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A STUDY ABOUT SELECTED PARACTICES IN THE SEMESTERS OF BS

(HONS) PROGRAM AT HAZARA UNIVERSITY

HAZARA UNIVERSITY
MANSEHRA, KPK, PAKISTAN
APRIL 2016

Written by:
1. Asim Ihsan.
2. Faraz Ud din.

Abstract:
Earlier graduation was limited to fourteen years of education. But from
the last few years, the education standard has been changed and
fourteen years of education shifted to sixteen years of education to fulfill
the criteria of graduation. Four year degree program is very helpful and it
covers all the necessary aspects of graduation degree according to
international standard. Four years degree programme include eight
semester with two semesters per year. In four years degree programme
assignments and quizzes are taken regularly which convince students to
study on regular basis. Furthermore they are continuously involve in
academic environment. Two types of exams are taken in each semesters,
including mid-term exam and final term-exam. Grading point average
(GPA) is calculated on the basis of mid-term, final term exam,
assignments and quizzes that were taken during the semesters.
However, attendance also plays an important role in semester system.
Those who dont qualify the minimum attendance requirement are not
allowed to enter to the examination hall. In short four year degree
programme has very positive impacts on academics and students
professional grooming and they are involve in studies throughout the
year.

Acknowledgement
We would like to express our sincere appreciation to our Project supervisor Dr. XYZ for their
invaluable guidance, support and encouragement.Their perpetual energy and enthusiasm in
research had motivated their advisees, including us. In addition, he was always accessible and
willing to help his students with his research. As a result, research life became easy and smooth
and rewarding for us. It has been our great pleasure and honor to have worked with him.
We would also like to express our gratefulness to all the faculty , staff and graduate
Students in the Department of Education, for their caring and support during our study at
Hazara University, KPK, Pakistan. Finally, we would like to thank our families and friends
for their encouragement and help, especially our parents who have devoted all their
efforts in us, We are grateful for their continuing understanding and countless support
throughout our entire life.

List of
Table1.81:DegreeStandardizedformatSchemeforB.A/B.SC(Hons)....................................................................11
YTable2.11:DepartmentofEnglishCreditHours...................................................................................................12
YTable2.12:DepartmentofEnglishYear1CourseCoverage.................................................................................12
YTable2.13:DepartmentofEnglishYear2CourseCoverage.................................................................................12
YTable2.14:DepartmentofEnglishYear3CourseCoverage.................................................................................12
YTable2.15:DepartmentofEnglishYear4CourseCoverage.................................................................................12
Table2.21:DepartmentofEconomicsCreditHours.................................................................................................12
Table2.22:DepartmentofEconomicsUniversityCoreCourses..............................................................................12
Table2.23:DepartmentofEconomicsUniversityGeneralCourses.........................................................................12
Table2.24:DepartmentofEconomicsEconomicsFoundationCourses..................................................................12
Table2.25:DepartmentofEconomicsEconomicsCoreCourses............................................................................12
Table2.31:DepartmentofCommunicationandMediaStudiesCreditHours..........................................................12
Table2.32:DepartmentofCommunicationandMediaStudiesYear1CourseCoverage.......................................12
Table2.33:DepartmentofCommunicationandMediaStudiesYear2CourseCoverage.......................................12
Table2.34:DepartmentofCommunicationandMediaStudiesYear3CourseCoverage.......................................12
Table2.35:DepartmentofCommunicationandMediaStudiesYear4CourseCoverage.......................................12
Table2.41:DepartmentofConservativeStudiesCreditHours.................................................................................12
Table2.42:DepartmentofConservativeStudiesCompulsaryCourses....................................................................12
Table2.43:DepartmentofConservativeStudiesRefresherCourses........................................................................12
Table2.44:DepartmentofConservativeStudiesFoundationCourses.....................................................................12
Table2.45:DepartmentofConservativeStudiesMajorCourses..............................................................................12
Table2.46:DepartmentofConservativeStudiesElectiveCourses..........................................................................12
Table2.51:DepartmentofBotanyCreditHours.......................................................................................................12
Table2.52:DepartmentofBotanyYear1CourseCoverage....................................................................................12
Table2.53:DepartmentofBotanyYear2CourseCoverage....................................................................................12
Table2.54:DepartmentofBotanyYear3CourseCoverage....................................................................................12
Table2.55:DepartmentofBotanyYear4CourseCoverage....................................................................................12
Table3.51:SemesterCourseMarksDistributionCreteria........................................................................................12
Table3.52:GradingPolicy.........................................................................................................................................12
Table3.53:EquivalenceBetweenNumericalandLetterGrading.............................................................................12
Table3.54:GradePointCalculations...........................................................................................................................12
Table3.55:GradePointAverageCalculations............................................................................................................12

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
It usually takes four years to complete BS (hons) degree. Initially four year bachelor degree
system was not deployed in Pakistan. However, there are many advantages of four year degree
program, including higher chances of employment, healthy salaries and ability to study more to
get post graduate degree.

1.1. Introduction to BS(hons):


BS (hons) is a terminology used for four year bachelors degree program which makes it
different from two years associates degree program which was common before deployment of
four year degree program. Students need to pass intermediate level to be eligible for BS (hons)
degree program. BS (hons) is consists of eight semesters covering two semesters per year,
depends on the policy of University.

1.2. Reason to get BS (hons) degree:


Those people who are in hurry to join a workplace are more concerned about the time required to
complete a four year bachelors degree. Although to facilitate those people some school offer 3
years accelerated degree program. Many students take more than four years to complete their BS
(hons) degree.
However, economical and professional benefits of four year degree program cannot be ignored.
U.S. Census Bureau report in 2013 shows that 72% of bachelor degree holders were offered
employments in 2013. Compare to other diploma or equivalents, BS (hons) have high chances of
getting a job.
Furthermore, BS (hons) degree holders earn attractive salaries and comfortable jobs. The
Department of Education in U.S, National Center for Education Statistics reported that people
with high school diploma earn median of $30,000 while those people having BS (hons) degree or
higher earn a median of $48500.
The difference in earning clearly shows that for higher position, getting a BS (hons) degree is
minimum requirement. Without BS (hons) degree individual cannot apply for MS or Post
graduate studies.

1.3. Where to get BS(hons) degree:


Every eligible student can get BS (hons) degree throughout the country from HEC recognized
universities. These include Government universities and private sector universities. Many
students are eager to study in top ranked universities. Getting admission in top ranked
universities have different criteria HEC usually announce ranking every year national wide. So
different universities demand for entry test while other look for students previous academic
background.

Regardless of university name, make sure that you are studying in HEC or PEC recognized
university because it is very necessary for getting admission in MS- M.Phil. or if you are
applying for job. [2]

1.4. Advantages and Disadvantages of four year degree


program:
Most of the people including parents and students dont aware of advantages and disadvantages
of four year degree program.

In 4 year program students have to wait longer to start their careers and is also expensive
than 2 year program because of its longer period.

Although 4 year degree program is time consuming and expensive but it is a flexible
degree in which student takes broader range of courses which helps them in getting wide
spectrum of jobs throughout the world.

Those students who want to pursue his master studies abroad, especially in America will
not need to study an extra year in Pakistan or India, if they get admission in bachelor four
year degree program.

Four year degree program is a combination of classes, assignments, quizzes, field works
and summer camps which develop the skills of students both practically and theoretically.

Summer internships are also part of four year degree program.

