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GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Chandkheda, Ahmedabad

Affiliated

K.J.I.T, Savali
A Project Report On
FOUR STROKE BIODIESEL ENGINE

Under subject of DESIGN


ENGINEERING IIB B. E.
Semester VI
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

Submitted by:

Sr.
1
2
3
4

Name of student
Enrollment No.
Yash Prakashbhai Ambekar 130640102004
Jaykumar Lalit Desai
130640102015
Yash Arvindbhai Prajapati 130640102048
Rocky Jagdishbhai Yadav
130640102052

Mr. Ronak Suthar


(Faculty Guide)

Mr. Kaustubh Natekar


(HOD)

Academic year
(2016-2017)

Contents
1. Introduction
Name of the team
About team members
About guide and mentor
What is Design Thinking?
2. Empathy Mapping
Users
Stakeholders
Activities
Story
3. Ideation Canvas
People
Activities
Situation/context
Props/Possible Solution
4. Product Development Canvas
Product Experience
Product Function
Components
People
Customer Revalidation
5. AEIOU Sheets
Activities
Environment
Interactions
Objects
Users
6. Learning Need Matrix (LNM) Theory
Purpose/Project Concept
Applicable Standards and Design Specifications
Component Materials strength Criteria
Software/Simulation/Skill/Mathematical Requirement
Tools/Methods/Theories/application Process Involved
Literature Review/Secondary Research

7. Design Considerations for detail design part:


7.1 Design for Performance, Safety and Reliability
7.2 Design for Ergonomics and Aesthetics
7.3 Design for Manufacturability & Assembly (DFMA)
7.4 Design for Cost, Environment
8. Design Calculation
9. Measuring Instruments/ techniques - knowledge and use
10. Comparison of existing materials, methods, tools and equipment for
your project and
justify your
selection of materials, methods, tools and equipment etc.
11. Simulation and Analysis (Software modelling), Mathematical model
12. Conclusion/Future scope
13. Prototype

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
To innumerable websites in the internet, and to all those
who have uploaded their knowledge, imaginations, ideas,
graphic skills etc., on these websites.
Also, to all those from pre-historic days to today, who have
registered their knowledge, imaginations, thoughts etc.,
through different means and mediums.
Also Dr. M. Y. Vaijanapurkar M. E. , Ph. D (IIT Kharakpur) and
Mr. Ronak Suthar for showing the correct path and guiding
us.
Not forgetting other faculty of the college who gave their
contribution till their extent.

DECLARATION
We hereby declare that the DE-IIB Report Submitted Along With The Canvas Sheets
Entitled FOUR STROKE BIODIESEL ENGINE In Partial Fulfillment For 6th Semester
Automobile Engineering Of GTU, Ahmedabad During The Academic Year 2016-17 under the
supervision of Mr. Ronak Suthar and that no part of these DE-IIB reports has been directly copied
from any students reports or taken from any other source, without providing the reference.
YASH

PRAKASHBHAI

JAYKUMAR
YASH
ROCKY

Internal Guide

AMBEKAR

LALITKUMAR

ARVINDBHAI

DESAI

PRAJAPATI

JAGDISHBHAI

YADAV

(130640102004)
(130640102015)
(130640102048)
(130640102052)

Head of Department

CERTIFICATE

This Is To Certify That DE-IIB Report Submitted Along With The Canvas Sheets
Entitled FOUR STROKE BIODIESEL ENGINE Has Been Carried Out By Yash
Ambekar, Desai Jaykumar, Prajapati Yash and Rocky Yadav Under My
Guidance In Partial Fulfillment For 6th Semester Automobile Engineering Of GTU,
Ahmedabad During The Academic Year 2016-17.These Students Have successfully
Completed DE-IIB activity under my guidance.

Internal Guide

Head of Department

Yash Ambekar
Yash P. Ambekar is a student of Automobile Engg. Department of K.J.I.T
Savali. He has helped in gathering the information regarding the topic. He has good knowledge
about managing the finance. He has also helped in completing the Canvas Sheets neatly. His
sincerity regarding the project is appreciable. His contribution regarding the DE-IIB is appreciable
and worthwhile.

Jay Desai
Jay L. Desai is a student of Automobile Engg. Department of K.J.I.T Savali.
He has got ability to handle the situation tactfully. He does not gets panic in any of the situation.
He patiently works with the group mates and listen to each and every opinion of the team. He has
got the ability to manage the team.His contribution regarding the DE-IIB is appreciable and
worthwhile.

Yash Prajapati
Yash A. Prajapati is a student of Automobile Engg. Department of K.J.I.T
Savali. He has helped in collecting the basic information about the project. He has helped in
preparing the final Report for the same. He has good quality of creating the friendly environment
among the group mates. He works with the team mates without any expectations. His sincerity
regarding the project is appreciable. His contribution regarding the DE-IIB is appreciable and
worthwhile.

Rocky Yadav
Rocky J. Yadav is a student of Automobile Engg. Department of K.J.I.T
Savali. He has got ability of finding handy solutions at critical stages, which are very helpful. His
compatibility with the Group mates is good and friendly. He creates humourous environment
while working. His sincerity regarding the project is appreciable. His contribution regarding the
DE-IIB is appreciable and worthwhile.

Mr. Ronak Suthar


Mr. Ronak Suthar (M.E.) is the Asst. Professor in Mechanical Department
at K.J.I.T.,Savali.He is one of the devoted faculty of the department. He is very polite and has
good knowledge about his field. His happy to help nature is really appreciable. Without his
guidance this project was not possible. His Contribution at each level of this project is worthwhile.

Dr. M.Y. Vaijanapurkar (M.E. Ph.D, IIT, Kharagpur ) was the Principal of
K.J.I.T., Savali . He is one of the Best experienced faculty of the college. He is always happy to
help and guide the students regarding exams, projects ,etc. His guidance is very helpful and worth.
His polite and positive attitude towards students is really appreciable. His Contribution at each
level of this project is worthwhile.

Design Thinking is human-centered


Design thinking has come to be defined as combining empathy for the context of a problem,
creativity in the generation of insights and solutions, and rationality in analyzing and fitting various
solutions to the problem context. According to our team the goal of Design Thinking is "matching
peoples needs with what is technologically feasible and viable as a business strategy". The premise of
teaching Design Thinking is that by knowing about how to successfully approach and solve difficult,
multi-dimensional problems - more specifically, effective methods to ideate, select and execute
solutions - individuals and businesses will be able to improve their own problem solving processes and
skills. There is also significant academic interest in understanding how designers think and design
cognition.
Design thinking is a formal method for practical, creative resolution of problems and creation of
solutions, with the intent of an improved future result. In this regard it is a form of solution-based , or
solution-focused thinking; starting with a goal (a better future situation) instead of solving a specific
problem. By considering both present and future conditions and parameters of the problem, alternative
solutions may be explored simultaneously. Cross asserted that this type of thinking most often happens
in the built, or artificial, environment (as in artifacts).

