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UNDERGROUND MINING - LOCOMOTIVE HAULAGE

Victor Maruli Siahaan


03111402068
Samuel
0310.
University of Sriwijaya

1. 1 Introduction
There was a distinct trend towards greater concentration of workings in the coal
mining industry as a result of progress in coal-winning methods, with attendant
increases in distances and depth. This had led in turn to considerable demands being
made on haulage equipment for run-of-mine coal, dirt, men and materials. Mining
was basically a matter of transport and that the ever greater distances and the
increasing amount of material to be transported called for safer,more efficient and
more flexible means of transport. type of transport system would have to be
conditioned by the direction and the distance to be covered. If it were a matter
simply of transporting the coal to the shaft, different criteria would have to be
applied than if the transport system was also required to convey dirt towards the
solid and also men and materials on a large scale on the same level. In other words,
the decision did not depend solely on the distance to be covered; the question was
also which system was best equipped to fulfill all the transport requirements. Taking
this view of the matter, locomotive haulage had the edge over belt conveyors in
level roadways.
1.2 Problem Limitation
In writng this paper, we limit the problem only about the use of locomotive as
haulage system in underground mining. The problem we are going to discuss there
are:
1. What is haulage system?
2. What are locomotive types based on driven?
3. What are car types based on dumping direction?
4. What is locomotive calculation?
5. What are typical locomotive hauling processes?

Figure 1. Transport diagram

2. Haulage System Definiton


Haulage system is a mechanism to move the broken ore out of the mined room using
one or a combination of a few equipments to the ore storage. Selection equipment
concerns to capacity of production target, object material (fragmented), dimension
(entry to the mine), road condition (gradient and distance), the sparepart and
mechanic provider (maintenance), etc. Locomotive is one of the haulage equipment
system with high production rate which uses track (rail) in its operation.
3. Locomotive Types Based On Driven
There a few types locomotive based on the driven and each of it has uniques, there
are :
3. 1 Electric locomotives
Trolley wire locomotives: Direct current (DC) Trolley wire locomotives are used
in mines and tunnels. These locomotives are simple in design but capable of bearing
heavy loads even under rough and adverse conditions. Supply of power is external
and can be unlimited. However, its movement is confined within the trolley wires
network. The trolley wire must be hung at a uniform elevation above the rail and
aligned with the track. This is achieved by fixing hangers at an interval of 79 m
all along the track and about 45 m interval on the curves and turnings. The amount
of sag should be less than 1%. The power for electric traction is obtained from this
over-head conductor (made from hand drawn cadmium copper or hand drawn
copper, having cross section in either of figure eight or some variation of it) or from
single or duel conductor cable reels and automatic trolley pole receivers. The power
return circuit for these locomotives is through the rails (except for duel-conductor
cable reel locomotives), and therefore, the rails must be properly bonded for the
efficient and safe operation of the locomotives. The polarity of trolley wire may be
either positive or negative based on its design. The driving unit of these locomotives
consists of 2 or 4 electric motors driving axles through suitable gearing
arrangement. The H.P. ranges from 60 to 400; and speed from 1040 km/hr. The
voltage range is 220 v to 500 v. GIA industries supply locomotives weighing 220
tons.8 The requirement for perfect bonding of the rails (to act as return conductor),
chances of fire and explosion due to naked/bare trolley wire particularly in gassy
coal mines, and accidents due to electric shocks are some of its limitations. In some
of the American and German mines use is made of duel conductor cable reel. This
system has advantages, such as: elimination of rail bonding and the risk of
accidental firing of the blasting circuit due to stray current. Risk due to electric
shock is also at a minimum. Thus, using rail as a return conductor results the
operation to be simple and economical but requires much attention on its safety
aspects.
3. 2 Battery locomotives
These electric locomotives receive power from the storage batteries, such as: leadacid or Ni/Cd, carried on board the locomotive. As stated above this type of
locomotive has universal applications as main line, gathering or marshaling
locomotive. These locomotives weigh 2 to 25 tons and can run at speeds in the range
of 8 to 30 km/hr. In battery type locomotives lead-acid type of batteries having life

up to 4 years or 1250 discharge cycles are used. When fully charged voltage/cells
are 2 v. A specific gravity of 1.28 g/c.c. for the electrolyte (sulfuric acid) should be
maintained for the best results. Alkaline batteries that are bulky, costly and with a
life up to 10 years can be used for this purpose. A voltage 1.2 v/cell is obtained
from these batteries. Hydrogen an explosive gas is given off when charging the
batteries. Over heating of a cell during charging may cause fire. However, if proper
care and precautions are taken at the charging station, these hazards can be
minimized.