Course is composed of four year with the combination of eight semesters. Students face
study burden due to maximum subjects, assignments and quizzes which is the main cons
of four year degree program.[3]

1.5. What is a fast-track degree program?


The fast track degree program which is also called accelerated degree program helps to save the
money on tuition fees as compared to long courses. It completes all the courses necessary in long
courses but in a short duration of time, which may include the study load on students.
Due to rules and regulation in different countries and institutions, there is variation in time
required for degree completion.

A large number of universities introducing fast track degree program due to rising fees and high
level of students depts. which accelerates the degree completion time and done it in just two
years.
Question comes in every one mind that how is it possible? But the answer is crystal clear that it
is possible, you may need to work extra time and carries extra load of studies to get the same
quality degree in shorter time.

1.5.1.

Disadvantages of fast track degree program:

Hartwick College reported the success of fast track degree program and even America itself is
resistant to this program.
In a survey in 2011 it was observed that students of four years degree program usually takes
more time to graduate, only 40-45% complete degree in required time frame. This may be due to
several reasons like transferring of students from one college to other and changing the major
etc.
Many Universities deployed fast track degree program but after some time they revert their
decision due to lack of interest by the students. Because students wants to spend more time in
college and they cannot afford more books to study in short duration of time.
Similar is the case in Canada, in Ontario most of the students expressed their interest in four year
degree program. So the three year degree program is not common there.
Tuition fees and other study costs are higher in four year degree program and those people who
are unable to complete the degree in time make their expenses even higher. Fast track degree
program is better for those people who are in search of early job and who want to get job earlier
[4].

1.6. Fact about Delhi University four year degree program:


Many Students and parents were against the decision of converting three year degree program to
four year and they protested against this decision.
The University makes some changes in the policy and changed 3 year duration of degree into 4
years. According to the new policy of university student should have to study a course in four
years to specialize that subject or they can get admission in 2 year traditional programs like BA
or B.com.
According to new policy it was necessary for the students to study 11 foundation courses and 3
discipline courses.
6

The Vice-Chancellor of the Delhi University, Dinesh Singh said that he change in curriculum has
many benefits for students and this new structure will bring positive change in educational
approach. In this new structure, Student will have to take eleven compulsory subjects in 1 st two
years [5].

1.7. Equivalence criteria between BS 4 year and Traditional 2


year degree:
In 2008, many students complained that BS 4 year degree programs were not recognized by
many government departments despite being recognized by Higher Education Commissions
(HEC). In feedback, government established a Qualification Equivalence Determination
Committee which determined the equivalence of 4 year degree program to traditional Master
program in order to remove the confusion regarding job appointment in different governmental
and private departments [1].

1.8. B.A/B.Sc. 4-Year (Hons) in Hazara University:


Hazara University initiated B.A/B.Sc. 4-Year (Hons) Degree Program in order
to produce graduates with quality education according to international
standards. The university took this great step to enhance the acceptability of
its graduates in higher education institutes as well as job markets at national
and international levels. Everyone knows this fact that the traditional 2-Year
Bachelor's Degree is lagged behind in international academic world as well
as in job market both quantitatively and qualitatively.
In Hazara University, Admission in BA/B.Sc (Hons) degree programs is open
for all eligible candidates without difference of gender, cast, and domicile
.Academic year of the university is composed of 2 semester, each semester
has teaching duration of 18 weeks.

1.8.1.
Degree Standardized format Scheme of B.A/B.Sc.
(Hons):

Total number of credit hours for B.A/B.SC (Hons) degree programs is


130-136.
Semester duration is from 16 to 18 weeks.
There are 8 numbers of regular semesters.
The course load per semester is 15-20 credit hours.

Every student of senior level i.e. 4 th year is required to write thesis and
will do his/her internship in an organization which is related to his/her
discipline.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Total No. of Credit Hours


Semester Duration
No. of Regular Semesters
Course Load per Semester

130-136
16-18 Weeks
08
15-20 Credit Hours

Table 1.8-1: Degree Standardized format Scheme of B.A/B.Sc. (Hons).

Chapter2
Literature Review
Education:

Education is the conveying of knowledge, skills and habits from one person to another. It is the
most powerful tool that brings a person into the light of knowingness from darkness of illiteracy.
It brings awareness in the people. People with good education have more opportunities for better
life. Educated workers have high morale and are more productive for their company and
organization. The economy of country is developed by educated workforce. Foreign countries
take interest in countries having high education workforce. Educated people also play an
important role in enriching the culture of country through their participation in local and national
forums. The importance of education can be seen from the fact that many countries spent a very
high proportion of budget on education [4].
On the other hand, some people think education is too much expensive and time consuming
nowadays and this money and time can be spent on business for better outcome. They think the
world is becoming technical day by day and skills are more important than education given in
institutions [6]. The value of degree is lost and everyone is competing for job. The industries
nowadays demands technical skills required for knowing their business and give little importance
to degree quality and the characterization of the previous attended institution [12].
Modes of Education:
8

The modes of education in Pakistan includes Primary level , secondary level , higher secondary ,
graduate level, post graduate level , doctor and post doctor .
System of Education:

In Pakistan every university has its own education system which makes it difficult to an outsider
to judge the performance of the student through his/her transcript. Education systems used in
Pakistan universities are based on: Percentage Evaluation and Grade point average (GPA). Most
universities used GPA Grading system while there are few universities which prepare results of
students through percentage evaluation.
There are 2 main types of education systems working in Pakistan.
1. Semester System.
2. Annual system.
Nowadays, the education system in many universities is shifted from annual system to semester
system.
Annual System:
It is the traditional education system of Pakistan in which the students are evaluated annually
once in the year. This system has its own merits and demerits which are discussed below:
Merits of Annual System:
In Annual system the best thing is the better grading system because the evaluation of students is
done through external teachers and the students dont mention their names on their papers. It is
very fair system for the evaluation of students. Its another merit is depth knowledge because in
this system students can utilize more time in their studies and can know deeply about any topic.
The students remember the things for long time. The students have lesser burden in this system
because students are just evaluated once at the end of the year. They just have burden once in
exam times at the end of year.
Demerits of Annual System:
The demerits if Annual system includes the assessment of students through external teacher
rather than class teacher due to which class teacher cannot cover the understanding gap between
students and teacher because of teacher unawareness.. The disadvantage of this system is less
participation in the class. In this system mostly teacher delivers the lectures and as assessment of
students is not continuous in this system like semester system thats why most students don't
participate in class due to which their personality is not grooming too much. Another problem of
this system is attendance problem. Due to longer time period of the assessment of students,
mostly students take it easy and don't attend the classes on regular basis[8].
9

Semester System:

It is the most adopted system of education in Pakistan. This system is consisting of 2 semesters
in the year. The teachers follow the structure of semester defined by administration of university.
Semester system is good for students but in Pakistan the rules of semesters are not strictly
followed by administrators which affect the goals of this method [6].
Merits of Semester System:

The advantage of this system is that students mostly learn technically and rata system doesn't
work here [7] .This system is best for students as it keeps students busy. In this system teachers
have great power and authority; as making, checking and grading of paper is done by them. The
idea behind giving too much power to the teacher is to judge the student well.
Demerits of Semester System:

This system overloads many students due to which they lose interest in studies. Due to overload
most student cheats in assignment and quizzes and don't take it seriously. In this system many
student prepare from previous papers for the same teacher because most teacher repeat their
papers which they have already prepared for previous year students. Due to this fact mostly
student take advantage of it and secure good grades and affect the hard working students. If we
talk about extra-curricular activities in semester system, then it is disadvantages for semester
system because it greatly affects the CGPA of students. Semester is a tough system for studies
and giving time to activities in it greatly affect the studies. Teacher have a great power of
authority But most teachers use it in wrong way. Some teacher makes easy papers to show that
he/she is teaching perfectly by showing students grades. Some teachers use their power against
the students which teachers dont like and some teacher use it in favors of some students.
Structure of Semester System:

