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DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION FROM RICE HUSK GASIFICATION IN RURAL MYANMAR

MIN LWIN SWE

MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL CHIANG MAI UNIVERSITY MAY 2009

DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION FROM RICE HUSK GASIFICATION IN RURAL MYANMAR

MIN LWIN SWE

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL CHIANG MAI UNIVERSITY MAY 2009

DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION FROM RICE HUSK GASIFICATION IN RURAL MYANMAR

MIN LWIN SWE

THIS THESIS HAS BEEN APPROVED TO BE A PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

EXAMINING COMMITTEE

CHAIRPERSON Asst. Prof. Dr. Chatchawan Chaichana
CHAIRPERSON
Asst. Prof. Dr. Chatchawan Chaichana
…………………………………………………………………………… MEMBER
Asst. Prof. Dr. Nakorn Tippayawong
………………………………………………………………………… …MEMBER
Dr. Yucho Sadamichi
…………………………………………………………………………… MEMBER
Asst. Prof. Dr. Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue

28 May 2009 © Copyright by Chiang Mai University

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to express my profound gratitude and respect to my advisor Assistant Professor Dr. Nakorn Tippayawong, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Thailand for his invaluable supervision, helpful suggestion and necessary assistance through out the preparation of my thesis. My deep gratitude also goes to my co-advisor Assistant Professor Dr. Chatchawan Chaichana for his peer review, priceless comments, suggestion and encouragement. I am also equally grateful to other member of academic advisory committee Dr. Yucho Sadamichi and Dr. Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue for their suggestions and advice on my thesis. Special thanks are also extended to Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency, Ministry of Energy, Thailand for financial support and the Energy Planning Department of Myanmar, the Myanmar Engineering Society, the Energy Research and Development Institute in Chiang Mai University and the villagers of Dagoon Daing Village, Twantay Township, Yangon, Myanmar for their support and helpful. Many thanks are extended to Ministry of Science and Technology, Union of Myanmar for providing me the opportunity to pursue this master’s degree. I am very much delighted to pay thanks for the warm and cordial friendship provided by all Mechanical students-juniors, mates as well as seniors from Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Moreover, my sincere thanks are to all academic and administrative staffs of Chiang Mai University for their helps. Many thanks also go to all oversea Myanmar students for sharing joyful moments in Chiang Mai. Finally, I wish to thanks everyone whose names could not be mentioned individually.

Min Lwin Swe

iv

( )

.

gasifier- engine-generator gasifier 50 304 Dagoon Daing, Twantay Township 50 400 1500 4 31.28 32.64 65 13.5 0.12 0.23 (150-300 )

v

0.60 (800 )

gasifier 65%

vi

Thesis Title

Distributed Power Generation from Rice Husk Gasification in Rural Myanmar

Author

Mr. Min Lwin Swe

Degree

Master of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering)

Thesis Advisor

Asst. Prof. Dr. Nakorn Tippayawong

ABSTRACT

Myanmar is known for her natural diversity and abundance in agricultural and forestry products. Major biomass residues available include rice husk, wood and bamboo. These renewable energy sources have great potential to be utilized for power generation, considering the fact that the country experiences shortage in electricity supply, especially in rural areas. In this thesis, a rice husk gasifier-engine-generator system and electrification system had been constructed and operated successfully for 4 hours per day. This engine was modified so that can use both diesel and producer gas produced by the gasifier. The maximum generator capacity of the unit is 50 kW. Lamp posts and electricity line were also installed along main roads, and connected to local school, temple and 304 households in Dagoon Daing village, Twantay Township, 50 km away from Yangon. Almost 400 light bulbs were fitted, serving nearly 1500 villagers. From the test results, it was found that at 31.28 kW, rice husk consumption rate was 32.64 kg/h, representing a diesel replacement rate of about 65% with overall energy efficiency of 13.5%. The electricity cost has been estimated to be in the range between $0.12-0.23/kWh (150-300 kyat/kWh) in compression to $0.60/kWh (800 kyat/kWh) from an existing diesel system. The utilization of rice husk as an energy source for this kind of gasifier could save the annual oil expenditure.

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Acknowledgements

 

iii

Abstract (Thai)

iv

Abstract (English)

vi

Table of Contents

vii

List of Tables

xi

List of Figures

xii

Chapter 1

Introduction

1

1.1 Rural electrification

1

1.2 Literature reviews

3

1.2.1 Small distributed generation

3

1.2.2 Biomass gasification

4

1.2.3 Impacts on people

7

1.3 Objectives

7

1.4 Scope of the thesis

8

Chapter 2

Background Theory

9

2.1 Distributed generation

9

2.2 Gasification

10

2.2.1 Drying zone

11

2.2.2 Pyrolysis zone

11

2.2.3 Combustion zone

12

2.2.4 Reduction zone

12

2.3 Biomass resources

18

2.3.1

Rice husk

18

 

viii

 

2.3.3

Bamboo

20

 

2.4

Economic analysis

21

 

2.4.1

Net present value

21

2.4.2

Internal rate of return

22

2.4.3

Payback period

22

Chapter 3

Methodology

24

3.1 Energy Efficiency

24

 

3.1.1 System efficiency

24

3.1.2 Engine efficiency

25

 

3.2 Social and economic impacts from field survey

25

3.3 Measuring equipment for gasification project

26

 

3.3.1 Multifunction power meter

26

3.3.2 AC power clamp meter

27

3.3.3 Digital tachometer

27

3.3.4 Measured fuel consumption

28

Chapter 4

Distributed Generation System

29

4.1 Site selection and survey

29

 

4.1.1 Twantay Township

29

4.1.2 Site visit

30

4.1.3 Data collection

31

4.1.4 Data interpretation

31

4.1.5 Site selection

31

 

4.2 Biomass analysis

35

 

4.2.1 Potential biomass as fuels in Myanmar

35

4.2.2 Fuel analysis methods

35

 

4.3 Biomass gasification system

38

 

4.3.1 Downdraft gasifier system

39

4.3.2 Cyclone separator

39

ix

 

4.3.4 Gas cooler

41

4.3.5 Carbon fiber filter

41

4.3.6 Fine filter unit

42

4.3.7 Gas damper

42

4.3.8 Water pump

43

 

4.4 Electrification system

44

 

4.4.1 Engine

44

4.4.2 Generator

45

4.4.3 Electric control panel

46

 

4.5 Building

46

4.6 System installation, wiring, and testing

47

 

4.6.1 System installation

47

4.6.2 Electricity wiring and network

47

4.6.3 System operation

50

4.6.3.1 Preparation

50

4.6.3.2 System operating procedures

51

4.6.3.3 Maintenance

53

4.6.3.4 The treatments and recycling program to Waste products

54

 

4.7 Test runs

55

Chapter 5

Results and discussions

56

5.1 Technical results

56

 

5.1.1 Biomass fuel analysis

56

5.1.2 System testing

57

 

5.2 Socio-economic impacts

66

5.3 Other impacts

68

Chapter 6

Conclusions and recommendations for future works

69

6.1

Conclusions

69

x

References

71

Appendices

Appendix A

Nomination of Potential Sites

74

Appendix B

Selection of Dagoon Daing Village

76

Appendix C

Biomass Fuel Analysis Results

78

Appendix D

Questionnaires

115

Appendix E

Publication

124

Curriculum Vitae

137

xi

LIST OF TABLES

Table

Page

2.1

Annual production of paddy

19

2.2

Forest area by types of forests

20

3.1

Detail of electricity loads use pattern

26

4.1

Detail data of the four purposed sites

32

4.2

Weighting and decision making table

34

5.1

Ultimate Analysis

56

5.2

Proximate analysis, heating value and density

56

5.3

Ash analysis

57

5.4

Properties of rice husk at different loads

60

5.5

Electricity consumption in the villages at different loads

60

5.6

Comparison of electricity cost between diesel and dual fuel operation

65

5.7

Waste water analysis

65

xii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Page

1.1

Hydropower Potentials of Myanmar (State and Division Wise)

