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RAMPUR HYDROPOWER PROJECT

IN HIMACHAL PRADESH, INDIA

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT &


MANAGEMENT PLAN

FINAL REPORT - JULY 2007

IMPLEMENTING AGENCY

SATLUJ JAL VIDYUT NIGAM LIMITED

Consolidated by: DHI (India) Water & Environment Pvt. Ltd.

List of Acronyms/Abbreviations
CA

Compensatory Afforestation

CAT

Catchment Area Treatment

CEA

Central Electricity Authority

CPCB

Central Pollution Control Board

cumec

Cubic metre per second

DPR

Detailed Project Report

EA/EMP

Environmental Assessment and Environmental Management Plan

EPP

Emergency Preparedness Plan

EIA

Environmental Impact Assessment

GoHP

Government of Himachal Pradesh

GOI

Government of India

HPSPCB

Himachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board

HRT

Head Race Tunnel

ITIs

Industrial Training Institutes

LADC

Local Area Development Committee

MoEF

Ministry of Environment and Forests

MOU

Memorandum of Understanding

NJHEP

Nathpa-Jhakri Hydro Electric Power Project

O&M

Operations and Maintenance

PAPs

Project Affected Persons

PFRs

Preliminary Feasibility Reports

PIA

Project Influence Areas

PIIA

Project Immediate Influence Areas

PIC

Public Information Centre

RAP

Resettlement Action Plan

RHEP

Rampur Hydro Electric Project

SA

Social Impact Assessment

SCDP

Sustainable Community Development Program

SJVNL

Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited

1 US$ = INR 40.0

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acronyms
Table of Contents

List of Tables

xiii

List of Figures

xviii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

E-1

Introduction

E-1

Project Location & Context

E-1

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

E-4

Important site characteristics

E-4

Environmental and social Assessment process

E-6

Environmental Context & Project Location

E-6

Impact Assessment process

E-6

Policy & Regulatory Framework

E-7

Key Safeguard Documents

E-7

Disclosure & Consultation

E-8

Analysis of Alternatives

E-9

Identification of the Rampur Project

E-9

Initial Ranking

E-9

Analysis & Prioritization

E-9

The No Project Alternative

E-10

Projects Design Alternatives

E-10

Identification of the most favourable alternatives

E-12

Environmental & Social Impacts & Mitigation Measures

E-12

Involuntary Resettlement

E-12

Institutional arrangements for implementation of RAP and SCDP

E-14

Impacts on Forests, Natural Habitats & Wildlife

E-15

Instream Flow Impacts & Water Quality Issues

E-17

Construction-Related Impacts

E-19

Safety of Workers and Communities

E-20

Impacts on Physical Cultural Resources

E-21

Other Induced Impacts and Cumulative Effects

E-21

Dam Safety

E-22

1.