Focus on people / customers and their needs and not on a specific technology or other
conditions.
Methods therefore used are observations, interviews, brainstorming, prototyping
Innovating at the intersection of business, technology and people leads to radical, new
experience innovation.
The user is the one to decide if a product or a service should exist or be established

In short Design Thinking is a process through which we can make or modify new technology for
betterment of common people.

EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS


USERS:
PUBLIC
FARMERS
DESIGNERS
ENGINEERS
DEVELOPERS

MANUFACTURERS

STAKEHOLDERS:
TRANSPORTERS
EXPORTERS
AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES
LOCOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES

ACTIVITIES:
PRODUCTION OF BIO-DIESEL
REFINING OF SEEDS
TRANSESTERIFICATION
BLENDING
NEXT GEN. ENGINE
REFINMENT
CHANGED PIPING
NEW IGNITION SYSTEM

HAPPY

Biodiesel fuel is a renewable energy source unlike petroleum-based diesel. An excessive


production of soybeans in the world makes it an economic way to utilize this surplus for
manufacturing the Biodiesel fuel. One of the main biodiesel fuel advantages is that it is less
polluting than petroleum diesel. The lack of sulfur in 100% biodiesel extends the life of catalytic
converters. Another of the advantages of biodiesel fuel is that it can also be blended with other
energy resources and oil. Biodiesel fuel can also be used in existing oil heating systems and diesel
engines without making any alterations. It can also be distributed through existing diesel fuel
pumps, which is another biodiesel fuel advantage over other alternative fuels. The lubricating
property of the biodiesel may lengthen the lifetime of engines.
SAD
At present, Biodiesel fuel is bout one and a half times more expensive than petroleum diesel fuel.It
requires energy to produce biodiesel fuel from soy crops, plus there is the energy of sowing,
fertilizing and harvesting. Another biodiesel fuel disadvantage is that it can harm rubber hoses in
some engines. As Biodiesel cleans the dirt from the engine, this dirt can then get collected in the
fuel filter, thus clogging it. So, filters have to be changed after the first several hours of biodiesel
use. Biodiesel fuel distribution infrastructure needs improvement, which is another of the biodiesel
fuel disadvantages.

CONCLUSION:
1) Users are clearly mentioned and stakeholders are defined.
2) Activities regarding the project to be conducted step by
step.
3) In story boarding it is clearly understood which part may be
difficult and which will be tactfully conquered.

IDEATION CANVAS:
PEOPLE:

PUBLIC
FARMERS
DESIGNERS
ENGINEERS
DEVELOPERS
MANUFACTURERS

ACTIVITIES:
PRODUCTION OF BIO-DIESEL
REFINING OF SEEDS
TRANSESTERIFICATION
BLENDING
NEXT GEN. ENGINE
REFINMENT
CHANGED PIPING
NEW IGNITION SYSTEM

SITUATION/CONTEXT:
PUBLIC TRANSPORT
PRIVATE VEHICLES
LOCOMOTIVES
INDUSTRIES
POWER PLANTS
AGRICULTURE

GENERATORS

PROPS/POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS:
BIO-DIESEL PRODUCTION:
SEED CRUSHERS
PUMPS
BLENDERS
FILTERS
REFINERS

ENGINE DESIGNING:
TOOL BOX
PIPE CUTTERS
MOULDS
DRILL MACHINE
BORING MACHINE

Should be considered for use as an alternative and not a primary fuel. Short and long term
environmental benefits will be worth while. Storage Issues with Stability and
Transportation issues with high cost of delivered fuel compared to fossil fuels. Fuel-supply
reliability. Lack of understanding of environmental impact Nox emissions. Complexity
of biomass-power infrastructure compared to known well established coal and natural gas
markets.

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS PURPOSE:


AGRICULTURE
TRANSPORTATION
POWER GENERATION

PRODUCT EXPERIENCE:
SUBSIDY AVAILABLE
HIGH INITIAL COST
NOT WIDELY USED

PRODUCT FUNCTION:
RENEWABLE
SUSTAINABLE
LOWER EMISSIONS

COMPONENTS:
TITANIUM VALVES
HEAT EXCHANGER
POLYMER PIPE
FILTERS
FUEL INJECTORS
EXHAUST SYSTEM

PEOPLE:
PUBLIC
FARMERS
DESIGNERS
ENGINEERS
DEVELOPERS
MANUFACTURERS
ENVIRONMENTALISTS

CUSTOMER REVALIDATION
LESS AVAILABLE
ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY
HIGH INITIAL COST
EQUALLY POWERFUL ENGINE AS COMPARED TO PRESENT ONES.

75 years of diesel vehicles.B5 and B20 engine approvals. Most biodiesel applications =
heavy- and medium-duty vehicles. Biodiesel fueling of light-duty vehicles is less common.
Diesel engines = compression-ignited (CI).Gasoline engines = spark-ignited (SI).More
torque. Most diesel engines can run on biodiesel blends of 5% to 20% with little or no
modification. The use of conventional diesel leaves a deposit in the bottom of fuel lines,
tanks, and delivery systems over time. The use of biodiesel can dissolve this sediment and
result in the need to change filters more frequently when first using biodiesel until the
whole system has been cleaned of the deposits left by the conventional diesel.
To make The Engine as light as possible and to increase the use of biodiesel so that the
fuel that are on verge of extinction finds the better alternative in the near future.

AEIOU SHEETS
AEIOU Framework
AEIOU is a heuristic to help interpret observations gathered by ethnographic practice
in industry. Its two primary functions are to code data, and to develop building
blocks of models that will ultimately address the objectives and issues of a client.
Taxonomies
AEIOU stands for 5 elements to be coded: Activity, Environment, Interaction,
Object, and User.
Activities are goal-directed sets of actionspaths towards
things people want to accomplish. What are the modes people
work in, and the specific activities and processes they go
through?
Environments include the entire arena where activities take
place. What is the character and function of the space overall,
of each individual's spaces, and of shared spaces?

