,
fiera
fJbev avrov
^
Be \[6(pAWioiTLKcp
nrapd ryv Xairdprjve'f
o^ic irapaa^loravre^
Be avrrjv
koI
etkov TTjV koiXltjv iraaav,
Bc7]9r]a)V
eicKa6r)pavTe";
oXvco "potvc/C7]L(p
Ov/ubirj/jiaat
BirjOeovcn
avTL";
aavre";
rerpL/j^fMevoccrL'
Sia
aihrjpcp

[lev (tkoXlS

eiretra

Kai
vrjBvv(Tfivpyr)^ dfcrjpdrov
Kaai7)"; Kau
TerpL/JijbLev7)"^
Ovco/Jbdrcov,
irXrjv Xofiavcorov,
ifkr^aavre'^avppairTovcn

rrjv

dWcov

Tcov

rdora

oiriadd.

Be

Xirpct) Kpv^avre'^
e^eari,rapc^eveiv.

rapc^evovo-c

iroLrjcravre^;

Be rovrecov
nrXeova^
ov/c
rjfiepai;e^Bo/.t7]KovTa'
at ej^BofirfKovra,
Be TrapeXOoxjc
XovcravTe"^
eireav

rov

ve/cpov

rb aay/jua (TovBovo";/SvaaiVT]^
reXaficocrt
tc3 ko/jL/xi, tS Brjdprl KoWr]"; ra
Kararer/jirj/jLepoLaL,v7ro'^plopre";
epdevrep
Be irapaBe^ajxepoi
iroWd
jjulp ol
'^pecoprat AlyvTmoc.
KaTei\l"7(70VG-L

Trap

avrov

^vXlpop tvitop
dpOpcoTToeiBea,
irotrjcra/jLepoi,
zeal KaraKXTjlaapre^ ovrco
Be icrepypvcri,
top
Orjaavpi^ovac
peKpop,
iroieoPTai
TTpoarJKOPre';

lardpre^
6rifcai(p,

OLKTj/jLari,

"P

^ovXofxepov^
eiredp

ep

eTrXrjcrap rov

pe/cpov

koI

irpOKeifJiepa^

rjfiepa^;,rfj Be

rr)P

KeBplrjP
rrjP

earjicap

peKpov

p7]Bvp /cal

Be

adpKa";
Bepfia(jlovpop

ra'^

ro

jxecra

diro
rr]p

/ceBpovdXei(^aro"^

/coiXirjp,ovre

dpara-

reXevralye^ielaie? tt}?KoiXirf^

irporepop.

d/ma ecovrfjrrjp

i^ayei'

ra

ovre

Ta";

cocrre

Be

ro

rj
ra

Be e'^ec roaavrrjp

airXdy^pa KararerrjKora

XirpopKararrjicei,
Kal

ocrrea.

ra

Probably Ethiopianagate or obsidian,

BvpafiiP

kol

Br] Xeiirerac

eiredp Be rdora

rod

rroirjCTcocn,

(found in a list of
Assyrian sindhu
clothes probably as
old as B.C.
1800),
the
metal
that
the mouths
was
implies
practiceof emimported from India {i.e.
went
balming in Egypt, like circumcision, of the Indus). It was not brought overback to the stone age.
have
been
land, as the initial 5 would
Perhaps it
originated in the natural preservation changed into h in the mouths of Iranians,
in the natrons
soil of
of bodies buried
the Egyptian shenti.
Brugsch compares
the Libyan lakes.
Bijssos, ''line linen," is the Egyptian
^
of soda (Egyptian,hesSubcarbonate
bus.
^
The well or pit in the inmost chammen), from the natron lakes of the Libyan
El Hegs in Upper Egypt.
Desert
and
ber of the tomb.
^
or
K6fx/xt,
"gum," is the Egyptian ^amt.
"Having stopped the clysterfrom
Sinddn
or
"muslin," Hebrew
sddin,
returning." Comp. iii.55.
see

"

vii. 69.

87

Be rr)p eBprjp
e(Tr)6r]i^eXopre";
rrjp ptjBvp,Kara
rb /cXvcr/na
i7riXa/36pre"i
tt}?oirlaco oBov
raptj^evovcn

/jLOPT"";avrop
cTapre"i

mp

rov";

fJiep

uBe.
TroXvreXelrjp"pevyopra";a/cevd^ovcrc

KXvarrjpa"^rrXrjcrcopraLrov

rov^

yupofjuepov,

rrjp

Be

rol'^op. ovrco

7rpo"i

cr/cevd^ovacpeKpov^,

TToXvreXecrrara

ra

TOL"?

opOop

The

use

of stone

instead

of

172

88

HERODOTOS.

d)v eBco/cav

aiT

Se

ovrco

rov

veicpov,

[book

ovSev

rapl^evai^icrrl TjSe,rj

rptTT]

S 17)07]
a avre^;
cr/cevd^eccrvpfialr)

i/SBo/jbTj/covra
rifjLepa"^ /cal

rov^

aaOevearepov^

'^prjjjiacn

icoi\i7]v rapi^evovai

ttjv

eireiTa

irpi^^iiaTevOevre^.
rj

ert

eScoKav

(bv

air

ia"^

aTrocpepecrOac

Se yuvacKa'^
89 Ta";
ov
eireav
tcov
Te\"UT7](70)o-t,
eincpavewvavSpcov,
SlSovcfc rapL'^evetv, ovSe oaau
"V6LB6t";Kapra
av
ecocTL
nrapavTiica

rovSe

ovrco

toIctl
TrapaSoBovcn

ovrco

fyevcovrai,

6lv6K6v,

fJi7]a^i

iva

jvvac^L' \a/ji(f)6rjpac
ydp rcva
he

Kareuirelv

90 'yvvaiico"^,

iireav

aXX
'yvvalfce'^'

it\"ovo"^

\oyov

KOi

rpcTalat rj Terapracat

Se iroieovai
rovro
rapt'^evovac.
ol rapt'^evral
/jLLcrycovrac rfjai

(pacrl
fjbiayojjbevov

rov

3'

09

o/iiore^vov.

rrpoa^drco

ve/cpoy

rj

av

avrcov

Al"yv7rrlcjL"v
rj ^eivcov0fJi0iCD"; viro
avrov

rov

rovrov";

co?

dWa

av

ovheva

ovre

fjbiv ol
'^

ve/cpov

/cal irepLcrrei-

avrov
rapij^evcravra^
ovSe
iv
Otj/ctjctl'
Od'\jraLlepfjcn

/cdWccrra

aXXov

avrov

vtt

dvdyK7] icrrl

iracra

\avra^

91

irorafjuov

/cpo/coBecXov
dpiracrOeX^
rj
ttoXlv
re9v"c6";,
/car
tjv
e^evei'^Ofj,
"paLV7]rac

rcov

ovre

rrpoarjKovrcov

Ne/Xou
avrol
lepel^i
Odirrovai.
'^etpairrd^ovre'^

ifKeov

are

rov

e^ecrrt
'yjravaao
rcov
(j)i\cov,
rj dvOpcoirov

overt
^Wrjvi/coLCTL8e vofJiaioicrL
cf)evy

'^paaOai,ro he avfirrav
elirelv /ji7)B
ol
aXkcov
/jL'}]Bajjia
/iirjSa/jicov
dvOpcoTTCov
vo/xatotcrL.
8e ^"/jl/jLC"
aXXoi
ean
AlyvirrLOiovrco rovro
cfyvXdcTCTOVcn,
jjiev vvv
^
TToXt'; /jueydXrj vo/jlov rov
7roXfc09* ev ravry
%7]^al/coveyyv"^l^er)";
Aavd7]'^lepovrerpdycovov,
rfjiToXei earl ITepcreo?rov
irepc^Se
he irpoirvXa rov
avrov
ra
(f)Oivi/ce'^
lepov XlOivd
rrecpv/cacrt.
hvo ecrrdac XlOiVot
ean
/cdprafJueydXa'eirl he avrotcn
dvSpodvre^
/cal
rovrco
V7j6";
re
fxeydXoi. ev he tc5 irepL^ejSXrujievcp
evt
dyaX/jia iv

The

expensive

sort

of tax

in

district.

to

ivearrj/cerov

avrS

burial

check

was

needless

rather

loss of life

towards

mis
of

the

and Apu by
Khemmis, called Khem
the Egyptians, the modern
Ekhmim,
the Panopolisof the Greeks ; Khem,
was
identified with
who
Amun
was
during
the
the
of
self
in
generation
process
[identified
with
primordialwaters, being
Pan.
Keneh, is more
Neapolis, now
than
This
ninety miles further south.
is
geographicalignorance of Herodotos
another
proof of his not having been
further
The
south
than
the Fayum.
of
Khemfriendlyfeelingof the people
-

natives
made

of Khemmis

to

believe

Kliemmis, he

at
so

have

; and

had

tlirough his

that
does

wnth

who
^

of

an

been

he
not

wishes

never

himself

was

there he could
the

was

stood

his

actuallysay
have

people only
Brugsch sugthat of Horus,

bore the title of ^jer-5e, "son


Statues

be the

Herodotos

he

dragoman.

gests that the shrine

shrine

would

of whom

he been

communicated

the

been the invention

guides,who

enquiries. Though

readers

^e/jb/jilrai

Greeks, like

Perseus,must

of Herodotos's

ol

Hepcreo^;.ovroi

on

Egyptian temple, and


had they done so.
seen

the

of Isis."

propylfea

would

have

Xeyovcrc

OF

LAND

THE

II.]