Operations manual and emergency preparedness

E-22

Riparian Issues

E-22

Catchment Area Treatment Plan & Other Environmental Enhancements

E-23

Implementation Arrangements

E-24

Institutional Framework

E-24

Adaptive Management of Environmental Issues

E-24

Continuous Stakeholder Consultation

E-25

Institutional Capacity Building

E-25

Budget for environment management

E-25

INTRODUCTION & PROJECT DESCRIPTION

1-1

1.1

The Rampur Project

1-1

1.2

Project Location

1-1

1.3

Context of the Project

1-3

1.4

1.5

1.3.1

Hydropower Potential in India

1-3

1.3.2

Hydro Power Potential in Himachal Pradesh

1-3

Rationale for the Project

1-5

1.4.1

Demand for Energy in India

1-5

1.4.2

Power Demand Scenario in the Country

1-6

1.4.3

Need for Hydropower

1-7

1.4.4

Identification of Rampur Hydro-Electric Project

1-7

Analyses of Alternatives

1-7

1.5.1

Identification of the Rampur Project

1-7

1.5.2

Initial Ranking of Hydropower Projects

1-8

1.5.3

Analysis & Prioritization

1-8

1.5.4

Development Status of Hydropower Projects in the Indus Basin

1-8

1.5.5

Projects Design Alternatives

1-8

1.5.6

Analyses to Identify the Most Favorable Design Alternatives

1-12

1-12
1-14
1-16

1.5.7

ALTERNATIVE II
ALTERNATIVE III
ALTERNATIVE V

Overall Selection

1-17

1.6

Construction Components of the Selected Project Design

1-18

1.7

Project Requirements

1-22

Land Acquisition
Construction Material
Construction Schedule

1-22
1-22
1-23

ii

1.8

1.9

1.10

Lessons Learnt from Implementation of the Nathpa-Jhakri Hydropower Project

1-23

1.8.1

Major Issues as per Implementation Completion Report

1-23

1.8.2

Good Practices implemented in the Nathpa-Jhakri Hydropower Project

1-24

1-24
1-26
1-29

Environment
Resettlement & Rehabilitation
Employee Welfare

Environmental Assessment in Rampur Hydropower Project

1-29

1.9.1

Environmental Context & Project Location

1-29

1.9.2

Impact Assessment process

1-30

1.9.3

Regulatory Clearances for the Project

1-31

1.9.4

Key Safeguard Documents

1-31

1-31

Disclosure & Consultation

Structure of the Report

POLICY, LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK


2.1

2.2

1-32

2-1

Constitutional Provisions

2-1

2.1.1

Water Resources

2-1

2.1.2

Environment

2-1

2-1

Specific Reference to Environment Protection in the Constitution

The Policy Framework for Hydraulic Infrastructure & the Environment

2-2

2.2.1

National Water Policy

2-2

2.2.2

Water Policy of Himachal Pradesh

2-3

2.2.3

National Environment Policy

2-4

2.2.4

National Forest Policy

2-5

2.3

Environmental Regulations & Legal Framework for the Project

2-6

2.4

Environmental Regulations

2-6

2.4.1

Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

2-6

2-6
2-6

Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972


Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, &
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002
Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2003
Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000
The Serais Act, 1867
The North India Canal and Drainage Act, 1873
Indian Easements Act, 1882
The Indian Fisheries Act, 1897
The Factories Act, 1948
The Mines Act, 1952
The River Boards Act, 1956

2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-8
2-8
2-8
2-8
2-8

iii

2.5

2-8
2-8
2-8

2.4.2

The Environmental Clearance Process

2-8

2.4.3

The Forestry Clearance Process

2-9

Environmental Clearances Obtained for the Project

2-10

2.5.1

At State Level

2-10

2-10
2-11

2.5.2

Pollution Control and Environmental Conservation


Additional Clearance for Environmental Flow

At the Government of India Level

2-11

2-11
2-11
2-12

Stage-I Environmental Clearance


Stage-II Environmental Clearance
Stage-III Environmental Clearance

2.6

Responsibilities of Government of India under International Treaties

2-13

2.7

Applicability of the World Bank Safeguard Policies

2-19

Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958


EIA Notification, 1994
EIA Notification, September 2006

Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01) - APPLICABLE


Natural Habitats (OP/BP 4.04) NOT APPLICABLE
Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12) - APPLICABLE
Indigenous Peoples (OD 4.20) NOT APPLICABLE
Forests (OP/BP 4.36) - APPLICABLE
Safety of Dams (OP/BP 4.37) - APPLICABLE
Physical Cultural Resources (OPN 11.03) - APPLICABLE
Projects in Disputed Areas (OP/BP/GP 7.60) NOT APPLICABLE
Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP/GP 7.50) - APPLICABLE

2-19
2-19
2-19
2-19
2-20
2-20
2-20
2-20
2-20

2.8

SJVNL Corporate Policy Statements

2-21

2.9

SJVNL Corporate Policy on Environment

2-21

2.9.1

SJVNLs Environmental Policy Statement

2-21

2.9.2

SJVNL Health, Security, Safety & Environment Directive

2-22

2.9.3

SJVNLs Biodiversity Conservation Policy

2-24

2.9.4

SJVNLs Climate Change Commitments

2-25

THE ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE,


ASSESSMENT & MITIGATION OF IMPACTS
3.1

3-1

River Systems of Himachal Pradesh

3-1

3.1.1

The Indus River System

3-1

3.1.2

Satluj River in Himachal Pradesh

3-2

3.1.3

Important Tributaries of River Satluj

3-2

3-2
3-2
3-2
3-3

Spiti River
Baspa River
The Nogli Khad
Soan River

iv

3.1.4

3.2

3-3

3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-6
3-6
3-6
3-6

Proposed Khab Hydropower Project (1020 MW), Kinnaur District


Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Project (1000MW), Kinnaur District
Bhaba Hydel Project (120 MW), Kinnaur District
Baspa Hydroelectric Project (300 MW), Kinnaur District
Proposed Sorang Hydropower Project, Kinnaur District
Ghanvi-I (22.5 MW), Shimla District
Ghanvi II (10 MW), Shimla District
Nathpa-Jhakri Hydel Project (1500 MW), Kinnaur District
Proposed Luhri Hydroelectric Project (465 MW), Kinnaur District
Kol Dam (800 MW)
Bhakra Dam

Baseline Characteristics of the Satluj Basin

3-7

3.2.1

The River and its Catchment

3-7

3.2.2

Topography

3-9

3.2.3

Geology

3-9

3.2.4

Climate

3-10

3-10
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-12

3.2.5

3.3

Hydro power Projects on the Satluj

Baseline
Rainfall & Cloud Cover
Relative Humidity
Temperature
Special Weather Phenomena
Wet Haze and Fog
Potential Impacts

Climate Change

3-12

3-12
3-14
3-14

Baseline
Potential Impact
Effect of Climate & Hydrological Variability on the Performance of the Project

