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Summer Camps

organised by

Vandemataram Foundation, Hyderabad

to improve minimum levels of learning in Mathematics along with

co-curricular activities

for the students of Govt. High Schools

A

Report Submitted

to

Director of School Education

Telangana State

26-05-2016 to 27-05-2016

Aksharavanam

Devarakonda Road, Kalwakurthy, Mahabubnagar.

Telangana State

Study Team

Dr. Upender Reddy. N

Rayalu K.K.V.

Rajender Reddy.K

Dharmender Singh.S & Sreedhara Charyulu. K

Md. Fasiuddin

Summer Camps

organised by

Vandemataram Foundation, Hyderabad

District Administration - Mahabubnagar district,

AP Residential Schools Society - Andhra Pradesh,

My Village Model Village Foundation - Nizamabad district,

Desai Muralidhar Reddy Memorial Trust - Amarachinta, Mahabubnagar district

RG Rao Trust - Karimnagar district,

Pragathi Welfare Society - Burgula, Mahabubnagar district and

Orphanage Homes run by Seva Bharathi, Hyderabad.

Yashodha Foundation (a CSR unit of Yashodha Hospitals), Hyderabad

Value Labs, Hyderabad

Ramakrishna Mutt, Hyderabad

Introduction

The main goal of mathematics education in schools is the mathematization of the childs

thinking. Clarity of thought and pursuing assumptions to logical conclusions is central to the

mathematical enterprise. There are many ways of thinking, and the kind of thinking one learns in

mathematics is an ability to handle abstractions, and an approach to problem solving

- National focus group, Math Education

Two words: mathematization and problem solving are very typical and abstract words in

its nature to understand and to practice. But these two concepts imbibe in learning process.

Problem solving will not be completed without Mathematization. Mathematisation is mental

process which need understand of concepts and mathematical processing skills including short

memory and long memory. Mathematical processing concepts (fundamental operations such as

addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc.,) are hierarchal in learning. Without learning

addition it is not possible to understand subtraction, multiplication and division etc., here

learning means learning mathematization in daily life problems which include example problems

taken from daily life situations converting according into simplified process and stage of learning

for understanding and make a habit of mathematisation.

In this context, to solve mathematical problems children have to understand concepts as

well as processing skills of mathematics which leads to mathematisation in later classes. For this

fundamental operations are tools to mathematisation, hence to understand concepts of additions

which have same process but different nature of units (lengths, areas, capacity, weights etc.) for

solids liquids, gases, time etc

Also definition of mathematics covers majorly on different types of numbers and their

properties.

Mathematisation will be in the areas of mathematics arithmetic which cover mostly

nature of different numbers and fundamental operations; Algebra to find unknown quantities;

geometry to measure space with the help of figures and its measures.

For all these, it is essential to understand concept of different types of number systems

and their operations. For different numbers by its nature processing rules may differ. These

differences are difficult until the nature of numbers and their existence understand, children

cannot go forward or achieve a stage in learning of mathematics.

Here learning is one side of a coin and other side will be practicing and retain in

permanent memory.

One cannot separate operations and numbers in mathematisation because number

properties and number concepts and operations are inter-dependent.

concepts of fundamental operations and uses them in new situation and second is understanding

the flow of steps in solving or manipulating the numerical values to attain problems.

Social learning is popularized since the observations made by Vygotsky1 in children

learning areas such as class rooms, libraries and play grounds etc., how children learn things ?

That was his probing question; according to his theories- every child will have a zone of

learning capacity for some extent. If this is neglected child will not participate or take interest in

participatory learning. And there is a zone for collaboration- in this may be with teacher or co

friends and senior learners who will help in learning through interactions-questions, discussions

in their language. Also noticed that there is more learning through peer and senior groups than

teachers lecturing or explanations etc. But when this social group, child and his mates get

doubts they went for references and teachers or any faculty of the school.

To get successful social learning, children need language skills cultural, physical aspects

which make them physical growth and mental happiness and removing stress in learning or any

problems. They get confidence in living together, believing together and solving together. Social

skills are very important in mathematics learning to prove, accepting and giving value to others

opinions, decisions etc. and giving his reasoning to establish his thinking and his theories- in this

he modifies his behavior to get openness and adjust live in the society.

Teacher is having other challenges to create such learning environment according social

learning base. Teacher has to satisfy the childs social needs such as different sports, games and

cultural activities.

Genesis

Vandematharam Foundation (VMF) adopted this

research initiative which derived its inputs from 15

years of pedagogical experience and close students

interaction by Sri Sreepathi Reddy Vippala, the founder

of SPR Schools of Excellence, also the Vice President

of Vandemataram Foundation.VMF as a part of its

government school strengthening activity conducted

MLA test to government school students and shortlisted

them for their piloting project in Kalwakurthy. The so called MLA test in mathematics comprises

of 50 questions with 100 marks in 7 areas such as Natural numbers, Integers, Fractional numbers,

Rational numbers, Decimal Fractions, Algebraic expressions and Algebraic equations with

abilities which are shown in the table of Minimum learning abilities2

According to Aksharavanam Minimum learning abilities means, the abilities which compulsory for math learning.