Uepcrea TToWdfCL^;

rov

7roX\dKL"; Be

fjuev

173

ava

rr^v

lepov,aavSaXcov

rov

eo-co

EGYPT.

fyrjv

re

avrov

"patv6or6ai
a^t
Trecpoprj/jiivov

iiredv ^avfj,evOrjvelv
to
BcTrrj'^v,
/jieyaOo^
Se
TaSe
diraaav
AtyuTTTOv. TaoTa
fjuev Xeyovai, iroteoucro
^^WrjVLKCi TO)
Uepaeo' dyMva yv/juvLKOv TiOelcn Sta Trdo-7]";
deOXa
koX
/cat
'^aiva^
dycovlrj'^
KTiqvea
6'^ovTa, irape^ovTe^
Be /jLco 6 tl (T"pt
jjuovvoiai kcoOe o Uepcrev^;
hepfjuaTa.elpofievov
cCKkcov
6 tl Ke')(copiBaTai
tmv
koL
AlyvTTTLcov
dyodva
iirK^aiveaOai
TiOevTe^,^e^aaav top
TroA-to?
Uepoea i/c ri}? ecovTMV
yvpbViKov
/cal top
Aavaov
Avy fcea iovTa"^ Xeya/xtra*?
top
yap
yeyovevac
iov
evptcFKeaOac

eKTrXcoaac

e?

to

'EXXa8a,

ttjp

Be

aTTo

Kareyepe7]\oyeopTe"^

tovtwp

Be avrop
e?
AcyvirTOP /car
^atpop e? TOP Tiepaea. diriKOjjbepop
olcroPTa
ical
eic Aij^vrjq
EXXT^i^e?Xeyovcn,
alTL7)pTYjP
ttjp Vopyov"i
'

eXOetP

Kai
dpayponpai tov^;
(T(f)"a";
Be pap, aTriKeaOai e? AXyvirTop,
irdpTa^;' e/cjue/jiaOrj/coTa
(Tuyyepea^
irapd Trj"; pb7]Tpo";' dyoipa
TO
tt}? XeyLt/xto?
TreTTva/jiepop
ovpojjia,

Ke(^akrjp,
e^aaap

Be

01

pop^l^ovac ol
avTOLcn

dXXa

ol

p^ep irdpTa

TdoTa

Be

eiriTeXelp.

Btj

icaTvirepOe
Tolai

ep

pafje/cacrTO";

evTeXei'qp

aTap

Trpo";

eiredp

TrXrjprj'^
yeprjTai

tcop
o

eXecn

Tolai

dXXoi

rdBe

aoTLCJp

/cal

7roTap,o"^

'

ireBia

to,

^XX7jpe";,

irep

dXXa
o-(f"c

Ta

puep

/cal
AlyvTTTLoc,

crvpoi/cel Kard

avTCJp

toIctl

KaTOC/crjp^evoc
ol

Kai

ol/ceoPTe";
92
AlyvirTCoc

eXecop

tcop

popLotcTi '^pewpTUb

Kal yvpaiKl

irapa

KeXevaaPTO^

avTov

yvpbPiKop

koI

i^evprjTai.

TreXaylar],
(pveTao

rdoT
/caXeovcn, Xcotop.
Kpipea TroXXd, tcl AlyvirTtoL
iiredp Bpe'^waiavalpovcn
to
e/c puecrov
tov
tt/oo? tjXlop Kal eTretTa
ep

T(p

vBaTL

irTiaapre'^
iroceopTac
e^ avTov
epL"pepe^,
iBcoBtpLrj
OTTTOV^;
irvpL ecTTi Be Kal rj pt^a tov Xcotov tovtov
dpTov";
Kal iyyXvacreteVtet/cect)?,
eop
pbrjXop.
crTpoyyvXop,pueyaOo^ Kara
dXXa
Be
Kal
ep
"(TTC
KpipeapoBocorc
epb"pepea,
yipopuepa
Tcp iroTapiM
KdXvKt
Kal TdoTa, e^ mp
o
e/c
r?}?
irapa^vopiepr]
Kapiro"^ ep dXXj}
tovto)
ep
pl^V^ylv^Tai,KTjplcp
(K^rjKMPIBerjpop^ocoTaTOP'
TpcoKTa
eyylperaiavyyd, TpoayeTai Be Kal d'waXd
ocrop
Te
TTvprjP iXalr]^;

XcoTov, Ty

rdoTa

Kal

pjr)K(jdPi

ava.

eop

rrjp

Be

^v^Xop

three feet in length was


Over
certainly a respectablesize for a "little
^

sandal."
^

were
common
Gymnastic contests
throughout Egypt, though they never
in Greece.
became
as
a religion
^
there
The Nymphi"a lotus,of which

are

two

kinds.

It

was

the

flower

of

eiredp

"

riqp

eireTeiop

Amenti

or

yipopbeprip

Hades,

and

the

chikl

Horus

it. It differs from


sits upon
the lotos
of the Iliad,which
and the
was
trefoil,
lotus

of

the

Odyssey,

which

was

the

jujube,
-^

"In

this

are

"

The

papyrus

seeds, good

many

eat, each of the size of


has

an

olive stone.

to
"

disappearedfrom

174

HERODOTOS.

avacTTrdacocn
aXXo

i/c

eXecov,

tmv

he

TpdirovcTL,

Ti

to

[book

fjuev

ra

oaov
XeXec/uLfievov

koltco

ot
Tpcoyovcrt [Kal ircoXeovo-t].
'^paaOai,ev
'^V /5i^y5Xft)
XPV^'^V

93

ovTco

rpcoyovcrc,

TOV";

eTredv

rfkiov fcal

ol Se

\d(3(ocrL/cat

iovTa";

rat

jJbevTOL

ovKen

ye

ol

he
rjye/jiovLr}'rjyeofjbevai
tQ"v yap

epaeve^'

ol he

avroi,

I'^Ove^.i/c he

he

dvaKdirTovcn

eiro/jievao

iv

Trkripei^yevcovrai
ecovrcov

aWa

eKacrroL.

olov

rjyeov-

elcrl he

tmv

ol

ol

eiroieov

irep

oXiyov^

eTro/jievot.

rfj

OrjXewv yiverai r]

tcov

dyeXrjhoviroieovcn

KaraTrivovcn

ep(7eve";

ol
l'^6ve";

ialr)olarpo^^
"T(^6a";
Oakaacrav'
riykovTaihe ol

Kar
diroppaivovai

oycov

Se

iiredv

r)9eara

"9

ol

7rpo";

fjLoXa yivovTai,Tpe"^o\xevoi

he

iireav

KVLcr/covrai,.
e^ avrov
Oakdacrr),dvaifXooovcn oiruaw

kocXltjv,avaivovcn

aireovrac.

rod
Oopov,al
d7roppaivovTe"^

KOI

irrj^vv

/cdpra ^ovKcovrau
/c\t/3dv(p
Scacf^avh irvi^avre^
d
rro
t6)V i-^Ovwv
^cocro
fjbovvov,

TroTa/xolacov
dyeXaLOL ev jnev roccn
Be iv rfjcrc
Xofipycn rotdSe iroieovcn.
KvtcnceaOai, dyeXrjBov i/CTrXcoovcrc e?
"paeve";

iirl

re

/cat

av

i^eXcocrcrrjv

avov"^

eireira

Se

avrcov

Tive";

avTrj";airoTdfJuvovre^
69

avco

Keyypcov,

Key^pot

ovtol

irepLyuvofJievwv koI /uur)KarairLvofJievcov Key^pcov


ol K av
dXcoo-c iKirXcoovol Tpe^ofjievoL
avTO)v
l'^6ve";
yivovrat.
Te9

69

rcov

OdXaacrav, (palvovrat
rerpL/jL/jLevoo ra

ot S'
Ke(f)aXecov,

av

iiri

dvairXcoovTe^,to,

ottlo-o)

TrdGyovaihe

TdoTa

hid

Tohe'

KaTairXdiovai

i"^ OdXaacrav, Kal

iir

i'^o/jievot
T779

dfidpTOiev
TTJ^ohov
6 N6tXo9,
TTOTa/jiov

Ta

tov

KotXa

Te

irpoyTa

hid

poov.