The semester system period is from 16 to 18 weeks. In semester system GPA based grading
system is used. There are also 2 types of universities using GPA based grading system. Some
universities use Absolute grading system while mostly use Relative grading system. In absolute
grading system the student assessment is done through their individual abilities and hard work
while in Relative system the assessments of students are done through according to their
performances related to the toper of class. A great number of students like this system because of
its short interval. Due to less time many students cannot absorb the subjects properly and forget
the things they have learned in the semester. Students are evaluated many times in semester
system i.e. through quizzes and exams (final and midterms). Minimum 6 quizzes per semester is
conducted in semester i.e. 3 quizzes before midterm and 3 quizzes after mid-term.6 Assignments
per semester is also given to student i.e. 3 before mid-term and 3 after mid-term. Semester is
consisting of 2 exams i.e. mid-term and final term exam.
Attendance or Regularity:
10

Hazara University demands good attendance from students because University believes that
without it students cannot achieve their potential and cannot get benefits from quality teaching
and best learning experiences the university provides. Improving and maintaining attendance or
regularity needs a committed partnership from both parents and university staff by working
supportively with young people. In order to fulfill its own belief, university has an appropriate
system to monitor attendance.
TEACHING METHODOLOGIES

During teaching, teachers are always looking for the best method which is beneficial for all the
students of the class. Teachers want that the class should be in their control i.e. orderly and all
their students should enjoy the learning process. The efficiency and appropriateness of
methodologies used by teacher for teaching is connected with characteristic of learner and the
class room environment [15]. The approaches used by teacher for teaching is classified into:

Teacher Centered Approaches.

Student Centered Approaches.

Chapter 3: COURSE COVERAGE


Hazara University is offering B.A/B.SC (Hons.) Degree programs in various disciplines
according to needs and interests of students in order to provide quality education. These
B/A/B.Sc. (Hons.) programs are offered by 4 faculties i.e. Faculty of Arts,Faculty of Sciences,
Faculty of Law and Administrative Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences under different
department which is discussed below in details.

1 Department of English:
English is known worldwide as medium of communication and information on international
level. This department offered various programs which produce empowered learners with great
communication, writing and reading skills and abilities which help the student to fulfill their
social and cultural needs and also help them in achieving jobs on national and international
levels. It enables students to meet the requirements of higher education.

Eligibility:

Candidate with F.A/F.sc or equivalent qualification and securing 45 % aggregate marks.


Passing the Entry test and Interview is compulsory.

Credit Hours:
11

Year

Credit Hours

Year1

34

Year2

30

Year3

30

Year4

36

Table 2.1.1: Department of English Credit Hours [1]

Curriculum Structure:

The Duration of course is 4 years.


The course is completed in 8 semesters.
The students have to submit the research Report (Thesis) in Final year i.e. 4th year.

Required Courses:

Years 1:

Table 2.1.2: Department of English -Year 1 Course Coverage [1]

Years 2:

12

Table 2.1.3: Department of English -Year 2 Course Coverage [1]

Years 3:

Table 2.1.4: Department of English -Year 3 Course Coverage [1]

Years 4:

13

Table 2.1.5: Department of English -Year 4 Course Coverage [1]

2 Department of Economics:
This four year undergraduate degree program quip the students with skills and abilities required
for the logical evaluations of policy proposals and statistical investigations of huge projects that
will help then in their future academic and professional career. This department provides quality
and professional education in the Banking, Entrepreneurship and Financial Economics. The
medium of instruction is English for all degree programs offered by this department.

Eligibility:

Candidate with F.A/F.sc or equivalent qualification and securing 45 % aggregate marks.


Passing the Entry test and Interview is compulsory.

Credit Hours:

A
B
C
D
E

Courses
University Core courses
University General courses
Economics foundation courses
Economics Core courses
Economics Elective Courses

Credit Hours
25
24
27
36
18
14

Table 2.2-1: Department of EconomicsCredit Hours [1]

Curriculum Structure:

The Duration of course is 4 years.


The course is completed in 8 semesters.
The students have to submit the research Report (Thesis) in Final year i.e. 4th year.
There are 44 courses in this program.
The number of Total credit Hours is 130.

Required Courses:

University Core Courses:

Table 2.2.2: Department of Economics University Core Courses [1]

University General Courses:

15

Table 2.2.3: Department of Economics University General Courses [1]

Economics Foundation Courses:

Table 2.2.4: Department of Economics Economics Foundation Courses [1]

Economics Core Courses:

16

Table 2.2.5: Department of Economics Economics Core Courses [1]

Economics Elective Courses:

Table 2.2.6: Department of Economics Economic Elective Courses [1]

3 Department of Communication and Media Studies:


This Program is designed to polish and groom the skills of student to keep pace with
advancement occurred in the field of communication and media studies. This program specialize
the student in newspaper production, T.V, Social media, research and radio production. This
course provides quality education both theoretically and practically that enables the students to
achieve professional goals in the field of communication and media studies. Development of this
field has major impact on the development of this modern world. To enhance the research
abilities of the students, various courses have been included in this discipline to examine the
effect of media on the various spheres of life.

Eligibility:

Candidate with F.A/F.sc or equivalent qualification and securing 45 % aggregate marks.


Passing the Entry test and Interview is compulsory.
17

Curriculum Structure:

The Duration of course is 4 years.


The course is completed in 8 semesters.
The students have to submit the research Report (Thesis) in Final year i.e. 4th year.
The number of Total credit Hours is 130.

Credit Hours:
A
B
C
D

Year
Year1
Year2
Year3
Year4

Credit Hours
34
36
30
30

Table 2.3.1: Department of Communication& Media Studies Credit Hours [1]

Required Courses:

Years 1:

Table 2.3.2: Department of Communication & Media Studies Year 1 Course Coverage [1]
18

Years 2:

Table 2.3.3: Department of Communication & Media Studies Year 2 Course Coverage [1]

Years 3:

Table 2.3.4: Department of Communication & Media Studies Year 3 Course Coverage [1]

19

Years 4:

Table 2.3.5: Department of Communication & Media Studies Year 4 Course Coverage [1]

4 Department of Conservation Studies:


This four year undergraduate degree program quip the students with skills and abilities required
for the logical evaluations of policy proposals and statistical investigations of huge projects that
will help then in their future academic and professional career. This program is composed of
multi-disciplinary subjects of 131 credit hours. Major courses of this program have 82 credit
hours. The remaining 49 credits of this program contain university compulsory courses and basic
conservation courses. In last three semesters, major courses of conservation studies and a
research project enable the students to apply quantitative and qualitative tools. The medium of
instruction for the courses offered by this department is English. The courses of this department
are based on both theoretical and practical work. Assessments of students are done through
quizzes, exams, practical work and examinations.

Eligibility:

Candidate with F.A/F.sc or equivalent qualification and securing 45 % aggregate marks.

Passing the Entry test and Interview is compulsory.

Credit Hours:
Courses

Credit Hours
20

A
B
C
D
E

Compulsory courses
Refresher courses
Conservation foundation courses
Major Courses
Elective Courses

25
24
33
42
12

Table 2.4.1: Department of Conservation Studies Credit Hours [1]

Curriculum Structure:

The Duration of course is 4 years.