Integers

Decimal

fractions

Algebraic

Algebraic

Expression

equations

Comparis

on

Comparison

Comparis

on

Comparison

Comparison

Numerical value

Solving simple

equations

Additions

Additions

Additions

Additions

Additions

Additions

Solving

simultaneous

equations in

two variables

Subtractio

n

Subtraction

Subtractio

n

Subtraction

Subtraction

Subtraction

Solving

quadratic

equations

Multiplica

tion

Multiplicati

on

Multiplica

tion

Multiplication

Multiplication

Multiplication

Making the

subject of

formula

Division

Division

Division

Division

Division

Division

Value

when

expressed

in powers

Value when

expressed in

powers

Writing in

simplest

form

Value when

expressed in

powers

Converting

decimal to

fractions

Simplification

LCM

Simplifying

the

numerical

expression

Convertin

g mixed to

improper

Simplifying

the numerical

expression

Converting

fractions to

decimal

Abilities

Natural

numbers

Fractions

Rational

Numbers

Convertin

g

improper

to mixed

Value when

expressed in

powers

Simplifying

the numerical

expression

From the first week of July, 2015 to last week of Sept, 2015 an MLA test is conducted every Sunday to

students of VI to IX studying in Government High schools / Residential Schools located in Kalwakurthy.

Students who have secured more than 10 in IX, 8 in VIII, 6 in VI & VII std. are selected for this pilot

project. Selected students were divided into teams of 5 to 6 students each and given work sheets for

practice designed specifically for each question in the MLA test and provided with the key. The students

were encouraged to practice and learn on their own with out any teaching on black board but given the

necessary guidance. Each student is allowed to learn at his/her level of learning and is allowed to learn at

his/her own pace.

All the above children nearly 100 are picked from Government

High schools / Residential Schools which are located in

Kalwakurthy during 15 th July, 2015 to 30th Jan, 2016. The

children used to attend the VMFs MLA programme in preschool (6 am to 8 am) and post school (6 pm to 8 pm) hours .

These children practiced from these 7 packages comprising of 50

abilities in 150 worksheets. After attending this programme, their

identity was changed in schools/hostels. All the children in their

class, teachers praised these children because of the earmark

change in the students in doing and responding to the problems.

With this children got lot of self-confidence and helped the co

students in their own schools/hostels.

After this significant achievement organizers launched a pilot study in the district inviting 10

children who are studying class V to class X, from each district and also from some districts of Andhra

Pradesh to Aksharavanam campus in kalwakurthy. Children of Kasturba Gandhi Vidyalaya and destitute

schools also invited to this camp at Aksharavanam. In this way around 600 children participated in

Aksharavanam campus. The programme conducted from 22nd April to 30th may 2016. All the six hundred

students wrote pre-test and post-test and weekly tests.

The students who underwent the VMFs MLA programme at Kalwakurthy and got 38 marks and above

are given the responsibility to lead the house of 60 students and are called Little Leaders (LL). Students

who scored between 25 and 37 are given the responsibility to teach the group of 30 students and are

called Little Teachers (LT). Each house consists of two groups. In this way little leaders and little

teachers are selected to conduct programme at Aksharavanam for other school children.

Each worksheet consists of 20 questions. Each ability has 3 worksheets namely a, b and c with

the problems arranged in the order of difficulty. But the child has his own option to choose the worksheet

from the 3 levels of packets. If he is unable to correctly answer the problem he has an option to choose a

worksheet from the pack of worksheets. He can learn at his own pace and be confident. When a child

works out all three worksheets of a particular ability with scoring highest marks he can opt for the

worksheet of the next ability. Gradually child understands the stage or level of worksheet he has to do and

his own pace of learning. When a student get a doubt or run out of ideas, he shall get it clarified by his co

students or Little Teacher. If Little Teacher or co students could not solve the problem, then they

approach Little Leader of their house. Even some times if Little Leader may not get solution then the

Little Leader approaches Little Leaders of other Houses. If the problem still remains unsolved only then

they approach their subject teacher called the mentor in this program.

When these LL and LT are sharing their learning with their friends their learning enhancement,

consolidation, innovations, new doubts etc. are possible. So learning will happen in both LL, LT and

student

Self-learning, collaborative learning and consolidation individually and collaboratively are

possible in this type of organized class room activities.

In this way children learn mostly from themselves, with interactions and share the knowledge

with scaffolding.3

In this process of learning, every week there will be a test and recording of marks in SPRs

cumulative record sheet specially designed for this purpose which gives picturesque details of learnt and

to be learnt. This is also used for statistical purpose. In this test there will be 50 questions comprising of

100 marks to score. No two students get the same question paper to solve. No scope of copying or any

manipulation from the student side.

After examination, LLs and LTs will evaluate the answers sheets and make their group members to

enter result into their cumulative record sheet.