3.2.6

Floods, Cloud Burst and Flash Floods

3-19

3-20

3.2.7

Soils

3.2.8

Erosion & Sedimentation

3-22

3-22
3-24
3-24
3-24

Potential Impact

Baseline Erosion Rates


Potential Impact
Mitigation Measures & Monitoring
Monitoring

3-21

Geological Characteristics of the Project Area

3-27

3.3.1

Geology

3-27

3.3.2

Seismology

3-28

3-30
3-30
3-30
3-30
3-30
3-30
3-30

Potential Local Thrust and Faults


Lesser Himalayan Seismic Belt
Main Central Thrust (MCT)
Kaurik Fault
Rampur Fault
Main Boundary Fault (MBF)
Foothill Thrust
Potential Impacts

3-27

3.3.3

3.4

3.6

Landslides

3-31

3-33
3-33

Potential Impacts
Mitigation Measures

3-33

3.4.1

Baseline Hydrology

3-33

3-34
3-45

Flow Profile of River Satluj


Hydrological Changes in the Satluj River

3.4.2

Sources and Usage of Water

3.4.3

Existing Water Quality of Satluj

3-45

3.4.4

Water Quality

3-46

3.4.5

Downstream Water Use: Impacts of Water Quality Changes

3-50

3-51
3-53
3-54
3-54
3-54
3-54
3-55

Estimates of Sewage Loads


Effluent from Rampur Town
Effluent Disposal from Jhakri Colony
Effluent Disposal from Proposed Project Colony
Effluent Disposal from Temporary Labour Shelters
Effluent Disposal from Operation of Crushers
Mitigation Measures

3-45

Channel Sedimentation and Reduced Dissolved Oxygen

3-55

3-56

Mitigation Measures

Land Environment

3-56

3.5.1

Land Use

3-56

3.5.2

Soil Quality

3-62

Aquatic Habitat & Fish Diversity

3-63

3.6.1

Aquatic Flora

3-63

3.6.2

Aquatic Fauna

3-63

3.6.3

Fish Habitats

3-63

3.6.4

Results from Aquatic Monitoring

3-68

3-69
3-69

3.6.5

3.7

3-31

Hydrology & Water Resources

3.4.6
3.5

Mitigation Measures

Migratory Fish Species


Outcomes of the Study on Fish Availability

Potential Impacts on Aquatic Habitats & Mitigation

3-69

3-70
3-70
3-70
3-70
3-71
3-71
3-71
3-72
3-72

Construction Related Impacts


Work on the Riverbed
Construction of Project Infrastructure
Water Pollution
Use of Explosives
Vegetation Clearing
Reduced River Flow
Interruptions of Fish Migration & Destruction of Spawning Grounds
Water Pollution from Use of Synthetic Chemicals

Terrestrial Biodiversity

3-72

3.7.1

Background

3-72

3.7.2

Methodology and Assessment techniques

3-74

3-74

Flora Assessment

vi

3.7.3

3.7.4

3.7.5

3.7.6

3.7.7

3.7.8

3.7.9

Assessment Techniques
Shanon Weaver Index (1948)
Fauna Assessment
Public Consultation

3-74
3-74
3-74
3-75

Forests and Terrestrial Biodiversity of Himachal Pradesh

3-75

3-75
3-76
3-77
3-77
3-77
3-78

Forest
Natural Flora
Natural Fauna
Traditional Timber Rights Followed in Himachal Pradesh
Procedure for Obtaining Timber
Timber Trees

Terrestrial Biodiversity of Satluj Basin

3-78

3-79
3-79
3-79

Forest Types
Natural Flora
Natural Fauna

Biodiversity of Project Influence Area (7 km radius surrounding the project site)

3-82

3-83
3-85
3-93
3-93
3-93

Forests
Flora
Ethno-Botanical Baseline
Fauna
Wildlife

Biodiversity of the Projects Immediate Influence Area

3-95

3-95
3-95
3-97

Forest Types
Flora
Fauna

Biodiversity of Projects Directly Affected Area

3-98

3-98
3-99
3-99
3-101

Forests Directly Affected by the Project


Forest Type
Flora
Fauna

Distribution of Endangered/Protected/Rare/Endemic Flora and Fauna

3-102

3-102
3-104
3-105
3-105
3-106
3-106
3-106
3-107

The Satluj Basin


Project Influence Area (7km all around the Project)
Projects Immediate Influenced Area (500m around the Project)
Projects Directly Affected Area
Comparative Distribution of Forests
Comparative Status on Protected Area Network
Comparative Distribution of Flora
Comparative Distribution of Fauna