2

1.2

Gasification Processes and products

4

2.1

Small Distributed Generation for villagers

9

2.2

Updraft gasifier

13

2.3

Downdraft gasifier

15

2.4

Crossdraft gasifier

16

2.5

Fluidized bed gasifier

17

2.6

Rice Husk

18

2.7

Wood

20

2.8

Bamboo

21

3.1

Field survey in the study area

25

3.2

Multifunctional power meter

27

3.3

AC power clamp meter

27

3.4

Digital tachometer

28

3.5

Platform scale

28

4.1

Twantay Township and road transport to Yangon

30

4.2

Location of the four purposed sites

30

4.3

Potential biomass resources

35

4.4

Rice Huck Gasification System

38

4.5

Downdraft Gasifier

39

4.6

Cyclone

40

4.7

Venturi scrubber

40

4.8

Gas cooler

41

4.9

Carbon fiber filter

41

4.10

Fine filter unit

42

4.11

Gas damper

43

xiii

Figure

Page

4.13

Engine

44

4.14

Automatic governor

44

4.15

Generator

45

4.16

Generator nameplate

45

4.17

Electric control panel

46

4.18

Picture of the building

46

4.19

Installation of the gasification system inside the building

47

4.20

Electricity distribution lines and power plant location in the village

48

4.21

Three-phase electricity lines from the system building

49

4.22

Electricity poles along the main road

49

4.23

Lamp posts along the main road

49

4.24

Rice husk storage

50

4.25

Rice husk level

50

4.26

Water level in the circulating pond and the dust cooler

51

4.27

Radiator, diesel and lubricant oil tanks

51

4.28

Air control valve

52

4.29

The key of starting engine

52

4.30

Ash removal system

53

4.31

Ash at the pond and the tray

54

4.32

Filters

54

5.1

Electrical current and power

57

5.2

Electrical voltage and power

58

5.3

Power factor and power

58

5.4

Relationship between power generated and rice husk Consumption

59

5.5

Relationship between power generated and diesel consumption

59

5.6

Operators in action

67

5.7

Lighting for extra reading at night

67

5.8

Snooker game at night

68

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Rural Electrification Increasing demand of energy and negative impacts of fossil fuels on the environment has emphasized the need of harnessing energy from renewable sources. These sources can create a significant impact in the generation of grid electricity. 55.4 million of people live in Union of Myanmar, but 70 percent of people live in rural areas and earn a living based on agriculture. There are plenty of biomass and agricultural by-products in the country. In order to reinforce the present national grid system and to facilitate power transmission from new generating stations, Ministry of Electric Power (MEP) carried out 21 transmission line projects at present and planned more transmission line projects to be implemented in the near future. The information below, currently found on the website of the Myanmar Ministry of Energy, has not been updated since the Ministry of Electric Power was reconstituted as two separate ministries in May 2006. However, the data provides a useful picture of the Ministry and its resource as they existed in 2000 and is useful for historical purposes. It also includes map, Figure 1.1 is the locations of 29 hydro- electric projects then on the drawing boards. The generation of electricity from hydropower plants during 1999-2000 has been approximately 959.46 million kWh constituting about 21 percent of the total power generation. MEP has developed hydropower projects mostly in remote border areas. The electricity generation in Myanmar increases two folds during the last 10 years. As a statistical statement, the figures are not updated and according to the estimation in year 1999-2000, 80 percentage of the total power generation are still in progress with many projects of government. However, electrical power cannot be distributed to many rural areas in Myanmar. In rural areas, various forms of energy are used. These areas do not have access to electricity; people use wood, charcoal, bamboo, and rice hull for cooking and candles, kerosene lamps for lighting at night. They also use engines and

2

generators to produce electricity for lighting. Therefore, a rice husk gasifier was constructing operated and studied in 2007.

husk gasifier was constructing operated and studied in 2007. Figure 1.1 Hydropower Potentials of Myanmar (State

Figure 1.1 Hydropower Potentials of Myanmar (State and Division Wise)

3

Biomass gasification is basically a conversion of solid biomass into a combustible gas mixture normally called “Producer Gas” (or low Btu gas). The process involves partial combustion of biomass. Partial combustion produces carbon monoxide (CO) as well as hydrogen (H 2 ) which are both combustible gas. Solid biomass fuels, which are usually inconvenient and have low efficiency of utilization can thus, be converted in to a high quality gaseous fuel. From cooperation project in energy related projects between Thailand and Myanmar under Ayeyarwaddy - Chaophaya - Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy (ACMECS), the Government of Thailand has approved financial assistance on study and demonstration of biomass gasification for electricity project. The project aims to provide electricity to a local community in Myanmar in order to improve their living standards. A community in Twantay Township, Dagoon Daing Village, was selected. The community consists of two villages, which are Dagoon Diang Village and Alehsu Village. A rice hull gasification unit is constructed and operated. The gasifier is coupled with a diesel engine to drive an electric generator. An electricity grid and street lighting were installed in the community. The system is able to distribute electricity to 304 houses with the population of 1,496 people.

1.2 Literature Reviews 1.2.1 Small distributed generation Distributed generation (DG) has been defined in many ways, creating some confusion in terms of regulatory rule applicability. It is most commonly defined as the generation of electricity near the intended place of use. Some parties define it with size limitations, other exclude back up generation, and yet others make no distinction between generation connected to the transmission system or the distribution system. The Energy Commission assumes the following definition: DG is electric generation connected to the distribution level of the transmission and distribution grid usually located at or near the intended place of use. (M. Marks, 2002) For this report, staff defines DG as electricity production that is on-site or close to a load center and is interconnected to the utility distribution system. In practical terms, this limits the definition of DG to less than 20 megawatts (MW) since

4

systems larger than this would typically be interconnected at sub-transmission, or transmission system voltages. (M. Rawson and J. Sugar, 2007) The performance and impact of a decentralized biomass gasifier-based power generation system in an unelectrified village are presented. The system consists of a 20 kW gasifier-engine generator system with all the accessories for fuel processing and electricity distribution. Technical, social, economic and management-related lessons learnt are presented. (N. H. Ravindranath, H. I. Somashekar, S. Dasappa and C. N. Jayasheela Reddy, 2004)

1.2.2 Biomass gasification

and C. N. Jayasheela Reddy, 2004) 1.2.2 Biomass gasification Figure 1.2 Gasification Processes and products Handbook

Figure 1.2 Gasification Processes and products

Handbook of biomass downdraft gasifier engine system explains how biomass can be converted to a gas in a downdraft gasifier and gives details for designing, testing, operating, and manufacturing gasifiers and gasifier systems. Criteria include gasifier application, the availability of suitable equipment, biomass fuel availability

5

and fuel-source reliability, regulations, operator availability, and of course cost and financing. The spark ignition engine operating on gasoline achieves a thermal efficiency of 25%-30%. The same engine operating on producer gas may achieves 15%-25% thermal efficiency, depending on how well the engine is converted to producer gas. A diesel engine using diesel typically achieves 30%-35% thermal efficiency. Operating on 90% producer gas, it can be expected to give 25%-30% thermal efficiency. The overall efficiency of the system must be computed from engine efficiency and gasifier efficiency. (T. B. Reed and Agua Das, 1988) The efficiency of the engine-generator set was generally lower and the total energy input to the engine was always higher on the dual fuel operation. The maximum engine-generator set efficiency with dual fuel operation achieved was 14.71%, while pure diesel operation gave 22.41% efficiency for the same load. (S.C. Bhattacharya, S.S. Hla, H.L. Pham, 2001) Biomass gasification for obtaining gas and further the liquid fuels, of course, will be a very good alternative because of the introduction of renewable energy concept. There are several kinds of gasification processes in according with the different gasification agent. (L. Wei-ji, Z. Da-lei, R.Yong-zhi, 2002) Coal, wood and charcoal gasifiers have been used for operation of internal combustion engines in various applications since the beginning of this century. A major problem could result from the slow carbon build-up in the engine's cylinders as a consequence of traces of tar or dust in the gas. Whether this is due to too low engine loads or to a defective glass fibre cloth filter remains to be tested. (B. Kjellstrom,

1986)

Studies on the effect of size, structure, environment, temperature, heating rate, composition of biomass and ash are reviewed. From the foregoing review, the following observations could be arrived at: Biomass is a compound consisting of C, H, and O in major quantity. The composition of C, H and O is more or less same in all biomasses. The calorific values are also nearly same. Environment results in pyrolysis or complete gasification of biomass. Heating rate influence the quality of gasification and quantity of products. Porous biomasses are gasifier completely into ash at

6

temperatures less than 600° C. (V. Kirubakaran, V. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Nalini, T. Sekar, M. Premalatha, and P. Subramanian, 2007) Surveys of rural household energy use activities incorporating the production and utilisation of woody biomass, and of the forest products industries incorporating

forest harvesting, wood processing and residues generation, were undertaken to assess the availability of wood biomass that could be utilised in biomass-electricity systems in Kenya. Biomass gasifier demonstration programmes should give preferences to sites where adequate technical skills, sufficient fuel resources, and skilled operator availability coincide with direct economic interests. Specific sites meeting these criteria for small scale biomass-electricity systems were identified in this study. (K. Senelwa, Ralph E.H. Sims, 1999) The principals of gasification, and old and new types of gasifiers, are discussed for both power and heat applications. The downdraft gasifier may be summarized as follows;

- High amounts of ash and dust particles remain in the gas because the gas has to pass the oxidation zone, where it collects small ash particles.

- The moisture content of the biomass must be less than 25 percent (on a wet basis).

- The relatively high temperature of the exit flue gas results in lower gasification efficiency.

The main difficulties are in the gas cleaning systems (preferably at high temperatures) and meeting all requirements set by gas turbine manufactures in adapting gas turbine to low calorific gases. (P. Quaak, H. Knoef, H. Stassen, 1998) The slow pyrolysis of rice husk has been investigated at temperature of 350°C to 450°C. The primary results are the following:

(a)

An average yield of 10% dry tar, 27% water, 18% gas and 45% char.

(b)

The charred rice husk has a slightly higher heating value of 16 MJ kg -1 compared to 15.3 MJ kg -1 for rice husk.

(c)

The energy fraction lost due to charring amounts to 45-55% on a dry basis.

