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2–78.

Three forces act on the ring. If the resultant force F R has a magnitude and direction as shown, determine the magnitude and the coordinate direction angles of force F 3 .

SOLUTION

Cartes i an Vector Notati on :

F R = 120{cos 45°sin 30°i + cos 45°cos 30°j + sin 45°k} N

= {42.43i + 73.48j + 84.85k} N

F 1

=

80 b 4 i

5

+

5 3 k r N

=

F 2 = { - 110k} N

{64.0i

+

48.0k} N

F 3 = { F 3 x i + F 3 y j + F 3 z k} N

Res u ltant Force :

F 1

x

z F 3
120 N
F R
110 N
F 2
80 N
5 45
3
4
30

F R =

F 1

+

F 2 +

F 3

{42.43i + 73.48j + 84.85k} =

E A 64.0 + F 3 x B i + F 3 y j

+ A 48.0 - 110 + F 3 z B k F

E q uating i, j and k components, we have

64.0 + F

3 x = 42.43

48.0 - 110

+

3 z = 84.85

F

F

3

x

= -21.57 N

F 3 y = 73.48 N

F

3

z

= 146.85 N

The magnitude of force F 3 is

F 3 = 2 F 2 x + F 2 y + F 2

3

3

3 z

= 2 (- 21.57) 2 + 73.48 2 + 146.85 2

= 165.62 N = 166 N

A

n s.

The coordinate direction angles for F 3 are

cos a =

cos b

=

cos g =

F 3 x

- 21.57

=

F

3

165.62

F 3 y =

73.48

F

3

165.62

=

F

3 z

= 146.85

165.62

F

3

a

b

= 97.5°

= 63.7°

g = 27.5°

A

A

ns.

ns.

A ns.

y

2–79.

 Determine the coordinate direction angles of F 1 and F R . z SOLUTION F 3 120 N F R 110 N F 2 80 N 5 45 F 1 3 4 30 x A ns. Un itVector of F 1 and F R : 4 3 u F 1 = i + = 0.8i + 0.6k 5 5 k u R = cos 45° sin 30°i + cos 45° cos 30°j + sin 45°k = 0.3536i + 0.6124j + 0.7071k Thus, the coordinate direction angles F 1 and F R are cos a F 1 = 0.8 a F 1 = 36.9° cos b F 1 = 0 b F 1 = 90.0° A ns. cos g F 1 = 0.6 g F 1 = 53.1° A ns. cos a R = 0.3536 a R = 69.3° A ns. cos b R = 0.6124 b R = 52.2° A ns. cos g R = 0.7071 g R = 45.0° A ns.

y

2–85.

The pole is subjected to the force F which has components

F

x = magnitudes of F and F y .

, determine the

1.5 kN

and

F

z

= 1.25 kN

. If

b

= 75°

SOLUTION

cos 2 a + cos 2 b

+ cos 2 g

=

1

a 1.5

F

b 2

+ cos 2 75° +

a 1.25 b 2

F

F = 2.02 kN

=

1

F y = 2.02 cos 75° = 0.523 kN

Ans.

Ans.

x

z F z
g F
b
a
F x

F y

y

*2–116.

Determine the magnitude of the projected component of force F AB acting along the z axis.

SOLUTION

Un i t Vector : The unit vector u AB must be determined first. From Fig. a,

u AB = r AB r AB

=

(18 - 0)i

+

(- 12 - 0)j

+

(0 - 36)k

2 (18

- 0) 2

+

(- 12 - 0) 2

+

(0 - 36) 2

=

3

7 i

-

2

7

j

-

6

7 k

Thus, the force vector F AB is given by

F AB = F AB u AB = 700 a 3 7 i -

2 j

7

-

6 k b

7

= {300i - 200j - 600k} lb

z  A
600 lb
F AC
36 ft
700 lb
F AB
D
18 ft
O
12 ft
B
12 ft
12 ft
C
30
x

y

Vector Dot Prod u ct : The projected component of F AB along the z axis is A n s.

