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CascadeCO2/NH3 Refrigeration

ASustainableRefrigeratingSystem
forthePRWIndustry
2012HeartlandChapterMeeting
Chicago,IL.October34,2012

RefrigerationThen

1924 Ball Horizontal Dual Acting Compressor


2

RefrigerationThen

Rotary Blade Booster


Compressors

Reciprocating High Stage


Compressors
3

RefrigerationNow

Screw Compressor and Reciprocating Compressor


4

ModernRefrigerationEngine
Room

Cascade CO2/NH3 System


5

ShouldIChoseCO2 (R744)formyRefrigerating
System?
Whattemperaturesdoyouneedtomaintain?
Arethereproductfreezingrequirements?
IsmaintainingareducedAmmoniasystem
chargecritical?
Isnocontaminatingrefrigerantsinthefood
storage,processingandemployeeworkareas
desirableorneeded?
And,isprovidingaGreen refrigeration
systemimportant?
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RefrigerationSystem FirstCost
SingleStageEconomizedSystem(Lowest)
CascadeCO2/NH3 System(MidRange)
TwoStageAmmoniaSystem(Highest)

rd
Independent3

PartyStudy

System Efficiency Results


Cascade CO2 vs. Two Stage NH3

rd
Independent3

PartyStudy

System Efficiency Results


Cascade CO2 vs. Two Stage NH3

2StageNH3
CO2/NH3
%Improvement
Reference
CascadeSystem
InEfficiency
System[kW/TR]
[kW/TR]

20FSuctionGroup

0.8

0.7

12.3

58FSuctionGroup

1.6

1.0

37.3

Combined20Fand58FSuctionGroups

1.2

0.9

28.7

HighTempSuctionGroup

0.7

0.8

8.5

TotalSystemkW/TR(Compressors)
TotalSystemkW/TR(Compressorsand
Condenser)
TotalSystemkW/TR(Compressors,
CondenserandAirUnits)

1.7

1.6

8.1

1.9

1.8

6.8

2.4

2.3

5.8

FieldTestMeasurement/Instrumentation

Flow Meters

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CO2 SystemAdvantagesOperating
COP comparison of CO2/Ammonia with
conventionel Ammonia Systems at full load
2.20
2.00
CO2/Ammonia
DT cascade = 9F

COP

1.80
1.60

Single stage with


open economizer

1.40
Two stage with
open intermidiate cooler

1.20
1.00
0.80
-70

-65

-60

-55

-50

-45

-40

-35

-30

-25

-20

Evaporating temp [deg F]

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CO2 SystemAdvantagesOperating
COP comparison of CO2/Ammonia with
conventionel Ammonia Systems at 50% load
2.40
2.20
2.00
CO2/Ammonia
DT cascade = 6F

COP

1.80
1.60

Single stage with


open economizer

1.40
1.20

Two stage with


open intermidiate cooler

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
-65

-60

-55

-50

-45

-40

-35

-30

-25

-20

Evaporating temp [deg F]

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CO2 SystemAdvantagesOperating

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CO2 SystemAdvantagesOperating

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CO2 SystemAdvantagesOperating

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RefrigerationSystem

Ammoniacondenser
Ammoniacompressor
CO2/NH3 heatexchanger(cascade
cooler)
CO2 compressor
CO2 receiver(pump
separator)
CO2 liquidpump
CO2 evaporator
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CO2 Application ColdStorage


Evap. Condenser

NH3 Screw
11 / 95F

NH3 Surge
Drum

NH3 Screw
11 / 95F
CP-Receiver
(Economizer)

NH3/CO2 Cascade
Heat Exchangers

CO2 HPR
20F

Blast Freezer

Cooler
Oil Rectifier

Dock
Oil Rectifier

CO2 Recip
-55/ 20F

CO2
VPR
-55F

CO2 Recip
-30/ 20F

Drier

CO2 Recip
-55/ 20F

CO2
VPR
-30F

CO2 Recip
-30/ 20F

Freezer

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CO2 SystemsBackgroundDrivers

Refrigerantsituation
Ammoniachargerestrictions
Ammoniasdamagingeffects
Electricitycosts
Lowerfirstcost
Refrigerantcost
Lowertemperaturesatreasonablecosts
Lessspacerequired
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CO2 SystemsFactsonCO2 (R744)


CO2 isalreadyintheatmosphere
CO2 isnontoxicandnonflammable
CO2 isusedtoputoutfires
Amajorleakwillnotdamageproducts
OnlyCO2 snow(DryIce)willfalldownon
products
Dryicesublimatetovaporandwillnotleavea
wetsurface