(d) The rice husk char consists of approximately 45% ash, 45% carbon and 10%

remaining volatiles.

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Rice husk ash does have a very high softening temperature (>1400°C), but nevertheless tends to slag if the fuel bed structure is disturbed by high superficial gas velocities. (A. Kaupp, 1984) The rice husk gasification use of a water jet scrubber gives a satisfactory tar removal from the producer gas. This gasification unit is very simple to be operated by

a low skill operator. The main tack in order to maintain the satisfactory gasification

process is the regular cleaning of the gas cleaning and cooling as well as piping line. The use of rice husk as an energy substitution by means of the gasification process can reduce the diesel oil consumption by 70%. A particular economic analysis shows

a big opportunity to supply electricity profitably by using this system. (R. Manurung,

H. Susanto and Sudarno H., 1986)

1.2.3 Impacts on people Electricity for lighting in all houses has helped school-going children in their studies and women in their household chores. The unique feature of the project in Hosahalli is equitable sharing of benefits by all the households and reliable provision

of services on most days in a year, contributing to improved quality of life for all. (N.

H. Ravindranath, H. I. Somashekar, S. Dasappa and C. N. Jayasheela Reddy, 2004)

In the present study, potential assessments of all the available energy sources is carried out and found that the conventional diesel power plant can be replaced by

renewable energy sources in self-sustainable manner to achieve energy independent in

a remote island. It is suggested to replace existing 400kW diesel generating plant and

50 kW solar power plant by 100 kW biogas power plant, 150 kW biomass gasification plant and 200 kW solar PV system. Such development will also ensure that there is no adverse impact on environment and socio-economic life of the habitants. (S.K. Singal, Varun, R.P. Singh, 2007)

1.3 Objectives The required necessary information for self-electricity and to develop model of rice husk gasification in rural region of Myanmar are vital intentions for this project and specified ranges are as follows;

- To survey energy related data of rural villages for power plant installation

8

- To test the gasifier power plant

- To evaluate economic and social impact on villager’s livelihood

1.4 Scope of the thesis The study focuses on three types of biomass only. The study site is in Yangon, Myanmar. The power plant is community sized of 50 kW. Compare technology and cost between systems with diesel and diesel/producer gas as fuel. Analyze technical and social-economic of the system.

Chapter 2 Background Theory

2.1 Distributed generation Distributed generation (DG) generally refers to small scale (1-50 kW) electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to customers or that are tied to an electric distribution system. Distributed generators include, but are not limited to synchronous generators, induction generators, reciprocating engines, microturbines, combustion gas turbines, fuel cells, solar photovoltaic’s, and wind turbines. DG can be used to generate a customer’s entire electricity supply; for peak shaving (generating a portion of a customer’s electricity onsite to reduce the amount of electricity purchased during peak price periods); for standby or emergency generation (as a backup to Wires Owner's power supply); as a green power source (using renewable technology); or for increased reliability. In some remote locations, DG can be less costly as it eliminates the need for expensive construction of distribution and/or transmission lines.

expensive construction of distribution and/or transmission lines. Figure 2.1 Small Distributed Generation for villagers

Figure 2.1 Small Distributed Generation for villagers

10

Benefits of DG include:

A lower capital cost because of the small size of the DG (although the investment cost per kVA of a DG can be much higher than that of a large power plant).

Reduction of the need for large infrastructure construction or upgrades because the DG can be constructed at the load location.

If the DG provides power for local use, it may reduce pressure on distribution and transmission lines.

With some technologies, produces zero or near-zero pollutant emissions over its useful life (not taking into consideration pollutant emissions over the entire product lifecycle i.e. pollution produced during the manufacturing or after decommissioning of the DG system).

With some technologies such as solar or wind, it is a form of renewable energy.

Can increase power reliability as back-up or stand-by power to customers.

Offers customers a choice in meeting their energy needs.

There are no uniform national interconnection standards addressing safety, power quality and reliability for small distributed generation systems.

The current process for interconnection is not standardized among provinces.

Interconnection may involve communication with several different organizations

The environmental regulations and permit process that have been developed for larger distributed generation projects make some DG projects uneconomical.

Contractual barriers exist such as liability insurance requirements, fees and charges, and extensive paperwork.

2.2 Gasification Gasification refers to a thermochemical conversation of carbonaceous solid fuel into a gaseous energy medium by adding an oxidizing agent (air, oxygen, water vapour). If air or oxygen is used, the oxidization reactions can supply the heat necessary for converting the endothermic stages: so external energy supply is not necessary. The product is a mixture of combustible and non-combustible gases, liquids and solids. The principal combustible gas components are CO and H 2 . Other

11

include CH 4 , but in small proportions. The final product composition will depend on operating conditions, the gasifier and the fuel type. The process in the gasifier can be broken down into different stages:

- Drying Zone

- Pyrolysis Zone

- Combustion Zone

- Reduction Zone

2.2.1 Drying Zone

Solid fuel is introduced into the gasifier at the top. As a result of heat transfer from the lower parts of the gasifier, drying of wood or biomass fuel occurs in the bunker section. The water vapour will flow downwards and add to the water vapour formed in the oxidization zone. Part of it may be reduced to hydrogen and the rest will end up as moisture in the gas.

2.2.2 Pyrolysis Zone

At temperature above 250°C, the biomass fuel starts pyrolysing. The pyrolysis reactions are not well known, but one can summarise that large molecules (such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) break down into medium size molecules and carbon (char) during the heating of feedstock. The pyrolysis products flow downwards into the hotter zones of the gasifier. Some will be burned in the oxidization zone, and the rest will break down to even smaller molecules of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, ethane, etc: if they are remaining in the hot zone long enough. If the residence time, in the hot zone is too short or temperature too low, then medium size molecules can escape and will condense as tar oil.

12

2.2.3 Combustion Zone

A combustion (oxidization) zone is formed at the level where oxygen (air) is introduced. Reactions with oxygen are highly exothermic and result in a sharp rise of the temperature up to 1200-1500°C. As mentioned above, an important of the oxidization zone, apart from heat generation, is to convert or oxidize virtually all condensable product from the pyrolysis zone. In order to avoid cold spots in the oxidization zone, air inlet velocities and the reactor geomentry must be well chosen. Generally two methods are employed to obtain an even temperature distribution:

- reducing the cross sectional area at a certain height of the reactor (“throat concept”)

- spreading the air inlet nozzles over the circumference of the reduced cross area. Oxidation or combustion is described by the following chemical reactions:

C

2 H 2

+

+

O

O

2

2

by the following chemical reactions: C 2 H 2 + + O O 2 2 2.2.4

by the following chemical reactions: C 2 H 2 + + O O 2 2 2.2.4

2.2.4 Reduction Zone

CO 2 2 H 2 O

(- 393 MJ/kg mole) (- 242 MJ/kg mole)

(2.1)

(2.2)

The reaction products of the oxidization zone move downward the reduction zone. In this zone the sensible heat of the gases and charcoal is converted as much as

possible into chemical energy of the producer gas. The end product of the chemical reaction that takes place in the reduction zone is a combustible gas which can be used as fuel gas in burners. After dust, condensed tars and moisture removal and cooling the gas is suitable for use in engines. The following reactions take place in the reduction zone.

C

C

CO 2 +

C

CO

+

+

+

+

CO 2

H H

2 O

2

2 H 2 3 H 2

2 COCO 2 + C CO + + + + CO 2 H H 2 O 2

CO

CO + C CO + + + + CO 2 H H 2 O 2 2 H

C CO + + + + CO 2 H H 2 O 2 2 H 2

C CO + + + + CO 2 H H 2 O 2 2 H 2

+

+

CH CH 4 +

4

H 2

H 2

H 2

 

(+173 MJ / kmol)

(2.3)

(+131 MJ / kmol)

(2.4)

O

(-

41 MJ / kmol)

(2.5)

(-

75 MJ / kmol)

(2.6)

O

(- 205 MJ / kmol)

(2.7)

13

Equation (2.3) and (2.4), which are the main reaction of reduction show that reaction requires heat. Therefore the gas temperature will decrease during reduction. Reaction (2.5) describes the so-call water-gas equilibrium.

Gasifiers are classified as follows:

- Updraft gasifier

- Downdraft gasifier

- Crossdraft gasifier

- Fluidized bed gasifier

- Other types of gasifiers

Updraft gasifier The common type of a counter current gasifier is a vertical reactor where the feed stock is entered from the top.

reactor where the feed stock is entered from the top. Figure 2.2 Updraft gasifier The directions

Figure 2.2 Updraft gasifier

The directions of fuel flow and gas flow being opposed, separate reaction zones formed in the reactor. The gas rises inside the reactor and leaves at the top

14

section, which is why this type is also designated as updraft gasifier. Counter-current gasifiers have the advantage that they do not require any special fuel preparation thus allowing the gasification of a wide range of biomass types with different particle size and moisture contents. Through forced convection, the gas heated by oxidation in a bottom zone rises and transfers heat to fuel and the gas leaves the gasifier with a relatively low temperature, which indicates a high gasification efficiency of this process. The drawback of it results from volatile matter produced in the pyrolysis zone, which is carried in the rising gas steam. In consequence, the gas produced by the updraft gasifiers contains a considerable amount of tar compounds. Hence it is more suitable for direct heating than engine operation. Figure 2.2 shows a schematic diagram of updraft gasifier.