(F AB ) z = F AB # k =

=

 A 300i - 200j - 600k B # k -600 lb

The negative sign indicates that ( F AB )z is directed towards the negative z axis.Thus

(F AB ) z = 600 lb

*2–117.

Determine the magnitude of the projected component of force F AC acting along the z axis.

SOLUTION

Un i t Vector : The unit vector u AC must be determined first. From Fig. a,

z  A
600 lb
F AC
36 ft
700 lb
F AB
D
18 ft
O
12 ft
B
12 ft
12 ft
C
30
x

u AC = r AC r AC

=

(12 sin 30° - 0)i

+

(12 cos 30° - 0)j

+

(0 - 36)k

2(12 sin 30° - 0) 2 + (12 cos 30° -

0) 2 +

(0 - 36) 2

= 0.1581i + 0.2739j - 0.9487k

Thus, the force vector F AC is given by

y

F AC = F AC u AC = 600 A 0.1581i + 0.2739j - 0.9487k B = {94.87i + 164.32j - 569.21k} N

Vector Dot Prod u ct: The projected component of F AC along the z axis is

( F AC ) z = F AC # k = A 94.87i + 164.32j - 569.21k B # k

= -569 lb

The negative sign indicates that ( F AC ) z is directed towards the negative z axis. Thus

(F AC ) z = 569 lb

A n s. 2–118.

Determine the projection of the force F along the pole.

SOLUTION

Proj F

=

F # u a

= 12 i

+

4 j

Proj F = 0.667 kN

+

10 k2 # a 2 i

3

+

3 2 j

-

1

3

k b

A n s.

x

z F = {2i + 4j + 10k} kN
O
2 m
2 m
1 m

y

2–125.

Determine the projected component of force

axis of strut AO. Expre ss the re sult a s a Carte sian vector.

F

AC

along the

z

x 3 ft
B
C
4 ft
5
ft
60
A
O
6 ft
2 ft

F AB 70 lb

F AC 60 lb

SOLUTION

Unit Vectors: The unit vector s -

u

AC

6)j

and

u

AO

mu st be determined first. From Fig. a,

- 2)k

(5 co s 60° -

0)i +

(0

+ (5 sin 60°

u AC =

u AO =

3(5 co s 60° - 0) 2 + (0 - 6) 2 + (0 - 2) 2

(0

-

0)i

+

(0

-

6)j

+

(0

- 2)k

= 0.3621i - 0.8689j + 0.3375k

y 3(0 - 0) 2 + (0 - 6) 2 + (0 -

F AC

i s given by

2) 2 = -0.9487j - 0.3162 k

Thus, the force vectors

F AC = F AC u AC = 60(0.3621i - 0.8689j + 0.3375k) = {21.72i - 52.14j + 20.25k} lb

Vector Dot Product: The magnitude of the projected component of AO is

F AC

alon g strut

(F AC ) AO = F AC # u AO = (21.72i - 52.14j + 20.25k) # (-0.9487j - 0.3162k)

= (21.72)(0) + (-52.14)(-0.9487) + (20.25)(-0.3162)

= 43.057 lb

Thus,

(F AC ) AO

expre ssed in Carte sian vector form can be written a s

(F AC ) AO = (F AC ) AO u AO = 43.057(-0.9487j - 0.3162k)

= {-40.8j - 13.6k} lb

Ans.

2–130. Determine the angle u between the pipe segments BA and BC.
z
A
3 ft
4 ft
2 ft
4 ft
B
x
SOLUTION
F {30i 45j 50k} lb
Position Vectors: The position vectors
Fig. a,
r
and
r
must be determined first. From
4 ft
BA
BC
C

y

r BA = (0 - 3)i + (0 - 4)j + (0 - 0)k = { - 3i - 4j} ft

r BC = (7 - 3)i + (6 - 4)j + (- 4 - 0)k = {4i + 2j - 4k} ft

The magnitude of

r

BA

and

r

BC

are

3(- 3) 2 + (- 4) 2 = 5 ft

r BA =

r BC = 34 2 + 2 2 + (- 4) 2 = 6 ft

Vector Dot Product:

r BA # r BC = (- 3i - 4j) # (4i + 2j - 4k)

= (- 3)(4) + (-4)(2) + 0(-4)

= - 20 ft 2 Thus,

u

= cos

-1 a r BA # r BC

r

BA r BC

b

= cos -1 c

-20

5(6)

d

= 132°

Ans.

