Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

4

HUMAN EVOLUTION

This laboratory begins by asking you to compare and contrast various features of the skull
and locomotor apparatus of modern (extant) great apes and humans. These two groups
are representative of two extremes in terms of many of the bony and dental features that
are used to classify fossil hominins.
Comparisons of these extremes will enable you to examine the skulls and locomotor bones
of various fossil hominins and make an assessment, feature by feature, of where each
fossil hominin sits on the spectrum between these extremes.
Based on the concepts of ancestral and derived features that you learned in the previous
class, coupled with what you have learned in lectures and from your text books about
when these various hominin forms are known to have existed, you should be able to form a
broad picture of the trends in anatomical changes that have taken place over the course of
hominin evolution.
As noted in the previous class on Primates, although you can place these specimens in a
roughly graded order between anatomical extremes, this does not imply that each
successive group evolved from the preceding one. Modern humans did not evolve from
modern apes, such as gorillas and chimpanzees, but we do share a common ancestor.
Overall, the fossil record for hominins is characterised by being patchy and specimen poor.
While it is tempting to view the hominin specimens presented in this class as being
representative of a straight line in human evolution (anagenesis), they are, in fact,
representative of many divergent lines of evolution (cladogenesis).

After this topic you should be able to:


Describe structural changes occurring during human evolution.
Describe a possible course of human evolution.

Pre-lab

IMPORTANT: You are expected to have listened to the lectures and completed the
online HUMAN EVOLUTION pre-lab before coming to class.
There are marks associated with the completion of the online pre-lab, available on
HBIOL, which will shut down at 11.55pm on Sunday April 3rd. (see Unit Outline). You will
not be able to complete the online pre-lab after this date.
After the online pre-lab closes you will be able to review your own attempt and see the
correct answers. If you have not attempted the online pre-lab you will not be able to see
any of this feedback.

Page 4.2

4.1

Topic 4 Human Evolution

HB I 2016

The lectures and the online prelab will introduce you to some anatomical features
seen in members of the family Hominidae (gorilla, chimp, hominin). You MUST be
familiar with the features listed below in order to complete this weeks laboratory.
The material presented in this laboratory is covered well in Relethford and you will
also find some information in Saladin.

Cranium:
o frontal bone
o forehead
o orbit
o supra-orbital torus
o nasal cavity
o parietal bones
o sagittal crest
o occipital bone
o external occipital protuberance
o foramen magnum
o cranial base
o nuchal crest
o temporal bones
o mastoid process
o zygomatic arch
o suture lines
o vault (arched bone over brain)
Facial bones:
o maxilla
o mandible
o condyle of mandible
o ramus of mandible
o body of mandible
o chin
o orthognathic (flattened) face
o prognathic (protruding) face

Teeth:
o incisors
o canines
o upper pre-canine diastema
o sectorial premolar
o molarised premolar
o molars
o parabolic dental arcade
o parallel sided dental arcade
Pelvis and femur:
o ischium
o ischial tuberosity
o ilium
o pubis
o pubic symphysis
o sacrum
o neck of femur
o head of femur
o shaft of femur

HB I 2016

Topic 4 Human Evolution

Page 4.3

Below is a list of words and word roots for commonly used terms relevant to this topic.
extant

stand out , be visible, exist

supra

above

diastema

interval / separation

torus

a bulging

pro-

in front of

foramen

opening

ortho-

straight

magnum

large

gnath

jaw

sectorial

a cutting edge

nuch

back of neck

ramus

branch

australo

southern

pithecus

ape

para

near, next to

anthropus

man

bosei

after Charles Boise

homo

man or human

habilis

handy

ergaster

working

erectus

upright

sapiens

wise, capable of discerning

-ensis

native of, relating to

afar

region in Ethiopia

heidelberg

place in Germany

neanderthal

Of the Neander valley

4
4.2

Laboratory
The first exercise in this lab will be explained by your tutor.

Page 4.4

4.3

Topic 4 Human Ev
volution

HB I 2016
6

Use this tab


ble to verify
y whether o
or not the answers
a
yo
ou provideed in the first lab
exxercise are
e correct.

