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Media Terminology

Media Planning - A series of decisions involving the delivery of messages to


Media Objectives - Goals to be attained by the media strategy and program.

Media Strategy - Decisions on how the media objectives can be attained.

Media - The various categories of delivery systems, including broadcast and print media
and others.

Broadcast Media - Either radio or television network or local station broadcasts.

Print Media - Publications such as newspapers and magazines.

Media Vehicle - The specific message carrier

Coverage - The potential audience that might receive the message through the vehicle.

Reach - The actual number of individual audience members reached at least once by
the vehicle in a given period of time.

Frequency - The number of times the receiver is exposed to vehicle in a specific time

Media Plan

Determines the best way to get the advertiser message to the market

– The goal of the media plan is to find a combination of media that will enable the
marketer to communicate the message in the most effective manner possible at
minimum cost.
– Problems in Media Planning
– Lack of information
– Inconsistent terms
– Serious time pressure
– Measurement problems

Activities Involved in Developing the Media Plan

Developing the Media Plan

– Analyze the Market

– Establish Media Objectives
– Develop Media Strategy
– Implement Media Strategy
– Evaluate Performance

Market analysis and target market identification

– To Whom Should We Advertise?

– What Internal and External Factors May Be Operating?


– Media Budget
– Managerial & Administrative capabilities
– Organizational Structure


– Economy
– Changing Technology
– Competitive Factors

Where to Promote?
Establishing Media Objectives

– Media objectives relate to the goals to be attained by the media program, and as
such should be limited to those that can be accomplished through media
– Such objectives are often expressed in terms of coverage, reach, frequency,
scheduling, etc.

An example of media objectives;

Create awareness in the target market through the following:

– Use broadcast media to provide coverage of 80% of the target market over a six
month period
– Reach 60% of the target audience at least three times over the same six month
– Concentrate heaviest advertising in winter and spring, with lighter emphasis in
summer and fall

Developing & Implementing Media Strategies

– The media mix

– Target market coverage
– Geographic coverage
– Scheduling
– Reach versus frequency
– Creative aspects and mood
– Flexibility
– Budget considerations

Media Planning Criteria Considerations

– Geographic coverage
– The media mix

• Target market coverage

Target Audience Coverage

Three Scheduling Methods

– Continuity refers to a continuous pattern of advertising—that is every day, week,

or month (food products, laundry detergents, etc.)

– Flighting is a scheduling method in which there are intermittent periods of

advertising and no advertising (snow skis, etc.)

– Pulsing is actually a combination of the two previous methods, in which a

continuous schedule is used, though the amount of monies spent will vary
throughout the time period (automobiles).
Reach and Frequency

The actual number of individual audience members reached at least once by the

Use Reach

To express a whole number or percentage of different people actually exposed only

once to a media vehicle to combination of vehicles.

– Example: Television program X reaches 9 million men aged 18-34 within a four-
week period.
– Example: Magazine Y has a reach of 25 percent of men aged 18-34 with an
average issue.


The number of times the receiver is exposed to vehicle in a specific time period.

Factors to be considered regarding Reach and Frequency:

– The determination of what levels of reach and frequency are needed

– The establishment of reach and frequency objectives
– Using gross ratings points (GRP's)
– The determination of effective reach (the percent of the audience reached at
each effective frequency increment)

GRP (Gross Rating Point)

– The Media buyer typically uses a numerical indicator to know how many potential
audience members may be exposed to a series of commercials.

– A summary measure that combines the program rating and the average no. of
times the home is reached during this period (frequency of exposure) is a
commonly used reference point known as Gross Rating Points.

GRP = Reach X Frequency


As a % of the target audience population.

Effects of Reach and Frequency

– One exposure of an ad to a target group within a purchase cycle has little or no

effect in most circumstances.
– Since one exposure is usually ineffective, the central goal of productive media
planning should be to enhance frequency rather than reach.
– The evidence suggests strongly that an exposure frequency of two within a
purchase cycle is an effective level.
– Beyond three exposures within a brand purchase cycle or over a period of four or
even eight weeks, increasing frequency continues to build advertising
effectiveness at a decreasing rate but with no evidence of decline.
– Although there are general principles with respect to frequency of exposure and
its relationship to advertising effectiveness, differential effects by brand are
equally important
– Frequency response principles or generalizations do not vary by medium.
– The data strongly suggest that wear out is not a function of too much frequency.
It is more of a creative or copy problem.