The course is completed in 8 semesters.
The students have to submit the research Report (Thesis) in Final year i.e. 4th year.
There are 42 courses in this program.
The number of Total credit Hours is 131.

Required Courses:

Compulsory Courses:

Table 2.4.2: Department of Conservation Studies Compulsory Courses [1]

Refresher Courses:

21

Table 2.4.3: Department of Conservation Studies Refresher Courses [1]

Foundation Courses:

Table 2.4.4: Department of Conservation Studies Foundation Courses [1]

22

Major Courses:

Table 2.4.5: Department of Conservation Studies Major Courses [1]

Elective Courses:

Table 2.4.6: Department of Conservation Studies Elective Courses [1]

5 Department of Botany:
This 4 year program is consisting of 8 semesters. The department offers compulsory and basic
courses related to botany in 1st four semesters. In remaining four semesters, it offers advance
courses related to botany. The whole program is consisting of total 130 credit hours. The courses
offered are based on both theoretical and practical work. The medium of instruction for all
courses offered by this department is English. Assessments of students are done by this
department according Hazara University rules relating to examination.

23

Eligibility:

Candidate with F.A/F.sc or equivalent qualification and securing 45 % aggregate marks.


Passing the Entry test and Interview is compulsory.

Credit Hours:
Year
Year1
Year2
Year3
Year4

A
B
C
D

Credit Hours
32
30
36
32

Table 2.5.1: Department of Botany Credit Hours [1]

Curriculum Structure:

The Duration of course is 4 years.


The course is completed in 8 semesters.
The students have to submit the research Report (Thesis) in Final year i.e. 4th year.

Required Courses:

Years 1:

Table 2.5.2: Department of Botany Year 1 Course Coverage [1]


24

Years 2:

Table 2.5.3: Department of Botany Year 2 Course Coverage [1]

Years 3:

Table 2.5.4: Department of Botany Year 3 Course Coverage [1]

25

Years 4:

Table 2.5.5: Department of Botany Year 4 Course Coverage [1]

Chapter 4: TEACHING METHODOLOGIES


During teaching, teachers are always looking for the best method which is beneficial for all the
students of the class. Teachers want that the class should be in their control i.e. orderly and all
their students should enjoy the learning process. The efficiency and appropriateness of
methodologies used by teacher for teaching is connected with characteristic of learner and the
class room environment [6]. The approaches used by teacher for teaching is classified into:

Teacher Centered Approaches.

Student Centered Approaches.

In order to understand the type of approaches used in teaching methodologies, it is necessary to


discuss teaching styles in educational pedagogy. The teaching styles are of 3 types:
1
2
3

Direct instruction.
Inquiry based learning.
Cooperative learning.
26

Figure 3.1: Types of teaching methodologies

1 Direct Instruction:
It is the traditional teaching style in which teacher teaches students through lectures and led
demonstrations. It is the primary teaching method under the teacher centered approach in which
the teacher is the sole supplier and primary communicator of knowledge. It is the most effective
teaching style for teaching the basics and fundamental skills of any field [7].

Formal authority:
In direct instruction teachers are in position of power and
formal authority because of their expensive knowledge and experience over the
students. Teachers take great care of class room management and focus on rules
and expectations.

Expert:
In this style of teaching as students are viewed as just receptor of Knowledge and
information (empty vessels) therefore an expert teacher is required to play
primary role to guide the students directly in learning process. Teachers are
expertise with in the class room and are in the possession of all knowledge and
information.

Personal Model:

27

In personal Model of teaching students learn by copying and


observing teachers process. In this model teacher teaches the student how to
access and comprehend the knowledge.

2 Inquiry based Learning:


This teaching style falls under student centered approach in which students play an active
role in their own learning process. In this method teachers play a role of facilitator i.e.
helping students in their learning process by providing guidance and support to them.
Students focus on investigation and hands-on learning in this teaching style [8].

Facilitator:
In this teaching style just teacher play role of facilitator by providing support and
guidance to students. Students learn most of the things by their own through
investigation and hands-on learning.

Personal Model:
In personal Model of teaching students learn by copying and observing teachers
process. In this model teacher teaches the student how to access and comprehend
the knowledge.

Delegator:
In Inquiry based learning teacher act as delegator and his/her goal is to just foster
a sense of autonomy to students in their learning process. Teacher plays a passive
role by just engaging the students in their learning process while students play an
active role in their own learning. In this teaching style teacheracts as a resource to
students by reviewing their progress and answering their questions.

3 Cooperative Learning:
Cooperative learning falls under student centered approach because this method focuses on
group learning because of the belief those students learn more from their peers [9]. In this
method teacher more focuses on group discussions.

Facilitator:
In this teaching style just teacher play role of facilitator by providing
support and guidance to students. Students learn most of the things by their own
through discussion in groups and learn from one another.

Delegator:
In Cooperative learning teacher act as delegator and his/her goal is to
just foster a sense of autonomy to students in their learning process. Teacher
28

plays a passive role by just engaging the students in their learning process while
students play an active role through discussion in groups. In this teaching style
teacher acts as a resource to students by reviewing their progress and answering
their questions.

3.1. Teacher centered approaches:


In this teaching methodology teacher have full control on the class and act as primary
communicator of instruction or knowledge. All of the focus of the students is on their teacher.
Teacher plays a role of speaker while the students play the role of listener. During activities every
student work individually and collaboration is discouraged.

Figure 3.1.1: Teacher Centered Approach

3.1.1.

The classroom remains orderly because the teacher has full control of the class and
activities.
Students learn independently and have great competition in the class which helps the
students to make their own decisions.
Its an easy approach for students to learn from knowledge and experience of teacher
without making great efforts.

3.1.2.

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

The communication skills of students may suffer because the work alone and dont learn
to collaborate with other class fellows.
29

Most students miss important facts because their minds may lose focus on lecture
because they can get bore from this method as they just act as listeners.
In this method student cannot express themselves.

3.1.3.

Teacher Centered Approaches in Details:

Teacher centered approaches are following:


1. Lectures.
2. Demonstrations.
3. Assignments and Homework.

3.1.3.1. Lectures:
It is the traditional method in which teacher possess full control on class and act as primary
communicator of knowledge. The pace and sequence of instruction is directly managed by
teacher [10]. In this method teacher just deliver the lecture/instructions and cannot assure
whether Students have learned the material or not.

A)Approaches for improving Lectures:


The Approaches used for improving the lectures are:

Feedback Lecture.
Guided Lecture.
Responsive Lecture.
Demonstration lecture.

a) Feedback Lecture:
In this method teacher gives a lecture of 15-20 minutes. Teacher gives an outline of lecture then
he/she lectures from that outline with student taking notes of it. After that 15-20 minutes are
given to students with questions based on lecture to answer. After student answers, 10-15
minutes teacher uses facts, big ideas and key concepts to ensure understanding [11].

b) Guided Lecture:

30

In this method teacher gives a list of objectives to students. Then teacher gives 10-15 minutes
lecture from class notes. During lecture students are asked to just listen the lecture and dont note
it and are expected that they should be able to recall information. Then individual assessment is
done from 5 to 10 minutes, in which students write all the information recalled by them. Then 10
t0 15 minutes students work in groups to construct concepts, ideas and facts about the topic.
Then student ask questions from teacher for 10-15 minutes for missing information [12].

c) Responsive Lectures:
In this type of method teacher once in a week give 15 to 20 minutes to students for questions on
topic covered during week. In this method at least one question is asked by every student about
recent or coming topics from teacher to answer. Then teacher delivers lectures according to those
questions and tells the student why these questions are important and answer it. Teacher also
called some volunteer students to answer the questions [13].

d) Demonstration lectures:
In this method teacher delivers the lecture for 15 to 20 minutes from class notes.15-20 minutes is
for demonstration which can occur at any time in the lecture. For 15-20 minutes teacher calls on
student for demonstration of process or procedure [14].