Interactions are between a person and someone or


something else; they are the building blocks of activities. What
is the nature of routine and special interactions between
people, between people and objects in their environment, and
across distances?
Objects are building blocks of the environment, key elements sometimes put
to complex or unintended uses (thus changing their function, meaning and
context). What are the objects and devices people have in their environments
and how do they relate to their activities.
Users are the people whose behaviors, preferences, and needs are being
observed. Who is there? What are their roles and relationships? What are their
values and prejudices?

Activities

Environment

Interactions

Objects

Users

Learning NeedsMatrix (LNM) Theory

Description
A training/competency matrix is a tool used to document and compare the required
competencies for a position with the current skill level of the employees performing
the roles.
It is used in a gap analysis for determining where you have critical training needs and
as a tool for managing people development.
It can also be used in succession planning as a means of identifying employees who
have critical skills needed for promotion.
Benefits

Provides a comprehensive view of all the skills and behaviors needed.

Aids in managing your training budget because it identifies skill gaps across
your organization rather than just one person at a time.

Assists with planning by helping you identify and target new skill areas that
you might need for the long term.

Helps managers with development planning by providing a framework of


common skills required.

LNM Sheet

In this sheet we studied various topics such as Performance


parameters, Basic construction Of diesel engine and its
assembly, Parts and material specifications, Properties Of oil
(Soyabean oil, karanja, Mahua ,etc).
Also we are able to justify and decide what Materials, Parts,
software etc. will be needed further.
LNM Sheet helped us to decide various needs that will be
helpful and handy in further study.

Rapeseed and Canola

Rapeseed adapts well to low fertility soils, but with high sulfur content. With a high oil yield (40
50%), it may be grown as a winter-cover crop, allows double cultivation and crop rotation.
It is the most important raw material for biodiesel production in the European Community.
However, there were technological limitations for sowing and har- vesting in some Central and
South American countries, mainly due to the lack of adequate information about fertilization, seed
handling, and storage (the seeds are very small and require specialized agricultural machinery).
Moreover, low prices in comparison to wheat (its main competitor for crop rotation) and low
production per unit area have limited its use.
Rapeseed our has high nutritional value, in comparison to soybean; it is used as a protein
supplement in cattle rations.
Sometimes canola and rapeseed are considered to be synonymous; canola (Canadian oil low
acid) is the result of the genetic modication of rapeseed in the past 40 years, in Canada, to reduce
the content of erucic acid and glucosinolates in rapeseed oil, which causes inconvenience when
used in animal and human consumption.
Canola oil is highly appreciated due to its high quality, and with olive oil, it is considered as one
of the best for cooking as it helps to reduce blood cholesterol levels.
Soybean
It is a legume originating in East Asia. Depending on environmental conditions and genetic
varieties, the plants show wide variations in height. Leading soybean producing countries are the
United States, Brazil, Argentina, China, and India.
Biodiesel production form soybean yields other valuable sub-products in addition to glycerin:
soybean meal and pellets (used as food for livestock) and our (which have a high content of
lecithin, a protein). Grain yield varies between 2,000 and 4,000 kg/hectare. Since the seeds are very
rich in protein, oil content is around 18%.
Oil Palm
Oil palm is a tropical plant that reaches a height of 2025 m with a life cycle of about 25 years.
Full production is reached 8 years after planting.
Two kinds of oil are obtained from the fruit: palm oil proper, from the pulp, and palm kernel oil,
from the nut of the fruit (after oil extraction, palm kernel cake is used as livestock food). Several
high oil-yield varieties have been developed. Indonesia and Malaysia are the leading producers.
International demand for palm oil has increased steadily during the past years, the oil being used
for cooking, and as a raw material for margarine production and as an additive for butter and
bakery products.
It is important to remark that pure palm oil is semisolid at room temperature(2022LC), and in
many applications is mixed with other vegetable oils, sometimes partially hydrogenated.

Sunflower

Sunower seeds are really a fruit, the inedible wall (husk) surrounding the seed that is in the
kernel.
The great importance of sunower lies in the excellent quality of the edible oil extracted from its
seeds. It is highly regarded from the point of view of nutritional quality, taste and avor. Moreover,
after oil extraction, the remaining cake is used as a livestock feed. It must be noted that sunower
oil has a very low content of linoleic acid, and therefore it may be stored for long periods.
Sunower adapts well to adverse environmental conditions and does not require specialized
agricultural equipment and can be used for crop rotation with soybean and corn. Oil yield of
current hybrids is in the range 4852%.
Peanut
The quality of peanut is strongly affected by weather conditions during the harvest. Peanuts are
mainly used for human consumption, in the manufacture of peanut
Flax
Flax is a plant of temperate climates, with blue owers. Linen is made with the threads from the
stem of the plant and the oil from the seeds is called linseed oil, used in paint manufacture. Flax
seeds have nutritional value for human con- sumption since they are a source of polyunsaturated
fatty acids necessary for human health. Moreover, the cake left over, following oil extraction, is
used as a livestock feed.
The plant adapts well to a wide range of temperature and humidity; however, high temperatures
and plentiful rain do not favor high yields of seed and ber.
Flax seeds contain between 30 and 48% of oil, and protein content is between 20 and 30%. It is
important to remark that linseed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid being from
40 to 68% of the total.
Safower
Safower adapts well to dry environments. Although the grain yield per hectare is low, the oil
content of the seed is high, from 30 to 40%. Therefore, it has economic potential for arid regions.
Currently, safower is used in oil and our production and as bird feed.
There are two varieties, one rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid) and the other with a
high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid). Both varieties have a low content of
saturated fatty acids.
The oil from safower is of high quality and low in cholesterol content. Other than being used for
human consumption, it is used in the manufacture of paints and other coating compounds, lacquers
and soaps.