These LLs and LTs are given incentives in the form of gift vouchers. They place indent for the purchase

of items from the list given by VMF. The list of items includes Note Books, Reference Books,

Magazines, Stationary items, Games & Sports items, Shoes, Bicycles etc.

CAMPUS ACTIVITIES:

There are 12 big class rooms and an auditorium for conducting these interactive learning programme and

sports and games and cultural programmes.

Children wake up early in the morning at 5 a.m. children will

be asked to wake up and to attend bath room/toilet/nature

calls. After this children go in groups to write a quick test in

math for 10 minutes and 10 minutes for correction. This

quick test is called MNS test and based on Dr. Kawashimas

brain training methodology. In this so called MNS test 40

questions of basic operations are there. Just before the

commencement of test children are asked to meditate for 5

minutes.

After this meditation and quick test, all children go to Yoga

class. One hour of yoga with slokas and good thought nourishes the childrens brain. Some group of

children goes for swacha bharath- that is cleaning the toilets, dormitories auditorium and campus. No

housekeeping staff was appointed.

Children are asked to read story and other non academic books at their own interest.

Children go for breakfast and take 15 minute of time to join the class. 12 places were allotted to do

collaborative activities till lunch time.

3

scaffolding n. in education, a teaching style that supports and facilitates the student as he or she learns a new skill or concept, with

the ultimate goal of the student becoming self-reliant. Derived from Lev Vygotskys theories, in practice it involves teaching material just

beyond the level at which the student could learn alone.

News papers published for students (sakshi@school) are provided as one per every two children.

After lunch, again they go to attempt math worksheets. At 2 p.m. a quick test will be conducted. From

3.45 p.m. children are asked to join in sports/ games/cultural activities till 6.45 p.m.

Chess, caroms, shuttle etc. games and karate, yoga in pyramids Kuchipudi dance, key board, Congo

drums, folk dance, vocal singing and other literary activates were there and also some children were

sketching /drawing/ chalk sculpturing.

According to their hobbies and interests children are allowed to choose and participate in the above

activities.

Children are given story/GK or children related books and daily newspapers for reading activities.

After the dinner a children film/ how it works/ mind your language such video programmes are shown.

From 8.45 to 9.00 pm children are asked to read books and then to go to bed, strictly providing 8 hours of

sleep.

OBSERVATIONS:

From SCERT 4 members were drafted to observe the programme.

The members: K. Rajender Reddy, 2, K. Sreedhara Charyulu 3. S. Dharmender Singh 4. Rayalu

KKV

and 5.Fasiuddin RP of Mahaboobnagar dist. assisted.

All the five observers initially observed and conducted a test by selecting 30 students randomly.

Prepared a proforma to interact / observe / interview/ test the children who are learning and who

are guiding (co student/ little teacher / little leader).

Built a learning story of some children as sample.

And consolidated all 5 members observations.

Under mention are the observations :

Total 614 students across 2 states (T.S &

A.P.) participated in the camp.

They have been divided into 10 houses.

each house has around 60 students and

allotted one class room. The topper of each

house is the little leader of that house.

Each house is divided into two groups of around 30 children each. The topper of each

group is made the little teacher of that group.

Each group is subdivided into teams of 5 to 6 children. The topper of each team is the

captain of that team.

gender of children).

For each house there are 2 facilitators. These facilitators voluntarily rendered their

services in the camp. Some of them are professional teachers.

The main objectives of the camp are found to be reading and achieving the

minimum learning abilities of math through peer-learning and inculcating

leadership and organization skills.

Besides scholastics, students are also provided coscholastic activities like dancing, learning music,

instruments like key board, drums mridangam etc.,

karate, yoga and meditation and yogic posture

pyramids, folk dance, games etc.

Children are observed with a developed habit of sitting

in a place for 3 to 4 hours and solving problems.

Children are developed a habit of reading newspaper

and story books, each child read about 50 story books

on an average during the 40 day camp period.

Children are provided 120 minutes of reading activity either story books or daily news

paper. Every two children are given one news paper. Sakshi news paper has a special

student edition sakshi@school. The cost of each news paper is one rupee!

3 hours (3.45 pm to 6.45 pm) is given for physical and cultural activities i.e. drawing /

art/ craft, culture and game activities.

Children were participating cultural activities of their interest.

Children learned some skills group dancing in Kuchipudi, vocal singing, drawing,

Telangana folk dance, key board.

Yoga pyramid class was high light. children learned very difficult asana and

standing in yoga poses in pyramidal form.

A girl student (little leader in yoga) who has just completed her X std. from ZPHS,

Midgil conducted and trained a group of children.

Morning quick test was conducted and immediately little leaders and little teachers

valuated papers and announced marks.

The question paper consists of some logic and generalizations (for example

multiplication by 1 and 10 and 5 for different numbers were asked if a child

understand for a number then he transfers the same knowledge to another numbers

like 49, 50 and 51)

Children are asked basic arithmetic operation problems such as

1 is added 88 times?