B)Instructions for improving Lectures:

Lecture should be delivered more as discussion.


Different types of lectures and organizing patterns should be integrated.
Visuals and manipulative should be integrated into the lecture.

3.1.3.2. Demonstrations:
It is the method used in teaching the student to explain the topic by using examples or
experiments. Demonstration is done in order to teach the student practically about the application
of theories. It is an activity performed by teacher in order to understand their student [15].

A)Advantages:

Students learn faster through Demonstration.


The teacher can instantly see mistakes of students and can correct it easily.
It provides Conceptual learning to students.
Actively engagement of students in learning activities.

31

B)Disadvantages:

It is the most time consuming method of teaching.


This method mostly fails when there is large number of students.
Communication barrier.
It required a skillful instructor.

C)Four steps to better Demonstration:


Demonstration can be improved by using following four steps.
1
2
3
4

The trainer should start demonstration at normal pace and the participants should only
watch what are the process and their outcome.
The trainer should do the demonstration again at lower pace with explaining each and
every difficult step and participants should watch and note the process of each step.
The trainer should demonstrate for 3rd time at lower pace and this time participant should
also do the same step with the trainer.
Then the trainer should allow the participants to do the activity by their own in order to
ensure that they can do it by themselves and have learned how to do it.

3.1.3.3. Assignments and Homework:


It is a tool of teaching in which teacher gives opportunity to student to develop and apply new
knowledge in homes related to the topic learned in class. It plays very important role in the
learning process of student. The goal of homework is to practice the learned skills of class in
home.

A)Benefits of Homework:

Homework involves parents in their children education.


It develops autonomy in the students.
It improves the academic performance of the student.
It increases efficiency of students in educational field.

3.2. Student Centered Approaches:


In this method of teaching focus of teaching activity is shifted from teachers to students. Students
play an active role as participants in their learning. They make their own decisions about what to
32

learn and how to learn. They work in collaboration and monitor their own learning. It is a
cooperative learning method in which students work together as team on project/problems and
achieve level of confidence in knowledge or skills, formation of positive attitude towards
knowledge, acquisition of creative problem skills and depth of understanding of course material.
It is totally based on student experiences i.e. past experiences and the experience they achieve in
class room from teacher. Learning is a process of discovery in this method because teacher just
develops an activity in which student themselves arrive to an answer through group discussions
[16].

3.2.1.

Advantages:

Students work together in group and learn communicative and collaborative skills.

Students take more interest because they interact with each other for learning and
participate actively.

3.2.2.

Disadvantages:

Classrooms are often noisy because of discussion of students in class.

Teachers face difficulties in managing class.

Some students want to work alone and face difficulties in learning through this method.

As teacher teaches in the form of groups in which some student may miss some important
information.

3.3. Differences between Teaching Approaches:


Differences between teachers centered Approaches and Students centered Approaches are:

33

Figure 3.3.1: Difference between Teacher and student centered Methodologies

Teacher centered Approach:

The teacher transfers its knowledge to students.


The role of student is passive and they just receive information from teacher.
In this method assessment is used to monitor the learning of students.
This method emphasizes on right answer to the question.
Mode of learning is competitive and individualistic.
Only students are learner.

Student centered Approach:

The knowledge is constructed by the student working together in group through


discussion and teacher only play role in it as facilitator or supporter.
Student plays active role in learning process.
Assessment is used to diagnose learning.
This method focus on learning from errors.
Mode of learning is cooperative, supportive and collaborative.
Teacher and students learn together.

3.4. Teaching in HazaraUniversity:


Hazara University provides quality education to students. Teachers of the university use different
strategies and methods to help the students in their learning process. Experience teacher of
university provides comfortable environment to the student in class which help them in their
34

studies. Teachers also examine the student through different ways which help them in their
course studies as well as in the developments of different skills. To maintain quality teaching,
university has set of regulations for teachers and expects them to follow it strictly.

3.4.1.

A Teacher can conduct the course in university through lectures, discussions,


demonstrations, seminars, practical work in laboratories and field work.
Every Teacher should teach specified courses for each discipline which is approved by
the competent authority as defined in Hazara University Act, 1997.
The medium of instruction for any discipline should be English, except in language
courses.

3.4.2.

Regulations for Teachers:

Regulations for Teacher Evaluation:

It is the responsibility of the head of institute to evaluate the instructor of every course
through his/her students.
It should be done in the absence of instructor to maintain impartiality.
It should be done in the last week of semester.
The evaluation should be done anonymously i.e. the student is supposed to not indicate
himself or herself.
The evaluation of instructor through his/her students should be sheared with instructor for
improvement.

3.5. Course Based Assessment:


Assessment is the analysis and testing of student information in order to improve student
learning .Assessment makes a learning process of student more effective and also help the
teachers in improving their teaching style as assessment gives feedback to teachers that up to
what extent his /her students get up the knowledge delivered by him/her[17].

Course based Assessment:


It is the method of assessing/testing the student with in the classroom environment by using
course content, objectives and goals to improve the learning process of students.
35

3.5.1.

Importance of Course Based Assessment:

Classroom course based assessment is very importance because of its strong impact on learning.
From Course based assessments teacher knows about the way students perceive the course
materials, class and their own work [18]. It directs the students attention to the particular aspects
of course contents and by specifying different techniques and ways of processing information
[19]. Students focus more on studies and do great efforts in learning process as they know their
skills and abilities will be tested [20,21].Students can learn different types of learning from
different types of Assessments. [22, 23, 24].Even the type of exam effect the method of study of
student [25].

3.5.2.

Students learn their own strength and weaknesses.


They focus more on learning after assessment as they see the connection between course
content and learning.
They become self-reflective learners i.e. learn from their mistakes.
From assessment student know how much their teacher expect from them.

3.5.3.

Assessment Benefits for students:

Assessment Benefits for teachers:

It makes classroom environment more student-responsive and learning-centered.


It shows the teacher how much students understand his/her teaching.
It helps the teacher to remove learning gaps between students and teacher.
It helps the teacher to know the mind level of each student.

3.5.4.

Adapting your course to include assessment:

Assessment process can be completed into 3 steps.


Step1:

Determine learning goal and objectives for the course.

Step2:

Assessment of students to see whether these goals have been met.

Step3:

Improvement of teaching and learning process from the results.

Step1: Determine learning goal and objectives for the


course:
Goal: To be aware of what as a teacher you want to accomplish in your
course.

36

Objectives: Teacher has to describe the specific behaviors for the students
in order to exhibit them in the context of the course.

Identification and Articulation of Course Goals:


Course goals reflect the skills and concepts you want to develop in students as a result of your
course. In order to know your course goals you have to ask yourself that what are the major goals
of this course that you want the students to achieve. And note down your responses [26]. If you
are facing difficulties in identifying your course goals, try to answer these questions.

Why do you use activities, assignments and course structure in class? What will your
students have to learn from these course elements?
What you want to teach to your student and what skills you want to develop in them?
Where students face difficulties in your course?
What things they are not getting consistently?