It is important to note that safower oil is extracted by means of hydraulic presses, without the
use of solvents, and rened by conventional methods, without anti-oxidant additives.
The our from safower is rich in ber and contains about 24% proteins. It is used as a protein
supplement for livestock feed.
Castor Seed
The castor oil plant grows in tropical climates, with temperatures in the range2030LC; it cannot
endure frost. It is important to note that once the seeds start germinating, the temperature must not

fall below 12LC. The plant needs a warm and humid period in its vegetative phase and a dry season
for ripening and har- vesting. It requires plenty of sunlight and adapts well to several varieties of
soils. The total rainfall during the growth cycle must be in the range 7001,400 mm; although it is
resistant to drought, the castor oil plant needs at least 5 months of rain during the year.
Castor oil is a triglyceride, ricinolenic acid being the main constituent (about 90%). The oil
is non-edible and toxic owing to the presence of 15% of ricin, a toxic protein that can be removed
by cold pressing and ltering. The presence of hydroxyl groups in its molecules makes it unusually
polar as compared to other vegetable oils.
Tung
Tung is a tree that adapts well to tropical and sub-tropical climates. The optimum temperature for
tung is between 18 and 26LC, with low yearly rainfall.
During the harvest season, the dry nuts fall off from the tung tree and are collected from the
ground. Nut production starts 3 years after the planting.
The oil from tung nuts is non-edible and used in the manufacture of paints and varnishes,
especially for marine use.
Cotton
Among non-foodstuffs, cotton is the most widely traded commodity. It is produced in more than 80
countries and distributed worldwide. After the harvest, it may be traded as raw cotton, ber or
seeds. In cotton mills, ber and seeds are separated from raw cotton.
Cotton ber is processed to produce fabric and thread, for use in the textile industry. In addition,
cotton oil and our are obtained from the seed; the latter is rich in protein and is used in livestock
feed and after further processing, for human consumption.

Jojoba
Although jojoba can survive extreme drought, it requires irrigation to achieve an economically
viable yield.
Jojoba needs a warm climate, but a cold spell is necessary for the owers to mature. Rainfall
must be very low during the harvest season (summer). The plant reaches its full productivity 10
years after planting.
The oil from jojoba is mainly used in the cosmetics industry; therefore, its market is quickly
saturated.

Jatropha
Jatropha is a shrub that adapts well to arid environments. Jatropha curcas is the most known
variety; it requires little water or additional care; therefore, it is adequate for warm regions with
little fertility. Productivity may be reduced by irregular rainfall or strong winds during the
owering season. Yield depends on climate, soil, rainfall and treatment during sowing and
harvesting. Jatropha plants become productive after 3 or 4 years, and their lifespan is about 50
years.
Oil yield depends on the method of extraction; it is 2832% using presses and up to 52% by
solvent extraction. Since the seeds are toxic, jatropha oil is non- edible. The toxicity is due to the
presence of curcasin (a globulin) and jatrophic acid (as toxic as ricin).
Avocado
Avocado is a tree between 5 and 15 m in height. The weight of the fruit is between 120 and 2.5 kg
and the harvesting period varies from 5 to 15 months. The avocado fruit matures after picking and
not on the tree.
Oil may be obtained from the fruit pulp and pit. It has a high nutritional value, since it contains
essential fatty acids, minerals, protein and vitamins A, B6, C, D, and E. The content of saturated
fatty acids in the pulp of the fruit and in the oil is low; on the contrary, it is very high in monounsaturated fatty acids (about 96% being oleic acid). The oil content of the fruit is in the range 12
30%.

Microalgae
Microalgae have great potential for biodiesel production, since the oil yield (in liters per hectare)
could be one to two orders of magnitude higher than that of other raw materials. Oil content is
usually from 20 to 50%, although in some species it can be higher than 70% . However, it is
important to note that not all mic- roalgae are adequate for biodiesel production.
High levels of CO2, water, light, nutrients and mineral salts are necessary for the growth of
microalgae. Production processes take place in raceway ponds and photobiological reactors.
Chemical formulas of the main fatty acids in
vegetable oils

Fatty acid

Chemical formula

Lauric (12:0)
Palmitic (16:0)
Estearic (18:0)
Oleic (18:1)
Linoleic (18:2)
Linolenic (18:3)
Erucic (22:1)
Ricinoleic (18:1)

CH3(CH2)10COOH
CH3(CH2)14COOH
CH3(CH2)16COOH
CH = CH
CH3 (CH2)7(CH2)7 COOH
CH = CH CH2 CH =
CH3 (CH2)4 CH (CH2)7 COOH
CH2 (CH = CH
CH3 CH2)3 (CH2)6 COOH
CH = CH
CH3 (CH2)7 (CH2)11 COOH
CHOH CH2 CH =
CH3 (CH2)5 CH (CH2)7 COOH

Approximate content (in weight) of saturated and non-saturated fatty acids in some vegetable
oils and animal fats

Oil/fat

SFA
(& % w/w)

NSFA
(& % w/w)

Coconut

90

10

Corn

13

87

Cottonseed

26

74

Olive

14

86

Palm

49

51

Peanut

17

83

Rapeseed

94

Soybean

14

86

Sunower

11

89

Safower

91

Castor

98

Yellow grease

33

67

Lard

41

59

Beef tallow

48

52

Injection Experiments
The process of injecting diesel, biodiesel, or a blend into the cylinder through
orifices within the body of the injector leads to a naturally leads to a particular
distribution of equivalence ratio. Diesel fuel being expelled from an injector . The type
and quantity of harmful emissions thus depends on the cylinder conditions at the SOI,
the physical properties of the fuel, the injector geometry, and the combustion chamber
geometry. The injector, nozzle, and fuel properties directly affect the fuel droplet
diameter distribution. Typically injection studies have been done at atmospheric
pressure so that surface wave phenomenon, caused by drag, can be observed
occurring on droplets as they travel away from the fuel nozzle. The effect of injection
pressure on velocity and its subsequent affect on droplet size was studied extensively
by Koo and Martin .

Spray emitted from a high-pressure diesel fuel injector.

Injection studies tend to be done in high pressure spray boxes or in CFD. With
advents in high-speed signal processing equipment, researchers are now able to study
combusting dynamic sprays in high pressure environments. Injectors with various
geometries and orifice diameters were tested to observe the effect on spray penetration
lengths. conducted an extensive study effects orifice diameter and injection pressure on
CH after mixture and OH formation after ignition around the jet. A spray penetration
model was introduced by Abani and Reitz. using jet theory for the incorporation of time
varying injection into CFD models.

Engine Experiments
Engine experiments mostly test injection strategies on engines of particular
displacements or piston geometries. investigated how the depth of omega piston
geometry affects emissions and efficiency of diesel engines. Much like the injection
experiments, either physical experimentation or numerical investigations are
conducted. There have been quite a number of studies where researchers have
measured the emissions of biodiesel combustion at various operating conditions and
loads. demonstrate percentage decreases in oxides of carbon and nitrogen (NOX) as
well as particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons using soybean B20 fuel. both
used a Caterpillar SCORE similar to investigate the increase in oxides of nitrogen
using SME fuel and attributed its cause to factors other than the start of combustion
crank angle window. Increased NOx emissions can be attributed to a difference in
flame lift-off length (LOL) and the higher elapsed time of combustion

Experiments have been conducted using methyl esters made from several oils.
produced several batches of cotton seed oil methyl ester (CSOME) and the trend of
reduced emissions and increased NOx. used blends of diesel, biodiesel, and bioethanol and identified a decrease in engine thermal efficiency.