Potential Impacts on Terrestrial Biodiversity & Mitigation

3-108

3-108
3-108
3-109
3-110
3-117
3-121

Loss of Forest
Mitigation Measures for Loss of Forest
Impact on Flora and Fauna
Quantitative Assessment of Flora in the Projects Directly Affected Area
Assessment of Flora of the Immediate Influence Area
Mitigation Measures for Impact on Flora and Fauna

vii

3.8

Impact Generated by Construction Activities


3.8.1

3.8.2

3.8.3

3.8.4

3.8.5

3.8.6

3.8.7

3.8.8

3.8.9

3.8.10
3.9

Water Quality Impacts & Mitigation

3-121

3-121
3-122
3-122

Baseline
Sources and Type of Impacts
Mitigation

Air Quality Impacts & Mitigation

3-123

3-124
3-124
3-125
3-125
3-125
3-125

Observations on Ambient NOX Levels


Observation on ambient SO2 levels
Observations on Ambient SPM levels
Observations on Ambient RPM levels
Source and Types of Impacts
Mitigation

Noise Impacts & Mitigation

3-125

3-125
3-126
3-130

Baseline
Source and Types of Impacts
Mitigation

Quarries

3-130

3-130
3-130

Types of impacts
Mitigation

Muck Generation & Disposal

3-130

3-130
3-131

Types of Impacts
Mitigation Measures

Work Camps, Work Areas & Labour Force Impacts & Mitigation

3-133

3-133
3-133

Impacts
Mitigation

Construction of Headrace Tunnel Impacts & Mitigation

3-133

3-133
3-134

Impacts
Mitigation

Construction of the Power House and Tailrace Channel - Impacts & Mitigation

3-134

3-134
3-134

Impacts
Mitigation

Road Construction Impacts & Mitigation

3-134

3-134
3-135
3-135
3-135

Impact
Indirect and Cumulative Impacts on Natural Resources
Interference with Movements of Wildlife
Mitigation

Transmission System - Impacts & Mitigation

3-135

3-135

Mitigation Measures

Other Environmental Impacts on the Communities


3.9.1

3-121

3-136

Impacts on Human Health

3-136

3-137
3-138
3-138

Mitigation
HIV/AIDS Risk Level
Potential Management Interventions for HIV/AIDS

3.9.2

Impacts of Downstream Hazards

3-139

3.9.3

Water Availability for Communities

3-139

3.9.4

Impact of Blasting on Agricultural & Horticultural Yield

3-140

viii

3.9.5

Potential Effect on the Occupation Pattern in the Project Influence Area

3-143

3-143
3-144
3-145
3-147

Employment Benefits
Shift in Occupation Pattern
Accessibility to Basic Infrastructure
Power Generation and Transmission Benefits

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


4.1

Objective & Principles of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

Boundaries
Spatial Boundary
Temporal Boundaries

4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1

Methods & Approaches

4-2

4.2.1

Stakeholder Consultations

4-2

4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3

Public Consultation and Disclosure


Public Consultation Activities
Project Planning Responses to Stakeholder Concerns
Disclosure

Environmental Regulations, Compliance & Voluntary Actions

4-3

4.3.1

Environmental Clearance for Rampur Hydropower Project

4-4

4.3.2

Conditions laid by the State Government

4-4

4.3.3

Conditions laid by the Central Government

4-4

4.3.4

SJVNL Activities for Ecosystem Sustainability of the Satluj Basin

4-5

4.3.5

Other Parallel Activities Ongoing

4-6

4-6
4-6
4-6

Implementation of the Hydropower Policy of the State


River Basin Development Optimization Study
Planning for Basin Level Implementation of Catchment Area Treatment

Institutional & Implementation Arrangement

4-6

4.4.1

Activities within Project Area

4-6

4-7
4-8
4-9

SJVNL Environment Management Department (EMD)


The Construction Contractors
State Forest Department

4.4.2

Activities in the Project Influence Area

4-9

4.4.3

Activities in the Catchment

4-9

Environmental Management Actions for the Rampur Project

4-9

4.5.1

Managed River Flow

4-10

4-10
4-10
4-11
4-12

4.5.2

Minimum Release
Waste Water Treatment
Control of Silt Runoff in the River
Fishery Management and Sustenance of Endemic Fisheries

Biodiversity Management

4-12

Actions in the Project Influence Area (PIA)


4-13
Actions in the Projects Immediate Influence Area (PIIA) and the Directly Affected Area 4-14

ix

4.5.3

4.5.4

4.5.5

4.5.6

4.5.7

Compensatory Afforestation Plan


Quarry/Muck Area Redevelopment Plan

4-14
4-14

Catchment Area Treatment

4-14

CAT Plan Area


Objective of the CAT Plan
Plan Period
Responsibility
Forest Conservation & Improvement
Species Selected for Afforestation
Soil & Moisture Conservation Work
Infrastructure Development
Wildlife Management (in the CAT Plan)

4-15
4-15
4-15
4-16
4-16
4-17
4-17
4-18
4-18

Mitigation of Construction related Impacts

4-19

4-20
4-21
4-24
4-26
4-26
4-27
4-27
4-28
4-28
4-30
4-31
4-32
4-33
4-34
4-35
4-36
4-37
4-37