Figure 2. Clayton Equipment CB2 battery locomotive

3. 3 Combination locomotives
The trolley locomotives fitted with an auxiliary storage battery are in use in many
countries including USA and Germany. This system enables the locomotive to run
on the battery at places where there is no trolley wire. In some trolley wire
locomotive designs an electric cable reel is also included to allow its use beyond
the trolley wires layout. A small motor drives this reel. Combined trolley and diesel
locomotives are also available. Battery and trolley wire locomotives are fitted with
traction type series DC motors due to their excellent starting torque. Motors are
totally enclosed and capable to withstand an over load up to 300% without damage
for a short duration. The motors are started in series and run up to half speed with
minimum external resistance in the circuit and then in parallel up to full speed. On
small locomotives drum type cam operated controllers are used with five speeds in
each direction and also with a separate interlocking reversing drum. The segments
and contacts are renewable. Removal of the reversing handle renders the controller
dead, since it can be removed only on the off position.

Figure 3. Trolley electrical battery locomotive


3. 4 Diesel locomotives
This type of locomotive for use in underground mines and tunnels is built of all
metallic construction, and all other parts, which are liable to cause fire are
substantially shrouded by steel covers. In addition, the following features are
incorporated to minimize the risk of fire. These locomotives have some of these
provisions: air filter to prevent carbon particles suspended in air to enter into the
engine; flame-trap to trap any flame due to back fire of the engine; exhaust
conditioner to cool the exhaust gases; water cooling jacket together with a
temperature gauge to stop the engine in the event of over heating; high compression
mechanism to fire the engine in place of electric spark plugs; and flame proof
fittings. GIA industries, Sweden manufacture 240 tons locomotives.
3. 5 Compressed air locomotives
Earlier use of these locomotives was mainly in metal mines where use of
compressed air used to be very extensive. These are of two types: the high-pressure
type, which is charged with special air cylinders (150200 atg) and low-pressure
type, whichare charged by ordinary compressed air network of the mines. The main
advantage of compressed air locomotives is that they are absolutely flame proof
particularly in roadways of highly gassy mines where use of other types of
locomotives is prohibited by law. Low efficiency (1012%) and high power
consumption are the main drawbacks and which is why nowadays they are almost
obsolete, as other types, as shown by way of a comparative statement in (Table 1),
can perform better.

Figure 4. Diesel locomotive operated successfully at the Zinc Mine Works near
Jefferson City, Tennessee

Figure 5. Compressed air locomotives used by the Homestake Mining Co.

4. Comparison of various locomotive


To select the right type used of locomotive in mine, there are few parameters need
to be concerned, as shown in (Table 10) .
Table 1. Comparison of various types of locomotive used in mine and tunnel
Parameters

Readiness
service

Limitation
travel

Diesel
Locomotive
(DL).
to Needs transfer
of diesel from
surface
to
underground.

Battery
Locomotive
(BL).
Needs change
of battery.

of By the power it By the power it


carries,
self carries,
self
contained.
contained.

Running
condition

Least over load Has over load


capacity. High capacity, good
tractive effort. tractive effort.

Reliability

Max.
Breakdown
Max. Maint:
needs exhaust
conditioner,
flame trap and
their
replacement.
Health and fire
hazards due to
exhaust
emission.

Maintenance

Safety

Fixed cost

Least

More than DL.


Least maint.

Trolley wire Compressed air


loco. (TW).
loco. (CA).
Needs switches Needs transfer
and rectifiers.
of comp. air
from surface to
underground
tank.
Restricted
Within radius
within
the of 5 km.
layout
of
trolley wires.
High over load Can take over
capacity with load.
better speed.
Steep gradient
is negotiable.
Least
break Reliable
downs
Most
skilled Care is needed
job is done at regarding air
the
power leakage.
station, hence
least
maint.
required
Danger
of Safer
shock, leakage
and
igniting
fire-damp due
to spark.

Safer than DL
but
batteries
are not flame
proof. Emits H2
during
charging.
Higher
Highest

More than DL
& BL.
Running cost
Maximum.
Least.
Less.
Costliest.
Working
Non
gassy Good as level Non
gassy Limited
to
condition
& mines
and as weel as mines
for underground
suitability
tunnel
gathering
higher output.
metal mines.
underground
haulage.
Utilization
Lower than BL Good.
Good, it can Requires
factor
& TW.
work
recharging
continuously.
after
short
travel.
Power/weight
7 HP/ton.
2,6 HP/ton.
8-15 HP/ton.
ratio
Power
n.a.
About
0,2 About
0,2 0,6 kwh/t-km.
consumption
kw/t-km.
kw/t-km.

5. Locomotives Car Types Based on Dumping Direction


Locomotives car is a container which carries the loading.
5. 1. Side Dump Car
Side dump car is a container which unloads from its side using hydrolic mechanism
or side emerge track.

Figure 6. Side dump locomotive used by China Coal Group, Shandong Province

5. 2 End Dump Car


End dump car is a container which unloads from its back using hydrolic mechanism
or some external force.

Figure 7. End dump locomotive


5.3 Bottom Dump Car
Bottom dump car is a container which unloads from its bottom using the cut of the
track in dumping area and addition track to retain the container.

Figure 8. Bottom dump car


5. 4 Overtunner Dump Car
Overtunner dump car is a container which being unloaded by up-side down the car
using rotary machine.