Downdraft gasifier In a co-current gasifier, fuel and gas move in the same direction. The palletized biofuel, at first dried and pyrolyzed nearly in the absence of air in the upper zones reaches further down the very hot oxidization zone, from where, changed into char and ash, it falls into reduction zone. The gases mainly produced in the pyrolysis zone are heated to fairly more than 1000°C in the oxidation zone. In this process, high-tar gaseous compounds in the gas are to a great extent converted into low tar components, which then react with the char in the subsequent reduction zone producing additional gas. The gas issues from the bottom reactor section, hence the other designation of downdraft gasification. In contract to counter-current gasification, the heat transfer between biofuel and gas in co-current gasification is low, so the exit gas has a relatively high temperature. There is also a higher tendency of slag formation in co-current than in counter current gasifiers because of the high temperature in the oxidization zone. A uniform temperature distribution within the individual reactor zones and a well-formed preciousness to gas of the char layer are decisive factors for the gas quality. Co- current gasifiers therefore make greater demand on the fuel preparation with regard to size and moisture content. The major advantage of downdraft gasifiers is that the gas produced contains far less tar products and other high-boiling compounds than the gas from updraft gasifiers. Figure 2.3 shows a schematics diagram of downdraft gasifier.

15

15 Figure 2.3 Downdraft gasifier The advantages of downdraft gasification are: • Up to 99.9% of

Figure 2.3 Downdraft gasifier

The advantages of downdraft gasification are:

• Up to 99.9% of the tar formed is consumed, requiring minimal or no tar cleanup

• Minerals remain with the char/ash, reducing the need for a cyclone

• Proven, simple and low cost process The disadvantages of downdraft gasification are:

• Requires feed drying to a low moisture content (<20%)

• Syngas exiting the reactor is at high temperature, requiring a secondary heat recovery system

• 4-7% of the carbon remains unconverted For a relatively small size gasifier, it is normally of downdraft gasifier type.

Crossdraft gasifier Crossdraft gasifiers, schematically illustrated in Figure 2.4 are an adaptation for the use of charcoal. Charcoal gasification results in very high temperatures (1500°C and higher) in the oxidation zone which can lead to material problems. In

16

crossdraft gasifiers insulation against these high temperatures is provided by the fuel (charcoal) it self.

temperatures is provided by the fuel (charcoal) it self. Figure 2.4 Crossdraft gasifier Advantages of the

Figure 2.4 Crossdraft gasifier

Advantages of the system lie in the smaller scale which it can be operated. Installation below 10KW (shaft power) can under certain conditions be economically feasible. The reason is the very simple gas cleaning train (only a cyclone and a hot filter) which can be employed when using this type of gasifier in conjunction with small engines. A disadvantage of crossdraft gasifiers is their minimal tar converting capabilities and the consequent need for high quality (low volatile content) charcoal. It is because of the uncertainly of charcoal quality that a number of charcoal gasifiers employ the downdraft principal, in order to maintain at least a minimal tar cracking capability.

Fluidized bed gasifier The operation of both updraft and downdraft gasifiers is influenced by the morphological, physical and chemical properties of the fuel. Problems commonly encountered are; bunker flow, slagging a extreme pressure drop over the gasifier.

17

17 Figure 2.5 Fluidized bed gasifier A design approach aiming at the removal of the above

Figure 2.5 Fluidized bed gasifier

A design approach aiming at the removal of the above difficulties is the fluidized bed gasifier, illustrated schematically in Figure 2.5. Air is blown through a bed of sand particles at a sufficient velocity to keep these in a state of suspension. Air velocity is as larges as 7-10 m ⁄s. The bed is originally externally heated and the feedstock is introduced as soon as a sufficiently high temperature is reached. The fuel particles are introduced at the room of the reactor, very quickly mixed with the bed materials and almost instantaneously heated up to the bed temperature. As a result of this treatment the fuel is pyrolysed very fast, resulting in a component mix with a relatively large amount of gaseous materials. Further gasification and tar conversion reactions occur in the gas phase. Most system are equipped with and internal cyclone in order to minimize char below out as much as possible. Ash particles are also carried over the top of the reactor and have to be removed from the gas stream if the gas is used in engine application.

18

Other types of gasifiers A number of other biomass gasifier systems (double fired, entrained bed, molten bath), which are partly spin-offs from coal gasification technology, are currently under development. In some cases these systems incorporate unnecessary refinements and complications, in others both the size and sophistication of the equipment make near term application in developing countries unlikely. For these reasons they are omitted from this account.

2.3 Biomass resources 2.3.1 Rice husk Rice is by far the staple food of Myanmar and the major agriculture resource in terms of area, volume and income. In 2007-2008, Myanmar produced 30 million Mt of paddy. Rice hulls accounted for 20% of paddy production on a weight basis, meaning that nearly 6 million Mt of rice hulls were produce in 2007-2008. Annual production of paddy in Myanmar is given Table 2.1. Rice husk is composed of water, vaporizing materials by heat and inorganic materials. The water content in the rice husk is about 10 wt% and it depends on the drying condition. After drying perfectly, rice husk is composed of about 63 wt% of vaporizing material, 20 wt% of carbon and 17 wt% of ash. Main component in ash is SiO 2 . Then, carbonized rice husk includes about 55 wt% of carbon and 40 wt% of SiO 2 . A carbonized rice husk has so large specific surface area as 330 m 2 /g. A rice husk looks as show in Figure 2.6.

husk has so large specific surface area as 330 m 2 /g. A rice husk looks

Figure 2.6 Rice Husk

19

Table 2.1 Annual production of paddy. (Ref: http://www.moai.gov.mm/statistics.htm#LAND%20POTENTIAL)

 

Production

Year

(000' Mt)

1992-93

14,837

1993-94

16,760

1994-95

18,195

1995-96

17,953

1996-97

17,676

1997-98

16,654

1998-99

17,078

1999-00

20,126

2000-01

21,324

2001-02

21,916

2002-03

21,805

2003-04

23,136

2004-05

24,718

2005-06

27,638

2006-07

30,924

2007-08

30,262

2.3.2 Wood Wood is the most important carrier of solar energy. It can be processed into wood logs, wood chip and pellets as shown in Figure 2.7. The most convenient means of wood processing is the preparation of short logs and split logs for small volume, hand charged stoves. Fuelwood is widely available in Myanmar. Over 23 million metric tons of fuelwood were reported used for 1999 domestic consumption (A. Koopmans, 2005). The majority of fuelwood originated from forests. Any different between fuelwood demand and the amount forests could supply on a sustainable basis would lead to deforestation.

20

Myanmar is rich in forest resources. Forest area of the country has been estimated by forest types as shown in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 Forest area by types of forests (Ref: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x2613e/x2613e2p.htm)

No

Types of Forests

Area (Hectares)

%

1.

Tidal, beach and dune, and swamp forests

1,376,900

4

2.

Tropical evergreen forests

5,507,800

16

3.

Mixed deciduous forests

13,425,300

39

4.

Dry Forests

3,442,400

10

5.

Deciduous dipterocarp forest

1,721,200

5

6.

Hill and temperate evergreen forest

8,950,100

26

 

Total

34,423,700

100

8,950,100 26   Total 34,423,700 100 Figure 2.7 Wood 2.3.3 Bamboo Bamboo is the common term

Figure 2.7 Wood

2.3.3 Bamboo Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group of woody grasses ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height as shown in Figure 2.8. There are over 200 kinds of Myanmar Bamboo. Bamboo is distributed mostly in the tropics, comprising natural stands of native species. Myanmar is one of the nations with significant bamboo production and utilization.

21

Villagers rely on bamboo for house pole, cross beam, partition and floor. Some houses in villages are made of bamboo as a whole. It is also used to construct fences to protect property and hold livestock. Bamboo utensils such as flat wooden ladle, blow piper basket, hat, and tray are also common in Myanmar households. Some lacquer ware has bamboo for a base. It is the raw material for making paper, and bamboo plants decorate gardens. Bamboo has long been neglected, but it may have potential as a bioenergy crop. Bamboo productive forest area is 963,000 ha in Myanmar.

Bamboo productive forest area is 963,000 ha in Myanmar. Figure 2.8 Bamboo 2.4 Economic Analysis 2.4.1

Figure 2.8 Bamboo

2.4 Economic Analysis 2.4.1 Net present value Net present value (NPV) is defined as the total present value of a time series of cash flows. NPV is an indicator of how much value an investment or project adds to the value of the firm. It is a standard method for using the time value of money to appraise long-term projects. Used for capital budgeting, and widely throughout economics, it measures the excess or shortfall of cash flows, in present value terms, once financing charges are met. Each cash inflow/outflow is discounted back to its present value. Then they

C

t

are summed. Therefore NPV is the sum of all terms (1

+

r )

t

,

C

t

=

C

(1

+

22

r

)

t

=

C

t

(1

+ r

)

t

NPV =

N

t = 0

C

t

(1

+ r

)

C

t 0

where t - the time of the cash flow

(2.8)

(2.9)

r - the discount rate (the rate of return that could be earned on an investment

in the financial markets with similar risk.)