Erosion and Sediment Control


Planning & Managing Muck Disposal
Quarry and Borrow Area Management
Water Quality Monitoring
Management of Water Quality, Chemical Waste and Spillage
Emergency Measures for Hazardous Materials
Emissions & Dust Control
Noise Control
Enhancement and Conservation of Physical Cultural Properties
Landscaping & Re-vegetation
Vegetation Clearing
Logging and Removal of Waste Forestry Products
Solid Waste Management
Management of Construction Work Camps and Spontaneous Settlement Areas
Mitigation for Impacts from Construction of Roads
Mitigation for Impacts from Construction of Power Evacuation System
Environmental Training for Construction Workers
On-Site Traffic & Access Management

Contractor Staff Health Program

4-38

4-38
4-38
4-39
4-39

Construction Camps
For Overall Workforce
Additional Malaria Control Measures
HIV/AIDS Prevention Measures

Safety Assurance in the Project

4-44

4-44
4-44
4-44
4-45
4-46
4-46

Goal of Working Accident-Free


Safety Assurance Plan & Safety Manual
Safety Management Arrangement
Accountability
Zero Tolerance Program
Implementation and Responsibilities

Emergency Preparedness Plan

4-47

4-47
4-50
4-50
4-51

Emergency Identification and Evaluation


Emergency Evaluation
Mock Drills
Preventative Actions (where available)

Notification Procedure
Notification Flowchart
Important Telephone Numbers
Early Warning System and Communication Network
Communication Systems
Access to Site
Response during Periods of Darkness
Response during Periods of Adverse Weather
Sources of Equipment
Stockpiling Supplies and Materials
Emergency Power Sources
Warning Systems (if used)

4-51
4-52
4-52
4-53
4-54
4-54
4-54
4-54
4-54
4-55
4-55
4-55

4.6

Accessing Carbon Finance

4-55

4.7

Environmental Monitoring Plan

4-56

4.7.1

Internal Monitoring by the Environment Management Department (EMD) of SJVNL 4-56

4.7.2

Major Monitoring Themes

4-56

4-57
4-57
4-57
4-57
4-58
4-58

4.7.3

4.7.4

Water Quality
Ambient Air Quality and Meteorology
Noise
Ecology
Incidence of Water-Related Diseases
Land Use

Adaptive Environmental Management Requirements

4-59

4-59
4-59
4-59
4-60
4-60
4-60
4-60
4-60
4-60

River Water Quality


Silt Load and Grain Size Distribution
Indoor Air Quality at Power House Area
Erosion and Landslide
Changes in Flow of the Natural Water Source like Tributaries and Springs
Fish Management
Review of Adaptive Management Targets
Budget
Future Studies

Indicators for Monitoring Implementation and Performance of EMP

4-60

4.8

Communications and Public Disclosure

4-61

4.9

Improving Environmental Management Capacity

4-63

4.9.1

4.9.2

Capacity Building of Relevant State Agencies

4-64

4-64
4-68
4-68
4-70
4-70
4-72
4-73

State Forest Department


Fisheries Department
Department of Environment
Coordination for Sustainable Hydropower Development
Institutional Arrangements for River Basin Management
Environmental Management of Hydropower Development
Managing Muck Disposal in the State

Capacity Building of the Regulators

4-73

4-73
4-74
4-74

Himachal Pradesh Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board (HPEPPCB)


HPEPPCB /State Council for Science Technology and Environment (SCSTE)
Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), GOI

xi

4.9.3

Capacity Building of SJVNL

4.10

4-74

SJVNL: Environmental Activities


4-74
Environmental Institutional Set-up
4-75
Staffing Requirement
4-75
Environment Activities at Corporate Environment Level
4-75
Environment Activities at Project Level
4-76
Training for Environment Management & Development of Adaptive Management Capacity
4-79
The Five Dimensions of Capacity
4-79
Training Needs Assessment
4-80
List of Training Institutes In India & Abraod
4-89

Budget & Procurement of EMP and Environmental Capacity Building Activities

4-90

4.10.1

Budget for Implementation of EMP and Environmental Capacity Building

4-90

4.10.2

Procurement of EMP Implementation & Environmental Capacity Building Activities 4-91

xii

List of Tables
Table E.1 - Baseline Characteristics of Project-Affected Persons

E-13

Table E.2 - Comparative Status of Forests and Natural Resources in the Project Area

E-16

Table E.3 - Minimum Flow at Various Locations from Khab to Suni (cumec)