1+1+1+ . 96 times

1 73 times

similar question are asked for 10, 100, 5, 50, 99, 101, 11, 9, 2, 20, 22, 12, 8, 18,

102, 98, 52, 48, 25, 75, 125, 103, 53, 97, etc.

Through questions in the test paper children are planted with the idea that

multiplication is nothing but repetitive addition.

Even though it appears to have only three operations addition, subtraction and

multiplication children become ready for division also.

Above questions are repeatedly asked so children will generalize and apply the

same knowledge in when they attempt other sheets

Level-1 quick tests are standard for the campus programmes, when a child gets

more than 80% and above are eligible to enter the MLA programme.

The same test is conducted in two levels. The duration of level-1 is 10 minutes

where as for the level-2, the duration is 6 minutes

In this regular practice a few children are completing 40 problems in 2 and half

minutes.

Children get to grip with the four fundamental operations which smooth the way to

numerical problems in worksheets.

When we conducted a test for 30 students who are chosen randomly got an average

of 19. 07. The average marks of the tests conducted on 24 th April; 20th May and

26 th May are 8.21; 17.37; 19.07 respectively. Comparing three scores the average

increased by 9.16 in 26 days and after a five days it is increased by 1.70

According to Aksharavanam office records

comparing pre-test conducted on 24th April and

20 th May the improvement was average

9.33(initial average was 6.78 and later average of

score was average 16.09) (Initially before joining

this programme average child has identified

abilities in mathematics were 6.78 but with an

effect of this programme child acquired 16.09

abilities)

On an average a child reads 55 story books in 45 days of programme (As per

observation of their office records)

Students are encouraged to correct answer sheets of other student (peer-evaluation).

All the test papers are of same standard and test the same abilities with different

numerical.

The material provided to students is in English language even children may be

studying in Telugu/English or any other media. It was observed as no barrier which

might be due to the limited usage of language to serve the purpose.

10

instant help either asking by child himself or monitored by little teachers.

Organizers have taken much care by not letting the children mere copying of

solutions to their note book, children are also habituated for doing on their own and

discouraged of the copy of solutions as the little teachers and leader are available

for immediate help or discussion.

FINDINGS:

Children engagement

o

It is very much appreciable that Vandematharam foundation has taken major initiative in

developing minimum levels of learning.

All most all the children were sitting either in engaging doing problems or discussing

with group/little teacher/ leader/leaders.

All children were bending their back, keeping notebooks on their lap, writing solutions,

in columns (due to managing paper/notebook) this often one can observe in each room

They were engaged fully in the subject when they were doing math, in other classes like

art dance etc they forgot math and concentrating those co-curricular areas. This shows

they maintain multitudes in learning if they are given chance to perform

Many of the children who are in class X told if they had had this programme in their class

IX, it would have been very useful for them.

o

is influencing children much in learning math

actively.

influencing much on their confidence of learning

levels and even patriotism.

teachers were showing much concern in children learning giving them social security as

well as educational security.

Children are from different caste and district and religion, but they were feeling as one

and best friends. Cooperation, affection and team spirit concepts were clearly seen.

Shyness to ask doubts is not seen, group discussions and accepting others were seen in

many children.

11

o

the children. Self-confidence when he/she is solving

problem was developing and seen that phobia of

math was lessening in children. There are no answer

cards or written answers anywhere, the decision of

group children whether answers is correct or not or

best answer from group is the only correct answer,

this type of situation is encouraging and motivating

the human potentiality but not from text book

answers.

There is a scope of doing previous cards to strengthen themselves for doing present cards.

When he/she is testing the similar questions with different numerical frequently,

understands the needy computational skills and selecting cards for which he did not

attained skills.

Styles of learning

o

Observed that some children were memorizing the process involved in computing

problems step by step. Sometime those were fading between or typical steps but as they

are being tested periodically for those skills with time they could appreciate the missing

or fading steps.

steps as granted there was no question or doubt on

steps immediately. But after attempting problem a

few children were asking their mistakes and how to

correct those but not reasons or concepts. Once they

get the confidence of solving, they probably look for

the reasons and concepts later.

Some children were not noticed the writing skills writing custom of mixed fractions,

additions in fractions etc., after period of time they could get the writing skills and adopt

to the required customs in the due course.

Some were maintaining order in the cards some are not, after period of time they could

notice that there is an order in the cards.

Even the problem is a little complex, children are doing it as normal even though there

were mistakes, child was not identifying or bothering about answers and following the

process- even some processes are not giving solution or some are not suitable process.

They are not hesitating but trying to solve the problem with impetus.

12

Styles of corrections

o

Some little leaders were doing the same problem in their notes and verify the answers

then explain the whole problem

Some were explaining where the child put a question, some were asking to do with the

other students, and some were asked to do the same problem on different note books.

o

Many were not doing the same problem after clarification from little

teachers/leaders/other group members.

As the students in group are doing different problems at their own pace, when one of

them is being clarified the doubts, others were busy in their practice silently and

undisturbed.