C t - the net cash flow (the amount of cash, inflow minus outflow) at time t (for

educational purposes,

C 0 is commonly placed to the left of the sum to emphasize its role as the initial

investment.

2.4.2 Internal rate of return

The internal rate of return (IRR) is a capital budgeting metric used by firms to

decide whether they should make investments. It is an indicator of the efficiency of an

investment, as opposed to net present value (NPV), which indicates value or

magnitude. The IRR is the annualized effective compounded return rate which can be

earned on the invested capital, i.e., the yield on the investment.

Given a collection of pairs (time, cash flow) involved in a project, the internal

rate of return follows from the net present value as a function of the rate of return. A

rate of return for which this function is zero is an internal rate of return.

Thus, in the case of cash flows at whole numbers of years, to find the internal

rate of return, find the value(s) of r that satisfies the following equation:

NPV =

2.4.3 Payback period

N

t = 0

C

t

(1

+ r

)

t

= 0

(2.10)

The payback is another method to evaluate an investment project. The

payback method focuses on the payback period. The payback period is the length of

23

time that it takes for a project to recoup its initial cost out of the cash receipts that it generates. This period is some times referred to as" the time that it takes for an investment to pay for itself." The basic premise of the payback method is that the more quickly the cost of an investment can be recovered, the more desirable is the investment. The payback period is expressed in years. When the net annual cash inflow is the same every year, the following formula can be used to calculate the payback period.

Payback period = Investment required / Net annual cash inflow*

(2.11)

*If new equipment is replacing old equipment, this becomes incremental net annual cash inflow.

Chapter 3

Methodology

3.1 Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency means using energy wisely and not wasting it. By using

energy efficiently at home and at school, you can help save our planet’s resources and

reduce pollution. It’s easy to do, it saves money, and it helps the earth. Energy

efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when

multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. The energy efficiency of a process,

denoted by η energy , is defined as

where

η energy

η energy

P

P

out

in

=

P out

P

in

energy efficiency (%)

output energy (kWh)

input energy (kWh)

3.1.1 System efficiency

(3.1)

For the biomass system, the sensible heat is not utilized and when the gas is

used as fuel in an internal combustion engine. System efficiency, η Total of the system

is duel fuel operation is calculated as follow:

where

η Total

P EI

η

Total

= 

P EI

× 3,600

Q

×

LHV

× 100

system efficiency (%)

electrical power (kW)

Q fuel consumption (m 3 /hr)

(3.2)

25

Electrical power was measured by using the multifunctional power meter. Fuels

consumption was measured by used measuring device. Heating value was calculated

by using equation (4.3) and (4.5).

3.1.2 Engine efficiency (η Eng )

Engine generator efficiency, η Eng of the system is duel fuel operation is

calculated as follow:

where

η Eng

η Eng

=

η

Total

η

Motor

× 100

Overall efficiency

= Mortor efficiency

engine efficiency (%)

η Motor motor efficiency (%)

×100

(3.3)

3.2 Social and economic impacts from field survey

A door to door survey was carried out, as shown in Figure 3.1 and

questionnaires as shown in Appendix D, covering almost all house hold in the study

area, in order to understand the energy sense.

in the study area, in order to understand the energy sense. Figure 3.1 Field survey in
in the study area, in order to understand the energy sense. Figure 3.1 Field survey in

Figure 3.1 Field survey in the study area

The following data were collected number of family members, house area,

average monthly income, energy consumption, electricity requirement, etc. It was

found that peak electricity demand occur between 18:00 and 23:00, when villagers are

at home after work. The majority of the demand consists of lighting. They occupation

26

are Rice, Fishery, Bamboo, Beetle Nut, Agriculture and General Employee. This village’s household total income is about 130,000 Kyat per house per month. Villagers are electrified using either small, stand-alone diesel generators or rechargeable lead acid batteries. They are used simple electric appliances such as light bulbs, TV (mostly Black & White) and VCD/DVD players. Table 3.1 is show details of electricity used. These are the peak requirement. It was revealed from survey that 300 light bulbs constitute nearly 50% of total load. Demand of the local community was estimated to be about 100 kWh/day.

Table 3.1 Details of electricity loads use pattern

Devices

Number

Load (kW)

Light Bulb

300

9.000

Color Television

5

0.430

Black & White Television

86

3.140

VCD/DVD Player

63

1.535

Radio/music System

4

3.625

Other

4

0.525

Total

462

18.255

Average/household

1.32

0.052

Per capita

-

0.012

3.3 Measuring equipment for gasification project 3.3.1 Multifunctional power meter The multifunctional power meter is used to volt, ampere, power factor and kW. This meter is shown in Figure 3.2.

27

27 Figure 3.2 Multifunctional power meter 3.3.2 AC power clamp meter AC power clamp meter is

Figure 3.2 Multifunctional power meter

3.3.2 AC power clamp meter

AC power clamp meter is measuring DC/AC current, DC/AC voltage, resistance, continuity check and temperature. The AC power clamp meter used in this study is shown in figure 3.3.

power clamp meter used in this study is shown in figure 3.3. Figure 3.3 AC power

Figure 3.3 AC power clamp meter

3.3.3 Digital tachometer

The digital tachometer measures the revolutions per minute (RPM) is as

28

28 Figure 3.4 Digital tachometer 3.3.4 Measured fuel consumption The system was tested in dual-fuel operation,

Figure 3.4 Digital tachometer

3.3.4 Measured fuel consumption The system was tested in dual-fuel operation, to analyze diesel consumption is one of the important parameters. Diesel fuel consumption was measured by means of the measuring device (diesel tank with scale) and a stopwatch for different loads. In the same way, rice husk consumption was measured by means of platform scale is as shown in Figure 3.5.

way, rice husk consumption was measured by means of platform scale is as shown in Figure

Figure 3.5 Platform scale

Chapter 4 Distributed Generation System

4.1 Site Selection and Survey The Energy Research and Development Institute (ERDI), Chiang Mai University is contracted by Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE), Ministry of Energy, Thailand to oversee the study, development and installation of an electricity generation system from biomass gasification in Union of Myanmar. The Myanmar Engineering Society (MES) is the official representative assigned by the Energy Planning Department (EPD). A kick-off meeting between the DEDE, ERDI, and MES was held on the 20 th August 2007 in Yangon. Brief information on background and objectives of the project was delivered. During the meeting, the parties agreed on building collaboration for this project and forthcoming energy related projects. The MES has issued a letter suggesting 4 potential sites in the Twantay Township area for evaluation as shown in Appendix A. The 4 sites are (i) Nyaung Da Gar, (ii) Sann Ywar, (iii) Kha-Lok, and (iv) Dagoon Daing. They were chosen from a number of suitable villages that have potential for development and demonstration of the unit. The ERDI team surveyed and selected a suitable site for the project. The site selection process consists of site visit, data collection, data interpretation, and conclusion.

4.1.1 Twantay Township Twantay township is located 25 km away in the west of Yangon at latitude 16˚ 4225and longitude 95˚ 5618, as shown in Figure 4.1. Normal form of transport is by road with a distance of about 50 km. Most part of the town is green area. Agriculture, especially rice farming and fishing are main occupations. The town has plenty of biomass. Among the most suitable biomass resources include rice husk, rice straw, bamboo and wood.

30

N
N

Figure 4.1 Twantay Township and road transport to Yangon

4.1.2 Site visit Sites visit to Twantay Township was undertaken after the kick-off meeting. Location of the 4 sites can be shown in Figure 4.2. A meeting with local coordinators was arranged for site investigation.

4.2. A meeting with local coordinators was arranged for site investigation. Figure 4.2 Location of the

Figure 4.2 Location of the four purposed sites

4.1.3 Data collection

31

Basic data collection was carried out for every site. The data collected is summarized and shown in Table 4.1. Samples of agricultural residues suitable to use as fuels were also collected and sent for analysis in Thailand.

4.1.4 Data interpretation

Each item of the data collected was then ranked, based on its influence to the success of the project. Scale 1 means low influence while Scale 4 is interpreted as

strong influence. Results from the interpretation can be shown in Table 4.2.

4.1.5 Site selection

Dagoon Daing village was selected as shown in Appendix B; the most favorable of choice based on the total marks earned 52. A large amount of rice husk available with no cost (3 rice mills in village). They use stove. Fuel types are firewood, bamboo and rice husk. They occupation are Rice, Fishery, Bamboo, Beetle Nut, Agriculture and General Employee. Dagoon Daing village is the most favourable choice based on the total mark earned. The first important point is that Dagoon Daing village has surplus supply of the rice husk for their current electricity need. In addition, the surplus is enough for the next few year of predicted electricity consumption. Dagoon Daing community had shown that they are ready and willing to support the project in every possible ways through their leaders to make the project a successful and sustainable one. The project is an exemplary and model for contribution of technical scope to extend other areas in development stage. The selection of designated location is based on considerations with accessible to travel and populated, locally well-collaborate and able to set a centre of technical cooperation, efficient to share information related with project to others extend area and resourceful raw materials.

