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Little Leaders Little Teachers

Summer Camps
organised by
Vandemataram Foundation, Hyderabad
to improve minimum levels of learning in Mathematics along with
co-curricular activities
for the students of Govt. High Schools

External Evaluation of the Programme by the SCERT Team

A
Report Submitted
to
Director of School Education
Telangana State

26-05-2016 to 27-05-2016
Aksharavanam
Devarakonda Road, Kalwakurthy, Mahabubnagar.
Telangana State

Study Team
Dr. Upender Reddy. N
Rayalu K.K.V.
Rajender Reddy.K
Dharmender Singh.S & Sreedhara Charyulu. K
Md. Fasiuddin

Little Leaders Little Teachers


Summer Camps

organised by
Vandemataram Foundation, Hyderabad

with the support of


District Administration - Mahabubnagar district,
AP Residential Schools Society - Andhra Pradesh,
My Village Model Village Foundation - Nizamabad district,
Desai Muralidhar Reddy Memorial Trust - Amarachinta, Mahabubnagar district
RG Rao Trust - Karimnagar district,
Pragathi Welfare Society - Burgula, Mahabubnagar district and
Orphanage Homes run by Seva Bharathi, Hyderabad.
Yashodha Foundation (a CSR unit of Yashodha Hospitals), Hyderabad
Value Labs, Hyderabad
Ramakrishna Mutt, Hyderabad

Introduction
The main goal of mathematics education in schools is the mathematization of the childs
thinking. Clarity of thought and pursuing assumptions to logical conclusions is central to the
mathematical enterprise. There are many ways of thinking, and the kind of thinking one learns in
mathematics is an ability to handle abstractions, and an approach to problem solving
- National focus group, Math Education
Two words: mathematization and problem solving are very typical and abstract words in
its nature to understand and to practice. But these two concepts imbibe in learning process.
Problem solving will not be completed without Mathematization. Mathematisation is mental
process which need understand of concepts and mathematical processing skills including short
memory and long memory. Mathematical processing concepts (fundamental operations such as
addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc.,) are hierarchal in learning. Without learning
addition it is not possible to understand subtraction, multiplication and division etc., here
learning means learning mathematization in daily life problems which include example problems
taken from daily life situations converting according into simplified process and stage of learning
for understanding and make a habit of mathematisation.
In this context, to solve mathematical problems children have to understand concepts as
well as processing skills of mathematics which leads to mathematisation in later classes. For this
fundamental operations are tools to mathematisation, hence to understand concepts of additions
which have same process but different nature of units (lengths, areas, capacity, weights etc.) for
solids liquids, gases, time etc
Also definition of mathematics covers majorly on different types of numbers and their
properties.
Mathematisation will be in the areas of mathematics arithmetic which cover mostly
nature of different numbers and fundamental operations; Algebra to find unknown quantities;
geometry to measure space with the help of figures and its measures.
For all these, it is essential to understand concept of different types of number systems
and their operations. For different numbers by its nature processing rules may differ. These
differences are difficult until the nature of numbers and their existence understand, children
cannot go forward or achieve a stage in learning of mathematics.
Here learning is one side of a coin and other side will be practicing and retain in
permanent memory.
One cannot separate operations and numbers in mathematisation because number
properties and number concepts and operations are inter-dependent.

Teacher has to face these challenges in teaching - one is making understanding of


concepts of fundamental operations and uses them in new situation and second is understanding
the flow of steps in solving or manipulating the numerical values to attain problems.
Social learning is popularized since the observations made by Vygotsky1 in children
learning areas such as class rooms, libraries and play grounds etc., how children learn things ?
That was his probing question; according to his theories- every child will have a zone of
learning capacity for some extent. If this is neglected child will not participate or take interest in
participatory learning. And there is a zone for collaboration- in this may be with teacher or co
friends and senior learners who will help in learning through interactions-questions, discussions
in their language. Also noticed that there is more learning through peer and senior groups than
teachers lecturing or explanations etc. But when this social group, child and his mates get
doubts they went for references and teachers or any faculty of the school.
To get successful social learning, children need language skills cultural, physical aspects
which make them physical growth and mental happiness and removing stress in learning or any
problems. They get confidence in living together, believing together and solving together. Social
skills are very important in mathematics learning to prove, accepting and giving value to others
opinions, decisions etc. and giving his reasoning to establish his thinking and his theories- in this
he modifies his behavior to get openness and adjust live in the society.
Teacher is having other challenges to create such learning environment according social
learning base. Teacher has to satisfy the childs social needs such as different sports, games and
cultural activities.

Genesis
Vandematharam Foundation (VMF) adopted this
research initiative which derived its inputs from 15
years of pedagogical experience and close students
interaction by Sri Sreepathi Reddy Vippala, the founder
of SPR Schools of Excellence, also the Vice President
of Vandemataram Foundation.VMF as a part of its
government school strengthening activity conducted
MLA test to government school students and shortlisted
them for their piloting project in Kalwakurthy. The so called MLA test in mathematics comprises
of 50 questions with 100 marks in 7 areas such as Natural numbers, Integers, Fractional numbers,
Rational numbers, Decimal Fractions, Algebraic expressions and Algebraic equations with
abilities which are shown in the table of Minimum learning abilities2

( a popular cognitive and social psychologist)

According to Aksharavanam Minimum learning abilities means, the abilities which compulsory for math learning.