Little leaders/ little teachers were talking slowly, patiently and writing clearly on note

books.

Our interactions :

o

All the team members interacted with many different children in different rooms

Observed children doing problems, little leaders and little teachers in guiding and

teaching their group members.

General Findings

o

It is very much appreciable that Vandematharam foundation has taken major initiative in

developing minimum levels of learning which is a major prevailing hurdle in education.

Gathering 600 children at a place and creating a learning ambiance is nothing but lighting

a small lamp in the dark.

camp without any pressure.

backgrounds (poor-rich, cast, Andhra-Telangana,)

have been gathered in the camp which optimizes

us that social harmony can be achieved through

education only.

It is found that students are allowed to read books with biographies, stories, essays,

science facts etc. which helps in inculcating and improving reading habits leading to

comprehension.

13

Students are provided with work sheets with mathematical problems with 48 types of

computational abilities.

solving while they are practicing. A student may have the presumption of learning which

would be rectified by the regular standard tests.

Some little teachers were observed to just confine to explaining the solution without any

discussion.

There is no proper checking whether the student has understood the explanation by his

fellow student.

It is again proved by interacting with Anjinaik and Anusha that discussing in mother

tongue gives more clear comprehension than discussing in other than mother tongue.

Though it is appreciable effort, this type of work alone wont develop logics in

mathematics.

Had the guidance of higher academic authorities taken, the results might be much better

than the present.

o

Only computing skill is taken as prima facie but reasoning for each step of computing is

essential for storing in long term memory even some time concepts also essential at least

after achievement of computation skill.

After completing one or more skills there is a need of review within the group, with little

teachers, with little leader and with some expert in math, otherwise the levels and

learning procedures may not be logic or

mathematisation may not be possible

by building stories on learning

achievements of children. In this what

type of problems are catering to achieve

abilities, what and how the instructions are

passing from teachers to little leaders,

little leaders to little teachers, and little

teachers to the group may not be scientific

or may go sometimes wrong without control the absolute knowledge of math.

there is a need to solve previous problems and create and share problem bank by the

student under the guidance of math expert (Mostly teacher, Teacher educator, or any

amateur group )

14

understanding mathematical language to do new problems from text book is needed to

add in the programme.

Geometry especially constructions, axioms and basic verification of theorems and based

on these problems may be given to practice. Geometry is neglected in this programme.

Mathematics is full of Reasoning and logic. Without these logic and reasoning learning

math become rote memory learning, this may not help in long run process because in

math many typical areas are there.

There is a need to analyze the instructions are being given to children at various level,

from teacher to leader etc.,

Sometimes processes are very lengthy so they can be crumbled and scaled and after

achieving parts can be learn whole.

Table.1: showing the description of statistics of 30 students selected by SCERT team for test conducted

on 26th May 2016, by random and comparing with baseline test and learning achievement test on

minimum abilities (prescribed by Aksharavanam).

Statistics

class

Valid

BASE_LINE_TEST_24AP

LAT_AKSHARA_20MA

RIL2016

Y_2016

SCERT_LAT_26MAY_2016

30

30

30

30

7.93

17.37

19.07

1.095

1.084

1.106

6.50

18.00

19.00

19

6.000

5.939

6.057

Skewness

.748

-.292

-.228

.427

.427

.427

Kurtosis

-.206

-.598

-.059

.833

.833

.833

22

23

23

Minimum

Maximum

22

27

29

N

Missing

Mean

Std. Error of Mean

Median

Mode

Std. Deviation

Range

10

The table.1 shows that the comparison of three tests conducted for SCERT selected 30 students.

The tests are 1. Base line (conducted on 24th April, 2016 by Akshravanam; LAT conducted on

20 th May 2016 by Aksharavanam; Test conducted by SCERT group on 26 th May 2016. The

15

same candidates who are chosen by SCERT group were asked to provide their test results for the

same students in base line and LAT. Three were compared by descriptive statistics.

The mean is high in the test conducted by SCERT. Almost 11 abilities were achieved

more from baseline test in a month (duration between baseline and test conducted by SCERT

group). It is significant to observe the standard deviation is more or less same between base line

and after a month. This shows that some children who may not near to Average are same for

baseline and SCERT conducted test average. The standard error of mean is also same for three

tests. Mode score is increased in each test can observe a graduation (3, 10, 19) shows that the

number achievers are increased at every level of test. The number of average achievers are more

19 at final or latest test who conducted by SCERT.

The Skewness is positive in baseline test and remaining other tests is negative and

decreasing, this shows that achieving abilities are increasing at every level of test. The minimum

of abilities achievers are increased (0, 4, 6) and maximum of abilities of achievers are also

(22, 27, 29) are also increased.

Table.2 : showing the frequency of classes (VII to X) studying of 30 students, selected by SCERT team

for test conducted on 26 th May 2016, by random and comparing with baseline test and learning

achievement test on minimum abilities (prescribed by Akshravanam).