32

32

33

33

34

Table 4.2 Weighting and decision making table

Community name

Nyaung Da

Dagoon

Kha-Lok

Sann

Gar

Daing

Ywar

1. Road distance from Yangon

3

1

2

4

2. Other facilities or industries in the community

4

3

2

1

3. Biomass available

       

3.1 Rice husk

3

4

1

2

3.2 Bamboo

4

1

2

3

3.3 Rice straw

2

4

1

3

3.4 Wood

2

4

3

1

4. Road condition surrounding the area for biomass transportation

1

4

2

3

5. Estimated electricity consumption

       

5.1 Current

3

4

2

1

5.2 Future

1

4

2

3

5.3 No. of household

3

4

2

1

6. Energy data of each site

       

6.1 Price of diesel

4

2

1

3

6.2 Availability of diesel

3

2

1

4

6.3 Experience with electricity

3

4

2

1

7. Attitude and eagerness of the community to support the project

       

7.1 Leader

3

4

1

2

7.2 Villagers

2

4

3

1

7.3 Basic knowledge in management and technical support

4

3

1

2

Total Mark Earn

45

52

28

35

35

4.2 Biomass Analysis 4.2.1 Potential biomass as fuels in Myanmar From the survey, potential biomass resources available in Dagoon Daing are wood, bamboo, rice straw and rice husk, as shown in Figure 4.3. Samples of these biomass fuels were collected and later sent for proximate and ultimate analyses, heating value, density, ash composition and ash fusion temperature.

value, density, ash composition and ash fusion temperature. Figure 4.3 Potential biomass resources 4.2.2 Fuel Analysis
value, density, ash composition and ash fusion temperature. Figure 4.3 Potential biomass resources 4.2.2 Fuel Analysis
value, density, ash composition and ash fusion temperature. Figure 4.3 Potential biomass resources 4.2.2 Fuel Analysis
value, density, ash composition and ash fusion temperature. Figure 4.3 Potential biomass resources 4.2.2 Fuel Analysis

Figure 4.3 Potential biomass resources

4.2.2 Fuel Analysis Methods Two types of analyses are proximate and ultimate analysis. These are useful for defining the physical, chemical and fuel properties of a particular biomass feedstock. These analyses were initially developed for coal and widely available from commercial laboratories. They are described in detail in the publications of the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM). The proximate analysis is relatively simple and can be performed with a drying oven, a laboratory furnace and a balance. The ultimate analysis involves more advance chemical techniques. The proximate analysis determines the moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon contact of a fuel, using standard ASTM tests. Moisture is analyzed by the weight loss observed at 110˚C. The volatile matter is driven off in a closed crucible by slow heating to 950˚C and the sample is weighed again. The proximate analysis generally includes moisture content measured on a wet basis, MC wet , where

MC wet = (wet weight – dry weight) / wet weight

(4.1)

36

Sometimes, moisture content is reported on a dry weight basis, MC dry , where

MC dry = (wet weight – dry weight) / dry weight

(4.2)

The ultimate analysis gives the chemical composition and the higher heating values of the fuels. The chemical analysis usually lists the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and ash content of the dry fuel on a weight percentage basis. A standard ASTM method is available for measuring the slagging temperature for ash. The heat of combustion is determined by the composition of the biomass and in fact can be calculated with considerable accuracy from

HHV = [34.1 C + 132.2 H + 6.8 S – 1.53 A – 12.0 (O + N)] kJ/g

(4.3)

HHV = [146.6 C + 568.8 H + 29.4 S – 6.6 A – 51.5 (O + N)] x 10² Btu/lb

(4.4)

LHV = HHV – 0.00114 (HHV) (MC)

(4.5)

Where C, H, S, A, O and N are the wt% of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, ash, oxygen and nitrogen in the fuel. The calculate value agree with the measured value with an absolute error of 2.1% for a large number of biomass materials. One of the most important physical characteristic of biomass fuel is the bulk density. The bulk density is the weight of biomass packed loosely in a container divided by the volume occupied. Clearly, it is not an exact number, depending on the exact packing of the particles. The basis fuel parameters important in gasifier design are

- Char durability and fixed carbon content

- Ash fusion temperature

- Ash content

- Moisture content

- Heating value The choice of a fuel for gasification will in part be decided by its heating value. The method of measurement of the fuel energy content will influence the

37

estimate of efficiency of a given gasification system. Reporting of fuel heating values is often confusing since at least three different bases are used:

- fuel higher heating values as obtained in an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. These values include the heat of condensation of the water that is produced during combustion. Because it is very difficult to recover the heat of condensation in actual gasification operations these values present a too optimistic view of the fuel energy content;

- fuel higher heating values on a moisture-free basis, which disregard the actual moisture content of the fuel and so provide even more optimistic estimates of energy content;

- fuel higher heating values on a moisture and ash free basis, which disregard the incombustible components and consequently provide estimates of energy content too high for a given weight of fuel, especially in the case of some agricultural residues (rice husks). The only realistic way therefore of presenting fuel heating values for gasification purposes is to give lower heating values (excluding the heat of condensation of the water produced) on an ash inclusive basis and with specific reference to the actual moisture content of the fuel. The heating value of the gas produced by any type of gasifier depends at least in part on the moisture content of the feedstock. Moisture content can be determined on a dry basis as well as on a wet basis. High moisture contents reduce the thermal efficiency since heat is used to drive off the water and consequently this energy is not available for the reduction reactions and for converting thermal energy into chemical bound energy in the gas. Therefore high moisture contents result in low gas heating values. In downdraft gasifiers high moisture contents give rise not only to low gas heating values, but also to low temperatures in the oxidation zone, and this can lead to insufficient tar converting capability if the gas is used for engine applications. The gas heating value (engines need gas of at least 4200 kJ/m³ in order to maintain a reasonable efficiency) and of the tar entrainment problem, downdraft gasifiers need reasonably dry fuels (less than 25 percent moisture dry basis). The amount of volatiles in the feedstock determines the necessity of special measures (either in design of the gasifier or in the layout of the gas cleanup train) in

38

order to remove tars from the product gas in engine applications. A general rule if the fuel contains more than 10 percent volatile matter it should be used in downdraught gas producers. Ashes can cause a variety of problems particularly in up or downdraft gasifiers. Slagging or clinker formation in the reactor, caused by melting and agglomeration of ashes, at the best will greatly add to the amount of labour required to operate the gasifier If no special measures are taken, slagging can lead to excessive tar formation and complete blocking of the reactor. A worst case is the possibility of air- channeling which can lead to a risk of explosion, especially in updraft gasifiers. Bulk density is defined as the weight per unit volume of loosely tipped fuel. Fuels with high bulk density are advantageous because they represent a high energy- for-volume value. Consequently these fuels need less bunker space for a given refueling time. Low bulk density fuels sometimes give rise to insufficient flow under gravity, resulting in low gas heating values and ultimately in burning of the char in the reduction zone. Inadequate bulk densities can be improved by briquetting or pelletizing.

4.3 Biomass Gasification System The biomass gasification system is to produce electricity from rice husk. The system consists of Downdraft gasifier reactor, cyclone separator, water scrubber, gas cooler, Carbon fiber filter, fine filter units and gas damper as shown in Figure 4.4.

Carbon fiber filter, fine filter units and gas damper as shown in Figure 4.4. Figure 4.4

Figure 4.4 Rice Husk Gasification System

39

4.3.1 Downdraft gasifier system

In a downdraft reactor, biomass is fed at the top, and the air intake is at the top as shown in Figure 4.5. The reactor wall was made of firebrick. Air is supplied by means of a downstream suction blower or from an engine. The gasifier core was not provided with any throat or constriction to avoid fuel flow problem. Ash formed was removed from the gasifier continuously by an automatic, motor-driven ash removal system.

by an automatic, motor-driven ash removal system. Figure 4.5 Downdraft Grasifier 4.3.2 Cyclone separator The
by an automatic, motor-driven ash removal system. Figure 4.5 Downdraft Grasifier 4.3.2 Cyclone separator The

Figure 4.5 Downdraft Grasifier

4.3.2 Cyclone separator

The purpose of using cyclone is to remove tar and dust from the gas, the design is shown in Figure 4.6. It is the most extensively used type of collector for relatively coarse dusts because of high operational efficiency, simple construction and low maintenance cost. The separated dust leaves the cyclone at its base and the gas escapes at the top through a central exit. In cyclone the gas first flows along the wall in the direction of the apex, and then is reversed in direction and escape axially, whilst the dust moves with the outer current towards the apex.

40

40 Figure 4.6 Cyclone 4.3.3 Venturi scrubber The velocity of the contacting liquid both pumps and
40 Figure 4.6 Cyclone 4.3.3 Venturi scrubber The velocity of the contacting liquid both pumps and

Figure 4.6 Cyclone

4.3.3 Venturi scrubber The velocity of the contacting liquid both pumps and scrubs the entrained gas in an ejector venturi scrubber, as shown in Figure 4.7. Spiral spray nozzles impact axial and tangential velocities to the liquid jet. The contacting liquid must be removed after the scrubber by a suitable entrainment separator. Producer gas was passed through venturi scrubber to remove ashes and to condense tars.