Marketing Factors Important to Determining Frequency

– Brand history
– Brand share
– Brand loyalty
– Purchase cycles
– Usage cycle
– Competitive share of voice
– Target group

Message or Creative Factors Important to Determining Frequency

– Message complexity
– Message uniqueness
– New vs. continuing campaigns
– Image versus product sell
– Message variation
– Advertising Units

Media Factors Important to Determining Frequency

– Clutter
– Editorial environment
– Attentiveness
– Scheduling
– Number of media used
– Repeat Exposures

Creative Aspects and Mood

– Creative aspects of the ad may require the use of specific media.

– For example, television may be required to implement certain types of creative


– Likewise, the mood that a medium creates may carry over to the ad itself. For
example, certain magazines may create various moods as they are being read

The media strategy must be flexible enough to respond to marketing threats and
opportunities, as well as to adjust for changes regarding availability and/or in the media

Flexibility may need to address the following:

– market opportunities
– market threats
– availability of media
– changes in media or media vehicles

Budget Considerations

Budget Considerations—it is obvious that costs must be considered in the determination

as to which media will be employed.

Two types of costs must be addressed:

– absolute cost—which is the actual cost to place the ad in the medium.

– relative cost—or the relationship between the price paid for advertising time or
space and the size of the audience delivered.

Determining Relative Cost of Media

Evaluation and Follow Up

Essentially, two questions need to be answered:

– How well did these strategies perform the media objectives established ?
– How well did this media plan contribute to the attainment of the overall marketing
and communications objectives?

Television Characteristics


– Mass coverage
– High reach
– Impact of sight, sound, and motion
– High prestige
– Low cost per exposure
– Attention getting
– Favorable image


– Low selectivity
– Short message life
– High absolute cost
– High production costs
– Clutter

Radio Characteristics


– Local coverage
– Low cost
– High frequency
– Flexible
– Low production costs
– Well-segmented audiences

– Audio only
– Clutter
– Low attention getting
– Fleeting message

Magazines Characteristics


– Segmentation potential
– Quality reproduction
– High information content
– Longevity
– Multiple readers


– Long lead time for ad placement

– Visual only
– Lack of flexibility

Newspapers Characteristics


– High coverage
– Low cost
– Short lead time for placing ads
– Ads can placed in interest sections
– Timely (current ads)
– Reader controls exposure
– Can be used for coupons


– Short life
– Clutter
– Low attention-getting capabilities
– Poor reproduction quality
– Selective reader exposure
Outdoor Characteristics


– Location specific
– High resolution
– Easily noticed


– Short exposure time requires short ad

– Poor image
– Local restrictions

Internet / Interactive Media Characteristics


– User selects product information

– User attention and involvement
– Interactive relationship
– Direct selling potential
– Flexible message platform


– Limited creative capabilities

– Web snarl (crowded access)
– Technology limitations
– Few valid measurement techniques
– Limited reach
Case Study


PTML, a 100% owned subsidiary of PTCL was established to operate cellular GSM 900
services. The company commenced its operations, under the brand name of Ufone,
from Islamabad on January 29, 2001. Ufone expanded its coverage and has added new
cities and highways to its coverage network. Ufone now covers over 100 key cities and
prominent highways across Pakistan providing the customers best quality service and
value for money.
With a total current investment of over $350 Million, including a recent contract of $161
Million for expansion & capacity for 2004-05, PTML believes in solid commitment to
growth, security & reliability. Currently, with a market share of over 24%, and an
aggressive commercial plan, the customer base has more than tripled from the last
fiscal year to over 4.5 million subscribers.


Ufone takes pride in setting standards through market initiatives and is the first cellular
company in Pakistan to:
− Offer real value for money packages
− Introduce 6 months free incoming
− Offer 32k Power SIM
− Start GPRS / MMS / WAP Data services
− Offer Real VPN System for corporate clientele


Ufone is the only GSM Operator with 2.5G GPRS service, which is the .next generation.
technology and offers:
− High Speed Data Services through Your Ufone
− WAP Data Services
− Multi-Media Messaging Service (MMS)
− First Class Customized Data & Voice Solutions for our clients including Mobile Office.
Services offered

Value Added Services

U-tunes U-share
Awaz SMS U-loan
U-talk Song dedication
SMS bundle offer. BackGround Music