Class

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative

Percent

Valid

IX

26.7

26.7

26.7

VII

23.3

23.3

50.0

VIII

10

33.3

33.3

83.3

16.7

16.7

100.0

30

100.0

100.0

X

Total

The table.2 above tells that the 30students were selected randomly from 600 distributed in the

classes studying are VII to X. No of elementary students (VII and VIII classes) selected are 17

and high school students selected are 13.

16

Table.3 : showing the frequency of abilities of 30 students were undergone the Base line test on 24 th

April 2016, binned as Average abilities were 7.93 and standard deviation is 6 abilities.

BASE_LINE_TEST_24APRIL2016 (Binned) Mean=7.93 abilities and SD =6 Total abilities =50

Abilities

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative

Percent

Valid

<= 2

13.3

13.3

13.3

38

13

43.3

43.3

56.7

9 14

23.3

23.3

80.0

15+

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

30

100.0

100.0

Above table.3 shows that on 24 th April 2016 Aksharavanam organizers conducted a test for all

600 children. Among these children SCERT selected randomly 30 students for their test and

comparing with LAT test which conducted by Aksharavanam organizers. These 30 children

achieved an average of 7.93 abilities with a standard deviation of 6 abilities among 50 abilities.

All these 30 students are made three groups in above table such as below average, average and

above average abilities achieved children. The criteria taken is the first group is one mean minus

of one standard deviation, Mean and one mean plus one standard deviation. Above table can find

low achievers were only four and average 7.93 and high achievers with 6. That is Six students

achieved 15 or more abilities. 20 are achieved 3 to 14 abilities and four are achieved below 2

abilities.

Table.4 : showing the frequency of abilities of 30 students were undergone the Base line test on 24 th

April 2016, binned as Average abilities were 17.37 and standard deviation is 18 abilities.

LAT_AKSHARA_20MAY_2016 (Binned)Average abilities = 17.37, SD=18 abilities out of 50 abilities

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative

Percent

Valid

<= 11

20.0

20.0

20.0

12 17

26.7

26.7

46.7

18 23

10

33.3

33.3

80.0

24+

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

30

100.0

100.0

Above table.4 shows that on 20th May 2016 Aksharavanam organizers conducted a test for all 600

children. Among these children SCERT selected randomly 30 students for their test and comparing with

17

LAT test which conducted by Aksharavanam organizers. These 30 children achieved an average of 17.37

abilities with a standard deviation of 18 abilities among 50 abilities.

All these 30 students are made three groups in above table such as below average, average and above

average abilities achieved children. The criteria taken is the first group is one mean minus of one standard

deviation, Mean and one mean plus one standard deviation. Above table can find low achievers were only

six and average 18 and high achievers are with 6 . Six students achieved 24 or more abilities. 18 are

achieved 12 to 23 abilities and six are achieved below 11 abilities.

Table.5 : showing the frequency of abilities of 30 students were undergone the Base line test on 24 th

April 2016, binned as Average abilities were 19.07 and standard deviation is 19 abilities.

Sl. No

Groups

Groups

or Binn

<= 13

Criteria for

frequency

Frequency

Percent

group

Below

Average

Mean 1 SD

Cumulative

Percent

13.3

13.3

13

43.3

56.7

14 19

Average

Mean

20 25

Average

(14 - 25 )

22

30.0

86.7

Mean + 1 SD

13.3

100.0

30

30

100.0

26+

Total

Above

Average

The above table divulges that the number of abilities achieved by the students are binned

as per the mean 19.07 of achieving abilities with standard deviation of 19 abilities. Total abilities

were 50. 30 students were made into three groups as per their achieving abilities. The first group

is below average group- that is this group of student achieved below the number abilities of

average 19.07 is only 4 in number students. The second group and third group are called as

average group, 22 students are achieved between 14 to 25 abilities. Finally the third group is

above average group who achieved 26 and above abilities, such students are only 4 among 30

children.

Little teacher are taken from middle or average group and leaders are taken from above

average.

18

Table.6 : showing the frequency of abilities of 30 students were undergone the Base line test on 24 th

April 2016, binned as Average abilities were 7.93 and standard deviation is 6 abilities .

Paired Samples Correlations

N

Pair 1

Pair 2

BASE_LINE_TEST_24APRIL2016 &

LAT_AKSHARA_20MAY_2016

LAT_AKSHARA_20MAY_2016 &

Correlation

Sig.

30

.613

.000

30

.863

.000

30

.624

.000

SCERT_LAT_26MAY_2016

Pair 3

BASE_LINE_TEST_24APRIL2016 &

SCERT_LAT_26MAY_2016

Above table.6 reveals that there is a positive and significant level of correlation at 95% between

two test for three pairs.

The achievement of abilities are tested the same child in three tests- initial test as

baseline, later for 26 days another test and after 6 days another test conducted by SCERT.

High positive correlation is there between LAT and test conducted by SCERT. This means 86%

of the children achieved same number of abilities in LAT and test conducted by SCERT.