Drafting Objectives of Course:


It transforms the generalization of the course goal into specific behaviors of the students that
demonstrate learning and skill developments of students [27]. Ask the following question for
identifying your course objectives:

What are the specific abilities, behaviors and skills of the students for your each stated
goals that would tell you about your goals achievements?
What are the specific behaviors and evidences need to be present for observing your
students goal achievements?
What that evidences tell you about your students achievement and how you come to
know when they get it?

Step 2: Existing Assessment Techniques identification


and reviewing:
Identification and reviewing the existing examination techniques help the teacher to know the
student progress towards your intended learning goals and objectives from the data collected
from these assessments. Ask the following questions from yourself while writing your response
in this step:

What information about student performances, skills and learning you collect from
existing assessment techniques like Classroom tests, Assignments, Presentations and
surveys?.
How much informative that data is you collect from Assessment techniques in order to
understand the student learning process?
37

What is the relation of data collected from assessment of students with your articulated
course goals and objectives?
What are the gaps between the data you collected and your course goals and objectives?
What other information is needed to know about whether students are going towards
their objectives achievement or not?

Step 3:

Improving the course Syllabus:

Teacher should have to improve his syllabus according to the data collected from the assessment
of students. Course syllabus is first line of communication between teacher and students and
without it teacher is unable to examine the student abilities or skills effectively. This is the step
for teacher to improve his/her teaching and learning process from the results obtained from the
assessment of students [28].

3.5.5.

Methods of Course Based Assessments:

The main methods for course based assessments are:


1. Formative (low point values) Assessments.
2. Summative (high point values) Assessments.

1) Formative (low point values) Assessments:


This is the assessment method used to test the abilities and skill of the students during the
learning process. These are the low point values assessments that happen early and during the
semester. The results gathered through these assessments are used to identify the areas where
students are struggling in order to adjust students study and teachers teaching [29].
Formative Assessments of students can be done in 2 ways:
A) Informal Techniques.
B) Formal Techniques.

A)Informal Techniques:
a) Written Reflections:
This is the popular assessment technique which is done after the completion of class activity/
lecture. In this activity students have to answer the following basic questions about the lecture:

What important thing you have learned today?


What is the most confusing topic today?
What are the important questions which were not answered by teacher?

38

b) Surveys:
Surveys are the informal assessment technique used to collect the data on students attitudes,
opinions and behaviors in understanding which can be gathered during class or outside class. The
surveys illustrate the student engagement with course, their misconception, their prior knowledge
and comprehension [30].
c) Check for understandings:
In this techniques teacher stop lectures for few minutes to identify gap in learning process.
Teacher during that break ask questions for student to know how much they are getting the
lecture and also allow student to ask the questions in the area where they feel confusion.

B)Formal Techniques:
a) Class Group Activities:
This method is used to teach students through Group learning because of the belief those
students learn more from their peers. In this method teacher more focuses on group discussions.
Assessment in this method gives toughness to shy nature students. In this type of assessment just
teacher plays role of facilitator by providing support and guidance to students. Students learn
most of the things by their own through discussion in groups and learn from one another [31].
b) Quizzes:
Although quizzes have low value point but it plays an important role in the learning process of
students. Students can note their errors in it and can work on it to clear the confusion about that
topic. Quizzes also help the teacher to increase students attendances because teacher conduct
quizzes in the class variably. Quizzes help the teacher to know about students status about
studies. If there is any confusion for students in quizzes then teacher have to clear that confusion
in the class to make the learning process more efficient [32].

2) Summative (high value points) Assessments:


It is the high value point assessment which is used to examine student abilities and skill in the
course at the end of instructional unit or course. It measures the extent to which students have
achieved their academic goals [33].
a) Exams:
Teacher conducted exam 2 times in semesters i.e. midterm and final term. Exam is the most
important and high value point assessment of students. It demonstrate the student in whole
course and include several types of questions i.e. long questions , short question, numerical
problems, True-false, multiple choice questions and essays etc. Every university focus on exams
39

and have own rules and regulations for it. Most universities have separate departmental
examination committee in each department for efficient conduction of it.
b) Projects and presentations:
A presentation is one of the most essential parts of assessment of students in universities because
it develops communication skills and confidence of students. Presentation is beneficial for
speaker as well as all other students who listen it. Projects assessment helps the student to learn
practical implementation of theory they have learned in the class. Some projects are research
base in university which develops analytical ability of students.
c) Portfolios:
The students submit portfolios at the end of course which shows the progress made by student in
that semester. In portfolios students are asked to spell the concepts and techniques used, the
hurdle faced and theme addressed which bring sense of completion to the learning process.

3.5.6.

Guidelines for better Assessment:

Guidelines before test:

Develop the guidelines for scoring the test.


Share the guidelines of scoring the test with students before the assessment.
Discuss the guideline to student about the test format.
Change the scoring criteria according to students suggestion if it makes sense.

Guidelines After the test:

Discuss the test questions with students. It will help in


Clearing the misconception.
Solve the issues raised by the assessment.
Help the students to clear their weaknesses they have showed in test.
Discuss the different strategies applied by student for solving test. Discuss the
weaknesses and strengths of each strategy.
It helps the student to learn how to evaluate the work down by them.
Give generous feedback to the students. Just showing the marks of student in the class is
not sufficient for their learning. Tell the students about:
Their weakness and strength in different areas of course.
What methods they did correctly and what wrong?
How they can improve their performance next time?

3.5.7.

Strategies for fair Assessment of students:

40

For fair Assessment of students, teacher can involve many contributors to the process of
assessing. Contributors can be:

Other teaching colleagues.


Automated assessment(Computer)
External Examiners.
Community representatives.
Expert professionals
Students assessing their peers.
Students assessing themselves.

Teacher can adopt any techniques for assessing the student but he must take care that assessment
fairly shows the abilities and skills of the student.

3.5.8.
Suggestion
assessments:

for

improving

Course

based

Make a test and wait for one day before reviewing it.
Review the test and then give it to your friend to review it.
During the review, check the following points:
Directions for solving the test are clear and accurate.
Questions included in the test were covered in the class.
The test can be done in allotted time.
The test should be according to the level of students.

3.5.9.
Interpreting
Assessments:

using

Classroom

based

In this step teachers have to determine what the evidences from the data collected from the
assessment of students tells about their progress towards the goals teachers set for the course
[34]. Following are the questions which may help the teacher while interpreting data from
assessments:

How much informative that data is you collect from Assessment techniques in order to
understand the student learning process?
What is the relation of data collected from assessment of students with your articulated
course goals and objectives?
What are the gaps between the data you collected and your course goals and objectives?
What other information is needed to know about whether students are going towards
their objectives achievement or not?
What the data from the assessments shows the each student value?

41

Who are the students about whom you still cant get enough information from the
assessments?

Consider the following points while answer above questions:

Be fair, during marking papers/test ensure the student confidentiality by taking students
names off the paper and just do the assessment of students according to material written
by them in paper/test.
During analysis of students abilities through course based assessment consider both
quantitative and qualitative techniques.

3.5.10.

Course Based Assessments in Hazara University:

Hazara University Focus on Assessments of students because it believes that it has strong impact
on learning. From Course based assessments teacher knows about the way students perceive the
course materials, class and their own work [3]. It directs the students attention to the particular
aspects of course contents and by specifying different techniques and ways of processing
information [4]. Students focus more on studies and do great efforts in learning process as they
know their skills and abilities will be tested [5, 6].Students can learn different types of learning
from different types of Assessments. [7, 8, 9].Even the type of exam effect the method of study
of student [10].Hazara University has its own Departmental Examination Committees and
regulations for Assessment of student in order to provide fair and qualitative education to
students.