Land vs. Cellular:
The number of PTCL subscribers stand at a sheer 4.5 million, where as, there are 6.13
million users in Pakistan who seize mobile phone connections. It is to notice that it took
landline phones fifty years to get to that level and just ten years for the cellular phones
to surpass that figure. The country’s tele-density of mobile phones had risen to over
4.56% as compared to fixed line which stands roughly at 3%. Pakistan now has a fixed-
line telephone penetration of 2.7 telephone lines per 100 people. According to Pakistan
Telecommunication Authority (PTA) mobile phones surpassed over four million land
based telephones as mobile phone subscribers number increased from 6 million to 20
million by the end of 2005 and is expected to rise upto 35-40 million by the end of 2006.
Postpaid vs. Prepaid:
The share of post paid segment in the cellular subscriber base has declined sharply, in
terms of percentage, over the last couple of years as against the prepaid segment thus
reducing revenue per connection for the companies. Figures available with Pakistan
Telecommunication Authority (PTA) shows that the prepaid connections introduced in
the country have reached to 3.3 million subscribers compared to less than three
hundred thousand high value post paid segment. Pakistani citizens are more familiar
with the prepaid packages as they are reasonable and very convenient to use.
Expected Customer Base:
According to Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA), the cellular mobile phone
culture is rapidly growing in Pakistan, as the number of cell phone users has increased
at a high rate during last two years. The total number of cell phone subscribers was 2.4
million on June 30, 2003, while it has crossed the level of 6.7 million by the end of 2004
and 20 million by the end of 2005.The mobile phone consumers are expected to reach a
level of 30 million by the end of 2006.


The advertising strategy is:
− To built a corporate identity for Ufone
− Implement corporate advertising
− Establish goodwill for the firm and its products
− To be perceived not only as a telecommunication operator of voice services,
but also as a universal provider of comprehensive communications services for both
residential and business customers.
Ufone’s corporate identity will reflect:
− Passion to lead
− Eagerness to adapt new trends in technology
− Taking care of others
− Taking interest in solving social issues of public importance
− Serving the community
− Serving to communicate

‘U’ CREATIVE PLAN for 2008

This creative theme is focused to ignite strong emotional appeal in the mind of
and create a positive feeling for the brand using love as relevance, feelings as originality
and impact the consumers by conveying the idea that words and expressions make
relationships stronger.
The Ad shows a beautiful day with cloudy weather and then focuses on a luxurious
house. The door bell rings and a young girl open the door and she was surprised to find
no one at the door. She looks here and there and finds no one outside but as she was
closing the door she sees a gift with some fresh red roses lying down at the door steps.
She picks up the gift and the roses with a surprised look. She was caught by
astonishment as she finds that the gift and roses are from her fiancée. With a sweet
smile she takes the gift inside in her room and un-wraps it. The gift was wrapped in
Orange & Green paper and when she opens it up. She finds a cute stuffed teddy bear
and a card saying ‘I love u’.
The girl hugs the teddy bear with love and immediately calls her fiancée on his cell (As
she calls him, the background shows their engagement snaps on the wall), she then
calls her fiancée and says ’I love u’.
The u-fone music starts and ends with the tag line
“Everybody loves to, U-fone prepay”

This creative theme is to induce likeability and tempt the .young at hearts. on the
excitement and fun platform using entertainment as relevance, friendship and closeness
as originality and socializing in everyday life and living life to its fullest to impact the
consumers, conveying them the idea that Ufone unites them to have fun and brings
together at a single platform.
The Ad shows a group of friends sitting together in a bowling area, some enjoying the
game and others watching their friends having fun.
The next scene shows them leaving in their cars and waving each other good bye and
indicating to stay in touch symbolizing through their hands.
The next scene shows different frames having different locations, workplace, college,
gym, terrace where these people are busy in their life routines and the cell phone rings.
The frame shows all of them talking to each other on their cell having gossips and a
good laugh. Then all of them get into their cars and meet at the same bowling place.
The folks are enjoying themselves in the game as shown in the first scene. Then they all
form a U and then facing towards the sky they say in a loud voice:
“There would be no us without u”
The U-fone music starts and ends with the tag line
“Everybody loves to, U-fone prepay”
This theme will be used with a 360 degree approach to build the corporate image and
identity of Ufone and to create top of the mind awareness and break through the clutter.
This creative theme relates to all age groups and focuses on increasing brand
recognition among all ages. Making consumers feel important through relevance.
Showing Respect, credibility and trustworthiness as originality of the company and
showing care and individual slogans to reinforce passion and impact everyone.
The Ad shows different personalities saying slogans:
The right choice is U
I have Confidence in U
U understands me
All eyes on U
With U there is an always brighter day
U is the reason for all that I do, U is the reason to start over new
U brings piece of mind
I love U
U cares
In the end the ad shows Ufone employees saying together: “No Us without U”.