E-18

Table E.4 Budget for Implementing EMP

E-25

Table1.1 - Hydropower Potential of India

1-3

Table 1.2 - Hydropower Potential in River Basins of Himachal Pradesh

1-5

Table 1.3 - Hydropower potential of Satluj Basin in Himachal Pradesh

1-5

Table 1.4 Water Conductor Loss in Alternative II

1-13

Table 1.5 Energy Generation in Alternative II

1-14

Table 1.6 Water Conductor Loss in Alternative III

1-15

Table 1.7 Energy Generation in Alternative III

1-16

Table 1.8 Water Conductor Loss in Alternative IV

1-16

Table 1.9 Energy Generation in Alternative II

1-17

Table 1.10: Summary Analysis of Alternative Project Designs

1-18

Table 1.11 - Salient Features of Rampur Hydroelectric Project

1-20

Table 1.12 Land Requirement for the Project

1-22

Table 1.13 - Estimated Quantities of Construction Materials

1-22

Table 2.1 Environmental Considerations and the Environmental Clearances


Obtained in the Rampur Hydropower Project

2-14

Table 3.1 The Indus River System

3-1

Table 3.2 Tributaries of the Satluj

3-3

Table 3.3 - Features of Major Hydro-Electric Projects on the Satluj

3-4

Table 3.4 Topographical Divisions of the Satluj Basin

3-9

Table 3.5 - Historical Monthly Rainfall (in mm) Data for Rampur

3-11

Table 3.6 - Temperature Data at Rampur Station

3-11

Table 3.7 - Temperature data at Luhri

3-12

Table 3.8 - Hydrology Risk Assessment: Trend Variables (GWh/year)

3-18

Table 3.9 - Major Flash Floods & Cloudbursts in Himachal in 2003

3-21

Table 3.10 - Analysis of Soil Samples near of Rampur Hydropower Project

3-22

Table 3.11 - Silt Data at Khab, Powari, Nathpa, Jhakri, Bael, Nirath and Sunni, 2006

3-23

Table 3.12 - Stratigraphic Sequence of Rocks in the Project Area

3-27

Table 3.13 - Seismo-Tectonic Features of the Project Area

3-28

Table 3.14 - Major Earthquakes within 200km of the Project Site

3-29

Table 3.15 - Historical Flow Data of River Satluj at Khab (downstream of Spiti Confluence):
Minimum, Maximum & Average Flow

3-37

xiii

Table 3.16 - Historical Flow Data of River Satluj at Nathpa Dam Intake:
Minimum, Maximum & Average Flow

3-38

Table 3.17 - Historical Flow Data of River Satluj at Rampur:


Minimum, Maximum & Average Flow

3-39

Table 3.18 - Historical Flow Data of River Satluj at Luhri (downstream of Bael Village):
Minimum, Maximum & Average Flow

3-40

Table 3.19 - Measured Flow data for Tributaries of River Satluj (Nathpa to Jhakri Stretch)
for the months of October 2005 - April 2006

3-41

Table 3.20 Computed Lean Flow for Tributaries of River Satluj (Nathpa to Jhakri Stretch)

3-42

Table 3.21 Daily Discharge at Rampur

3-43

Table 3.22 - Minimum Flow of the Satluj from Khab to Suni

3-44

Table 3.23 - Measured Flow data for Tributaries of River Satluj (Jhakri to Bael Stretch)
for the months of February-March, 2006

3-44

Table 3.24 Water Requirement in Project Area

3-45

Table 3.25 - Primary Water Quality Criteria as laid by the Central Pollution Control Board

3-46

Table 3.26 - Drinking Water Standards

3-47

Table 3.27 - Water Quality Profile of River Satluj, Year 2003 Monitoring Results

3-48

Table 3.28 - Water Quality Satluj, Year 2006 Monitoring Results Jhakri-Rampur-Bael Stretch 3-48
Table 3.29 - Water Quality Data of River Satluj, July 2004

3-49

Table 3.30 - Estimated Sewage Load of Villages at Right Bank of River Satluj, 2001-11

3-51

Table 3.31 - Estimated Sewage Load from Villages at Left Bank of river Satluj, 2001

3-52

Table 3.32 - Estimated Sewage Load of Rampur Town

3-54

Table 3.33 Land Use of the Project Influence Area (7km all around the Project)

3-56

Table 3.34 - Land Utilization of Villages in RHEP influence area

3-61

Table 3.35 Land Use in the Study Area (7km all around the Project)

3-61

Table 3.36 - Land Use (in hectares) of RHEP Influence Area

3-62

Table 3.37 - Analysis of Soil Samples near the Rampur Project Area

3-62

Table 3.38 - Floral Species in Satluj along Jhakri-Rampur-Bael stretch

3-63

Table 3.39 - Faunal Species in Satluj along Jhakri-Rampur-Bael stretch

3-64

Table 3.40 - Fish Species Historically Reported in Upper Reaches of the Satluj River

3-64

Table 3.41 - Fish Species Reported Historically in River Satluj in Himachal Pradesh