Trj"^ yea"^

iireav he
Kal

he^id TeTpii^aTai.^
i7r

7ea9

dvairXo)ovTe"^

Kal yjravovTe'i
0)9
iy^pifJUTTOfJievoi
dvTe'^ovTai,

dpicrrepdtcov

tt)^ avTrj^;

ottlitcd

Iva hrj/jlt)
fidXiCTTa,

irXyOveaOac dp'^rjTao

irapdtov

TeX/juaTa Ta

Ta

htrjOeovTOf;
tov
dp^eTaoTTifJurXaaOai

Kal

avTiKa

Te

irXea

dptcrTepd

yiveTaiTdoTa

vhaTo"^ iK

Kal

irapay^prjfjLa
irdvTa.
KoOev
he
oIko"^
avTov"i
I'^dvcov
(T/ubLKpcjv irlfjuTrXaTat
hoKeco
KaTavoelv
tovto.
tov
iyd) /hoc
ylvecrOai,
eTeo^
irpoTepov
TOV

iroTajJiov'

iiredv

6 ^eTXo";, ol l^6ve";
ivTeKovTe^
diroXlirr]
diraXXdcrcrovTaf

vhaTt
djjuaTo3 ia'^dTcp
TOV
TLKa

irdXcv

ypovov

yivovTau

oi

Egypt.

North

it is found

in

iK
vhcop,

iireXOr)to

Second

Cataract
and

Palestine

at

"Red-hot."

Aristotle has

of this statement

The

exposed
{De

gen.

the

absurdity

anim.

iii.5).

male

female
^

Syracuse.
2

to)v

mmv

he

iXvv

iTepLeX0ovTO";

tovtcov

irapav-

ovtol.
i'^6ve"^

of the

only

iiredv

i^;ttjv

(pa

fish

depositthe

fish have

milt

the
deposited

after the
spawai.

myth.
^
The fish were
brought by the canals
fed by the Nile, not by the
which
were
of the water through the soil.
percolation
This

is

K(xl

KoKeovai

TO

yeiXea

tcov

AlyvTrnot klkl,

/lev

/cal

Troraficov

re

EGYPT.

175

oKel^arL he

e^et.
ol/ceovre^idiro

e\ea

ra

/capTTOV,

OF

ovrco
lyOva'^

ireplfi"V Tov"i
ol irepl
AlyviTTLCov
ra

LAND

THE

II.]

'^(^pecovTai 94

rod
crLWc/cuTrpicop

tmv
iroieovai

wSe.

oe

XifivecovaTreipovai

tmv

irapa
aiX-

Ta

iv ^'^WrjcrL
tcl
(pveTac. TaoTa
TCLOTa,
avrofiaTa
\iicv7rpLa
aypia
iv TjjAlyvTTTa)aireipofieva Kapirov
"pep6tttoWop
fjuev SucrcoBea
ol Se
Se' TovTov
iireav avWe^covTao, ol fxev Koy^avTe"s
aTrcTrovcn,
/cal
cLTri'^ovcrt,
"f)pv^avT"";

Kol

diroppeovair

to

^ovTat.

he

ecTTL

irlov

ovSev

koL

avTov

avyKOfJUi-

tc5

eXaiov

rjcrcrovtov

Xv^vcp

Be jBapeav irape'^eTai.
95
Kcovcoiraf;
6B/jir)v
irpo^ Be tov";
7rpoo-7]V"";,
dvco
iaTl fie/jLTj-^avrj/jbiva.
e6vTa"^TaBe cr(f)t
tov"^
d(j)06vou"^
jiev ra

ol/ceovTa^;ol Trvpyoc

eXeMV

TMV

ol yap
KMVM7re"=;
Be
TTeTeaOat.
Tolcn
v'"^ov
aXXa

Trepl

ol/ceovcrtTaBe

re

eccro

clvtI

tmv

Trd"; dvrjp avTMV


d/ji(j)i/3X7jcrTpov
/jLefi7)'^dvriTac.
TaBe
dypevet,^
T?)? yLtez^rjfiepT]^;l'^dv";
T7]V Be

'^pdrao' iv tj} dvairaveTai

avTM

oIol

ovk

avefJUMv
eXea

Ta

dva^aivovre^;

tov";

vvicTa

TM

eKTTjTac,

tmv

viro

KOL/jLeovrac

nrvpyMV

e?
dxpeXeovcn,

kolttj,

to
IcrTrjcn

TreplTavTTjv

KaTevBei.
Be kmvmKal eirecTa
ivBv^; vtt
ol
avTo
dfji(pi/3X7]aTpov
evBrjrj aivBovL, Bid tovtmv
ire^,
Tjv jJiev iv IfiaTCMiveiXc^d/jbevo^i

BdKvovai, Bid Be

ovBe iretpMVTai

Br)TrXold

Be

Ta

Blktvov

tov

iroteo/jieva,

Tr)"^ rj

toIgl
(t^l,
fiopcjyrj
jJiev

dp^7]v,

iarl iic Trjf;


d/cdvOrj^ 96
(f^opTrjyeovo-c,
idTi

Be

Xmtm
K^vprjvaiM

tm

oixoiOTarr]

iaTi.
i/c TavTr]^
d/cdvOrj^KO-^^rdfjuevoi
Bd/cpvov
Tr}"=;
tcojjbfjii
ttXovOtjBovavvTiOelcn
^vXa oaov
Biinj'^ea
vavTTTjyeofjievoL
Kal
TOLovBe.
7rvKvov(;
iTeplyofi(j)ov";
TpoiTov
/jiaKpov"; Trepceipovac
iiredv
Be
vavTrrjyrjcrMVTai,
tovtm
^vXa'
BiTrrj'^ea
TpOTTM

TO

mv

re

Ta

tm

^vyd i'TTLTToXr)';
TeivovaL
ecTMOev
Be

ev

Be

ra?

dvd

iv
dpfjiovla";
mv

/cal

TTOteovTai,

dfcavOiVM
fJbev

'^peMVTai,
TOV

avTMv,

laTiOidi

iroTajjiov

ov

ovBev

'^peMVTac

iird/CTMorav Trj ^v^Xm.

Bid Trj(;
Tpoino^

tovto

Be

vofjuevcn

Be

Bvvarai

TrijBdXiov

Bia^vverai.
rd

/Sv/SXivoiai. rdoTa
irXelv, rjv

fir]

Icttm Be
irXola

Xa/jb7rpo";
az^e/AO?

SBe.
eVe^T;,i/c yea"^ Be TrapeX/ceTai. /card poov Be /cofii^eTai
i/c /jivpL/C7]";
ecTTi
/caXdfiMV,
TreTTOiVfievr] Ovpr],
/caTeppafJLfJievr]piirei

"^

castor-oil

The

small
plant (Palma Christi), velloiisly
and
the hasmosquitoes.

Nubian

kets

sell to travellers

they

lent.

In the

called tekem

are

still redo-

Egyptian texts the kiki is


(Revilloutin Lepsius'sZeit-

schrift,1879, p. 92).
^

The

meshes

if it

kept

out

damsels

of which

must
j"shing-net

The

the Nile
^

"

stitched
have

had

mar-

reeds."

modern
boats
raft

sont
are

or

acacia,of which

still made,

made

together

of
with

tamarisk, and
a
wattling of

176

HERODOTOS.

