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INTRODUCTION
CRIMINAL LAW
Definition
Criminal law is that branch or division of public law which
defines crimes, treats of their nature, and provides for their
punishment.
Crime is defined as an act committed or omitted in violation
of public law forbidding or commanding it. It is a positive or
negative act in violation of penal law; an offense against the
state. (Blacks Law Dictionary)
Accused is a person formally charged in court for having
violated a penal law either the Revised Penal Code or a special
law; a person against whom an accusation is made. (Blacks Law
Dictionary)
Sources of Philippine Criminal Law
1. The Revised Penal Code (Act No. 3815) which took
effect on January 1, 1932, and its amendments;
2. Special laws defining acts and providing penalties for
them passed by the legislative department or branch
of Philippine Government known variously in Philippine history as Philippine Commission, Philippine
Assembly, Philippine Legislature, National Assembly,
Batasang Pambansa and Congress of the Philippines;
3. Presidential Decrees of Pres. Ferdinand E. Marcos
during his term; and
4. Executive Orders of former Pres. Corazon C. Aquino
during her incumbency.
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POINTERS IN CRIMINAL LAW

Rights of the Accused


A.

Constitutional Rights
1. Right to bail except those charged with offenses
punishable by reclusion perpetua (and/or death) when
evidence of guilt is strong. (Sec. 13, Art. III)
2. To be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved,
to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of
the nature and cause of the accusation against him,
to have a speedy, impartial and public trial, to meet
the witnesses face to face, and the right to compulsory
process to secure attendance of witnesses, and
production of evidence. (Sec. 14, Art. III)
3. Not to be compelled to be a witness against himself.
(Sec. 17, Art. III)
4. Right against excessive fines or cruel, degrading or
inhuman punishment. (Sec. 19, Art. III)
5. Right not to be put twice in jeopardy of punishment for
the same offense. (Sec. 2, Art. III)

B.

Statutory Rights
1. To be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved
beyond reasonable doubt.
2. To be informed of the nature and cause of accusation
against him.
3. To be present and defend in person and by counsel at
every stage of the proceedings; to defend himself in
person when it sufficiently appears to the court that he
can protect his rights without the assistance of counsel.
4. To testify as a witness in his own behalf.
5. To be exempt from being compelled to be a witness
against himself.
6. To confront and cross-examine the witnesses against
him.
7. To have a compulsory process issued to secure the

INTRODUCTION

attendance of witnesses and production of other evidence in his behalf.


8.

To have a speedy, impartial and public trial, and

9.

To have the right to appeal in all cases allowed and in


the manner prescribed by law. (Sec. 115, Rules of Court)

It must be taken note of that the right to appeal is not a constitutional right. Congress may therefore pass a law eliminating
or taking away this right.
Cardinal Features or Main Characteristics or
Components of Philippine Criminal Law
There are three (3):
1. General
meaning that Philippine criminal laws are binding
on all persons who live or sojourn in the Philippines.
Whoever you are, whatever be your creed, religion, sex or
nationality, as long as you reside in the Philippine territory,
penal laws of the Philippines shall apply on you. Thus, the
contention of the accused that being an American citizen he
can not be prosecuted for, much less convicted of, Illegal
Possession of Firearm because it is a constitutional right of
the citizens of the U.S.A. to keep and bear arms without
need of securing government license therefor is untenable
since the Philippines, as a sovereign state, has a right to
uphold its law and maintain order within its domain, and
with the general jurisdiction to punish persons for offenses
committed within its territory. (People vs. Galacgac, C.A. 54
O.G. 1027)
There are exceptions to this general application of criminal
Law:
A.

Principles of Public International Law


Thus, sovereigns and other chiefs of state, Ambassadors, Ministers plenipotentiary, Minister residents,
and charges daffaires even if residing or sojourning in

DEDICATION
This book is devotedly and lovingly dedicated to my
mother, the late FRANCISCA GLORIA SANDOVAL, herself a
brilliant author of mathematics books for Grades V-VI used for
a time in public schools all through out the Philippines, my wife
Pelagia, retired school principal, my daughters Dra. Maritess,
physician, and Atty. Shy Marie, PAO lawyer, my granddaughter,
Maria Tricia Anne Sandoval, and grandsons, Rex and Francis.

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PREFACE
While intended principally and primarily for bar reviewers
and bar examinees, the author hopes that this book could also be
of immense assistance to law professors, justices, judges, prosecutors, practitioners and law students. Newly decided cases are
incorporated together with the new laws enacted by the current
Congress. Whenever convenient, correlation of various rulings
and laws are made, in authors sincere desire to make the interpretation as simple and as understandable as possible. Citations
of learned authors on the subject are mentioned to help the readers in their quest for deeper meaning.
Thanks is hereby expressed to the staff of the authorAtty.
Leoveminda Ambojia-Villanueva, Friendaline O. Ilagan and
Aida Aguila-Eguia who have assisted him in the preparation of
the manuscript, and likewise to the Supreme Court Justices who
had designated me as Bar examiner for several times, as well as
to the thousands of law students and bar examinees who have
urged the author to prepare such a book as this.
EDILBERTO G. SANDOVAL
Sandiganbayan
Manila, Philippines

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ..............................................................................

Book One
GENERAL PROVISIONS REGARDING THE DATE
OF ENFORCEMENT AND APPLICATION OF THE
PROVISIONS OF THIS CODE, AND REGARDING
THE OFFENSES, THE PERSONS LIABLE
AND THE PENALTIES
Title One
FELONIES AND CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH AFFECT
CRIMINAL LIABILITY
Chapter One Felonies ..........................................................
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

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Classication of Felonies ........................................