Properties of Biodiesel
Liquid Properties and Sprays
The liquid properties of biodiesel can negatively influence the quality of
its movement throughout the fuel system of the engine as shown by Tefsa
. Biodiesel of various types is known to dissolve fuel lines and clog filtration devices
due to its chemical composition and other physical differences.
immersed several types of elastomers into palm methyl ester (PME) and recorded
reduction in material strength. Electrochemical reactivity is not a typical focus of
numerical flow studies however, some material properties are measured which are of
concern. The fluid properties are needed in CFD studies to adjust the spray and
breakup models. studied the effect of liquid fuel properties of five fuels
on liquid penetration distance length in diesel engines and found that it is proportional
to viscosity. Most literature, involving biodiesel, cites common proprieties at room
temperature. For the best precision, it is necessary to have property curves as functions
of temperature. utilized a capacitance densitometer to measure the density of soy,
canola, and fish oil methyl ester up to 573K. measured and curve fit the specific heat
and enthalpy of SME and several other biofuels.

Vapor Properties and Combustion


The characteristics of biodiesel fuels must be known at temperatures in the
vapor phase in order to model droplet atomization, evaporation, and combustion within
the cylinder. There is not a sizable volume of literature with the vapor properties of plant
oils or methyl esters verified using specialized experiments.

By dividing sprays into separate areas, separate discrete and empirical models can then
be interjected to simplify complex aspect of sprays. A quiescent chamber CFD model
was used to calibrate the overall injection and breakup models against the liquid and
vapor penetration distances provided in the experimental data of Singh [11]. The standalone high pressure chamber allowed the parameters of the spray model to be studied
and augmented independently of the overall engine model. Figure
15 is a labeled depiction of a mini-sac injector.

Mini-sac diesel injector tip

A phenomenological plain orifice atomization model was utilized to empirically


incorporate internal nozzle conditions and their physical effects on the spray angle,
droplet geometry, and droplet velocity. High pressure flows through cylindrical
nozzles is very complex. In the plain orifice model, the nozzle flow velocity,coefficient
of

discharge, the spray angle, and the cavitation number, for separate nozzle operation
regimes, are calculated using the injection pressure, cylinder pressure near the
nozzle orifice, Reynolds number, nozzle geometry, area coefficient,
and the fuel properties such as liquid density, and vapor pressure . Fuel kinematic
viscosity,mass flow rate,and a proportionality constant,are also
used to calculate injection parameters.
As the needle closes the fuel supply to the mini-sac, the flow transitions back
through the modes of flow in reverse. It is the transitional flow phenomenon in concert
with fluid properties which leads to the complexity of high pressure orifice sprays. There
is a lot of interplay between the cylinder pressure and the spray velocity implied by
Bernoulli's equation. It is the increase in cylinder pressure that overcomes liquid fuel
viscosity and leads to cavitation and atomization. Droplet breakup, collision, and
secondary breakup are simulated using the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) aerodynamic drag
model, O'Rourke's collision probability algorithm, and the Raleigh-Taylor (RT) instability
breakup model. A Lagrangian discrete phase model (DPM) is used to simulate turbulent
droplet dispersion. The KH-RT model assumes that fuel droplets are emitted from a
column of liquid blobs because of shear forces imparted by the continuous phase.

Those droplets may collide and form larger droplets or travel on being guided by the
continuous phase. The smallest discrete droplets, which will no longer collide or
breakup, are in the domain after the secondary breakup process, the continuous gas
phase interacts with them. The mass and velocity of the droplets is reduced via
thermal and momentum energy transfer. The droplets vaporize and deposit their fuel
mass into the cells along their path of travel through the combustion chamber and
become part of the continuous gas phase. The aggregate continuous gas phase
properties go into the finite-rate or eddy dissipation chemistry model and energy
equation calculations.

The quiescent spray chamber model consists of one nozzle centered at the top
with its spray axis in the downward vertical direction. The initial pressure within the
chamber is held at the motored TDC pressure. The entire spray formation is
simulated across all degrees of crankshaft angle movement for the DOI at 1200
revolutions per minute. The elapsed time of the spray is approximately 1389
microseconds, at high temperature engine operating conditions, with a 691
microsecond short ignition
delay. The shape of the equivalence ratio field, liquid penetration length, and vapor
penetration field with petroleum diesel were compared to the experimental data from.
The use of a phenomenological spray model, that predicts initial spray distribution
based on the injector specifications and fuel fluid properties, allows direct substitution
of liquid fuels with slightly different physical properties with adjustments to the breakup
model. The breakup model coefficient adjustments were arrived at using trial and error.
The mesh used for the quiescent spray chamber is depicted.

: Quiescent spray chamber mesh


The specifications of the injector are listed
Sandia/Cummin Injector Specification
Sandia/Cummins N14 Injector Specifications
Type
Common Rail, pilot valve
Rail pressure
120MPa or 160MPa
Cup type
Mini sac
Number of orifices
8 - 1/45
Orifice diameter (mm)
0.196
Orifice
5
Length/Diameter
Included spray angle
152
Discharge coefficient
0.67
Area coefficient
0.93
Velocity coefficient
0.72

Combustion Chamber Mesh Grid


The key geometry that must be reproduced is the piston and the proximity of its
crown geometry to the head surface, within the combustion chamber during
crankshaft angle change. The overall number of computations is directly related to
mesh density, the number of steps during compression, the number of steps during
combustion, and the complexity of the solver configuration. The mesh grid geometry
of the combustion chamber volume, are pre-generated outside of ANSYS Fluent
with ANSYS ICEM. The mesh grids used for this thesis work are shown in Figure .
The mesh grids are sector meshes that represent one eighth of the cylinder. Only one
injection orifice is considered. The crevice measured from the top most surface of the
piston down to the first ring was omitted.