Minimum learning abilities:


Integers

Decimal
fractions

Algebraic

Algebraic

Expression

equations

Comparis
on

Comparison

Comparis
on

Comparison

Comparison

Numerical value

Solving simple
equations

Additions

Additions

Additions

Additions

Additions

Additions

Solving
simultaneous
equations in
two variables

Subtractio
n

Subtraction

Subtractio
n

Subtraction

Subtraction

Subtraction

Solving
quadratic
equations

Multiplica
tion

Multiplicati
on

Multiplica
tion

Multiplication

Multiplication

Multiplication

Making the
subject of
formula

Division

Division

Division

Division

Division

Division

Value
when
expressed
in powers

Value when
expressed in
powers

Writing in
simplest
form

Value when
expressed in
powers

Converting
decimal to
fractions

Simplification

LCM

Simplifying
the
numerical
expression

Convertin
g mixed to
improper

Simplifying
the numerical
expression

Converting
fractions to
decimal

Abilities

Natural
numbers

Fractions

Rational
Numbers

Convertin
g
improper
to mixed

Value when
expressed in
powers
Simplifying
the numerical
expression

From the first week of July, 2015 to last week of Sept, 2015 an MLA test is conducted every Sunday to
students of VI to IX studying in Government High schools / Residential Schools located in Kalwakurthy.
Students who have secured more than 10 in IX, 8 in VIII, 6 in VI & VII std. are selected for this pilot
project. Selected students were divided into teams of 5 to 6 students each and given work sheets for
practice designed specifically for each question in the MLA test and provided with the key. The students
were encouraged to practice and learn on their own with out any teaching on black board but given the
necessary guidance. Each student is allowed to learn at his/her level of learning and is allowed to learn at
his/her own pace.
All the above children nearly 100 are picked from Government
High schools / Residential Schools which are located in
Kalwakurthy during 15 th July, 2015 to 30th Jan, 2016. The
children used to attend the VMFs MLA programme in preschool (6 am to 8 am) and post school (6 pm to 8 pm) hours .
These children practiced from these 7 packages comprising of 50
abilities in 150 worksheets. After attending this programme, their
identity was changed in schools/hostels. All the children in their
class, teachers praised these children because of the earmark
change in the students in doing and responding to the problems.
With this children got lot of self-confidence and helped the co
students in their own schools/hostels.
After this significant achievement organizers launched a pilot study in the district inviting 10
children who are studying class V to class X, from each district and also from some districts of Andhra
Pradesh to Aksharavanam campus in kalwakurthy. Children of Kasturba Gandhi Vidyalaya and destitute
schools also invited to this camp at Aksharavanam. In this way around 600 children participated in
Aksharavanam campus. The programme conducted from 22nd April to 30th may 2016. All the six hundred
students wrote pre-test and post-test and weekly tests.
The students who underwent the VMFs MLA programme at Kalwakurthy and got 38 marks and above
are given the responsibility to lead the house of 60 students and are called Little Leaders (LL). Students
who scored between 25 and 37 are given the responsibility to teach the group of 30 students and are
called Little Teachers (LT). Each house consists of two groups. In this way little leaders and little
teachers are selected to conduct programme at Aksharavanam for other school children.
Each worksheet consists of 20 questions. Each ability has 3 worksheets namely a, b and c with
the problems arranged in the order of difficulty. But the child has his own option to choose the worksheet
from the 3 levels of packets. If he is unable to correctly answer the problem he has an option to choose a
worksheet from the pack of worksheets. He can learn at his own pace and be confident. When a child
works out all three worksheets of a particular ability with scoring highest marks he can opt for the
worksheet of the next ability. Gradually child understands the stage or level of worksheet he has to do and
his own pace of learning. When a student get a doubt or run out of ideas, he shall get it clarified by his co
students or Little Teacher. If Little Teacher or co students could not solve the problem, then they
approach Little Leader of their house. Even some times if Little Leader may not get solution then the
Little Leader approaches Little Leaders of other Houses. If the problem still remains unsolved only then
they approach their subject teacher called the mentor in this program.