Incurrence of Criminal Liability ............................
Duty of Court When Penalty is Excessive ...........
Stages of Execution .................................................
Light Felonies ...........................................................
Conspiracy and Proposal to Commit
Felony ...............................................................
7. Offenses not Subject to the Code ...........................

25
26

Chapter Two Circumstances Affecting Criminal


Liability ..............................................................................

27

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Justifying Circumstances ........................................


Exempting Circumstances ......................................
Mitigating Circumstances ......................................
Aggravating Circumstances ...................................
Alternative Circumstances .....................................
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12
14
20
21
24

27
32
37
43
62

Title Two
PERSONS CRIMINALLY LIABLE
FOR FELONIES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Who are criminally liable .......................................


Principals ..................................................................
Accomplices..............................................................
Accessories................................................................

65
65
68
69

Title Three
PENALTIES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Penalties In General.................................................
Classication of Penalties .......................................
Duration of Penalties...............................................
Preventive and Subsidiary Imprisonment ...........
Application of Mitigating and
Aggravating Circumstances ..........................
Other Effects of Penalty ..........................................
Complex Crimes and Their Penalties ...................
Continuing Crime ....................................................
Indeterminate Sentence Law..................................
Probation Law ..........................................................
Conditions of Probation..........................................
Other Instances When Probation Not
Applicable ........................................................

73
73
75
76
77
80
81
82
83
86
88
88

Title Four
EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY:
TOTAL AND PARTIAL
1. Extinction of Criminal Liability
(Total and Partial)............................................
2. Reason for Prescription of the Crime
and/or Penalty ................................................
3. Marriage of the Offended Party with
the Offender .....................................................
4. Partial Extinction of Criminal Liability ................
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89
94
95
96

Title Five
CIVIL LIABILITY
1. Person Civilly Liable for Felonies .........................
2. Civil Liability of Parents and/or
Guardians .........................................................
3. Subsidiary Liability of Inn Keepers, TavernKeepers, Employers, Teachers or
Persons Engaged in Industry ........................

97
97

98

Book Two
CRIMES AND PENALTIES
Chapter One CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL
SECURITY .........................................................................

103

1. Treason ......................................................................
2. Conspiracy and Proposal to Commit
Treason..............................................................
3. Misprision of Treason ..............................................
4. Espionage ..................................................................
5. Inciting to War or Giving Motives
for Reprisals .....................................................
6. Violation of Neutrality ............................................
7. Correspondence with Hostile Country ................
8. Flight to Enemys Country .....................................
9. Piracy .........................................................................

104
104
104
105
105

Chapter Two CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS ...................

107

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Parricide ....................................................................
Infanticide .................................................................
Abortion ....................................................................
Murder ......................................................................
Death Under Exceptional Circumstances ............
Homicide...................................................................
Death in a Tumultuous Affray ...............................
Giving Assistance to Suicide ..................................
Duel ...........................................................................

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103
103
104
104

107
108
108
109
110
112
112
113
114

Chapter Three CRIMES INVOLVING PRISONERS ......

115

1. Delivering Prisoners from Jail ...............................


2. Indelity in the Custody of Prisoners...................
3. Indelity in the Custody of Prisoners
by a Private Person .........................................
4. Evasion of Service of Sentence ...............................
5. Quasi-Recidivism.....................................................
6. Maltreatment of Prisoners ......................................
7. Abuses Against Chastity ........................................

115
116
117
118
119
120
121

Chapter Four CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY................

122

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Robbery .....................................................................
Theft ...........................................................................
Qualied Theft .........................................................
Theft of Motor Vehicle ............................................
Brigandage ................................................................
Usurpation of Real Rights ......................................
Culpable or Fraudulent Insolvency ......................
Estafa .........................................................................
Other Forms of Swindling ......................................
Arson .........................................................................
Malicious Mischief...................................................

122
129
131
132
134
136
136
137
144
144
146

Chapter Five CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY .................

148

1. Adultery ....................................................................
2. Concubinage .............................................................
3. Sexual Intercourse Under Scandalous
Circumstances .................................................
4. Rape ...........................................................................
5. Acts of Lasciviousness ............................................
6. Seduction (Qualied and Simple) ........................
7. Acts of Lasciviousness with the Consent of
the Offended Party................................. .........
8. Corruption of Minors .............................................
9. White Slave Trade ...................................................
10. Abduction (Forcible and Consented ....................

148
149

150
151
157
158
160
160
161
161

Chapter Six CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC


OFFICERS ..........................................................................
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

163

Direct Bribery ...........................................................


Indirect Bribery ........................................................
Qualied Bribery .....................................................
R.A. No. 3019 ............................................................
R.A. No. 1379 ............................................................
R.A. No. 6713 ............................................................

163
165
165
166
170
170

Chapter Seven CRIMES INVOLVING LIBERTY .............

172

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention ..........


Arbitrary Detention ................................................
Delay in the Delivery of Detained Persons .........
Unlawful Arrest .......................................................
Slavery .......................................................................
Forcible Abduction ..................................................

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175
176
176
177
177

Chapter Eight CRIMES INVOLVING


FALSEHOOD AND FALSITY.........................................

178

1. False Testimony Against a Defendant ..................


2. False Testimony Favorable to the
Defendant .........................................................
3. False Testimony in Civil Cases ..............................
4. False Testimony in Other Cases and Perjury .......
5. Falsication ...............................................................

178
179
179
181

Chapter Nine CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER ......

184

1.
2.
3.
4.

178

Rebellion or Insurrection .......................................


Sedition .....................................................................
Direct Assaults .........................................................
Indirect Assaults ......................................................

184
185
186
188

Chapter Ten CRIMES AGAINST HONOR .......................

190

1.
2.
3.
4.

Libel ...........................................................................
Slander.......................................................................
Slander by Deed .......................................................
Incriminatory Machinations...................................
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190
192
192
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