\i6o^ rerpriiievo^

Kol

hirakavTo^

[book

fxaXLcrrdktj araO/xop.

koXw
6vp7]v hehejjiev7]v
8e \iOov
aWco
top
iirLcjyepecrOac,
rrjv

Tov

rod
e/LiTrpocrOe

fiev

ifiTTLTnovTO';
^wpel T"x^eaj9

poov

Sr]ovvo/ndian

yap

Kokcp oircaOe.

irXoloicn

roccrc

eX/cec

koi

tovtmv

airiei

irkoiov

Sr)Ovprj
/Sdptv (rovro

rj /juev

rrjv

tovtolctc),o Se \l6o^

ical icov ev
^vacrS KanOvvei
tov
eVeX/co/^ez^o?
iroWa,
Kai
dyei evia
a"pLra irXola rdora TrXrjOei

oiriaOe

irkoov.

ecrrc

Se

7roWd"; ycXcdBa';

raXdvTcov.
'ETreaz^

97

8e

iireXOrjo

(paivovrat
vTrepe^ovaac,
7T0VT(p

TO,

vrjaoLCTL'

NetXo?

TroXte? fiovvac
Trjcn iv T(o Klyaicp
ijiKpepelf;

T7)v

jbLoktcrraktj

t^9 AlyvirrovireXayo^^yiveratf

aWa

fJbev yap

at

'^oopTjv,

al he 7ro\ie"i fiovvat

eiredv tovto
iropOfjLevovTau
mv,
vTrepe^ovaL.
rd pelOpa tov
Sod fieaov
ovKert
Kara
yevTjrat,
iroTafjuov dWd
ireZlov.
dvaifkcaovTi
e/c l"^avKpdTLo"^
TOV
M^ejbL(f)LV
e? fiev ye
irap
Be
ovS*
dWd
avTd"=; Td"; irvpafjiiha'^
ttXoo?* ecrTC
o
ovto^;,
yiveTai

irapd

AeXra

o^v TOV
^avtcpaTLV diro
TO

98

ttoXlv
irapd "Kep/cdcrcopov

Kal
OaXdcrcrrjq

"AvOvWdv

y^ec; KaT

fcal

"

l^apco^ov Std

e?

ireBlov

he

irXewv

Kal Tyv ^Ap'^dvSpov


/caXeofievrjv.
*
iovaa
7ro\i"; 69 VTroBTJ/iaTa
Xoylfxr]

iroXiv

re

Se rj jxev "AvOuXka
alel
SlBoTat tov
i^alpeTO'^
TOVTecov

^aaCKevovTO'^ AlyvTTTOV Trj yvvaiKl

Se ytveTat
he
ecrTC
i^ baov vtto
Ylepcrrjai
AcyvTrTo^;),
tj
Aavaov
yafi^pov
ovvo/xa
eTeprj TroXt? So/cei fioi to
e'^etv diro tov
^Olov tov
TOV
^Ap'^dvBpov
^A'^aiov'/caXetTao yap Sr]^Ap'^dvSpov

(tovto

7roXt9.

etT] 3' dv

yVTTTlOV

TO

Ta

8e

Two

The

of the

read

Delta

fallen out
These

westward

Be

ovk

to
not
"

instead
mean,

tl

of ovbL
"whereas

this,but

by

the

6 iojdus appears

to

of the

towns

must

Kanopic

with

"Son

Pausanias

Al-

have
branch

stood
of the

Revenues
keep her in shoes."
of towns
were
given to the Persian queens
as
pin-money (Xenoph. Anah. i, 4, 9).
So three cities were
given to Themistokles
to provide him
by Artaxerxes

and

meat

(Corn.Nep.

10).
of

Phthios,

makes

him

son

of Akhseos."
of Akhaeos.

son

"

Enquiries." As we
"judgment" of Herodotos

have

seen,

is not

the

always

to be commended.
^

"To

ye

Kal Trj(;eyLt^9
o'^to'^.

bread, wine,

of the text.

two

Kal avTolcrc

Vit. Them.

Nile.
*

ov

^acrCkevaavTa AlyvirTov ol lepel"^


eXeyov

TTpMTov

seems

(usnal) Avay is

apex
have
^

MSS.

passage

the

"Ap'^avhpo^;,fjuevTOi

Kal yvcofXTj Kal laTopiT]TdoTa


ifir}
re
o'yjn'^
diro TovSe AlyviTTiov^ep'^ofjuatX070U9 epecov

TrpocreaTat

tjkovov

Toz^ Mtz^o.

Tt9

tovtov

Xeyovad icTTC,to
KaTa

aXXo9

ovvojxa.

Me^^f.^xev

99

Kal

("the
eternal ") was
or
originally
encluriiig"
king of This (see Appendix I. ) The
of
great dyke of Kokheikhe, by means
See

ch,

4,

3.

note

Menes

"

which
which

he
to

obtained
build

the

the

embankment

capitalof his

on

ncAV

178

HERODOTOS.

AlyvTrnoL /3acn\"vovTd acfiecov


anTeKreivav,

Tov
(peS,'^

3e

Te9

eKelvrjairehocrav

ovTw

otK7]/jLa
viroyeov
7r"pi/jir}Ke";

tcatvovv

Icmav,

Sl avXcovo'^

jjbeyoKov.

TroirjcrafievTjv yap

Xoyay, vo(p 8e aWa

rco

ifkeov, 6fC(o";
arc/bLcopTjro'^yevrjrai.

TavTr]";

fxev irepi

Be aXkwv

tmv

/jlcv

jjurf^avarod

/JbaXco-ra
fjueratTLOV^;

Trora/jibv

tov

ekeyov,

Tocravra

e?
i^epyaaro,pl-^ai

tovto

/jllv, co?

avT7]v

rifjicopeovaav

Se iirelvat
Satvv/jLevoLo-L

iroWov";
"povovfjSei,
KpvTTTOV

airoKreivav-

tovtw
/SaacXTjirjv,

Si jjulvAlyvirTioovrov^

/cdXeaacrav

irXrjvore
101

rrjv

hokw.
AlyuTTTLCovhiac^OetpaL

TToWou?

crOac

[book

OLfcrj/jtaairohov

/SaatXecov ov

yap

Kal ovSev elvai Xa/jL7rp6T7jTo"


ciTTohe^iv
he airoBe^aaOaL
avTMV
irXrjV 6V0"; tov
Motpto?* tovtov
icr'^aTov
Ta
^licjialcTTOV
avefiov
/jbVTj/jLocrvvatov
irpo^ jSopeTjv
TeTpa/jL/jueva
eVrl
(TTaStcov
ocrcov
re
irpoirvXaia,^
Xijjbvrjv
opv^ai,t?}?r] irepioho^
iv avTrj olKohofXTjaai,
StjXcoctcd,
tmv
re
tov
7rvpajjLLBa";
vaTepov
fjLeyddeo^;
i'mp.vrjaofjLaL.
tovtov
fiev
irepc ojjlov avTjj Tjj Xl/jLvr}
Be dXXcov ovSeva ovSev.
tmv
TOcravTa
dirohe^acrOai,

eXeyov ovhefilavepycov

a)v
tovtov^;
Uapajnetyfrdfjievof;

102

^aatXeo^,

tc3

ovvofxa

eirl

tov

yevojxevov

fivy/jLrjv Trocijcro/jLa

2^eao)aTpi";,'

tovtov

rjv

tovtoigl

lepel^
6p/j.7]6evTa
fjuaicpolai
TrpcoTOV p,ev TrXoiocat
ddXaaaav
KoXiTOV
TOV
TOV";
^Apa^iov
irapdttjv ^}Lpv6pr]v
KaTOi/cr]irXeovTd
diTLKecrOai
e9
e?
[mlv irpoaco
fievov^i KaTaaTpeipecrOaL,
Be
OdXaaaav
oTr/cro)
ovKeTC
co?
TrXwTrjV vtto
^pa'^ecov,evOevTev
diriKeTO 69 KlyviTTOv, KaTa
tmv
lepecovttjv (pdTiv,(TTpaTcrjv
eXeyov ol

TOV

etc

Turin

Papyrus, however,

Nofer-ka, Nefrus,
^

and

has

after

Zaf-em-saf, called

Merenra

Menthe-

souphisby Manetho, accordingto


he reignedonly one
year.
^

the

If

may

monuments,
of the

true
to

we

her

Ra-ab.

successors

L, the founder

Amen-em-hat

down
of the

dynasty. But the earlier kings


of this latter dynasty were
great warriors
and
builders,which looks as if Moeris
twelfth

were

intended

to

be

did

Amen-em-hat

See ch.