Figure Cylinder combustion mesh grids

Dynamic Meshing
The volume and shape of the combustion chamber are augmented along the
cylinder axis. It is assumed that the crankshaft's angular velocity is constant which
allows the time step size to be constant during the various phases of combustion.
The Fluent solver requires that the user provides the number of desired steps. All of
the

engine sector mesh grids, used in this thesis, that are read into Fluent, start at TDC and
must be manipulated to expand them to the appropriate volume associated with the
IVC crankshaft angular position. From that time point forward, the number of time steps
required to reach the period just before the exhaust valve opens is defined by the
following equation:

Diagram depicting all terms in piston position calculation

The cells are grown from and collapsed into the head boundary during the
solution. The result is a separate mesh for each individual timestep. Figure 19 is
a depiction of the mesh growth.

Mesh grid cell augmentation during the solution process

CFD Solver Configuration


Initial and Boundary Conditions
The typical steps for IC simulation, when the intake, valve, manifold port
geometry, and velocity profiles are known, is to setup and solve a cold flow case with
no combustion. In a cold flow case, the introduction of charge air through the intake port
and valve is considered. The cold flow solution can be applied as the initial conditions
of the compression and combustion simulation so that the initial field values at IVC can
be made as realistic as possible. If the head port and valve geometry are not known,
the initial conditions of swirl and tumble after IVC can be approximated. Because the

detailed cylinder head geometry of the N14 engine is unknown, at this time, all of
the simulation in this work omits valve motion by simulating the time period from IVC
to EVO. Also, cylinder air swirl and tumble are assumed to occur about cylinder axis.
A user defined function, written in C, was used to define the initial velocity field at
IVC. Trial and error methods were used to set the swirl ratio number at IVC such that
the TDC swirl ratio was about 0.52 as stated by Singh. Figure is a depiction of the
swirl phenomenon.

Figure Intake swirl flow diagram


The initial air component mass fractions, gauge pressure, and temperature
were set according to the specifications given. The injection

settings were configured for each case by calculating the effective mass flow rate
for one nozzle.
Pollutant Formation Modeling
Two pollutants of main concern are NOx and soot. They are both formed at
opposite ends of the combustion operating range. NOx is typically formed when the
combustion equivalence ratio is less than unity and flame temperatures are high. Soot
is formed mostly as the result of pyrolysis within fuel rich regions at medium and lower
temperatures. Because diesel engines operate at maximum volumetric frequency and
rely on turbulent diffusion for reactant mixing, these two major pollutants are formed
simultaneously. Figure is a depiction of the soot and NOx formation zones as functions
of equivalence ratio, combustion temperature, and air oxygen volume percentage.

Figure Soot and NOx production zones typical of diesel engines (Sandia 1993)

It was assumed that the major component of NOx emissions was nitric oxide
(NO). Several models are used to predict NO formation. NO that is promptly formed in
the regions of high equivalence ratio and low temperature can predicted using the
Fenimore model. The Fenimore model was not used because the residence time of
all species is 0.020seconds, which is particularly long. Without activating a return
model, overproduction of NO would be a trend. Thermal NO is modeled using the
Zeldovich mechanism correlations for the oxidation of nitrogen within the intake air.

The Tenser model was utilized for soot emission prediction which involves
carbon forming on nucleating particles. Soot formation properties were set according
to default values The stoichiometric of soot and fuel combustion were set respectively
for each fuel based on carbon number.

Several Fluent custom field functions are used to calculate ending pollutant
quantities at EVO and other points in the cylinder and are shown as a contiguous file
in appendix A.

Solution Process
Along with the momentum equations, the pressure based Fluent solver is
configured to solve the energy, viscous model, species transport, and reaction
equations. Pressure and velocity is coupled using the pressure implicit with splitting of

operators (PISO) scheme. The overall solution process that results from the
configuration of ANSYS Fluent is depicted in figure.

Figure ANSYS Fluent transient solution process after configuration

Post-processing and Analysis


The was solver configured to output several parameters which allow
generation of heat release curves. The apparent heat release rate (AHRR),

, was

numerically estimated using the calculated average cylinder pressure as a function of


crank angle.
The heat release equation in (Heywood 1988) was numerically represented as is the

typical practice to produce an AHRR curve from an experimental pressure trace. The
Eichelberg empirical relation for convective heat transfer, out of the continuous phase,
into the cylinder wall, was added.
The average cylinder wall temperature,
temperature,

, the cylinder wall area,

, the bulk continuous phase

, and the combustion chamber volume, ,

are obtained at the end of each converged time step. The values of pollutant
quantities are only considered at EVO as it is assumed that combustion has
concluded prior to that event.

Cylinder Pressure
The mean cylinder pressure is a measure of volume averaged cylinder pressure
from IVC to EVO during the simulation. For case one, three diesel and one biodiesel
simulations were conducted. The ignition delay is over predicted for case one. The
RNG k-e turbulence model was utilized for the first diesel case in conjunction with a
laminar finite-rate combustion model and had the longest ignition delay. The first of the
diesel simulations also over predicted the peak average combustion pressure. The
effect on

combustion because of fuel property, injection rate, and spray formation differences
between fuels can be visualized with the pressure curve. Pressure curves for all
cases

Mean Cylinder Pressure (MPa)

are shown in figures.

Sandia Cummins N14 Mean Pressure - Case1 [HT-SID]

8
7
6
5

Singh2006 Pressure1
c1-D1-Pressure (MPa)
c1-D2-Pressure (MPa)
c1-D3-Pressure (MPa)
c1-MD2-Pressure (MPa)

4
3
2
705

715

725
735
Crank Angle (CAD)

745

755

Figure Case 1, High Temperature, short ignition delay pressure curves

Mean Cylinder Pressure (MPa)

Sandia/Cummins N14 - Mean Pressure [HT-LID]


8

Singh2006 Pressure2
c2-D1-Pressure (MPa)
c2-D2-Pressure (MPa)
c2-MD-Pressure (MPa)

2
705

715

725

735
745
Crank Angle (CAD)

755

Figure Case 2, High-temperature, long ignition delay pressure curves


For case two, the ignition delay was predicted well using the RNG k-e turbulence
model for the first diesel simulation. The second diesel and methyl decanoate
simulations have shorter ignition delays. Short ignition delay and high peak pressure
indicate maladjustment of the autoignition model.

Mean Cylinder Pressure (MPa)

Sandia Cummins N14 - Mean Pressure [LT-EI]


10

Singh2006 Pressure3
c3-D1-Pressure (MPa)
c3-MD1-Pressure (MPa)

4
690

700

710

720
730
Crank Angle (CAD)

740

750

760

Figure Case 3, Low-temperature, early injection pressure curves


Case three ignition delays and peak combustion pressure seem to show the
effects of differing physical properties of fuels. The combustion rate of the fuels
seems to be higher than the experimental data in all cases leading up to case three.