Date
e range

Height
estimate
e
(cm)

Wei ght
estim
mate
(kg
g)

Endocranial
capacity
c
(cc)

SubSaraha
an
Africa
a

M odern

80

400
(fem
male)

400

Australop
pithecus
afare
ensis

East Africa

3.8- 3.0 mya

29--42

400-450
4

Paranth
hropus
bos
sei

South &
East Africa

2.6- 1.2 mya

110-130
0

34--49

500

Homo h
habilis
H. rudo
olfensis

South &
East Africa

2.8- 1.5 mya

125-140
0

344

700

Homo e
ergaster

Africa &
Europe
e

1.8- 0.5 mya

160-190
0

56--66

850-1000

Homo e
erectus

China &
Java

1.6
6-0.25
mya

130-170
0

56--63

830-1000

Hom
mo
heidelbe
ergensis

Africa, Asia
A
& Europ
pe

0.8- 0.2 mya

150-180
0

60-1100

12
200-1300

Hom
mo
neandertthalensis

Europe &
Middle East

12 5,00035,0
000 yrs
BP

160

800

12
200-1600

Homo s
sapiens

Pandem
mic;
African
n
origin

200 ,000 yrs


B
BP
pressent day

165

600

12
250-1400

Spec
cies

phic
Geograp
locatio
on

Chimp
panzee

105

15
50

HB I 2016

4.4

Topic 4 Human Ev
volution

Page 4.5
5

Exxamine the
e chimpanz
zee, fossil hominin skulls and the human skull. Dettermine
w
which of the
e listed feattures are p
present in each
e
specimen
Face:

prognath
hic /
orthognatthic

Prognath
hic

Rela
ative size of
teeth:
larg
ger canines
s;
masssive molarrs;
sa
ame sizes.

Prrecan
nine
diasttema:
pressent /
abssent

Premolar
P
Denttal
shape:
arcad
de:
like canines// parallel sided/
lik
ke molars
parabbolic

Foramen
magnum:
posterior/
in
ntermediate
e/
central

Larrger canine
es
(e
especially
males)

Pressent

Lik
ke canines Parallel sided

Posterior

Moving away
from paarallel
Inttermediate
e
sided toowards
parabbolic

In
ntermediate
e

Prognath
hic

La
arge molars
s

(less)
Prognath
hic

S
Small
front
tee
eth, massiv
ve
molars.

Orthogna
athic

Molars and
M
can
nines same
e
size

Orthogna
athic

Orthogna
athic

Orthogna
athic

Orthogna
athic

Orthogna
athic

N
No

diasttema

N
No

diasttema

M
Molars
and
can
nines same
e
size.

diasttema

M
Molars
and
can
nines same
e
size.

N
No
diasttema

N
No

M
Molars
and
can
nines same
e
size.

diasttema

M
Molars
and
can
nines same
e
size.

diasttema

M
Molars
and
can
nines same
e
size.

diasttema

N
No

N
No

N
No

Liike molars

(slighhtly)
Parabbolic

In
ntermediate
e

Liike molars

Morre
parabbolic
(fosssil
deform
med)

Central

Liike molars

Parabbolic

Central

Liike molars

Parabbolic

Central

Liike molars

Parabbolic

Central

Liike molars

Parabbolic

Central

Liike molars

Parabbolic

Central

Page 4.6

Topic 4 Human Evolution

HB I 2016

4.5

Work with your group to arrange all species from the table on the previous pages
into a phylogenetic tree. Include a timeline. Copy this into the space provided
below.

4.6

Examine the material provided then fill in the table below comparing features of
the hip and femur in the chimpanzee, Australopithecus afarensis, Homo ergaster
and modern human.
Chimpanzee

A. afarensis
Lucy

H. ergaster
Nariokotome
boy

Modern human

Length of neck of
femur

short

longer

very long

long

General shape of
pelvis

long and
narrow

short and bowl


shaped

short and bowl


shaped

short and bowl


shaped

Ischial length

long

short

short (but longer


than modern)

short

Shape of iliac blades:


flat and narrow OR
flared and curved

flat , narrow
and long

flared and
curved

flared and
curved

flared and
curved

dorsally

blade is
curved so
faces both
posteriorly and
laterally

blade is curved
so faces both
posteriorly and
laterally

blade is curved
so faces both
posteriorly and
laterally

Feature
Femur angle of shaft
to vertical
(sketch e.g. or )

Direction that outer


surface of iliac blade
faces

HB I 2016

Topic 4 Human Evolution

Page 4.7

Post-lab

4.7

Write a brief summary on how changes in the shape of the pelvis and femur in the
course of evolution from an ancestral quadruped have led to efficient bipedalism in
modern Homo sapiens.

4.8

Using features you have identified in this laboratory repeat the exercise from last
weeks post lab and construct a more detailed list of features which you think
would separate humans from other members of the Family Hominidae (hominids)
to allow their classification into Genus Homo.

Page 4.8

Topic 4 Human Evolution

HB I 2016