When these LL and LT are sharing their learning with their friends their learning enhancement,
consolidation, innovations, new doubts etc. are possible. So learning will happen in both LL, LT and
student
Self-learning, collaborative learning and consolidation individually and collaboratively are
possible in this type of organized class room activities.
In this way children learn mostly from themselves, with interactions and share the knowledge
with scaffolding.3
In this process of learning, every week there will be a test and recording of marks in SPRs
cumulative record sheet specially designed for this purpose which gives picturesque details of learnt and
to be learnt. This is also used for statistical purpose. In this test there will be 50 questions comprising of
100 marks to score. No two students get the same question paper to solve. No scope of copying or any
manipulation from the student side.
After examination, LLs and LTs will evaluate the answers sheets and make their group members to
enter result into their cumulative record sheet.
These LLs and LTs are given incentives in the form of gift vouchers. They place indent for the purchase
of items from the list given by VMF. The list of items includes Note Books, Reference Books,
Magazines, Stationary items, Games & Sports items, Shoes, Bicycles etc.
CAMPUS ACTIVITIES:
There are 12 big class rooms and an auditorium for conducting these interactive learning programme and
sports and games and cultural programmes.
Children wake up early in the morning at 5 a.m. children will
be asked to wake up and to attend bath room/toilet/nature
calls. After this children go in groups to write a quick test in
math for 10 minutes and 10 minutes for correction. This
quick test is called MNS test and based on Dr. Kawashimas
brain training methodology. In this so called MNS test 40
questions of basic operations are there. Just before the
commencement of test children are asked to meditate for 5
minutes.
After this meditation and quick test, all children go to Yoga
class. One hour of yoga with slokas and good thought nourishes the childrens brain. Some group of
children goes for swacha bharath- that is cleaning the toilets, dormitories auditorium and campus. No
housekeeping staff was appointed.
Children are asked to read story and other non academic books at their own interest.
Children go for breakfast and take 15 minute of time to join the class. 12 places were allotted to do
collaborative activities till lunch time.
3

scaffolding n. in education, a teaching style that supports and facilitates the student as he or she learns a new skill or concept, with
the ultimate goal of the student becoming self-reliant. Derived from Lev Vygotskys theories, in practice it involves teaching material just
beyond the level at which the student could learn alone.

News papers published for students (sakshi@school) are provided as one per every two children.
After lunch, again they go to attempt math worksheets. At 2 p.m. a quick test will be conducted. From
3.45 p.m. children are asked to join in sports/ games/cultural activities till 6.45 p.m.
Chess, caroms, shuttle etc. games and karate, yoga in pyramids Kuchipudi dance, key board, Congo
drums, folk dance, vocal singing and other literary activates were there and also some children were
sketching /drawing/ chalk sculpturing.
According to their hobbies and interests children are allowed to choose and participate in the above
activities.
Children are given story/GK or children related books and daily newspapers for reading activities.
After the dinner a children film/ how it works/ mind your language such video programmes are shown.
From 8.45 to 9.00 pm children are asked to read books and then to go to bed, strictly providing 8 hours of
sleep.

OBSERVATIONS:
From SCERT 4 members were drafted to observe the programme.
The members: K. Rajender Reddy, 2, K. Sreedhara Charyulu 3. S. Dharmender Singh 4. Rayalu
KKV
and 5.Fasiuddin RP of Mahaboobnagar dist. assisted.
All the five observers initially observed and conducted a test by selecting 30 students randomly.
Prepared a proforma to interact / observe / interview/ test the children who are learning and who
are guiding (co student/ little teacher / little leader).
Built a learning story of some children as sample.
And consolidated all 5 members observations.
Under mention are the observations :
Total 614 students across 2 states (T.S &
A.P.) participated in the camp.
They have been divided into 10 houses.
each house has around 60 students and
allotted one class room. The topper of each
house is the little leader of that house.
Each house is divided into two groups of around 30 children each. The topper of each
group is made the little teacher of that group.
Each group is subdivided into teams of 5 to 6 children. The topper of each team is the
captain of that team.

These houses/groups/teams are found to be heterogeneous (different levels, classes and


gender of children).
For each house there are 2 facilitators. These facilitators voluntarily rendered their
services in the camp. Some of them are professional teachers.
The main objectives of the camp are found to be reading and achieving the
minimum learning abilities of math through peer-learning and inculcating
leadership and organization skills.
Besides scholastics, students are also provided coscholastic activities like dancing, learning music,
instruments like key board, drums mridangam etc.,
karate, yoga and meditation and yogic posture
pyramids, folk dance, games etc.
Children are observed with a developed habit of sitting
in a place for 3 to 4 hours and solving problems.
Children are developed a habit of reading newspaper
and story books, each child read about 50 story books
on an average during the 40 day camp period.
Children are provided 120 minutes of reading activity either story books or daily news
paper. Every two children are given one news paper. Sakshi news paper has a special
student edition sakshi@school. The cost of each news paper is one rupee!
3 hours (3.45 pm to 6.45 pm) is given for physical and cultural activities i.e. drawing /
art/ craft, culture and game activities.
Children were participating cultural activities of their interest.
Children learned some skills group dancing in Kuchipudi, vocal singing, drawing,
Telangana folk dance, key board.
Yoga pyramid class was high light. children learned very difficult asana and
standing in yoga poses in pyramidal form.
A girl student (little leader in yoga) who has just completed her X std. from ZPHS,
Midgil conducted and trained a group of children.
Morning quick test was conducted and immediately little leaders and little teachers
valuated papers and announced marks.
The question paper consists of some logic and generalizations (for example
multiplication by 1 and 10 and 5 for different numbers were asked if a child
understand for a number then he transfers the same knowledge to another numbers
like 49, 50 and 51)
Children are asked basic arithmetic operation problems such as
1 is added 88 times?
1+1+1+ . 96 times