The pressure level in cases four and five match the experimental pressure
curves very well. The ignition delay is smaller than that of the experimental data
but,

Mean Cylinder Pressure (MPa)

combustion rate seems to match in case five.

Sandia/Cummins N14 - Mean Pressure [LT-LI]


8
7
6
5

Singh2006 Pressure4
c4-D1-Pressure (MPa)

4
3
2
705

715

725

735
745
Crank Angle (CAD)

755

Figure Case 4, Low-temperature, late injection pressure curves

Mean Cylinder Pressure (MPa)

Sandia/Cummins N14 - Mean Pressure [LT-DI]

7
6
5
Singh2006 Pressure5

c5-D1-Pressure (MPa)

3
2
705

715

725
735
Crank Angle (CAD)

745

755

Figure Case 5, Low-temperature, double injection pressure curves


All results could be improved by determining a method to match the
experimental injection mass flow rate curves, more tuning of the droplet collision
breakup model, and having accurate information about the kinematic viscosity of
biodiesel. The spray model is very dependent on accurate fuel properties to determine
which modes the injector nozzle is operating in. The autoignition energy of the fuels
also need to be known more accurately so that the detonation and high a burn rate of
the fuel does not occur. Sharp spikes in simulated pressure mean that the injector
nozzle may spend more time in the flipped mode than the cavitating mode during the
DOI. The accurate simulation liquid spray impingement and subsequent modes of
evaporation require very fine wall mesh grids because of interaction with turbulence
modeling.

Combustion Temperature
The temperature result of the simulations is compared with experimental data.
The adiabatic temperatures in the experimental data are calculated using STANJAN
code with optical data during the soot formation and soot combustion as input. Since
the experimental data is actually a theoretical calculation of maximum adiabatic flame
temperature, simulation results are only provided so that general temperature trends
correlations can be identified. Additional Temperature plots are in
appendix B
2540

Sandia Cummins N-14 Combustion Temperature [HT-SID]

Temperature (K)

2440
2340
2240
2140
2040
Singh2006 Temperature1
c1-D1-Temperature (K)
c1-D2-Temperature (K)
c1-D3-Temperature (K)
c1-MD2-Temperature
(K)

1940
1840
1740
720

722

724

726
728
Crank Angle (CAD)

730

Figure Case 1, High Temperature, short ignition delay temperature curves

732

Apparent Heat Release Rate


The AHRR curves are modeled using a single zone zero-dimensional
thermodynamic model. Because of error in the temperature and pressure curves in
section , the calculated maximum AHRR overshoot the experimental data
significantly however, trends such as a negative AHRR at the SOI before autoignition
are reproduced. Tuning of the autoignition model alone could have positive effects
for the increase of accuracy. The AHRR curves for cases two, three, four, and five
are in

Apparent Heat Release Rate (J/)

appendix B.
SCORE Cummins N14 - Apparent Heat Release Rate
Results [HT-SID]

650
550

450
350

Singh-c1-AHHR(J/deg)
c1-D1-AHHR(J/deg)
c1-D2-AHHR(J/deg)
c1-D3-AHHR(J/deg)
c1-MD2-AHHR(J/deg)

250

150

50

-50

713

723

733
743
Crank Angle (CAD)

753

Figure Case 1, High Temperature, short ignition delay heat release curves

Combustion Emissions
Given most of the published data at the time, the EPA characterized the
overall average trend in reduction of regulated emissions when using soy methyl
ester biodiesel in heavy-duty highway engines. is the EPA's published emission

% change in emissions

impacts of SME on heavy duty highway engines.


20
10
0

% Change in USEPA Regulated Emission with SME


Biodiesel
0

20

40

60

80

-10

100
NOx
PM
CO
HC

-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70

Volumetric % SME biodiesel in fuel

Figure Percent change in regulated emissions with SME biodiesel


Table is a comparison of NOx emissions at EVO between biodiesel and diesel fuel.
The high temperature case with long ignition delay is the only case that is somewhat
in agreement with the emissions trends.
Table Percent increase in NOx between simulated fuels
Simulated NOx at EVO (845deg) [g/(hp*hr)] or [ppm]
HT-SID HT-LID LT-EI LT-LI (ppm) LT-DI (ppm)
Diesel#2
29.6
16.8
1
63
87.7
MD
5.4
20.9
0.47
---452%
19.8% -126%
---

Unconsumed Fuel
Unconsumed fuel is a regulated pollutant in most jurisdictions. In the U.S., the
EPA specifies that an on-road heavy truck or combination tractor powered by a heavyduty compression ignition engine, such as the Cummins N14, can only emit up to
1.3g hp hr of unburned fuel from the exhaust. If an engine produces 100 brake
horse power at speed, it could only output up to 130 grams of unconsumed fuel over
the course of an hour of operation. Table depict the estimated average levels of fuel
pollutants.
Fuel emissions at end of simulation

Unburnt Fuel at EVO [g/(hp*hr)]

Unburnt Hydrocarbons at EVO (845deg) [g/(hp*hr)]


HT-SID
HT-LID
LT-EI
LT-LI
LT-DI
Diesel#2 4.33E-05 5.75E-03 1.06E-04 1.56E-04 5.21E-04
--MD 6.18E-05 6.87E-05 2.56E-02

Unconsumed Fuel at EVO (845deg)


3.00E-02
2.50E-02
2.00E-02
1.50E-02

Diesel#2
MD

1.00E-02
5.00E-03
0.00E+00

HT-SID HT-LID

LT-EI

LT-LI

LT-DI

Figure Unconsumed fuel in domain at EVO

Particulates
Soot luminosity and processing techniques were used by Singh to determine

Soot Particulate Volume [mm3]

soot volume from optical experiments. The simulation results for all cases match the
trend of the experimental results well. Table depict the volume of soot particulates in
the fuel jet.