This

the

Memphite

I.,

read

to them.

that
allow

not

the

in

rather

neighthan

of

Thebes.
^

Ramses

II. of the nineteenth


called

popularly
Greek

Sesostris.

terval

of

sand

these,"

there

As

II.,

the
in-

an

was

and

one

thou-

two

Amen-em-hat

between

iirl

III.
"after

tovtolcl,

taken

be

must

dynasty,

Sestura, whence

between

years
Ramses

of Ramses

was

idea

priestswould

Mceris, too, was


of Memphis

stood

what

the

Lake

who, however,
lake and its pyramids. Perhaps, howthe
Memphite priests took no
ever,
heed
of the gloriesthat were
for
won
Thebes, and the buildingsthat adorned
a rival city. Or, more
probably,Herodotos and his interpreter
only half underconstruct

of the

bourhood

and

not

5.

13, note

is in favour

that any kings could be illustrious who


had neglectedtheir own
cityand temple.

whom

the silence of
argue from
this would
be perfectly
of Neitakrit

''

in

wide

sense.
^

The

coast

For

war

Seti

of

I., the

II., against the

Ramses

of Somala

II.,see

father
on

to be referred

seems

the real character

Punt

and

App.

I.

of
the
to.

militaryfeats

TToWrjv

Tcov

OF

LAND

THE

II.]

EGYPT.

179

XajBoov rjXavve Sea rij? rjireipoVy

oreoLcrc
ifjbTTohoiv
fcaTa(7Tpe(f)6/ji"vo";.
fjuev

to

akKifjiOLcn

avrcov

vvv

Setz^co?^\iyoiJbkvoL(Ti
irepltt}?

kveTv^yave koX

e6vo"i

irav

rovekevOeplr}'^,

Sta
Totcn
jjuev crrrfKa^ ivlaTrj69 ra?
'y^copa'^; ypa/n/jLaToyv \6"yov(Ta"^
Kol T^9 TTCLTpT]^,KOI
T"
ft)? Bvvd/jL"L
TO
6C0VT0V
TjjicOVTOV
OVVO/Jba
Be afia'^TjTl
kol
evTTeTe(o"^
Trapeka^e
fcaTecTTpe-y^aTO
a^6a"^'oTecov
Be

TavTa
ev
crTrfKydiKaTa
Tjjcrc
eveypacfie
koI BtjkoI alSola
Tolac
eOveccrv yevofievoicn,
KOL
tmv
avBp7]L0icn
ryvvaiKb*;
BrjXa^ovXofievo^ Troielv co? ecrjcrav avdkTrpocTeveypacpe,
103
Be ttoUcov Bte^ycettjv yjirecpov, e? b i/c t?)? Acnr)";
KcSe'i. TCLOTa
koX tov";
BLa^a"; tov^; re %icv6a";KaTe(TTpe^\raTO
69
TTjv ^vp(07rr)v

Tro\i,a"^,tovtolctl

Ta"=;

airiKecrOai
Be fioi BoKel kol
TrpocrcoTaTa
0
KlyviTTLo^ (TTpaTo^i' iv fjuev yap Ty tovtcov
X^PV (j^^^vovTac
evOevTev
al cTTrfKai,^
aTaOelaat
Be irpoawTepco tovtcov
to
ovKeTO.

e'9 tovtov";
SprjiKa";.'^

Be

oirLaco
eTTcaTpe'^aq

ovK

evOevTev

TO

e^ft)

kol

rjue,

iycveToenrl

eireiTe

aTpe/ceco^;

elireiv

t^? ecovTov
Zte(7(oaTpi";a7roBa(jd/jLevo"s
KaTeXcTre

avTov

ttj^

^aai

/Sao-iXev^;

avTO";

ecTe

TroTa/nS,

Brj

crTpaTcrj";
fjbopiov ocrov

tcov
etTe
X^P^'^olKr)Topa";,

Tive"^

aTpaTccoTecov

^acrtv

ire pi
dx0ea9evTe";
/caTep^etvav.
TTOTa/iov
ol
"Ovt"";
(j)aivovTao
KoX^ot KlyvirTLOi,voiqcra'^ Be 104
fiev
yap
aXkcov
(j)povTiBc
ai)To";
ft)9 Be p,oc ev
\eyco.
rj ciKOvcra'^
iTpoTepov
Kal pboXKov ol KoX^ot i/xep^veaTO
iyeveTo,elpop^ijv
dp.(f"oTepov";,
B' ec^aaav
Alyv7rTt(ov
KoX^coz^*vof-tl^ecv
7] ol AlyvTTTtooTMV
01 AlyvTTTLOtTrj^i XecrcoaTpLOf;
KoXp^oL'9.
G-TpaTCr]"; elvac tov';
Be
elKaaa
Kal
Kal
elai
TjjBe
avTo";
otl
p.e\dyxpoe";
ovKoTpiX'^^'

TJJ irXavr)

avTov

TMV

Tablets

three

cut

ancient

or

was

the second
"^

case

at

"The

north

to

by

the

of the

(theancient
of

Ramses

who

shown

One

to

inscriptionas
had

Nahr

Lykos),

Beyriit.

by

the

side of the

Ra, and the third

same

The

like
pillars,

mouth

dedicated

of those

brave."

the

River

Dog

miles

eight

than

in the rock

road

el-Kelb

these

rather

of

Ptah,

to Amun.
in

the

themselves

descriptionof the tablets


wholly imaginary.
^
No
Egyptian sovereign ever
penetrated into Europe, or
heard
the
ever
of Skythians and Thrakians.
name
^
This
gratuitousfalsehood does not
raise our
of
opinion of the credibility
Herodotos
he
in regard to objectswhich
might have seen.

is

The

Phasis

Egyptians

unknown

was

both

to

and

Assyrians.
^ We
this that the
from
gather
may
the
of
story
Egyptian colony in Kolkhis
had
been
suggested to the guides of
Herodotos
by his ''leading"questions,
^
The Egyptians are not black skinned,
have
nor
they woolly hair. This warns
as
an
us
against accepting Herodotos
the
As
anthropological
authority.
Egyptians

shaved, he

tunityof
to have

had

made

the

woolly
numerous

Kaukasos

seems

upon their
It is equally difficult to
Kolkhians

haired.
races

are

oppor-

hair,but

his observations

slaves.
negro
believe that the
and

much

not

observingtheir

so.

were

black

of
Certainly
the
inhabiting
none

now

But

the black

skin

of

HERODOTOS.

180

Kol

TovTO

TolcTihe koI

aWa

ovBev

jjbev 69

avTjKei'