Figure 9. Dump car being up-side down by rotary railcar dumper

6. Other fittings
In general, the fittings that should be included with a mine-locomotive are:
emergency brake, sanding device, speed gauge, km, recorder, headlights, red light
at the rear, audible warning signal, fire extinguisher within easy reach of the
operator, operators seat and a portable lamp for emergency. Spring applied, fully
self-adjusting caliper brakes provide full operational and emergency braking
features. In a modern mine a control room via radio contact coordinates the
movement of trains throughout the mine. Some mines have a computerized
monitoring, operating and signaling system. In Germany, the construction of
satellite mines provide the opportunity to apply similar techniques underground,
as developed for high speed surface railways with regard to locomotives, trains and
man-riding cars.
7 Locomotive calculations
Tractive effort: It is the total force delivered by the motive power of locomotive,
through the gearing, at wheel treads. When this force is greater than the product of
locomotive weight and the coefficient of adhesion between the wheels and rails, the
wheels will slip i.e. it will roll. This can be numerically expressed as:
Total or Maximum Tractive effort TL = WL C

Table 2. Value of C for differing condition


Rail Condition
Clear dry rails, starting and accelerating
Clear dry rails, continuous running
Clear dry rails, locomotive braking
Wet rails

C - for un-sanded rails


0,30
0,25
0,20
0,15

C f or sanded rails
0,40
0,35
0,30
0,25

Where: C is the coefficient of adhesion whose value depends upon the condition of
track, and whether it is sanded or not. Given in (Table 2), are the values of C (Bise,
1986).
Drawbar pull: This is the force exerted on the coupled load by a locomotive through
its drawbar, or coupling, and is the sum of the tractive resistance of the coupled
load. The drawbar pull that a locomotive is capable of developing is determined by
subtracting the tractive effort, from the sum of the tractive resistance of the
locomotive. This resistance is offered by several sources: rolling resistance, which
the entire train offers is equal to weight of the train in tons. (i.e. weight of
locomotive _ weight of mine cars with pay load) multiplied by a frictional
coefficient _, which could be 1015 kg/ton (2030 lb/ton); Curve resistance which
can be ignored, gradient resistance and the force required to provide acceleration to
the motion (as given in the formulae specified below).
Drawbar pull

= R0 WT

Running resistance/t R0

= {(1/n) x 1000} (a/g)

Total tractive effort TE

= R0 (WL + WT)

Also Total tractive effort TE = T0 WL


So, T0 WL

= R0 (WL + WT)

Thus, Drawbar pull R0 WT

= T0 W L R o W L
= WL (T0 R0)

Or trailng road (or weight of train which can be hauled)


WT = WL (T0 R0) / R0
BHP = (Tractive effort in kg. x speed of locomotive in m/sec.)/75/
Where:
T0
= Tractive effort/t in kg.
TE
= Total tractive effort in kg.
R0
= Running resistance/t in kg.
WL = Weight of locomotive in tons.
WT = Weight of trailing load i.e. weight of train in tons.

= Efficiency of the system

= Frictional resistance/ton in kg.


n
= Denominator value of gradient i.e. 1/n, use sign _ for up; for down
gradient.
a
= Acceleration of train in m/sec2; Use (+) for acceleration and (-) for
retardation
g
= Acceleration due to gravity in m/sec2 _ 9.81
v
= Locomotive speed in m/sec.
The above calculation indicates that weight of locomotive is important in order to
pull the load. Locomotive weight of 10 tons/h.p. is reasonable for its trouble free
operation (Roger et al. 1982).
8. Typical Locomotive Hauling Process
There are two typical hauling process using locomotive in underground, shallow
mining and another is deep underground mining.
8. 1 Shallow underground mining (close to surface)
Shallow underground mining which method is mine close to surface includes adit, glory
hole, and tunneling method. All of them have the same thing that is the entry of the mine
and the front mining gradient is not steep, so the locomotive is capable to haul the broken
ore straight to the storage. In this type, the generally process are ore pass-loading broken
ore-locomotive-dumping area-crushing.

Figure 10. Glory hole mining method

8. 2 Deep underground mining


Deep underground mining which includes room and pillar, stoping, and caving method that
far deep under the surface. All of them have the same thing that is the entry of the mine
and the front mining gradient is very steep and vertical, so the locomotive is not capable to
haul the broken ore straight to the storage. In this type, locomotive will be complicated
with other equipment, that is hoisting system (vertically transportatison). The generally
process are : ore pass/ore chute - loading broken ore locomotive - dumping are crussher
- crush bin - hoisting system.

Figure 11. Layout of underground mining

Figure 11. NMT Chute to load car

Figure 12. Ore chute and car

Figure 12. Dumping system for bottom dump car

Figure 13.. Dumping station, crusher and crusher bin

Figure 14. Stage hoisting

Figure 15. Locomotive with scrapper loading in room and pillar

Figure 16. Locomotive with wheel loader in sublevel stoping

Figure 17. Locomotive with wheel loader in shrinkage stoping

Figure 18. Locomotive with scrapper cut and fill stope.

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