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CO2 SystemsFactsOnEmissions
CO2CascadeSystemsreduceCO2emission
lb.lessCO2emissionforeachkWhsaved
1mileinanaveragecarproducesonepound
ofCO2emission
Cryogenicfreezingtypicallyuses2lbs.ofCO2
foreachpoundofproductfrozen
InaCO2cascadesystemstheCO2 iskept
insidetheclosedloop
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CO2 SystemAdvantagesLowerFirstCost
LowerCosts

Compressors(LTside)
Suctionanddischargepiping,valvesinsulation,etc.
Liquidseparatorvessels(plusinsulation)
Refrigerant

HigherCosts
Cascadeheatexchangerinsteadofintermediatecooler
vessel
Liquidpiping,valvesinsulation,etc.
Higherpressureratingforsomecomponents
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CO2 SystemAdvantagesLowerFirstCost
300

Capacity (TR)

High

mpressor
o
C
e
r
u
s
s
e
r
P

H PO 2 8

CO2

30

d Co
r
a
d
n
a
t
S

CMO28

or
m pr e s s

NH3

3.0

Condensing temperature at 14oF


0.3
-67

-58

-49

-40

-31

Evaporating temperature ( oF)


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CO2 SystemAdvantagesLowerFirstCost
Piping example 300TR at -40F
Dry suction, 100ft pipe, two 90 bends, one stop valve

Wet suction, 300ft pipe, two 90 bends, one stop valve

Pipe size

Temperature
drop

Pressure
drop

Velocity

Pipe size

Temperature
drop

Pressure
drop

Velocity

Inch

PSI

ft / sec

Inch

PSI

ft / sec

Ammonia

12"

1.01

0.31

54

Ammonia

12"

0.29

0.089

68

CO2

6"

0.96

2.85

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CO2

6"

0.33

39

Discharge, 100ft pipe

Liquid, 300ft pipe

Ammonia
CO2

Pipe size

Temperature
drop

Pressure
drop

Velocity

Pipe size

Temperature
drop

Pressure
drop

Velocity

Inch

PSI

ft / sec

Inch

PSI

ft / sec

2"

1.4

1.4

3.6

Ammonia

6"

0.21

0.2

79

4"

0.3

1.05

3.5

CO2

4"

0.14

0.9

29

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CO2 SystemAdvantagesCharge/Leaks

Lowammoniacharge
Ammonialimitedtoengineroom
CO2 doesnotdamageproducts
CO2 isnontoxicandnonflammable
However!!
Longtermexposurelimitis1%concentrationofCO2
Shorttermexposurelimitis3%concentrationofCO2
10 20%concentrationofCO2 ishealthandlife
threatening
CO2 detectorsarerequired
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CO2 SystemAdvantages
Service/Maint.

Norecoveryunitorwaterbasinsrequiredforopening
systemcomponent
Nosmell
NooildrainageonCO2 side
Alwayspositiveoperatingpressure
However!!

Becarefulwithtrappedliquid.Ifthetemperatureisincreasedby
7F,thepressureincreasestotheyieldlimitofsteelpipes!
Becarefulwithtrappedliquid/gas.Saturatedliquid/gasatroom
temperaturee.g.68F=812PSIG
Componentevacuationforair/moisturerequiredafterservice

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CO2 SystemAdvantagesValveGroups
Penthouses,
piping and valve
groups on roof

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CO2 SystemAdvantagesPiping
Condenserand
mainpipingon
roof

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CO2 RefrigerationSystems
CO2 Compressors
8cyl.206TR
4cyl.103TR

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CO2 RefrigerationSystems
Applications Typ. Cold Storage - Example

Ammonia
Compressors
Screw222TR
Screw307TR

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CO2 RefrigerationSystems
Applications Typ. Cold Storage - Example

NH3SurgeAcc.
CascadeCO2
Condenser
HPR&
LPR

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CO2 RefrigerationSystems
Applications Typ. Cold Storage - Example

Economizer(CPR)
Glycolfloorwarming
heatedbyoilcoolers
CO2 HPR
(Highpressure
receiver)

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CO2 RefrigerationSystems
Applications Typ. Cold Storage - Example
Oil reservoir
Oil heater and
Temp. sensor
Oil return

Oil Rectifier
Oil float switch

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CO2 RefrigerationSystems
Large PRWs utilizing Cascade
CO2 Refrigerating Systems

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ThankYou
ChuckToogood
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCRRRRCCC
M&MRefrigeration,Inc.
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCLLLLCCCCC
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCLLLLLL
Chuckt@mmrefrigeration.com
LUCK
(410)7548005

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