1 73 times
similar question are asked for 10, 100, 5, 50, 99, 101, 11, 9, 2, 20, 22, 12, 8, 18,
102, 98, 52, 48, 25, 75, 125, 103, 53, 97, etc.
Through questions in the test paper children are planted with the idea that
multiplication is nothing but repetitive addition.
Even though it appears to have only three operations addition, subtraction and
multiplication children become ready for division also.
Above questions are repeatedly asked so children will generalize and apply the
same knowledge in when they attempt other sheets
Level-1 quick tests are standard for the campus programmes, when a child gets
more than 80% and above are eligible to enter the MLA programme.
The same test is conducted in two levels. The duration of level-1 is 10 minutes
where as for the level-2, the duration is 6 minutes
In this regular practice a few children are completing 40 problems in 2 and half
minutes.
Children get to grip with the four fundamental operations which smooth the way to
numerical problems in worksheets.
When we conducted a test for 30 students who are chosen randomly got an average
of 19. 07. The average marks of the tests conducted on 24 th April; 20th May and
26 th May are 8.21; 17.37; 19.07 respectively. Comparing three scores the average
increased by 9.16 in 26 days and after a five days it is increased by 1.70
According to Aksharavanam office records
comparing pre-test conducted on 24th April and
20 th May the improvement was average
9.33(initial average was 6.78 and later average of
score was average 16.09) (Initially before joining
this programme average child has identified
abilities in mathematics were 6.78 but with an
effect of this programme child acquired 16.09
abilities)
On an average a child reads 55 story books in 45 days of programme (As per
observation of their office records)
Students are encouraged to correct answer sheets of other student (peer-evaluation).
All the test papers are of same standard and test the same abilities with different
numerical.
The material provided to students is in English language even children may be
studying in Telugu/English or any other media. It was observed as no barrier which
might be due to the limited usage of language to serve the purpose.

10

If a child faces any doubt or correction of a problem, immediately he/she is getting


instant help either asking by child himself or monitored by little teachers.
Organizers have taken much care by not letting the children mere copying of
solutions to their note book, children are also habituated for doing on their own and
discouraged of the copy of solutions as the little teachers and leader are available
for immediate help or discussion.

FINDINGS:
Children engagement
o

It is very much appreciable that Vandematharam foundation has taken major initiative in
developing minimum levels of learning.

All most all the children were sitting either in engaging doing problems or discussing
with group/little teacher/ leader/leaders.

All children were bending their back, keeping notebooks on their lap, writing solutions,
in columns (due to managing paper/notebook) this often one can observe in each room

They were engaged fully in the subject when they were doing math, in other classes like
art dance etc they forgot math and concentrating those co-curricular areas. This shows
they maintain multitudes in learning if they are given chance to perform

Many of the children who are in class X told if they had had this programme in their class
IX, it would have been very useful for them.

Influence of other factors


o

Inclusion of Co-curricular areas almost half a day


is influencing children much in learning math
actively.

Reading stories and singing songs by all are


influencing much on their confidence of learning
levels and even patriotism.

Elderly members, organizers, leaders and little


teachers were showing much concern in children learning giving them social security as
well as educational security.

Children are from different caste and district and religion, but they were feeling as one
and best friends. Cooperation, affection and team spirit concepts were clearly seen.

Shyness to ask doubts is not seen, group discussions and accepting others were seen in
many children.

11

Motivation for learner


o

Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are seen in


the children. Self-confidence when he/she is solving
problem was developing and seen that phobia of
math was lessening in children. There are no answer
cards or written answers anywhere, the decision of
group children whether answers is correct or not or
best answer from group is the only correct answer,
this type of situation is encouraging and motivating
the human potentiality but not from text book
answers.

There is a scope of doing previous cards to strengthen themselves for doing present cards.

When he/she is testing the similar questions with different numerical frequently,
understands the needy computational skills and selecting cards for which he did not
attained skills.

Styles of learning
o

Observed that some children were memorizing the process involved in computing
problems step by step. Sometime those were fading between or typical steps but as they
are being tested periodically for those skills with time they could appreciate the missing
or fading steps.

Some were taught skipped steps, they learn those


steps as granted there was no question or doubt on
steps immediately. But after attempting problem a
few children were asking their mistakes and how to
correct those but not reasons or concepts. Once they
get the confidence of solving, they probably look for
the reasons and concepts later.

Some children were not noticed the writing skills writing custom of mixed fractions,
additions in fractions etc., after period of time they could get the writing skills and adopt
to the required customs in the due course.

Some were maintaining order in the cards some are not, after period of time they could
notice that there is an order in the cards.

Even the problem is a little complex, children are doing it as normal even though there
were mistakes, child was not identifying or bothering about answers and following the
process- even some processes are not giving solution or some are not suitable process.
They are not hesitating but trying to solve the problem with impetus.

12

Styles of corrections
o

Some little leaders were doing the same problem in their notes and verify the answers
then explain the whole problem

Some were explaining where the child put a question, some were asking to do with the
other students, and some were asked to do the same problem on different note books.

When one interacting all were paying attention.

Styles of learning from corrections


o

Many were not doing the same problem after clarification from little
teachers/leaders/other group members.

As the students in group are doing different problems at their own pace, when one of
them is being clarified the doubts, others were busy in their practice silently and
undisturbed.

Little leaders/ little teachers were talking slowly, patiently and writing clearly on note
books.

Our interactions :
o

All the team members interacted with many different children in different rooms

Observed children doing problems, little leaders and little teachers in guiding and
teaching their group members.