19

Table.7 : showing the t-Ratio test for three pairs of tests for 30 students who were undergone the

Base line test on 24th April 2016, Learning Achievement Test and SCERT conducted test

Paired Samples Test

Three pairs of tests

1.

Baseline Vs LAT

2.

LAT

3.

Paired Differences

Mean

Vs test

Std.

Deviation

Coef.

Std.

95% Confidence

Of

Error

Interval of the

conducted by SCERT

varia

Mean

Difference

Baseline Vs SCERT

blity

Lower

-55.7

.959 -11.394

df

Sig.

(2-tailed)

Upper

BASE_LINE_TEST_

Pair 1

24APRIL2016 LAT_AKSHARA_20

-9.433

5.250

-7.473

-9.841

29

.000

-1.700

3.142 -184.5

.574

-2.873

-.527

-2.963

29

.006

5.231

.955 -13.087

-9.180

-11.658

29

.000

MAY_2016

LAT_AKSHARA_20

Pair 2

MAY_2016 SCERT_LAT_26MA

Y_2016

BASE_LINE_TEST_

Pair 3

24APRIL2016 SCERT_LAT_26MA

-11.133

-47.0

Y_2016

Above table.7 shows that the difference of mean is negative in all three pairs. By consolidating

three pairs the mean is increased from Baseline to LAT to test which SCERT conducted. Significantly

there is an increase of 9.433 abilities from baseline to LAT and only 1.7 abilities from LAT to test

conducted by SCERT. This may because of the period of days are less in between LAT and Test

conducted by SCERT (only 5 days) and the difference days between baseline to LAT is nearly 26 days.

The difference of standard deviation is low in pair two. The all scores of achieving of

abilities are near to average achievement of abilities comparing with pair one and pair two. The

scores are scattered from differences mean in pair two than pair one and three.

The value of t-ratio is low in pair at degree of freedom 29 is low and negative for pair

two with significant difference is 0.006 at 95% of confidence level. And there is a high

significant difference at 95% of confidence level in Pairs one and three.

shows that there is significant differences in three pairs of test, this mean there is significant difference

among achieving abilities. And showing the negative value that increase of abilities from baseline to LAT

and test conducted by SCERT.

20

Table.8 Showing story books read by the 30 children selected by the SCERT for the study

Statistics

Story books read by the student

Valid

30

N

Missing

Mean

51.1667

Median

42.5000

Mode

Std. Deviation

60.00

25.08617

Skewness

.557

.427

Range

94.00

Minimum

12.00

Maximum

106.00

Table.9 showing the correlation between reading story books and achieving minimum

mathematical abilities

Correlations

Pearson Correlation

SCERT_LAT_26

by the student

MAY_2016

1

N

Pearson Correlation

SCERT_LAT_26MAY_2016

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

-.296

.112

30

30

-.296

.112

30

30

The above tables shows that there is negative relation between reading stories and

achieving minimum learning abilities in mathematics.

Possible hypothesis for the studies are

1. There are no computational skill stories in the story books

2. There are no logical thinking or mathematical language/language based contextual

mathematical problems in practice. Hence both activities may not have any relation.

21

This is the model proved to be effective in addressing multi grade and multi level

situations of the classroom with the help of the co-students.

The approach of group learning i.e. mixed group with children of different abilities

supported with two Little Teachers who are relatively better in the academics leads to

learning through child to child. One Group Leader for 3 or 4 groups who clarifies the

doubts and supports the Little Teachers who in turn supports the students in the group.

This model is totally a self learning model with the support of co-students. Certain

incentives are being provided to the Little Teachers and Group Leaders for making the

students learn the concepts and developing computation abilities.

Children themselves compute the problems with mutual discussions and arguments with

lot of space for thinking and expression. A very democratic way of consultations in

solving the problems.

There is no copying and repeated solving of the same problem. Every time a sheet with

new problems on the same concept is being provided for the practice and solving.

The entire focus on the practice of arithmetic and algebra is on 7 areas with 50 abilities.

Work sheets have been provided for the practice for each ability so that the students will

master in each ability which facilitate them for solving of similar problems pertaining to

that ability.

The 40 days camp empowered the children with confidence in solving Mathematics

problems in major areas covering School Education syllabus. The Maths phobia being

observed in all the schools has been addressed.

There is a rich engagement of students in all curricular and co-curricular areas which is a

holistic approach for the development of the students. The daily routine starts with a

quick test in arithmetic followed by PT, Yoga etc.

The camp promoted language abilities among the children by way of separate sessions on

book reading. The foundation collected lot of children literature and books are issued to

children and they exchange among themselves. Every student read about 40 and more

books on an average during the camp period. Every student holds a story book with them

all the day. There is a provision for reading newspapers in the afternoon. Three sessions

22

have been with different time slots have been provided for book reading in addition to

newspaper reading during afternoon. This catalyzed interest among the children on

reading and helped them to develop reading habits.