3.5.10.1. Departmental Examination Committee:

There shall be departmental committee for each department consists of 3 members


headed by senior faculty member to solve/decide all the problems related to evaluation of
students. The decision made by this committee shall be final.
The main role of committee will be:
Maintenance of the uniformity of standards in the courses taught by
individual teachers.
Formulation of rule for the distribution of different kind of questions in
different courses.
Arrangements for the conduction and supervision of examinations.
Announcement of results of mid and final term examination on time.

3.5.10.2. Regulations for Examinations:

42

Those students are eligible to set in examination who fulfilled the following rules:
He /She should be on the rules and regulations through the semester.
He /She should have more than 75 % attendance.
There should be no dues on student by the commencement of the semester.

In every course the evaluation of students should be done through on the basis of :

Quizzes.
Assignments.
Midterm examinations.
Presentations.
Group discussions.
Final Examination.
Semester Projects.

The distribution of marks for every course in semester is done through following
criteria given in table in the form of percent weightage marks.

Evaluation Category
Class tests
Quizzes, Assignments, Presentations
Midterm Examination
Final Examination
Total

Marks Distribution
10%
20%
15%
55%
100

Table3.5.1:SemesterCourseMarksDistributionCriteria

If a student misses a class test with genuine reasons i.e. illness etc. with the prior
permission from teacher in written form then the student should take make-up test
which will be arranged once. A student will be awarded zero marks if he/she fails to
appear in make-up test and will be the final result.
In the 9th week of each semester Midterm examination will be held and the final
examination will be held at the end of each semester. The midterm and final
examination will be held on dates fixed by dean in consultation with the chairman of
the department.
The duration of time for midterm examination will be 1 hour while for final
examination will be minimum 2 hours.
In semester system there will be no supplementary examination and students who fail
the course will have to repeat the course.
All the examination will be internal except the thesis examination which will be
conducted by the external examiner.
43

There shall be departmental committee for each department consists of 3 members to


solve/decide all the problems related to evaluation. The decision made by this
committee shall be final.
This is the responsibility of teacher to send a statement to chairman of department
about the lectures delivered and practical conducted by his/her together with
attendance record of each student in the course.
Those students are not allowed to sit in the examinations who are the defaulters of
university dues.
If a course includes laboratory/practical work, then laboratory course will carry
separate marks and there will be written and practical examination for it.
If there is a field work in any course of the department then its method of evaluation
shall be determined by the concerned department.

3.5.10.3. Regulations for Examination Aids:

Writing materials (Pen, Pencil, ruler and eraser etc.) are only allowed in examination
room.
Bringing of Mobile phones is not allowed in examination room.
Bags, notes and all written materials should be left outside of examination room.

3.5.10.4. Regulations for Question paper:

The teacher is responsible for setting of question paper in accordance with Hazara
University Policy.
As per semester system rules, No choice in attempting the questions.
The teacher is responsible to maintain the balance of question paper according to the
examination policy and should cover all the essential topics of the syllabus covered.
If the teacher of any course is not present on the day of paper, the chairman of the
department will appoint another teacher for that purpose.

3.5.10.5. Regulations for Invigilators:

Invigilators are selected by departmental examination officer after the approval of


chairman of the department.
Invigilators will report to the superintendent/Deputy superintendent 30 minutes before the
paper starts.

44

Invigilators will ensure that the students are seated on their own seats according to their
seating plan.
Invigilators should warn the student before the start of paper against the use of unfair
means and should direct the students to surrender any unauthorized material before paper.
This is the responsibility of Invigilators to not allow the students which arrive to
examination center 30 minutes after commencement of examination.
Invigilators will not allow the students to leave the examination hall within one hour of
commencement of examination
Invigilators can allow the students to visit the wash room in special circumstances and
should be controlled carefully.
Invigilators should report the superintendent of examination if examinee is detected in
using unfair means.
Invigilators should take the attendance of the examinees on attendance sheet and should
check it when all the examinees write their roll numbers on it.

3.5.10.6. Regulations for Result:


The Result of each course should be announced within 10 days after the examination.
Teacher should submit the result on time because late submission will cause difficulty in
running university matters according to defined university schedules.

Regulations
Records:

3.5.10.7.

This is the responsibility of controller of examination to maintain the examination record


and issue the transcripts.
The role of controller examination should be as central record office and the department
will be responsible for the announcement of result.
The concerned course teacher will prepare the result and will take its 4 copies. He will
keep one copy with himself/herself, display one of it on notice board and will submit
other 3 copies to the departmental examination committee.

3.5.10.8.

for Maintenance of Examination

Regulations for Grading Policy:

For each letter grade, a range of grade points will be as shown below in the table.

45

Marks range in %
90 and above
85-89
80-84
75-79
73-74
70-72
66-69
63-65
60-62
50-59
0-49
Incomplete
Withdrawal

Grade Points (value)


4.00
4.00
4.00
3.5-3.9
3.3-3.4
3.0-3.2
2.6-2.9
2.3-2.5
2.0-2.2
1.00-1.09
0.00
0.00
0.00
Table 3.5.2: Grading Policy

Grade
A+
A
AB+
B
BC+
C
CD
F
I
W

Every student should secure at least 50 % marks in any course to pass it. Those students
who secured less than 50 % marks will be consider as fail and they will repeat that course
whenever it is offered.

The equivalence between numerical grading and letter grading is given in table below:

% Marks
GRADE-A
90 and Above
85-89
80-84
GRADE-B
79
% Marks

Grade Point Value

Grade

Remarks

4.00
4.00
4.00

A+
A
A-

EXCELLENT
VERY GOOD
VERY GOOD

3.9
Grade Point Value

B+
Grade

GOOD
Remarks

78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
GRADE-C
69

3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.0

B+
B+
B+
B
B
B
BBB-

GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD
GOOD

2.9

C+

SATISFACTORY
46

68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
GRADE-D
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
GRADE-F
0-49
Withdrawn Course
Incomplete Course

2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.0

C+
C+
C+
C
C
C
CCC-

SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY
SATISFACTORY

1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.0

D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS

0.0
0.0
0.0

F
W
I

FAIL
WITHDRAW
INCOMPLETE

Table 3.5.3: Equivalence between Numerical grading and letter grading

The percentage calculated for marks should be up to 3 significant figures. If after


decimal 2nd fraction is 4 or less than 4 than it will be ignored. If 2nd fraction after decimal
is 5 or more then the first fraction after decimal will increase to next higher digit.
If student fails to pass the Honors program in the given time then the board of studies
will allow the extension of 2 semesters.
The Grade Points (GP) can be calculated as :

Exam
Quizzes and Assignments
Midterm Exam
Final Term Exam

Weightage
25 %
25%
50%

Total Marks
150
100
250

Marks Obtained
110
87
190
47

Total

100%

500

387

Table 3.5.4: Grade Point Calculations


For percentage calculation 38700 divided by 500 =77.4=77
From the equivalence table between numerical grading and letter grading.
Grade Point =3.7
Grade = B+

The Semester Grade point Average (GPA) and Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)
can be calculated by the following relations.