General Findings
o

It is very much appreciable that Vandematharam foundation has taken major initiative in
developing minimum levels of learning which is a major prevailing hurdle in education.

Gathering 600 children at a place and creating a learning ambiance is nothing but lighting
a small lamp in the dark.

Every child was looked enjoying their work at


camp without any pressure.

It is appreciable that students with different


backgrounds (poor-rich, cast, Andhra-Telangana,)
have been gathered in the camp which optimizes
us that social harmony can be achieved through
education only.

It is found that students are allowed to read books with biographies, stories, essays,
science facts etc. which helps in inculcating and improving reading habits leading to
comprehension.

It is found that the number of books on an average read by students is 55.

13

Students are provided with work sheets with mathematical problems with 48 types of
computational abilities.

It is observed that students were practicing the worksheets on their own.

There is no immediate mechanism to correct the mistakes of the students in problem


solving while they are practicing. A student may have the presumption of learning which
would be rectified by the regular standard tests.

Some little teachers were observed to just confine to explaining the solution without any
discussion.

There is no proper checking whether the student has understood the explanation by his
fellow student.

It is again proved by interacting with Anjinaik and Anusha that discussing in mother
tongue gives more clear comprehension than discussing in other than mother tongue.

Though it is appreciable effort, this type of work alone wont develop logics in
mathematics.

Had the guidance of higher academic authorities taken, the results might be much better
than the present.

Suggestions for improvement


o

Only computing skill is taken as prima facie but reasoning for each step of computing is
essential for storing in long term memory even some time concepts also essential at least
after achievement of computation skill.

After completing one or more skills there is a need of review within the group, with little
teachers, with little leader and with some expert in math, otherwise the levels and
learning procedures may not be logic or
mathematisation may not be possible

Every time some research should be done


by building stories on learning
achievements of children. In this what
type of problems are catering to achieve
abilities, what and how the instructions are
passing from teachers to little leaders,
little leaders to little teachers, and little
teachers to the group may not be scientific
or may go sometimes wrong without control the absolute knowledge of math.

After achievement of computation skill, development of reasoning, concept development


there is a need to solve previous problems and create and share problem bank by the
student under the guidance of math expert (Mostly teacher, Teacher educator, or any
amateur group )

14

Reading text book on the group of computational problem is essential because of


understanding mathematical language to do new problems from text book is needed to
add in the programme.

Geometry especially constructions, axioms and basic verification of theorems and based
on these problems may be given to practice. Geometry is neglected in this programme.

Mathematics is full of Reasoning and logic. Without these logic and reasoning learning
math become rote memory learning, this may not help in long run process because in
math many typical areas are there.

There is a need to analyze the instructions are being given to children at various level,
from teacher to leader etc.,

Sometimes processes are very lengthy so they can be crumbled and scaled and after
achieving parts can be learn whole.

Table.1: showing the description of statistics of 30 students selected by SCERT team for test conducted
on 26th May 2016, by random and comparing with baseline test and learning achievement test on
minimum abilities (prescribed by Aksharavanam).
Statistics
class

Valid

BASE_LINE_TEST_24AP

LAT_AKSHARA_20MA

RIL2016

Y_2016

SCERT_LAT_26MAY_2016

30

30

30

30

7.93

17.37

19.07

1.095

1.084

1.106

6.50

18.00

19.00

19

6.000

5.939

6.057

Skewness

.748

-.292

-.228

Std. Error of Skewness

.427

.427

.427

Kurtosis

-.206

-.598

-.059

Std. Error of Kurtosis

.833

.833

.833

22

23

23

Minimum

Maximum

22

27

29

N
Missing
Mean
Std. Error of Mean
Median
Mode
Std. Deviation

Range

10

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

The table.1 shows that the comparison of three tests conducted for SCERT selected 30 students.
The tests are 1. Base line (conducted on 24th April, 2016 by Akshravanam; LAT conducted on
20 th May 2016 by Aksharavanam; Test conducted by SCERT group on 26 th May 2016. The
15

same candidates who are chosen by SCERT group were asked to provide their test results for the
same students in base line and LAT. Three were compared by descriptive statistics.
The mean is high in the test conducted by SCERT. Almost 11 abilities were achieved
more from baseline test in a month (duration between baseline and test conducted by SCERT
group). It is significant to observe the standard deviation is more or less same between base line
and after a month. This shows that some children who may not near to Average are same for
baseline and SCERT conducted test average. The standard error of mean is also same for three
tests. Mode score is increased in each test can observe a graduation (3, 10, 19) shows that the
number achievers are increased at every level of test. The number of average achievers are more
19 at final or latest test who conducted by SCERT.
The Skewness is positive in baseline test and remaining other tests is negative and
decreasing, this shows that achieving abilities are increasing at every level of test. The minimum
of abilities achievers are increased (0, 4, 6) and maximum of abilities of achievers are also
(22, 27, 29) are also increased.
Table.2 : showing the frequency of classes (VII to X) studying of 30 students, selected by SCERT team
for test conducted on 26 th May 2016, by random and comparing with baseline test and learning
achievement test on minimum abilities (prescribed by Akshravanam).
Class

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Valid

IX

26.7

26.7

26.7

VII

23.3

23.3

50.0

VIII

10

33.3

33.3

83.3

16.7

16.7

100.0

30

100.0

100.0

X
Total

The table.2 above tells that the 30students were selected randomly from 600 distributed in the
classes studying are VII to X. No of elementary students (VII and VIII classes) selected are 17
and high school students selected are 13.