fidWoVy

on

[hook

elal

koI

yap

avOpcoTrcov
KoX^ot

irdvrwv

fiovvoi

rocovrof

erepot

alhola.^
dir dp'^7](;
ra
AlyvTrTLOLKol Al6i07re"; Treptrd/jLvovTai

Kol

^0LViK""; Be

Zivpoi ol iv

Koi

rfjTiakaiaTivr) koI avrol o/xoXoyeovcrc

/cal
Trap*AljvTrTLcov
/jbefiadijKevai,
Itvpiou Be ol irepl^ep/jbcoSovra
Kal
ddTvyelrovef;
yiaKpcove^ ol rovrocac
TlapOeviovTTorap^ov
vecoarl
elau
i6vT""; dmo Ys^oKyo^v
fxep^aOrj/cevac.
^aoX
ovtol
yap
ol Tre
/cal ovtol
AlyvTrrloLat
pLTa/uLVo/jL6voc dv6po)ircov/jlovvol,
ravrd.
3e Alyvirriwv Kal
avroiv
(palvovrac7rot6ovT6"^
elirelv OKorepoc
AlOiOTTwv
ovK
irapd tcov erepcov i^e/jbaOow
ep^ft)
Se iTTifjitayojjLevoc
iov.
Brjre (palverao
Alyvirrcp
")?
dp')(j[ilov
yap
roSe
Kal
^olvlkwv
okogoi
i^e/J^aOov,
/xeya fiot
reKfjbrjpiov yiverai'
'EXA-aSi
rd
ovKeri
iTnjjblcryovTaL,
AlyvTrrlov^/jbtfjiiovTat
Kara
TTj
rd alSota.
alhola,dWd
tmv
irepLTdpLvovcn
op
(f)ep"
67nyovo/jL"vo)v
dXko
Kal
vvv
eLTTO)
co?
AlyvTrrloicrt
Trepltcov K.oX'^cov,
Trpoacpepel^;
Kal AlyviTTLOLepyd^ovTaL KaTa
elal. \ivov
ovtol
fjiovvoi
Kal rj ^ot]irdaa
Icttl dWrfKoLcrL.
ifKpepTj^;
TavTa,
rj yXcocraa
\lvov Be
KeKXrjTaL,^
^^XkrjvcovSapBcovLKov
viro
fjuev K.oX'^lkov
KaXelTaL
TO
AlyvizTLOv. al
fJuevTOL diT AlyvirTov dirLKveofxevov
Be aTrfkaL Td"^
AlyvirTov ^aaL\ev(;
ra?
^w/oa?
al
%e(7cocrTpL"^,
^alvovTaLirepLeovaaL, iv Be Trj
jxev 7r\eove"^ ovKeTL
iovaa^ Kal Td ypd/m/jLaTa
TlaXaLG-TLVT)
ZivplrjavTo";
copwv
Kal yvvaLKo^
alBola.
elal Be Kal Trepl^Iwvirjv
eveovTa
elpr^jjueva
Bvo
iv TreTpTjaL iyKeKoXajJLjJbevoL
tovtov
Trj re
dvBpo";,
iK Trj"; ^JL(f)ecrLr)(;
^coKaLav
e?
ep')(0VTaL Kal Trj iK ZapBlcove?
eKaTepcoOLBe dvrjp iyyeyXvTTTaL/jLeyado";
Z^^vpvTjv.
Treyu-Trr?;?
^

Kara

105

t6

"

kol

TO

106

LaTa

KaTa

Ta

TVTTOL

the

tov

Kolkhians

old Greek

; cf. Find.

See eh. 36, note

The

Termeh
the
Chati

ably

Chai
to

the

Makronians

(Xen. Anal),
called Sanni
heads

an

212.

to

seems

Chai, eastward
while

been

Fyth. iv.

9.

Thermodon

Halys,

have

to

seems

myth

the

be

of Samsun
Parthenios

the
and

is the

river of Bartan, consider-

or

west

of

the

lived inland
iv. 8), and
or

Zani

Plalys.

from
were

The

were

(Strab. xii. p. 795).

as

was

near

the

truth

his

as

Kolkhian

sounded

name

to

the

Greeks

like sardoniJcos.
*

Trebizond
afterwards

elongated.
artificially
For the "Syrians," see i. 72, note 3.
2
There are no
traces of any
language
related to Old Egyptian among
the nuthe
Kaukasos.
Heof
merous
languages
rodotos,who knew neither Egyptian nor
Their

Kolkhian,

hypotheticalDodonseans, Avho could not


the Egyptian landistinguishbetween
the
and
chirpingof birds.
guage
^
Kolkhian
Why
yarn should be called
Sardinian
is not
clear.
Perhaps the

the

At

note

2.

due

are
^

Nahr

ch. 102,

el-Kelb,see

upon them
Herodotos.
of
to the imagination
The

The

two

female

emblems

sculpturesare

carved

on

i-ocks of the pass of Karabel, three


miles east of Nimfi, and about twentythe

five miles
sides

of

Smyrna

inland

from

Smyrna,

old

road

which

the
to

Ephesos through the

the

on

led

from

Mahmud

LAND

THE

II.]

OF

EGYPT.

181

cT7rL0a/uL7]"i,
ro^a,^
rfjjmev Ze^ifj
rfjSe apLcrrepfj
%etplg')((dval'y^fJir]V
KoX TTjv clWtjv cTKevrjV a)cravTco(;'
Kol yap AlyvTTTLTjv
AlOiokoL
i/c Be
ep^ef.*^

TTiBa

rod

cojuov

ryvBe ryv

eya)
/cat

oe

rd

0/C0U6V

Slcl

m/jlov

erepov

crrrjOecov

tcov

Stij/ceo
iy/ceKoXafi/jueva,
Xeyovra rdSe.
^
iKTTjo-dfirjv.^^
oartf;
cofJuoLau rolao i/nolcn
')(^oop7]p

lepa Alyvirna
ypd/jL/jbara
"

rov

e?

evuavra

ecrn,

fiev

oyXot, erepcouc

ov

oeorjXcoKe.

oe

elKdecKova
WLe/jiVovof;
derjcrafjievcov
dXrj66lr}";
dirdXekeifJbiJLevot.
T'P]"i
AlyvTTTLov z,e"T(acnpiv dva'^copeovrakol

Br) /cat fxeTe^erepoL


tmv

^ovcTLfJLLV elvai,iToXXov
^ovTov

Brj

Tov

dvdyovra

ttoXXol"?

The
range.
Renouard
by

best

107

eOvewv
tcov
tcov
Ta^
dvOpoiirov^
yaypa^ KaTeiirelTe eylveTO dvaKO^L^o/jcevo'^
iv
(jTpe-\^aTo,
eXeyov ol l"pei";y
Trjat Ilr)\ov(Tirjcn,
tov
Ad(pvy(Tt
dBeXcpeovecovTov,' tS eireTpe'^e

preserved (discovered

in 1839) is about

140

feet

hardly have
it

through Karabel,though
joined the road to Ephesos

run

doubt

no

above

to the pass, and


the path on
the eastern
at the entrance
both
side, and
represents a warrior largerthan life-size, figureshold the spear in the right,not
The
direct route
ward,
left hand.
from
now
standing in a niche, who looks south-

holds
has

bow

tunic

spear

at the

turned

is

exact

in

the

up ends.

left hand,

the

back, and

reaching to

with
an

wears

knees, and

The

to Phokeea

Ephesos

tiara,

in

the

time

boots

at

the

mouth

second, which

of the first,
is on
repetition
road,and on its western

level with

'

have
a

the old

of

is

of

the

the

doubled

the eastern

and

from

marshes

Herraos

impassable,and

been

ran

through Smyrna

Herodotos

seem

the road

to

then

shoulder of Sipylos,
Magnesia to Kyme by the
Hassanly (stillused by

mutilated, and has


side,but is much
pass of Uzun
but latelybeen brought to light. The
thence
cattle drivers), and
to Phoksea
dress and styleof art, which
(cf.Academy, April 9, 1881, p. 262).
agree with
6
those of the Hittite sculptures
little over
three feet,which
at Boghaz
A
is
Keui and Eyuk (in Kappadokia), as well
only half the real height.
''
at Ghiaur
Kalessi (near Ancyra) and
is reallyslung behind
as
The bow
the
Ibreez
show
that
the
back.
(in Lykaonia),
^
The
tioned
first-mendress is utterly different from
The
sculpturesare Hittite.
that of the Egyptians and Ethiopians.
figureis also accompanied by an
^
The characters are hieroglyphs,it is
inscription in Hittite
hieroglyphics
the face of the figure true, but not Egyptian.
placed between
and

the top of the spear, which


does not
to have
existed in the case of the

seem

second

figure,where
the

across

breast.

looks northward.

it may
have
run
second
figure

The
These

of

of
being memorials
monuments
are
Sesostris,
redoubtable

as

far

as

enemies, the
the

testifyto

from

extension

conquests of
of

Bibl.
Sardes

his

of their

^gean (see Sayce


of the Hittites in the

Archccol.
to

vii. 2).

Smyrna,

power
on

The

The

Trans.
road

however, could

This

of the

must

what

it is not
been

able

characters
2

have
As

cicerone.

know

most

Hittites,and

the

Monuments
Soc.

instead
figures,

the

The

the invention

been
the

Greeks

the originof the figurewas,


have
likely that they would
to interpretthe long disused
upon

it.

legend

was

the

nearer

than the guess of Herodotos.


the son
of the Dawn,
was
with
as

the Homeric

Mr.

did not

Gladstone

Keteians
has

shown

truth

Memnon,
associated
or

Hittites,
{Homeric

Synchronism,,pp. 173 sq.)


3
Manetho
is said (Joseph, cont. Ap.

HERODOTOS.