The entire evening session is being focused on the co-curricular activities. Children are

participating in various type of art and cultural activities. About 13 different activities

where children are involved based on their interest. This created an interesting and

emotional climate in the camp.

The camp facilitated for the development of cooperative culture, solving the problems in

a collaborative way and made every child for taking responsibility and they are enjoying

the camp.

The Group Leaders and Little Teachers who supported the group to solve the

Mathematical problems are now confident that they can take up similar supportive

activities in their schools and do away the fear of Mathematics among the students in

their schools.

They are also confident that they can promote the activities of art, craft, theatre, music,

dance, games, singing, drawing, painting etc. in their schools.

The camp promoted leadership qualities among the children and several children evolved

as confident leaders with a positive approach that they take up these initiatives in their

school.

23

Government Schools and elsewhere

This innovative model of developing arithmetic skills among children has been evolved

with continuous practice based ideas and try out in the classrooms in order to find out a

way out to do away with Maths phobia and building confidence among school children.

The passion and commitment of the persons behind this programme for searching new

pedagogies and evolving innovative models and their implementation is quite

appreciable.

This is a proven model to address multi grade and multi level situations being prevailed

in the Government Schools where children will be supported through peer students. This

also a way out in case of Teacher absenteeism and Teachers on long leave.

This is a proved pilot for developing basic required Mathematics computational skills

with the evolved work sheets, practicing sheets. The same material may be used in the

Government Schools to improve the computational abilities among the children.

The programme may be started immediately after reopening of schools duly using the

students who attended these camps. Their services may be used as Little Teachers and

Group Leaders.

Some awareness programme may be conducted for the Teachers on this model with the

help of Vandematharam Foundation at selected venues.

The model which proven effective for developing reading habits and language abilities

through story books may be adopted. The children literature may be supplied to schools

and school libraries may be strengthened. The children manage issue and collection of the

library books. The children literature developed under SSA through DIETs may be

replicated and provided to schools.

The co-curricular activities i.e. of art, craft, theatre, music, games, singing, drawing,

dance, painting etc. may be implemented in our schools. The children who have

participated in the camp may act as Leaders to practice these programmes. Further, the

Art & Craft Instructors being working in the schools under SSA may be given training at

Akshara Vanam to take up the similar activities in our schools. The Bala Sabha

programme where children play their talents in different co-curricular areas in the schools

on every Saturday (03.00 to 05.00 PM) may be conducted on a regular basis.

24

every District with the participation of Government School children and one Teacher per

each school.

The Department may conduct appropriate research studies for further improvement of

this model extending to other subjects. The faculty of Teacher Education Institutions may

be involved in such innovative programmes including conduct of research in a continuous

way.

The persons behind evolving this innovative practices for improved learning and building

children confidence, bring out latent potentialities of the children and building passion

towards academics among children is quite appreciable.

25

Practices :

26

@@@@@

27

ANNEXURES

Annexure-I:

Vandemataram Educational Research and Training Centre Aksharavanam, Kalwakurthy,

Mahabubnagar district, "Little Leaders - Little Teachers" Orientation Program in association

with District Administration, Mahabubnagar District

21 April - 31 May, 2016 LAT-2 for a sample of 30 students picked up randomly and

conducted by Study Group from SCERT, Telangana, Hyderabad.

24-Apr-16

20-May-16

26-May-16

BLT

LAT-1

LAT-2

No. of books

Read

VIII

24

24

85

10125 Shyamala.M

VIII

18

22

31

20560 Bhavani.M

IX

18

16

45

20767 Shiva.B

VII

11

17

19

12

10904 Tharun.K

IX

12

27

29

57

10308 Shravani.L

IX

20

20

60

20146 Meenakshi.K

20

19

70

20754 Madhavi.B

VIII

19

19

36

20149 Prashanthi.R

VIII

12

14

35

10

VII

14

19

85

11

20751 Manikanta.K

VIII

16

14

83

12

10220 Divya.B

VII

15

19

106

13

20553 Sana.SK

IX

14

24

23

31

14

VII

10

98

15

10411 Jyothi.V

VII

16

17

20

16

20138 Sushmitha.N

17

25

22

30

17

VII

11

19

21

40

28

24-Apr-16

20-May-16

26-May-16

BLT

LAT-1

LAT-2

No. of books

Read

18

21037 Gnaneshwar.K

IX

14

22

22

30

19

10418 Anitha.B

VIII

10

15

62

20

10414 Sowjanya.A

IX

19

60

21

IX

17

15

50

22

20543 Shireesha.P

VIII

12

17

20

23

20241 Akhila.D

22

26

29

40

24

20752 Krishnaveni.G

VII

11

28

25

10421 Meena.N

80

26

10410 Parvathi.P

10

10

60

27

20436 Jyoshna.A

VIII

19

21

24

32

28

VIII

19

20

29

37

29

IX

21

22

79

30

20852 Saritha.S

VIII

11

26

29

33

8.21

17.37

19.07

51.17

29

Annexure-II:

30

31

32

Annexure-V:

33

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