16

Table.3 : showing the frequency of abilities of 30 students were undergone the Base line test on 24 th
April 2016, binned as Average abilities were 7.93 and standard deviation is 6 abilities.
BASE_LINE_TEST_24APRIL2016 (Binned) Mean=7.93 abilities and SD =6 Total abilities =50

Abilities

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Valid

<= 2

13.3

13.3

13.3

38

13

43.3

43.3

56.7

9 14

23.3

23.3

80.0

15+

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

30

100.0

100.0

Above table.3 shows that on 24 th April 2016 Aksharavanam organizers conducted a test for all
600 children. Among these children SCERT selected randomly 30 students for their test and
comparing with LAT test which conducted by Aksharavanam organizers. These 30 children
achieved an average of 7.93 abilities with a standard deviation of 6 abilities among 50 abilities.
All these 30 students are made three groups in above table such as below average, average and
above average abilities achieved children. The criteria taken is the first group is one mean minus
of one standard deviation, Mean and one mean plus one standard deviation. Above table can find
low achievers were only four and average 7.93 and high achievers with 6. That is Six students
achieved 15 or more abilities. 20 are achieved 3 to 14 abilities and four are achieved below 2
abilities.
Table.4 : showing the frequency of abilities of 30 students were undergone the Base line test on 24 th
April 2016, binned as Average abilities were 17.37 and standard deviation is 18 abilities.
LAT_AKSHARA_20MAY_2016 (Binned)Average abilities = 17.37, SD=18 abilities out of 50 abilities

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative
Percent

Valid

<= 11

20.0

20.0

20.0

12 17

26.7

26.7

46.7

18 23

10

33.3

33.3

80.0

24+

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

30

100.0

100.0

Above table.4 shows that on 20th May 2016 Aksharavanam organizers conducted a test for all 600
children. Among these children SCERT selected randomly 30 students for their test and comparing with

17

LAT test which conducted by Aksharavanam organizers. These 30 children achieved an average of 17.37
abilities with a standard deviation of 18 abilities among 50 abilities.
All these 30 students are made three groups in above table such as below average, average and above
average abilities achieved children. The criteria taken is the first group is one mean minus of one standard
deviation, Mean and one mean plus one standard deviation. Above table can find low achievers were only
six and average 18 and high achievers are with 6 . Six students achieved 24 or more abilities. 18 are
achieved 12 to 23 abilities and six are achieved below 11 abilities.

Table.5 : showing the frequency of abilities of 30 students were undergone the Base line test on 24 th
April 2016, binned as Average abilities were 19.07 and standard deviation is 19 abilities.
Sl. No

Groups

Groups

or Binn
<= 13

Criteria for

frequency

Frequency

Percent

group
Below
Average

Mean 1 SD

Cumulative
Percent

13.3

13.3

13

43.3

56.7

14 19

Average

Mean

20 25

Average

(14 - 25 )

22

30.0

86.7

Mean + 1 SD

13.3

100.0

30

30

100.0

26+
Total

Above
Average

The above table divulges that the number of abilities achieved by the students are binned
as per the mean 19.07 of achieving abilities with standard deviation of 19 abilities. Total abilities
were 50. 30 students were made into three groups as per their achieving abilities. The first group
is below average group- that is this group of student achieved below the number abilities of
average 19.07 is only 4 in number students. The second group and third group are called as
average group, 22 students are achieved between 14 to 25 abilities. Finally the third group is
above average group who achieved 26 and above abilities, such students are only 4 among 30
children.
Little teacher are taken from middle or average group and leaders are taken from above
average.

18

Table.6 : showing the frequency of abilities of 30 students were undergone the Base line test on 24 th
April 2016, binned as Average abilities were 7.93 and standard deviation is 6 abilities .
Paired Samples Correlations
N
Pair 1

Pair 2

BASE_LINE_TEST_24APRIL2016 &
LAT_AKSHARA_20MAY_2016
LAT_AKSHARA_20MAY_2016 &

Correlation

Sig.

30

.613

.000

30

.863

.000

30

.624

.000

SCERT_LAT_26MAY_2016
Pair 3

BASE_LINE_TEST_24APRIL2016 &
SCERT_LAT_26MAY_2016

Above table.6 reveals that there is a positive and significant level of correlation at 95% between
two test for three pairs.
The achievement of abilities are tested the same child in three tests- initial test as
baseline, later for 26 days another test and after 6 days another test conducted by SCERT.
High positive correlation is there between LAT and test conducted by SCERT. This means 86%
of the children achieved same number of abilities in LAT and test conducted by SCERT.

19

Table.7 : showing the t-Ratio test for three pairs of tests for 30 students who were undergone the
Base line test on 24th April 2016, Learning Achievement Test and SCERT conducted test
Paired Samples Test
Three pairs of tests
1.

Baseline Vs LAT

2.

LAT

3.

Paired Differences
Mean

Vs test

Std.
Deviation

Coef.