Particulates [mm3]
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3

Singh 2006
Diesel#2

0.2

MD

0.1
0
HT-SID

HT-LID

LT-EI

LT-LI

LT-DI

Figure Particulates in domain at EVO


Table Particulate emissions at specified crankshaft angles
3

CAD
Singh 2006
Diesel#2
MD

HT-SID
725
0.55667
0.01213
8.41E-04

Particulates [mm ]
HT-LID
LT-EI
728
715
0.08357
0.04296
0.01046 2.45E-05
1.18E-05 7.90E-09

LT-LI
741
0.0677
1.78E-09
--

LT-DI
755
0.0677
1.17E-09
--

Fuelspray
characteristis
Injection spray is the process that fuel is injected from nozzle, and it is
associated with following fuel atomisation, interaction with surrounding gas,
mixture formation and com bustion. Regarding to a new fuel applied into
the diesel engine, the spray process is differ ent due to the different
properties from diesel, and the control strategy should be changed
accordingly in order to achieve the optimum performance. Viscosity, surface
tension and density are the three main parameters, which influence fuel
spray characteristics. Higher viscosity and surface tension will prohibit the
atomisation and instability of fuel droplets. Due to the different biodiesels
properties from diesel, studies on the spray characteristics are necessary.
Near-fieldspray
characteristics
In the near-field of nozzle, the spray is dominated by the injection dynamics
while the spray is affected by the ambient conditions in the far field.
According to Hiroyasus model, before the t breakup, which represents the
time for fuel jet breakup, the penetration length is proportion al to the time
after start of injection, namely ASOI. However, the non-linear phenomenon
has been observed by a number of researchers. The acceleration process has
been found to be different among fuels. Figure 4 compares the morphology
of the spray process of the three tested fuels, ULSD, RME and GTL and
Figure 5 shows the spray tip penetration length evolution after start of
injection (ASOI) using an ultrahigh-speed CCD camera of up to 1 million
shots per second. The initial non-linear penetration can be observed,
indicating the acceleration period at the initial spray stage. GTL fuel has
longer penetrating length than RME and die sel even though it was
overtaken by RME 70 s ASOI. Several publications have reported that
GTL with lower density has a shorter penetration delay. However, these were
based on the global fuel spray characteristics using a relatively low speed
camera [21, 13]. The temporal resolution is not high enough to capture the
near-field spray process.

Sequence of spray images in a single time-resolved ULSD spray (Pinj=120 MPa,


Pamb =3.0 MPa and tdur=1.5 ms

Macroscopic spray
characteristics
Normally, biodiesel shows a longer penetration and narrower spray angle
than fossil fuel due to the higher viscosity, surface tension and density. The
penetration length of biodiesel increases with the blend ratio, higher
biodiesel content requires longer breakup time . The difference between
the two type fuels can be varied at different conditions. experimentally
studied biodiesel spray characteristics at different ambient pressures. The
authors showed that little difference can be observed at the ambient pressure
of 1.2 MPa while the penetration length significantly increased in contrast to
diesel spray at the ambient pressure of 5.0 MPa. In addition, biodiesel may
have a lower penetration velocity due to the negative effect of fuel density
on spray velocity .
Sauter
(SMD)

Mean

diameter

SMD is one of the parameters to evaluate fuel atomisation quality and


represents the ratio of total droplet volume to surface area. Smaller SMD
indicates more small fuel droplets and the larger contact area with
surrounding gas. Due to the high viscosity and surface tension, SMD of
biodiesel is higher than fossil diesel. conducted the comparative anal ysis
on 15 biodiesels and a larger SMD, between 5%-40%, can be observed and
concluded an empirical equation to estimate SMD:
SMD = 0.002103 + 0.000330
where is fuel dynamic viscosity (Pa.s) and is fuel surface
tension (N/m).
compared diesel with neat RME and GTL at different injection pressure
along the spray axis in terms of SMD. It can be seen that the injection
pressure has a significant impact on droplet size. The SMD decreases
dramatically when the injection pressure increases from 80MPa to 120MPa.

Exhaust particulate number concentration (total)

Particle morphology (captured under engine mode of 1800 rpm, 30


Nm): (a) Diesel magnification of
10000; (b) Diesel magnification of 65000; (c) RME 10 magnification
of 10000; (d) RME magnification of 65000; (e) GTL10 magnification
of 10000; (f) GTL10 magnification of 65000

Engine emission optimisation


Two popular methods have been used to reduce the engine out emission for biodiesel-fuel
led engines: injection strategy and EGR. For the former, the combustion process can be
con trolled by injection timing and injection pressure. For the time being, the common rail
injection system has been widely used and multiple injections up to of 5 times can be real
ised. Through this way, the fuel injection rate is controllable. The NOx can be reduced
through pre-injection with small amount fuel; this prevents a long period of ignition delay
and therefore leads to a lower peak pressure; for the latter, EGR is always an effective
way to reduce NOx emission. Due to the induction of exhaust gas, the global in-cylinder
tempera ture is reduced, avoiding the thermal conditions favoured by NOx formation.
Ladommatos et al. [18] also revealed that the reduction in combustion temperature is a
consequence of the reduced peak rate of the premixed phase combustion due to the lower
oxygen availability.

Conclusions
Biodiesel is the most promising fuel in the near future as an alternative to fossil diesel. De
spite of its advantages, it still has some disadvantages such as source for massive
feedstock, relatively poor low-temperature properties, increase in NOx emissions, etc.
These issues should be sorted out before biodiesel is applied into diesel engines in a large
scale. There fore, in-depth studies on the application of biodiesel into diesel engines are
necessary. The research on alternative feedstocks is also an important area and the secondgeneration bio diesel is more promising made from algae and the genetic modification is a
potential way to solve this problem of source of massive feedstock. The low-temperature
fuel properties can be improved by additives or the production routine. In addition, diesel
engines should also be optimised in order to achieve the optimal performance and
emissions.

REFERENCE

www.ideo.com
www.howstuffworks.com
www.wikipedia.com
www.biodiesel.org
Zhang, X., Wang, H., et al. (2008). Characteristics of
Output Performances and Emissions of Diesel Engine
Employed Common Rail Fueled with Biodiesel Blends
from Wasted Cooking Oil. SAE Technical Paper 2008-011833.
Shashikant,V.G. and Hifjur Raheman, 2005.
Biodiesel production From Mahua oil having high free
fatty acids,Journal Of Biomass and Bioenergy,
28:601-605.
Ramadhas, A.S., S.Jayaraj and C. Muraleedharan,2004
Use of Vegetable oils as I.C. engine fuel-a
review,Renewable energy, 29(5):721-742.
Machine Design by R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta
Design of Machine Elements by V.P. Singh
Automotive Mechanics by Crouse and Anglin.
Internal Combustion engines By V.Ganesan.
IC Engines by Mathur & Sharma.
Automobile Engineering By Dr. Kirpal Singh.
Alternative Fuels By Dr. Kirpal Singh.
Also different books, papers and other websites.