182

/cat

KoXeaavra
^elvia avrov
7ratSa"; irepivrjcraL
e^coOevrrfv oIkltjvvXy,

Tov^

iTpo"^ avT(p

Se

irepLvrjaavTa

iirl

AiyvTrrov,tovtov

rrjv

Aecrwarpi^

[book

3e

rov

VTroTrprjcrat.

fiaOelutovto,

co?

avrifca

koI 'yap Stjkol


rfjyvvac/cr
(TVfjL^ovXeveaOaL
rrjv ^vvalica avrov
he
TralBcov iovrcov e^
tmv
oo
av/Jb/SovXevo-ai
a/jua djecrOao'ttjv
hvo iirl TTjv TTvprjv i/creivavra
to
Tov^
"y"(f)vpa)(TaL
KaiOfxevov,
he eV eKelvcov iirt^alvovTa'^
i/caco^ea-Oac.rdora TroLrjaat
avTOv"^
Tov

108

Kal

AecrodCTTpLV,

hvo

fjbev

iralhwv

tmv

/caTa/ca7]vac

rporrM

he \oc7rov(;

airocraiOrjvab
afjia tc3 TrarpL voarrjaa^;
TOLovT(p,
he 6 2ie(JcocrTpL";
rov
e?
aheX^eov,
ttjv AoyvTrrov Kal rtcra/xei^o?
TOV
tmv
eTTTjyd'yeTO
TO)
Ta";
KaTe(JTpe'\\raTo,
fJbev ofiiXcp
p^wpa?
TOV"^

jjbev Tcihe

TOVTcp

rjaav ol ekKvaavTe'^,

ovtol
fieydOei
'jTepLfJir)Kea"^,

iirl

tov";

tovtov

to
'HcfyaicrTov
lepov,e6vTa";

/3a(TL\eo";
tov
Ko/jLtcr6evTa";
e?

TOV

ol \l6ov";

Te

tov"s

e'^pyjaaTO.

Kal

hL(opv'^a"

Ta";

'Trdcra";
ovtol
AlyvTTTfp
dvayKa^o/ievoi
copvcraov,
eiroieov
eK0VTe";
AcyvirTov, irplveovaav
iTTTracrifjbrjvKal
evhea
diro
tovtwv.
tovtov
d/jba^evofievTjv
tov
iraaav,
yap
Kal
vreSta?
dviiT'Tro^
Tracra
eovcra
dva/xd^evTO^;
y^povov A'lyv7TTo"^
at
he
TroXkal
acTcaL
tovtcov
eovcrai
hca)pv')(^e";
yeyove'
yey ovacn
iovaa^;

vvv

ra?

Te

Kal

to

Tpoirov^; e'^ovaat.

/SaaiXev'^'oaoL

he Tovhe

KareTafive

AlyvTrTicov/jLT] eirl
dva[jbe"Jov";,
ok(o";
ovtol,

eiveKa

tgS

tmv

dXX

7roXia";

ra?

eKTTjvTO

109

ovk

iravTOiov^

'y^copTjv

ev

Tr)v

Trora/jUM

dirlot 6

Te

aTravl^ovTe^ vhdTcov
7roTafjL6";,
TrXaTVTepoiac e^ypecavTO toIctl
c^pedTwv'^peco/iievoc.
TTo/jLaat,
fjuev hr)eTveKa KaTeT/jurjOr]
diracro tovAlyvTTTLOCcrc
tov
7] Atyv7rT0"^. KaTavelfiaihe ttjv '^cJopyv
laov
hthovTa,^
eKdcTTcp
eXeyov tov /SaaiXea, KXijpov
TeTpdycovov
Kal diro TOVTOV
Td"^ irpoaohov;Trotrjcrao-Oat.
eTTLTd^avTadiroeiTiTeXelv
el he tlvo"^ tov
eviavTov.
"l"opr]v
KXr)pov TroTajxd"^
tovtcov

eK

KaT

i.

15)

Greeks.

XL, but

of Ramses

not

Seti

(Meneptah)

Ramses.

successful

Egypt
Semitic

for

him

II.

about

a
^

of

fell under

the

the

brother,

grandson

was

driven

five years

pretender,Amun-mes,
dominion

of

by

while
of

canal

renderingof

account

may
actual events.

system of Egypt existed

the

beginning of the monarchy,


first
hand, horses were
introduced
by the Hyksos, and, like the
chariot
(which had the Semitic name
the

other

first found

merkehat), are
^

the

monu-

"

eighteenthdynasty.
Brackish, perhaps because TrXari's
"

used

was

on

of the

ments

from

invader, Arisu, after his death,

confused
The

On

of Sethosis,i.e.

it is possible
that Manetho's
be

from

the
,

Seti

As

throne

the

11.

brother,
declared

Danaos

the

makes

he

and

Armais,
as

same

But

of this

known

called

the

be

to

have

to

he

whom

This

which

was

of the

equal
a

"

broad

"

sea.

division

favourite

of

the

theory of

land,
Greek

both
unworkable
in
philosophers,was
and
non-existent
in
fact.
Only
practice
Greek
a
guide could have invented the

story.

Se "7r"/jL7re tov";

6 '^o)po"^

'EXXaSa

Tr)v

rd

av

7rpo";

6k(o"; tov

fyeyove,

Xocttov

eTraveXOelv

iroXov

rr)?

\oyov

Kara

rerajfievrj'^

yeco/jierpLT] evpeOelaa
Kal yvcofiova
koI
yap

fxev

irapd
fjuepea Trj";rj/juepr]';

SvcoSeKa

183

avrov

So/cel Se [jlol ivOevrev

reXeoi.
aTTOcjyoprji;
69

EGYPT.

6
to
ia-rjiJbaLve
^ejevT^fievov
iXdcrcrcov
koI dva/jberpTjcrovTa^
bcrq^
iTrtcTKe^lro/jLevov^

TrapeXoLTo,eXOoiv

Ti

OF

LAND

THE

IT.]

ol
^a^vXcovlcov efJuaOov

''KX'Xr)V6";.^
BacrtXeL"? fiev

Brj ovto";

/Livrjfiocrvva Be eXtTrero

dvSpcdvra^XiOlvov^,
^}i(f)aoaT"LOV

rov

ewvTOv
irri'^kwv}

Svo iiev TpirjKovra

iralha"^ eovTa"^

Trpo

Kal

re

yvvatKa,

Trjv

irriykcav

TToXXco
fjL6Te7r"CTa
'^p6v(p
Aapecov tov
'}i(f)aL(TTOv
laTavTa
dvSptdpTa,(^a? ov oi
TreptecSe
efJuirpocrOe
TOV

old irep

epya

tc5 AlyvTrTLM' AeacocrTptv


^ecrcacrTpi
iXdacro)

edvea ovk
KaTacrTpeyfracrOai,

T"

rov";

he

Srjo tepev^
ou
TLepcrrjv
TreTroirjaOai

tcov

eKaarov

eiKocn

rea-aepa^

AWtoTrlr]'^
Vp^^" ^^^

Klyvimo^

fiovvo^;

dXXa

jjuev yap

BrjKal %KvOa";,

eKelvov Kal

SiKacov
elvac
ZKv6a"; eXelv
ovkcov
SvvacrOrjvac
eKelvov dvaOrnxdTdyvfir] ovk
lardvai efJuirpocrOe
to)v
virep/SaXXoAapetov jjuev vvv Xeyovcri irpo^ TdoTa crvyfxevov TOLorc
epyoccTL.
TTOLTjaacrOat.
yvcofiyv
Be Te\evTr)G-avTO"^
eKBe^aaOai eXeyov ttjv ^aat- 111
%e(Td)(TTptO(;
iralBa avTov
tov
Xrjlrjv
TOV
diroBe^acrOaL
^epoiv,^
fiev ovBepbiav
Se

Aapetov

"^

the

For

has been
^

dial

ov

geometrical papyrus

This

is

and

were

gnomon

caspumi

Anaximander

set

invented

divided

the

house," the title of the Egyptian kings


(likethe "sublime
Porte"). The real

sun-

successor

up

the

the

by
day into

"double

or

(or obelisk)in Sparta in


Laert.

The

perfectlycorrect.

Babylonians,who
twelve

that

discovered, see App. I.

hours."

first gnomon
660

B.C.

(Diog.

ii. 1).

he is

but

those

The

the

time

sons

are

of

twelfth

also.