Std.

95% Confidence

Of

Error

Interval of the

conducted by SCERT

varia

Mean

Difference

Baseline Vs SCERT

blity

Lower

-55.7

.959 -11.394

df

Sig.
(2-tailed)

Upper

BASE_LINE_TEST_
Pair 1

24APRIL2016 LAT_AKSHARA_20

-9.433

5.250

-7.473

-9.841

29

.000

-1.700

3.142 -184.5

.574

-2.873

-.527

-2.963

29

.006

5.231

.955 -13.087

-9.180

-11.658

29

.000

MAY_2016
LAT_AKSHARA_20
Pair 2

MAY_2016 SCERT_LAT_26MA
Y_2016
BASE_LINE_TEST_

Pair 3

24APRIL2016 SCERT_LAT_26MA

-11.133

-47.0

Y_2016

Above table.7 shows that the difference of mean is negative in all three pairs. By consolidating
three pairs the mean is increased from Baseline to LAT to test which SCERT conducted. Significantly
there is an increase of 9.433 abilities from baseline to LAT and only 1.7 abilities from LAT to test
conducted by SCERT. This may because of the period of days are less in between LAT and Test
conducted by SCERT (only 5 days) and the difference days between baseline to LAT is nearly 26 days.

The difference of standard deviation is low in pair two. The all scores of achieving of
abilities are near to average achievement of abilities comparing with pair one and pair two. The
scores are scattered from differences mean in pair two than pair one and three.
The value of t-ratio is low in pair at degree of freedom 29 is low and negative for pair
two with significant difference is 0.006 at 95% of confidence level. And there is a high
significant difference at 95% of confidence level in Pairs one and three.

Consolidating the table

shows that there is significant differences in three pairs of test, this mean there is significant difference
among achieving abilities. And showing the negative value that increase of abilities from baseline to LAT
and test conducted by SCERT.

20

Table.8 Showing story books read by the 30 children selected by the SCERT for the study
Statistics
Story books read by the student
Valid

30

N
Missing

Mean

51.1667

Median

42.5000

Mode
Std. Deviation

60.00
25.08617

Skewness

.557

Std. Error of Skewness

.427

Range

94.00

Minimum

12.00

Maximum

106.00

Table.9 showing the correlation between reading story books and achieving minimum
mathematical abilities
Correlations

Pearson Correlation

Story books read

SCERT_LAT_26

by the student

MAY_2016
1

Story books read by the student Sig. (2-tailed)


N
Pearson Correlation
SCERT_LAT_26MAY_2016

Sig. (2-tailed)
N

-.296
.112

30

30

-.296

.112
30

30

The above tables shows that there is negative relation between reading stories and
achieving minimum learning abilities in mathematics.
Possible hypothesis for the studies are
1. There are no computational skill stories in the story books
2. There are no logical thinking or mathematical language/language based contextual
mathematical problems in practice. Hence both activities may not have any relation.

21

Effectiveness of this model and possible up scaling

This is the model proved to be effective in addressing multi grade and multi level
situations of the classroom with the help of the co-students.
The approach of group learning i.e. mixed group with children of different abilities
supported with two Little Teachers who are relatively better in the academics leads to
learning through child to child. One Group Leader for 3 or 4 groups who clarifies the
doubts and supports the Little Teachers who in turn supports the students in the group.
This model is totally a self learning model with the support of co-students. Certain
incentives are being provided to the Little Teachers and Group Leaders for making the
students learn the concepts and developing computation abilities.
Children themselves compute the problems with mutual discussions and arguments with
lot of space for thinking and expression. A very democratic way of consultations in
solving the problems.
There is no copying and repeated solving of the same problem. Every time a sheet with
new problems on the same concept is being provided for the practice and solving.
The entire focus on the practice of arithmetic and algebra is on 7 areas with 50 abilities.
Work sheets have been provided for the practice for each ability so that the students will
master in each ability which facilitate them for solving of similar problems pertaining to
that ability.
The 40 days camp empowered the children with confidence in solving Mathematics
problems in major areas covering School Education syllabus. The Maths phobia being
observed in all the schools has been addressed.
There is a rich engagement of students in all curricular and co-curricular areas which is a
holistic approach for the development of the students. The daily routine starts with a
quick test in arithmetic followed by PT, Yoga etc.
The camp promoted language abilities among the children by way of separate sessions on
book reading. The foundation collected lot of children literature and books are issued to
children and they exchange among themselves. Every student read about 40 and more
books on an average during the camp period. Every student holds a story book with them
all the day. There is a provision for reading newspapers in the afternoon. Three sessions
22

have been with different time slots have been provided for book reading in addition to
newspaper reading during afternoon. This catalyzed interest among the children on
reading and helped them to develop reading habits.
The entire evening session is being focused on the co-curricular activities. Children are
participating in various type of art and cultural activities. About 13 different activities
where children are involved based on their interest. This created an interesting and
emotional climate in the camp.
The camp facilitated for the development of cooperative culture, solving the problems in
a collaborative way and made every child for taking responsibility and they are enjoying
the camp.
The Group Leaders and Little Teachers who supported the group to solve the
Mathematical problems are now confident that they can take up similar supportive
activities in their schools and do away the fear of Mathematics among the students in
their schools.
They are also confident that they can promote the activities of art, craft, theatre, music,
dance, games, singing, drawing, painting etc. in their schools.
The camp promoted leadership qualities among the children and several children evolved
as confident leaders with a positive approach that they take up these initiatives in their
school.