3-67

Table 3.42 - Status of Forest in Himachal Pradesh, Kullu and Shimla Districts

3-73

Table 3.43 Status of the Protected Area Network

3-73

Table 3.44 - National Parks/ Wild Life Sanctuaries in Eastern Himachal Pradesh

3-73

Table 3.45 - Change in Forest Cover of Himachal Pradesh

3-75

Table 3.46 - Major Forest Types Recorded in Himachal Pradesh

3-76

Table 3.47 - Timber Rights Marketed to Right Holders from Rampur Forest Division

3-78

Table 3.48 - Major Forest Types of the Satluj Basin

3-78

Table: 3.49 - List of Fauna Reported from the Satluj Basin

3-82

Table 3.50 - Wildlife Sanctuaries in the Satluj Basin

3-83

Table 3.51 - Land use Pattern of Forest in Project Influence Area

3-83

Table 3.52 - List of Protected Forests in Project Influence Area

3-83

Table 3.53 - Flora Recorded in the Project Influence Area (7km all around the Project)

3-86

xiv

Table 3.54 - Ecological Features of Dominant Flora in Project Influence Area

3-87

Table 3.55 - Major Uses of Trees from Forests in the Project Influence Area

3-88

Table 3.56 - Commercially Important Trees (Horticulture)

3-88

Table 3.57 - Medicinal Plants from Local Forests

3-89

Table 3.58 - Ethno-Botanical Approach for Major Plant Species from Local Forests

3-89

Table 3.59 - Domestic Animal Census Data (2003) for Rampur Division

3-93

Table 3.60 - List of Wildlife Reported from the Study Area and Their Status

3-94

Table 3.61 - Census Data of Wildlife

3-95

Table 3.62 - Flora Recorded in the Immediate Influence Area

3-96

Table 3.63 - Avifauna Recorded in the Immediate Influence Area (500m around the Project) 3-97
Table 3.64 Purpose-wise Acquisition of Forest Land in the Project

3-98

Table 3.65 - Flora Recorded in the Projects Directly Affected Area

3-99

Table 3.66 - Major Uses of Trees found in the Projects Directly Affected Area

3-100

Table 3.67 - Avifauna Recorded in the Projects Directly Affected Area

3-101

Table 3.68 - Livestock in all Villages in the RHEP Influence Area

3-102

Table 3.69 - Livestock in Villages Directly Affected by RHEP

3-102

Table 3.70 - List of Rare and Threatened Species

3-103

Table 3.71 - Status of Rare, Endangered and Protected Species of Fauna


Historically Recorded in the Satluj Catchment

3-104

Table 3.72 - Comparative Distribution of Forests Types

3-105

Table 3.73 - Comparative Status of Protected Areas

3-106

Table 3.75 - Comparison of Diversity Index

3-107

Table 3.76 - Comparative Distribution of Endangered Species of Wildlife

3-107

Table 3.77 Density of Trees in Rampur Forest Area

3-108

Table 3.78 - Diversity Index of Flora found in the Immediate Influence Area of RHEP

3-109

Table 3.79 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Cut and Cover for the Head Race Tunnel 3-110
Table 3.80 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Dumping Area I near Kazo Adit

3-111

Table 3.81 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Job Facilities Area at Kazo Adit

3-111

Table 3.82 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Approach Road for Kazo Adit

3-112

Table 3.83 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of Kazo Adit

3-112

Table 3.84 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Dumping Area II near Kunni Adit

3-112

Table 3.85 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Kunni Adit

3-113

Table 3.86 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Goshal Adit

3-113

Table 3.87 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Dumping Area III
downstream of the Nimrand Bridge

3-113

Table 3.88 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Dumping Area IV at Averi

3-114

Table 3.89 - Assessment of Flora on the Sites of the Surge Shaft and the
Approach Road to the Surge Shaft

3-114

Table 3.90 - Assessment of Flora on the Sites of the Power House Area &
Its Approach Road

3-114

Table 3.91 - Assessment of Flora on the Quarry Site at Village Koyal

3-115

Table 3.92 - Diversity Index of Projects Directly Affected Area

3-116

Table 3.93 - List of Trees to be Felled for the Project

3-116

xv

Table 3.94 - Assessment of Flora of the Kunni Area

3-117

Table 3.95 - Assessment of Flora of Nirmand Area

3-118

Table 3.96 - Assessment of Flora Near Bayal Village

3-119

Table 3.97 - Assessment of Importance Value Index for Flora near Pashada Forest Area

3-120

Table 3.98 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards

3-123

Table 3.99 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Data

3-123

Table 3.100 - Maximum, Minimum, Average Values of NOx, SO2, SPM, RPM in Ambient Air

3-124

Table 3.101 - Hourly Equivalent Noise Levels in the Project Area

3-126

Table 3.102 - Ambient Noise Standards

3-126

Table 3.103 - Noise Level due to Operation of Construction Equipment

3-127

Table 3.104 - Increase in Noise Levels due to Operation of Construction Equipment