Producer gas was passed through venturi scrubber to remove ashes and to condense tars. Figure 4.7
Producer gas was passed through venturi scrubber to remove ashes and to condense tars. Figure 4.7

Figure 4.7 Venturi scrubber

4.3.4 Gas cooler

41

4.3.4 Gas cooler 41 Figure 4.8 Gas cooler Gases from the venturi scrubber were fed into
4.3.4 Gas cooler 41 Figure 4.8 Gas cooler Gases from the venturi scrubber were fed into

Figure 4.8 Gas cooler

Gases from the venturi scrubber were fed into the gas cooler. The cooler was filled with marbles (1or 0.254m diameter). On the top of this unit, there was a shower of cooling water. Water condensation helps to remove tar particles but yields a contaminated water condensate in the process. The detail drawing of the gas cooler is shown in Figure 4.8.

4.3.5 Carbon fiber filter

The detail drawing of the gas cooler is shown in Figure 4.8. 4.3.5 Carbon fiber filter
The detail drawing of the gas cooler is shown in Figure 4.8. 4.3.5 Carbon fiber filter

Figure 4.9 Carbon fiber filter

42

In the packed column some amount of water got entrained in the form of mist or droplets and was carried away by the gas. Also, some fine particulates still managed to get carried away with this gas. Pebbles of 1diameter size were used in the filter, as shown in Figure 4.9.

4.3.6 Fine filter unit

Gases from the carbon fiber filter were fed into this filter. This is the final mechanical filter which was filled with sawdust. The detail drawing of the gas cooler is shown in Figure 4.10. The packed bed materials were used to absorb additional tar, dust and vapors to get dry and clean gas. There are needs for periodic changing of the

packing materials.

are needs for periodic changing of the packing materials. Figure 4.10 Fine filter unit 4.3.7 Gas
are needs for periodic changing of the packing materials. Figure 4.10 Fine filter unit 4.3.7 Gas

Figure 4.10 Fine filter unit

4.3.7 Gas damper

After passing the sawdust filter, the cleaned and cooled gas entered the gas

damper, as shown in Figure 4.11.

43

43 Figure 4.11 Gas damper 4.3.8 Water pump A water pump was used for spraying the

Figure 4.11 Gas damper

4.3.8 Water pump A water pump was used for spraying the water in the cleaning and cooling system. The water pump (1 HP) is shown in Figure 4.12.

the water in the cleaning and cooling system. The water pump (1 HP) is shown in

Figure 4.12 Water pump

44

4.4 Electrification System The electrification system installed consists of three main parts, which are engine, generator and electric control panel.

4.4.1 Engine The engine used in the system is 4-cylinder, 2800 CC Mitsubishi 4M40, as shown in Figure 4.13. The engine was modified so that it can use both diesel and producer gases produced by the gasifier. An automatics governor is used to determine the amount of diesel used to keep the engine speed at 1500 RPM at all load, as shown in Figure 4.14.

keep the engine speed at 1500 RPM at all load, as shown in Figure 4.14. Figure

Figure 4.13 Engine

keep the engine speed at 1500 RPM at all load, as shown in Figure 4.14. Figure

Figure 4.14 Automatic governor

45

4.4.2 Generator The generator installed is the Jewelway, Model JWX-50-4, 50 kW generator as shown in Figure 4.15. The produced electricity is 3 phase, 50 Hz. Maximum current is 90.2 Amp as indicated on the nameplate as shown in Figure 4.16.

is 90.2 Amp as indicated on the nameplate as shown in Figure 4.16. Figure 4.15 Generator

Figure 4.15 Generator

is 90.2 Amp as indicated on the nameplate as shown in Figure 4.16. Figure 4.15 Generator

Figure 4.16 Generator nameplate

46

4.4.3 Electric control panel The electric control panel serves 2 purposes. The first task of the panel is to prevent any failure that may occur during operation. Four circuit breakers were installed. The second task of the panel is to monitor the electricity produced. There are four meters installed, which are Volt meter, Frequency meter, Current meter and kWh meter. The panel is as shown in Figure 4.17.

meter and kWh meter. The panel is as shown in Figure 4.17. Figure 4.17 Electric control

Figure 4.17 Electric control panel

4.5 Building

panel is as shown in Figure 4.17. Figure 4.17 Electric control panel 4.5 Building Figure 4
panel is as shown in Figure 4.17. Figure 4.17 Electric control panel 4.5 Building Figure 4

Figure 4.18 Picture of the building

47

A building was constructed on site to house the electrification system, control room and store biomass with floor area of 56 m², as shown in Figure 4.18.

4.6 System installation, Wiring and Testing This is described installation of the system inside the building, as well as erection of electricity poles and wiring from the electrification system to villagers’ households.

4.6.1 System installation

system to villagers’ households. 4.6.1 System installation Figure 4 . 19 Installation of the gasification system

Figure 4.19 Installation of the gasification system inside the building

The gasifier system is installed in side the building, as shown in Figure 4.19. There are three main areas, gasifier-engine-generator system, control room and biomass storage room.

4.6.2 Electricity wiring and network

The power plant is located near the centre of the village. Lamp posts and power poles were erected with assistance from the villagers and electricity distribution lines were connected from the power plant to households in the village

48

under supervision of qualified engineers and electricians. Each house was provided with a 20 W lambs as well as a switch. The network covered about 350 houses. About 40 lambs were also installed on concrete poles for road lighting. Details are shown in Figure 4.20, 4.21, 4.22 and 4.23.

Details are shown in Figure 4.20, 4.21, 4.22 and 4.23. Figure 4 . 20 Electricity distribution

Figure 4.20 Electricity distribution lines and power plant location in the village

49 Figure 4 . 21 Three-phase electricity lines from the system building Figure 4 .

49

49 Figure 4 . 21 Three-phase electricity lines from the system building Figure 4 . 22

Figure 4.21 Three-phase electricity lines from the system building

. 21 Three-phase electricity lines from the system building Figure 4 . 22 Electricity poles along
. 21 Three-phase electricity lines from the system building Figure 4 . 22 Electricity poles along

Figure 4.22 Electricity poles along the main road

from the system building Figure 4 . 22 Electricity poles along the main road Figure 4
from the system building Figure 4 . 22 Electricity poles along the main road Figure 4

Figure 4.23 Lamp posts along the main road

50

4.6.3 System operation The system operation consists of three parts, which are preparation, system operating procedures and maintenance.

4.6.3.1 Preparation Rice husk should be stored in the storage room to keep it away from moisture, as shown in Figure 4.24. There should be enough rice husks for one week operation.

There should be enough rice husks for one week operation. Figure 4 . 24 Rice husk

Figure 4.24 Rice husk storage

Make sure that rice husk level is not lower than the level in Figure 4.25 at all

time.

Make sure that rice husk level is not lower than the level in Figure 4.25 at

Figure 4.25 Rice husk level

51

Make sure the water level in the pond and the dust collector are as indicated in Figure 4.26. The water must be replaced once a month.

in Figure 4.26. The water must be replaced once a month. Figure 4 . 26 Water
in Figure 4.26. The water must be replaced once a month. Figure 4 . 26 Water

Figure 4.26 Water level in the circulating pond and the dust cooler

Always check the lubricant oil level, diesel level and cooling water everyday before starting the engine as shown in Figure 4.27. The lubricant oil must be replaced once a month. Make sure that the radiator is filled with water to prevent the engine from overheating.

is filled with water to prevent the engine from overheating. Figure 4 . 27 Radiator, diesel

Figure 4.27 Radiator, diesel and lubricant oil tanks

4.6.3.2 System operating procedures Before starting the engine, the control panel must be turn off. The air control valve must be open as shown in Figure 4.28.

52

52 Figure 4 . 28 Air control valve Starting the engine, turn the key to ON

Figure 4.28 Air control valve

Starting the engine, turn the key to ON position. The green indicator must be brightening up, as shown in Figure 4.29. Turn the key to START position. The engine should be started. Wait 3-5 minutes, and then turn on the generator.

started. Wait 3-5 minutes, and then turn on the generator. Figure 4 . 29 The key

Figure 4.29 The key of starting engine

After the engine started for 3-5 minutes, the reactor can be ignited. As soon as the reactor is ignited, starting closing the air control valve to reduce fresh air from outside to the engine. Downing the air from the top of the reactor will accelerate the reaction. Turn on water pump.

53

After 15-20 minutes, the producer gases are ready they can be fed into the engine to replace diesel consumption. Care must be taken while replacing diesel with the producer gases. Make sure that the transition is smooth. One good indicator is that the noise of the engine must be stable and the frequency of the electricity is between 48-52 Hz. Turn on the automatic ash removal system as shown in Figure 4.30.

on the automatic ash removal system as shown in Figure 4.30. Figure 4 . 30 Ash

Figure 4.30 Ash removal system

Finally turn off the reactor, turn off the ash removal system and the water pump. Open the air control valve to let the fresh air into the engine and turn off the engine. Fill the reactor with rice husk to the 1/3 of the reactor height. This will keep the heat inside the reactor for next operation.