After

Thothmes

Hence

simply

author.

tliat the

Pheron

is

Pharaoh, per-aa

or

"great

non

to the

us

and

time

country.

is not

king
Pharaoh," which

"a

mistaken

for
is

named

Herodname,

proper

thoroughly Greek

Egyptian in character, and


be regarded as belonging
Egyptian but to Greek folk-lore,
-

therefore

must
to

There
' '

is
Red

or

ruins

city.

than

more

the

which
It

"

Mound

called from

vras

the

tale told of him

and

introduces

of

has

otos

not

now

it is that the

L, the kings'
"princes of Kush."
^
51 feet high. The
fallen
i.e. over
colossos of Ramses
II. at Memphis
is
42 and 43 feet in length. One
between
found
by Hekekyan Bey is about 34.^
34 feet).
feet (20 cubits
^
This
has
reason
plainly a Greek
called

Mene-

son

leaves

history
legends
the ignorwhich
passed current among
ant
They are
guides and dragomen.
however, as examples of the
interesting,

behind, and

Not
Contrary to fact.
only the
of
the
kings
eighteenth,nineteenth, and
twentieth
dynastiesruled over Ethiopia,
the

his

was

Herodotos

folk-lore

of

of Eamses

ptali I.

was

the site of
similar

Egypt,

red bricks

"

an

Red

legend recounted by

attached.

el-Ahmar

KOm

in modern

heaps of

mark
to

one

so

in the
ancient

Mound
Herodotos

"

HERODOTOS.

184

Si
cruv6vei^6fjvai

[book

ol

rvcp^ov jeveaOaL Sea roiovSe


iir oktcoTTprj'yiia. rod TTorafjiOv KaTe\6ovTO"; jxe'yicrTa Brjrore
KaiheKa
Ta";
i/jbTrevirepelBaXe
apovpa"^, irvevfJuaTO^
'Kr]yea"^y w?
cTTpaTTjLTjv,

crovTO";

iyevero'

irorafjio'^

KVfJbaTLT]^

Se

rov

/SacnXea \eyovo-t

(BaXeiv
araaOaXtrj '^pTjcrdfievov,
Xa/Sovra al'^rfv

TovTov

Siva^

Ta"^

fiera

TTora/xov,

Tov

he

SeKa
6(p6a\/JbGv";
TV(f)\(o6rjvaL.

avTiKa

hrf erea

fiev

ol fjuavrrjiov

aTTuceaOai

evSeKOLTM

he

e^r)Keire

ol 6 ')(^povo"^
/cat
Trj"^f/^/xtT;?

erei

Ka^xovra

elval

y^kaa'^

e?

avrov

tov";

rvcp^ov,

/jllv

BouroO? 7r6Xco"ico?

eK

ava^XeyjreoyvvaiKO"^

ovpo)

ecovrijf;
vcylrdfievo"; o(j)6aXfiov"^,
dvSpa jiovvov
r^ri'^ irapa
dXXcov
iovcra
koI
diretpo^;.
7r"(f)0iT7]fC", dvSpcov
TrpcoTrjf; tt}?
he,
ovk
dve^Xeire,eVe^?}?
ecovTov
co?
fjueTcu
"yvvaifco"; ireipaaOai,
h
e
dvajBXe^lravTa avvayayelv Ta^ yvvaiKa^
Traaecov
Trecpdcrdac'
T(t)V
vtyjrci/jbevo^;
ttXtjv rj tt}?
iireiprjOT],
e"?
dve/SXeyjre,
ovpw
KaXetTac
^^pv6pr}/3wXo?* e? TavTrjv a-vvaXlfilaviroXiv, 7) vvv
tov

Tov"i

tov

tm

ird(Ta";aw
viroTrprjcrac

cravTa

he

dve^Xeyfre,
TavT7)v

Tcp ovp(p

diroi^vycov
ttjv Trddijvtcov
irdvTa TO. Xoycfia dveOrj/ce
kol

el^e avTo";

112

KaTCL

tov

lepov

a^cooerjTa

okto)

re

VL'\\rdiJbev
dvaOrjfjbaTa

d,vd

to,

d^cov
fJbdXLCTTa

Xoyov

ye

e6vTa";e/caTepov

evpo"^ he

TTTj'^ecoveKaToVy
he
TovTOV
TO)

to

yvvaiKa.

dXXa
ocfyOaXfiayv

he

lxXiov
eyeiv, e? tov
hvo XiOivovs,^
i^ evo";

ttj^; he

avTrj ttj iroXec.

aveu7)Ke

XlOov,

lepd
iaTC

opeXoi/?

epya,

ifcaTepov

/jb7]K0";fiev

Trrj^ecov.

eKhe^acrOai
eXeyov dvhpaM.e/jL(f"lTr
ttjv ^aaiXrjlrjv
^
^^XXrjvcdvyXo)(T(Tav ovvofxa
tov
TlpcoTea elvac

TTJV

Meya^t KdpTa koXov re kol ev eafcevaa/jievov,


dve/iovfceifievov.
TOV
^Hcj^atcTTelov
irpo^ votov
irepioiKeovaL he
he
6
^0LVtKe"; Tvptoi,KoXetTat
TO
Tefjuevo^ tovto
'^a)po";ovto";
he ev
avvdira^
tco
tov
Hvptcov (TTpaToirehov."(ttc
Tefievet
^e[v7)"^
'Ac^poStV?;?*
crv/jL^dXXo/xao
npa)Teo9 lepov to KaXecTao
ev

Te/jLevo"; eaTi

vvv

attached
The tale,therefore,was
by
guides to the two obelisks at Heliopolis,one of which, erected by User^

the

Over

feet,a

150

height of

The

is 6Q feet ; the

Queen Hatasu
the

without
Small

the

were

chral

purposes

dynasties.
we

have

exaggeration.
of Heliopolis
Egypt, that of

Karnak, is

pedestal,108

obelisks

Here

gross
obelisk

loftiest in
at

fifth
^

there.

I., still stands

tesen

122

feet 10 inches.

first used

under

the

another

feet,or,

for

sepul-

fourth

and

Greek

legend

attached
Astarte

to the

shrine

of the

PhcBnician

The Greek
Helen
Memphis.
identified
Herodotos
with
was
easily
by
the Semitic goddess of beauty and love,
more
especiallyas there were
strong
between
the legend
points of similarity
of Helen
Homer

at

and

that of Astarte

makes

Proteus

of the

the

live

and
on

island

Adonis.
the

coast

of

Delta,
Pharos,
Polybos king of "Egyptian Thebes
(Od. iv. 385, 126). Herodotos
seems
version,
unacquainted with the Homeric
on

"

and

but

see

note

on

ch, 116.

HERODOTOS.

186

he
KOfjuLdOevTcov

t/?

elire
T7}9 7rdTprj";
OKoOev

ifXeot.

ifXeoL.

to

Se

ol koI

fcal

St] koL

to

Kareke^e koI

"y"vo";
ttXoov

tov

airrj'yrjcraTO

UpcoTev^;elpcoTaavTOV

irXavco/jLevovBe

OKoOev

AXe^dvBpov
dXrjOeljjv,
ijXey^ov ol yevofievot

Xe"yovTo";ttjv

ov

Be

ovvo/jua,

pbeTa

Xd^ot'
^JL\ev7]v
KoX

elpcorarbv ^AXe^avSpov 6 IT/Dwrei)?

ttolvtcov,

oKoOev

"L7j Kol

[book

iv

tov

ttjv

Xojm

rco

iKeTai,

TrdvTa
TeXo^; Se S'^ "T(f)C
dScKr]iJiaTO";.
i^7]yeop,"Voc
Xoyov tov
o
JJpcoTeix;,
Xeycov otc
Xoyov TovSe iic"^aivei
iycb el /jlt) Trepl
TToXXov
^elvcovKTelveiv, oaoi, vir
dvefjbwv7]Srj
r)yeofM7]p jjbrjSeva
rjXOov e? yooprjv ttjv efiyv, 670) dv cre vTrep tov
evTe"^
diroXafXc^O
EWt/z/o? eTLcra/jirjv, 69, cb /caKicTTe
dvBpMv,^ecvlcovTvyoov
epyov
dvo(Ttd"TaTov
tov
crecovTOv
^elvov Trjv yvvalfca
ipydaao' wapd
TdoTa
dXX^
Kol
tol
ovk.
rjX9e"^.
pidXa
ijpKecre,