This creative theme is for out of home advertising at shopping malls, activity places,
Ufone franchises, service centers, universities, colleges, concerts game shows, national
& international events such as world cup, Olympics, 23rd March, 14th August, 6th
September and basant festivals to increase top of the mind awareness and
communicate Ufones loyalty with Pakistan. Create relevance through associations.
Communication as originality of the company and create impact with the motive of
serving to communicate
These slogans will be printed on T-shirts and P-caps for Ufone employees and will be
provided to consumers on event shows. Further a large number of stickers, posters,
banners and bill boards will be placed all across the country at consumer touch points
(Point of sales, Franchises, Services Centers, Colleges, Universities, Shopping Malls,
Airports, Railway Stations, Main Shahrahs and motor ways) highlighting these slogans
to increase awareness and recognition.
− On your marks, Get Set, U
− Coming to a cell near U
− Can U hear me now
− The only thing that looks good on me is U
− Upgrade your phone. to Ufone!
− Thank U for ringing!
− Can U-fone me now?
− Get your U driving license
− Someone somewhere is always thinking of U
This creative theme is focused on old age people and people who are not easy with
technology. This ad creates awareness among people who have difficulty in using cell
phones. Introducing these traditional land line / hand set users (the typical Nanis and
Dadis) a new trend which communicates Ufone as a universal provider of
comprehensive communications services which would serve as relevance, the U-fone
traditional handset accessory as originality and the ease of being mobile to impact and
validate that what they need is available everywhere by the courtesy of Ufone.

The ad shows an old lady (Nani) having habitual gossips on the telephone, about the
hot weather, the kids and then the typical Khawateen stuff.
Giving the impression of a Nani Jaan.s every day slice of life. The next scene then
shows the message “Some things U Can’t Change’, communicating the humor
element and an emotional attachment to those who like such talks.
The next scene then shows the receiver and then the focus moves towards the
traditional handset which to utmost surprise turns out to be a cell phone.
The next scene then shows the receiver and the cell phone together communicating the
message from Ufone .Just the way U like it. and then focuses on Nani who enjoyably
says .Ufone sab say Acha hay.. The ad then ends with the musical validation of Nani.s
message .Ye to Janay Dunya Sari.. The background shows Ufones logo with the
slogan, .We love U..

This creative theme is focused on people of all ages and all walks of life who seem
enjoying life. This ad will endorse the Ufone-Promise via the happiness and zeal its
consumers. Creating relevance showing U, the actual consumers which is possibly
anyone who falls within the Ufone.s target audience prototype, the originality is happy
moments in life and the impact is happiness, sweet memories.
The ad starts with an old fashioned and melodious song which continues throughout the
whole ad. The lyrics are:
Haal kaisa hay Janaab Ka
Kya khayal hay Aap Ka
Tum to machal gaye O O O
Yunhi phisal gaye Aa Aa Aa
The Ad shows U-users, all age groups, all happy, all having fun and enjoying life in their
own way. Different pictures from different lifestyles and different places all depicting
one message, the consumers endorsing Ufone’s brand promise “No Us without U”
In the end, Ufone’s proud message dictating its position to competitors and thanking all
It’s consumers by the message, “3 Million Customers, U Did It!..”
The ad then ends with
Ufones logo in white background with the slogan, .We love U..