2–131.

f

of the flag pole and AB and AC, respectively, of each cable.

Determine the angles

u

and

SOLUTION

r A C

= {-2i -

r AB =

{1.5i -

4j + 1k}m;

4j

+

3k} m;

r A C = 4.58 m

r AB = 5.22 m

r A O

=

{ - 4j

- 3k} m;

r A O = 5.00 m

r A B # r A O = (1.5)(0) + ( -4)( -4) +

u = cos -1 ¢ r AB # r AO

r AB r AO

=

cos -1 ¢

5.22(5.00) = 74.4°

7

(3)(- 3) = 7

A

n s.

x

r AC # r AO = (-2)(0) + (- 4)(- 4) + (1)( -3) = 13

f

= cos -1 a r AC # r AO b

r AC r AO

= cos

-1 a

4.58(5.00) b = 55.4°

13

A n s. z
1.5 m
C
B 2 m
4 m
40 N
F C
55 N
F B
6 m
A
u f
O
3 m
4 m

y

*2–136.

Determine the components of F that act along rod AC and perpendicular to it. Point B is located at the midpoint of the rod.

SOLUTION

r AC = (- 3i

+

4j

-

4k),

r AC =

2(- 3) 2 + 4 2

+ ( - 4) 2

r AB = r AC

2

=

-3i +

4j

+

4k

2

=

-1.5i

+

2j

- 2k

r AD = r AB + r BD

r BD = r AD - r AB

=

(4i +

6j

-

4k) -

( - 1.5i +

2j

-

2k)

= {5.5i

+

4j

- 2k} m

r BD = 2 (5.5) 2 + (4) 2 + (- 2) 2 = 7.0887 m

F

=

600 a

BD b = 465.528i + 338.5659j - 169.2829k

r

BD

r

=

2 41 m

x z
A
B
4 m
4 m
O
F
600 N
C
3 m
6 m
4 m
y
D

C omponent of F along

r

AC

is

F | |

F | | = F # r AC

r

AC

F | | =

= (465.528i + 338.5659j - 169.2829k) # (-3i + 4j - 4k)

 241 An s. is F An s.

99.1408 = 99.1 N

C omponent of F perpendicular to

F

F

2

2

F

+ F 2 | = F 2

|

= 600 2

= 600 2 - 99.1408 2

= 591.75 = 592 N

r

AC

2–137.

Determine the components of F that act along rod AC and perpendicular to it. Point B is located 3 m along the rod from end C.

SOLUTION

3i

r CA =

r CA = 6.403124

-

4j

+ 4k

r CB =

3

6.403124 (r CA ) = 1.40556i - 1.874085j + 1.874085k

r OB = r OC + r CB

= -3i

+

4j

+ r CB

= -1.59444i + 2.1259j + 1.874085k

r OD = r OB + r BD

r BD = r OD - r OB = (4i + 6j) - r OB

= 5.5944i + 3.8741j - 1.874085k

r BD = 2(5.5944) 2 + (3.8741) 2 + ( -1.874085) 2 = 7.0582

F = 600( r BD

r

BD ) = 475.568i + 329.326j - 159.311k

r AC = (- 3i

+

4j

- 4k),

r AC = 241

x z
A
B
4 m
4 m
O
F
600 N
C
3 m
6 m
4 m
y
D

C omponent of F along

r

AC

is

F |

|

F | | = F # r AC

r

AC

= (475.568i + 329.326j - 159.311k) # (-3i + 4j - 4k)

2

41

F | | =

82.4351 = 82.4 N

C omponent of F perpendicular to

F

F

2

2

F

+ F 2 | = F 2

|

= 600 2

= 600 2 - 82.4351 2

= 594 N

r

AC

 An s. is F An s.