23

Possible adoption of the model from Vandematharam Foundation in the


Government Schools and elsewhere
This innovative model of developing arithmetic skills among children has been evolved
with continuous practice based ideas and try out in the classrooms in order to find out a
way out to do away with Maths phobia and building confidence among school children.
The passion and commitment of the persons behind this programme for searching new
pedagogies and evolving innovative models and their implementation is quite
appreciable.
This is a proven model to address multi grade and multi level situations being prevailed
in the Government Schools where children will be supported through peer students. This
also a way out in case of Teacher absenteeism and Teachers on long leave.
This is a proved pilot for developing basic required Mathematics computational skills
with the evolved work sheets, practicing sheets. The same material may be used in the
Government Schools to improve the computational abilities among the children.
The programme may be started immediately after reopening of schools duly using the
students who attended these camps. Their services may be used as Little Teachers and
Group Leaders.
Some awareness programme may be conducted for the Teachers on this model with the
help of Vandematharam Foundation at selected venues.
The model which proven effective for developing reading habits and language abilities
through story books may be adopted. The children literature may be supplied to schools
and school libraries may be strengthened. The children manage issue and collection of the
library books. The children literature developed under SSA through DIETs may be
replicated and provided to schools.
The co-curricular activities i.e. of art, craft, theatre, music, games, singing, drawing,
dance, painting etc. may be implemented in our schools. The children who have
participated in the camp may act as Leaders to practice these programmes. Further, the
Art & Craft Instructors being working in the schools under SSA may be given training at
Akshara Vanam to take up the similar activities in our schools. The Bala Sabha
programme where children play their talents in different co-curricular areas in the schools
on every Saturday (03.00 to 05.00 PM) may be conducted on a regular basis.
24

The Vandematharam Foundation may be requested to conduct similar type of camps in


every District with the participation of Government School children and one Teacher per
each school.
The Department may conduct appropriate research studies for further improvement of
this model extending to other subjects. The faculty of Teacher Education Institutions may
be involved in such innovative programmes including conduct of research in a continuous
way.
The persons behind evolving this innovative practices for improved learning and building
children confidence, bring out latent potentialities of the children and building passion
towards academics among children is quite appreciable.

25

Practices :

Minimum Learning Abilities in Mathematics

26

@@@@@

27

ANNEXURES
Annexure-I:
Vandemataram Educational Research and Training Centre Aksharavanam, Kalwakurthy,
Mahabubnagar district, "Little Leaders - Little Teachers" Orientation Program in association
with District Administration, Mahabubnagar District
21 April - 31 May, 2016 LAT-2 for a sample of 30 students picked up randomly and
conducted by Study Group from SCERT, Telangana, Hyderabad.

S.No. ID NO Name of the Student Class

24-Apr-16

20-May-16

26-May-16

BLT

LAT-1

LAT-2

No. of books
Read

10615 Shiva Kumar.D

VIII

24

24

85

10125 Shyamala.M

VIII

18

22

31

20560 Bhavani.M

IX

18

16

45

20767 Shiva.B

VII

11

17

19

12

10904 Tharun.K

IX

12

27

29

57

10308 Shravani.L

IX

20

20

60

20146 Meenakshi.K

20

19

70

20754 Madhavi.B

VIII

19

19

36

20149 Prashanthi.R

VIII

12

14

35

10

10924 Jagan Naik.K

VII

14

19

85

11

20751 Manikanta.K

VIII

16

14

83

12

10220 Divya.B

VII

15

19

106

13

20553 Sana.SK

IX

14

24

23

31

14

21054 Raj Kumar.J

VII

10

98

15

10411 Jyothi.V

VII

16

17

20

16

20138 Sushmitha.N

17

25

22

30

17

20740 Vinay Goud.E

VII

11

19

21

40

28

S.No. ID NO Name of the Student Class

24-Apr-16

20-May-16

26-May-16

BLT

LAT-1

LAT-2

No. of books
Read

18

21037 Gnaneshwar.K

IX

14

22

22

30

19

10418 Anitha.B

VIII

10

15

62

20

10414 Sowjanya.A

IX

19

60

21

11007 Naveen Kumar.K

IX

17

15

50

22

20543 Shireesha.P

VIII

12

17

20

23

20241 Akhila.D

22

26

29

40

24

20752 Krishnaveni.G

VII

11

28

25

10421 Meena.N

80

26

10410 Parvathi.P

10

10

60

27

20436 Jyoshna.A

VIII

19

21

24

32

28

20939 Jaya Surya.J

VIII

19

20

29

37

29

20849 Anil Yadav.N

IX

21

22

79

30

20852 Saritha.S

VIII

11

26

29

33

8.21

17.37

19.07

51.17

BLT - Base Line Test

LAT - Latest Assessment Test

29

Annexure-II:

Cumulative Record Sheet

30

Annexure-III: Ability wise worksheet

31

Annexure-IV: Ability wise worksheet

32

Annexure-V:

33