4.6.3.3 Maintenance Daily maintenances are;

- Check the water levels in the pond and the dust collector

- Check diesel level, lubricant oil and water level inside the radiator

- Remove the ash floating at the pond and the tray, Figure 4.31

- Listen to the sound of the motors

- Check the electricity cable before starting the system

- Record the amount of diesel and rice husk used.

54 Figure 4 . 31 Ash at the pond and the tray Monthly maintenances are;

54

54 Figure 4 . 31 Ash at the pond and the tray Monthly maintenances are; -

Figure 4.31 Ash at the pond and the tray

Monthly maintenances are;

- Remove all rice husk inside the reactor and clean the inside the reactor

- Clean all the inner of the pipe by removing any dust and tar

- Replace water in the pond

- Replace the rice husk and pebbles inside the filters, Figure 4.32.

the rice husk and pebbles inside the filters, Figure 4.32. Figure 4 . 32 Filters 4.6.3.4

Figure 4.32 Filters

4.6.3.4 The treatments and recycling program to the waste products

Ashes, the products of down load gasifier, are utilized in Agriculture as raw for fertilizers.

The tars which output from cyclone separator are using as a paints in boats for external cover to protect weathering.

55

The Marbles are using in gas cooler coated with tars will be cleaned and recycling.

The pebbles which are exhausted after running hours 200 in the carbon fiber filters will be collected and applying in road construction.

There have to manage the saw dusts coated with tars from the yield of fine filter unit. There are applicable as filling agents and applying as putty in industries.

4.7 Test runs The system has been tested to generate electricity to the villagers since 20 November 2007. It is scheduled to operate in the evening from 18:00 to about 24:00 everyday.

Chapter 5

Results and Discussions

5.1 Technical results

Site selection and survey, biomass analysis, the construction of biomass

gasification system and test run operation had been performed in 2007-08.

5.1.1 Biomass fuel analysis

The potential biomass samples were analyzed. Results are shown in Tables

5.1-5.3 and Appendix C, for ultimate, proximate and ash analyses, respectively. From

the results obtained, it was found that the most suitable biomass fuel is rice husk. It

has heating value of 13.8 MJ/kg, with high fixed carbon content. Its ash content is

mainly SiO 2 with highest ash melting temperature among the fuels considered.

Table 5.1 Ultimate Analysis

 

Rice husk

Bamboo

Wood

Rice straw

C

35.145

%

45.66

%

44.925

%

39.875

%

H

3.706

%

4.32 %

4.935

%

5.1165

%

N

0.211

%

0.243

%

0.188

%

0.594

%

S

0.1215

%

0.064

%

0.074

%

0.216

%

O

60.438

%

48.329 %

49.616

%

53.829

%

Table 5.2 Proximate analysis, heating value and density

   

Heating

Proximate analysis (as received, % wt/wt)

bulk

Sample

Value

 

volatile

 

fixed

density

(MJ/kg)

moisture

matter

ash

carbon

(kg/m 3 )

1

Bamboo

17.8

5.73

74.68

5.55

14.04

1,720

2

Rice straw

15.3

7.76

65.58

12.44

14.22

nd

3

Rice husk

13.8

5.60

56.41

13.45

24.54

nd

4

Wood

16.4

7.49

74.82

6.36

11.33

1,910

nd = not determined

Table 5.3 Ash analysis

57

   

Rice

Rice

 

Sample

Bamboo

Straw

husk

Wood

1. Ash Composition (%)

 

Fe 2 O 3

3.68

0.76

1.20

3.24

Al 2 O 3

4.79

2.42

0.14

5.57

MgO

5.92

1.87

0.64

5.85

 

SiO 2

44.08

72.73

88.72

43.24

 

CaO

23.09

5.40

3.92

23.43

K

2 O

12.69

12.87

2.58

12.21

Na 2 O

0.44

0.24

0.25

1.73

TiO 2

0.28

0.01

0.07

0.29

Mn 3 O 4

0.10

0.78

0.09

0.37

 

SO 3

1.61

0.28

0.00

2.39

2. Ash Fusion Temperature (ºC)

 

2.1 Initial Deformation Temperature

1,142

1,000

1,440

1,138

2.2 Softening Temperature

1,152

1,194

1,500

1,138

2.3 Hemispherical Temperature

1,163

1,220

>1,500

1,189

2.4 Fluid Temperature

1,178

1,268

>1,500

1,205

5.1.2 System testing

During the test run at varying load, it was found that producer gas from rice

husk can replace diesel of up to 70%. Results are shown in Figure 5.1-5.5.

diesel of up to 70%. Results are shown in Figure 5.1-5.5. I=Electrical Current (Amp) Figure 5

I=Electrical Current (Amp)

Figure 5.1 Electrical current and power

58

58 V=Electrical Voltage (Volt) Figure 5.2 Electrical voltage and power PF=Power Factor Figure 5 . 3
V=Electrical Voltage (Volt) Figure 5.2 Electrical voltage and power
V=Electrical Voltage (Volt)
Figure 5.2 Electrical voltage and power

PF=Power Factor Figure 5.3 Power factor and power

59

59 Figure 5 . 4 Relationship between power generated and rice husk consumption Figure 5 .

Figure 5.4 Relationship between power generated and rice husk consumption

between power generated and rice husk consumption Figure 5 . 5 Relationship between power generated and

Figure 5.5 Relationship between power generated and diesel consumption

Figure 5.4 and 5.5 shows that at 31.28 kW electricity generate, rice husk and diesel consumption rate was 32.64 kg/hr and 2.17 L/hr, respectively as shown in Table 5.4. With only diesel operation, diesel consumption rate was 7.39 L/hr. More than 70% saving in diesel was achieved with the rice husk gasification system. Electricity consumption in the villages at different loads result is shown in Table 5.5.

60

Table 5.4 Properties of rice husk at different loads

Power (kW)

Rice husk consumption (kg/hr)

Diesel consumption (L/hr)

10

13.00

1.72

15

17.50

1.80

21

21.50

2.00

25

28.00

2.08

31

36.50

2.17

Note: measurements made at a diesel substitution rate by producer gas of 65 %

Table 5.5 Electricity consumption in the villages at different loads

 

I

1

23.5

33.5

45.1

50.3

59.1

Amp

Electricity phase 1

V

23

205

210

211

212

214

Volt

Power Factor

0.65

0.76

0.78

0.81

0.83

 

Power 1

3.131

5.347

7.423

8.638

10.5

kW

 

I

2

25.2

35.2

46.4

52.2

61.5

Amp

Electricity phase 2

V

13

206

208

211

214

218

Volt

Power Factor

0.68

0.71

0.7

0.72

0.76

 

Power 2

3.53

5.198

6.853

8.043

10.19

kW

 

I

3

26.3

31.5

40.3

48.6

56.4

Amp

Electricity phase 3

V

12

207

215

215

220

221

Volt

Power Factor

0.69

0.71

0.79

0.81

0.85

 

Power 3

3.756

4.808

6.845

8.661

10.59

kW

Total power (P1 + P2 + P3)

 

10.42

15.35

21.12

25.34

31.28

kW

The engine testing was performed by fixed the engine speed at 1500 rpm. The electricity load was applied respectively at different power (kW).

61

Fuel consumption rate (f c )

f

c

=

1

η

Engine

×

P

Match

×

1

LHV

Ricehusk

× 3,600

where

f c

η Eng

P Match

LHV Rice husk

From (5.1),

fuel consumption rate (kg/hr)

engine efficiency (~0.25)

power (kW)

rice husk heating value = 13,800 kJ/kg

f

c

=

1

×

31.28

×

1

× 3,600

0.25

13,800

f c = 32.64

× 1 × 3,600 0.25 13,800 f c = 32.64 kg hr Diesel substitution rate by

kg hr

Diesel substitution rate by producer gas

%

=

{1

 

(

QLHV

ρ

)

Diesel

(

QLHV

ρ

)

Diesel

+

(

ρ

QLHV

)

Ricehusk

}

×

100

where

%

percentage substitute

ρ

density (kg/m 3 )

Q

flow rate (m 3 /hr)

LHV

heating value (MJ/kg)

Operating at 1,500 rpm found that,

Q Diesel

= 7.39 L/hr

LHV Diesel = 43.0 MJ/kg

kg/m 3

ρ Diesel

= 850

Q Ricehusk

LHV Ricehusk

ρ Ricehusk

= 53.76 L/hr

= 13.8

= 679

MJ/kg

kg/m 3

From (5.2),

%

=

{1

(850

×

7.39

×

43)

(850

×

7.39

×

43)

+

(679

×

53.76

×

13.8)

}

×

100

(5.1)

(5.2)

% = 65.10

62

The percentage of diesel substitution rate by producer gas from rice husk

gasification was 65.1% on an energy basis for all power output levels considered.

System efficiency (η Total )

η

Total

= 

P EI

×

3,600

Q

×

LHV

 ×

100

where

η Total

system efficiency (%)

P EI

electrical power (kW)

Q

fuel consumption (m 3 /hr)

LHV

heating value (kJ/m 3 )

At 1,500 rpm and P EI = 31.28 kW

Q Diesel

<