The communication goals for Ufone Advertising Campaign and its creative strategy are
to communicate:
− Ufone as a WANT of every cell fone user
− Ufone for all age groups
− Ufone.s emotional benefits and appeal
− Ufone as a universal provider of comprehensive communications services for all
business and non business consumers.
− Ufone.s Corporate Identity
− Ufone as a Caring person, serving the community and serving to communicate
− Ufone.s brand / product differentiation and uniqueness
− Ufone.s new brand dimensions (Passion, Young at hearts, Hip, Trendy etc)
− Communicate Ufone.s Elegance, Respect, Credibility, Trustworthiness and Likeability
of a leader

U-Media Plan
Launch Nation-wide promotion campaign on local and national television. Ufone
consumers will be called randomly on their cell numbers
One show every week will be broadcasted and four consumers (any age group) from
each province will be invited to the .U-Wish. show, a place where wishes will be granted
for one day.
These consumers will than validate others for trial of the product and act as brand
ambassadors. Each consumer will be shown saying .Do U Wish!.. This will generate
volumes in terms of sales and bring Ufone to the .WANT category product platform for
all age groups.
Also the emotional benefits of the brand will be communicated in terms of a promise
that one day .Ufone will make their wishes come true..
TV commercial of our Creative Theme # 5 will be aired at regular intervals on other days
at the same timing when the U-wish Show is aired. The TVC will communicate the
message that .Ufone is for all ages. as shown in our tailored commercial.
For establishment of U.s corporate identity, caring and problem solving identity and to
communicate Ufone.s Elegance, Respect, Credibility, Trustworthiness and Likeability of
a leader Creative Theme # 3 & Creative Theme # 4 will be aired on TVs and also bill
boards showing Ufone employees saying “No Us without U” and other slogans as
shown in our Creative Theme # 3.
For market penetration Creative Theme # 4 will be used as a tool to ignite the U-appeal,
by making them feel the presence of U everywhere using slogans such as “On your
marks , Get set, U” and “Coming to a Cell near U” etc and visualize Ufone as a
universal provider of comprehensive communications services.


U-Sponsorship programs will be conducted at national and international events such as
World cup, Olympics, Basant and especially in the month of August celebrating
Independence. For this purpose U-fone Flags will be used as a communication tool in
order to establish the U.s loyalty towards Pakistan, U.s serving the community and
serving you communicate responsibility.

In order to achieve our marketing and media objectives and increase top of the mind
awareness of Ufone, a 360 Degree approach will be followed:

Using the Creative themes Television advertisements to be aired on local, network and
cable on channels such as PTV, Geo, Ary, Tensports, Starplus, Sony etc
.Ufone . All Eyes on U. Radio Broad Cast to be used as a major promotion channel
focusing FM channels as main platform as they have a high listener base and attract a
major portion of all ages.

Print ads and Newspaper Ads to be published in major newspapers and magazines
frequently which are of interest to all age groups to gain high readership. Series of print
ads every Sunday in Dawn / Jang / Daily Times using the Creative Themes especially
Connecting U slogans:
− The right choice is U,
− I have Confidence in U,
− U understands me,
− With U there is always brighter days,
− U is the reason for all that I do, U is the reason to start over new,
− All eyes on U
− There will be no Us without U
− U brings piece of mind


Out of homes advertising through hoardings and billboards, shop banners, events and
shows etc.
Set up stalls at various locations such as activity places, colleges and universities in
Karachi and similar places in Lahore and Islamabad, Faisalabad.
Handout Ufone T-shirts, P-caps and Car stickers highlighting these slogans to increase
awareness and recognition.

− On your marks, Get Set, U

− Coming to a cell near U
− Upgrade your phone. to Ufone!
− Thank U for ringing!
− Can U-fone me now?
− The only thing that looks good on me is U
− Get your U driving license
− Someone somewhere is always thinking of U

Visit rural areas for promotional campaigns and associate brand with village festival,
melas, URS of Sufis and other events and celebrations. Setup Ufone PCOs for free trial
near bus stands, meeting places, and at chaudhry.s autaaq .

• The billing and system of Ufone should be made more accurate with the acquisition of
new and improved equipment and machinery.
• The system of coverage would be made more powerful with the advanced in
technology, technology play a vital role in services.
• In the SMS bundle offer people have some objection that its validity should be more.
• Coverage should be made more accurate throughout the Pakistan like Mobilink.
• In order to make a competitive edge, they have made sure that all employees show
their brand. (According to an author, every one of you will make or break the promise
that our brand is for customers).
• Advertising should be made more attractive with stars.
• The exterior outlook and layout of franchises needs to be improved likewise of the
• Managers should be aware of the perceptions that are changing according to time.
• They have to go for sponsorship of leisure activities like in cricket, hockey, volleyball
• They have to develop the plans like to go for areas in which they have not yet
construct any booster.
• They have to give happy hours in any time of the day.
• They have to create an image of Ufone like .connecting people..