The method for calculating the Grade Point Average (GPA) is given in table below:

Credit Hours(CH)

Grade

Grade Points(GP)

CH * GP

3*4=12

3*3=9

3*4=12

2.4

4*2.4=9.6

3*0=0

Total =16

Total=42.6

Table 3.5.5: Grade Point Average Calculation

GPA= 42.6/ CH=42.6/16=2.66

48

Chapter 5:

Attendance or Regularity

Hazara University demands good attendance from students because University believes that
without it students cannot achieve their potential and cannot get benefits from quality teaching
and best learning experiences the university provides. Improving and maintaining attendance or
regularity needs a committed partnership from both parents and university staff by working
supportively with young people. In order to fulfill its own belief, university has an appropriate
system to monitor attendance.
4.1. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PARENTS:
In order to obtain quality education by their children, it is necessary for parents to acknowledge
their responsibilities by:

Ensuring that their children attend their classes regularly and punctually.
They should work in partnership with university in order to make their children future
bright by informing university about the changes in child's life which may affect his/her
learning.
Parents have to meet all socials and emotional need of their children through family
support.

4.2. Responsibility of University:


The university provides welcoming and safe environment to students which helps them in best
performance and encourages regular attendance Hazara University has appropriate system for
regular attendance because university believes that absence from university affects continuity of
learning and leads to under achievement.

4.3. University review of Attendance Policy:


Hazara University reviews its attendance policy after each year based on government and other
affiliated bodies policies through committee.
Responsibilities of Committee:

To promote high level of attendance by students.


To produce attendance policy, this will communicate with parents, students and university
clearly.
To check the accuracies of registers with government guidelines.
To pay attention on irregular students and involve their parents using the attendance
system of university.
To be alert to make changes in attendance patterns according to situations
49

4.4. Hazara University Regulations for Attendances:

Those students will be allowed to set in examination whose attendance is not less than 75
% of the lectures delivered to them in each course and same for practical/laboratory
course.
A student whose attendance is less than 75 % but greater than 65 % may be allowed by
Dean/Head of department after made up the deficiency in consultation with the teacher of
specified course.
A date wise record of attendance should be kept by the teacher and counting of
attendance will start from date of commencement of lectures.
The absence of student due to his/her participation co-curricular activities outside Hazara
University may not be counted as absence after his/her permission from competent
authority.
Examination admits cards are not issued to short attendance students.
A student with attendance less than 65 % of the lecture delivered will repeat the course
again when offered.
If a student is absent from a class for consecutive 2 weeks or more without any genuine
reason then the teacher of course will cancel his/her admission from the course and then
the admission can be restored only on appeal to the teacher with in the 5 days of the
cancellation order with payment of 500 rupees. It will be the responsibility of the teacher
that he/she will inform the chairman of the department about cancellation and restoration
of the admission of the students in that course.
A student can leave up from class for 7 days after his/her application approval from
chairman of the department. If a student wants a leave up of more than 7 days than the
vice chancellor will grant the leave up to him/her after the recommendation of the
chairman of the department. The maximum leave on genuine reason will not exceed 30
days in one semester.

4.5. Benefits of Attendance for Student:


Most teachers agree with the fact that student attendance facilitates the learning activity in
different ways. The activities in classrooms like Multimedia classroom presentations , auditory
presentation of materials and classroom discussions target a broader range of learning styles as
compare to textbooks alone.Student in the class hears teacher perspective on the topic and the
information provided by teacher is more fresh and related to current times than that found in
textbooks. In addition to gain knowledge from teacher, student in class also learn from their
classmates through group discussions and also shares its own knowledge with them.
Teacher uses different methods in class which enhance critical thinking skills of students.
Teacher can ask the students to explain their views about the topic and can provide challenging
environment to them by giving task to them to use the learned things outside the field. The more
50

students analyze and examine the topic, the more they learn. In Short, Attendance affects the
grades of students [35] and the academic skills development [36].

4.6. Effect of student Attendance on Teacher:


The student feedback is very important in improving or modifying faculty teaching.
Studentspresence in a class is learning opportunity for teacher because the feedback of students
increases the level of understanding which helps the teachers in delivering lectures in accurate
way. Teacher receives positive income of their investment in class with good attendance. With
good attendance of students teacher feels comfortable in class and share excitement about his
lecture and in return student reflects same level of enthusiasm.

4.7. Student Views about Attendance:


Most of the student agrees that Attendance is very important. A survey is conducted from 200
students of both upper and lower level at George Mason University [37].The result of the survey
is given below:

8 percent people reported that class notes of the missed lecture are as useful as attending
class. These 8 percent people have low GPA as compare as compared to those students
who values attendance more than class notes.
Most of the student reported that there is a strong relationship between attendance and
final course grades.
Although majority of student agreed that attendance is very important, 2/3 student said
that they would miss more class if they could get the lecture notes from professor.

Student miss the classes because of many reasons like they find class boring, have social
obligations [38] and are ill.

4.8. Strategies for improving student Attendances:


To improve the attendance of students in class, Teacher has to provide the best environment to
students by applying different strategies that should motivate the students by providing them the
benefits like personal growth, informative entertainment and better grades. The strategies that
can improve the student attendances are discussed below in details.

4.8.1.

Class Structure and Content:

Class structure and contents teachers teach in class definitely have effect on student attendances.
The teacher has to structure the class and content in the way that student find it valuable and
interesting.

There should be assessment of students in the form of test on course covered in class. All
the materials delivered by teacher in class through video clips, guest speakers,
51

discussions and lectures should be included in test to convey to the students that class
time is of value. The survey in class shows that including important course material
discussed in class highly influenced student attendances [39].
Teacher should deliver new information in class rather than repeating the material
included in book because if student can find the materials in books then they will take no
interest in class and will learn the things from book for tests.
Teacher should provide information and entertainment at same time to avoid student
boredom and capture their attention and interest through his/her better communication
skills [40].
If the lecture delivered by the teacher reflects element of student background, future or
interest then surely it will attract the students and they will take great interest in it and
will increase the attendances of students.

4.8.2.

Policies:

Some teachers believe that student should be free to decide freely about their attendance in class
while other teachers believe that attendance should be mandatory for the students. Generally,
university should have their own university policy because students follow the policy when they
know the reasoning behind it. University should strictly apply their attendance policy because
students ignore the policies which are not enforced. Some enforced policies are discussed below:

One strict policy is to attach the attendance of student with grading. Most of universities
and teachers dont agree with this policy because they think it diminish the real desire of
students for learning and secondly they know there are many problems in this complex
world that can happen with students due to which they will face difficulties as result of
this policy.
Include class participation in grading. This policy is most popular because it has many
advantages. Student participates actively in class but some teacher do not follow it as
they think that most students just participate without having authentic knowledge and
waste valuable time. One disadvantage of this policy is that most students by nature
cannot participate in class because of shy nature even they have better knowledge about
the topic.
Include quizzes and assignments in class. This policy is most adoptable. Students attend
the classes because quizzes and assignment is conducted in class on variable interval
schedule.

4.8.3.

Classroom Environment:

Students want to spend more time in a place where they are comfortable and have a value.
Therefore, the environment of classroom plays more important role in increasing the interest of
student in class as compare to material presented.

52

In order to increase student attendances in class, teacher has to make a class like a
community where each member contributes information with each other and everyone
has tolerance to accept disagreement.
Teacher should have to announce the rewards for good attendance on monthly basis to
encourage students.

4.8.4.

Individual Accountability:

Individual accountability is very important in the class to increase the student interest in class
and course. Individual accountability is very difficult to accomplish in large classroom but
teacher can do their best to learn the name of students because learning names of student shows
that teacher are taking interest to teach them with great care which in turn increase student
interest in class.[41]

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56