3-127

Table 3.105 - Transmission Loss through Common Construction Materials

3-127

Table 3.106 - Increase in Noise Levels due to Increased Vehicular Movement

3-128

Table 3.107 - Noise Generated due to Drilling

3-128

Table 3.108 - Noise Generation due to Blasting

3-129

Table 3.109 - Maximum Exposure Periods Specified by OSHA

3-129

Table 3.110 Requirement of Muck Disposal Area

3-131

Table 3.111 - Details of Identified Dumping Areas

3-131

Table 3.112 - Leading Causes of Premature Mortality in Himachal Pradesh, 2003

3-136

Table 3.113 - Leading Causes of Disability in Himachal Pradesh, 2003

3-136

Table 3.114 - Disease Profile in the Influence Area of the Project, 2005

3-137

Table 3.115 - IPH Department Water Supply Schemes Affected due to Nathpa-Jhakri Project 3-140
Table 3.116 Horticulture Crop Trees in the Nathpa-Jhakri Influence Area

3-141

Table 3.117 - Production of Apple in Himachal Pradesh

3-141

Table 3.118 - Rainfall at Rampur: Relationship with Impacts on Orchards

3-142

Table 3.119 - Employment Generation in the Hydropower Projects on the Satluj

3-144

Table 3.120 Change of Occupation of the Community (%) induced by the


Nathpa-Jhakri Project

3-144

Table 3.121 - Power Generation & Transmission Aspects for


Hydropower Projects in Satluj Basin

3-148

Table 3.122 Time Lag for Peaking Power Generation among Projects in the Satluj Basin

3-149

Table 4.1 - Budget for Sanitary Facilities for Construction and Labour Camps

4-11

Table 4.2 - Farm Components in Snow Trout Facilities financed by the Project

4-12

Table 4.3 Sites Selected for Compensatory Afforestation

4-14

Table 4.4 Activities under Forest Conservation & Improvement Component

4-16

Table 4.5 - List of Trees Recommended for Afforestation in CAT Plan

4-17

Table 4.6 Activities under Soil & Moisture Conservation Component

4-17

Table 4.7 Activities under Infrastructure Development Component

4-18

Table 4.8 Activities under Wildlife Management Component

4-19

Table 4.9 Budget for Protection (Retaining/Toe Wall) during Pre-Construction

4-24

Table 4.10 Budget for Reinstatement Works after Completion of Muck Disposal

4-24

Table 4.11 Budget for Solid Waste Management

4-33

xvi

Table 4.12 - Budget for Implementation of EMP Measures for Road Construction

4-36

Table 4.13 Summary Environmental Management Plan

4-40

Table 4.14 Response Level Matrix for Each Type of Emergency Events

4-48

Table 4.15 Important Emergency Contacts

4-53

Table 4.16 - Local Gram Panchayat Contact Numbers

4-53

Table 4.17 - Environmental Monitoring by HPEPPCB during Construction

4-58

Table 4.18 - Environmental Monitoring by HPEPPCB during Operation Period

4-58

Table 4.19 Indicators for performance Monitoring

4-61

Table 4.20 Communication & Public Disclosure Plan

4-62

Table 4.21 Capacity Building Proposals of the Forest Department


(through the DPL financing)

4-66

Table 4.22 Workload of the Environment Department of SJVNL

4-77

Table 4.23 Overall Program & Budget for Environmental Training

4-80

Table 4.24 Training on Environment Management: Training Contents & Targets

4-81

Table 4.25 Detailed Plan for Training on Environmental Management

4-82

Table 4.26 Budget for Implementing the EMP

4-90

Table 4.27 Summary Procurement Plan for Implementation of


EMP and Environmental Capacity Building Activities

4-91

xvii

List of Figures
Figure E.1 - Location of Satluj Basin in State of Himachal Pradesh, Northern India

E-2

Figure E.2 - Location & Lay-out of the Rampur Project

E-3

Figure 1.1 Location of Shimla Town and the State of Himachal Pradesh India

1-2

Figure 1.2 Location of the Satluj Basin within Himachal Pradesh

1-2

Figure 1.3 Operating and Proposed Hydropower Projects in the Satluj Basin

1-4

Figure 1.4 - Location & Lay-out of the Rampur Project

1-19

Figure 1.5 - Afforestation Works in Nathpa-Jhakri Project

1-24

Figure 1.6 - Awareness Camps in Project Affected Areas of Nathpa-Jhakri Project

1-25

Figure 1.7 - R&R Colony at Project Site

1-26

Figure 1.8 The Mobile Health Van in Nathpa-Jhakri Project Area

1-27

Figure 1.9 - Infrastructure Development Works in Nathpa-Jhakri Project

1-28

Figure 1.10 Health Service Provided to the Communities by Nathpa-Jhakri Project

1-29

Figure 3.1 Major Tributaries and Streams meeting the Satluj

3-5

Figure 3.2 - Satluj Catchment Topography in the Tibet Region (I)

3-7

Figure 3.3 - Satluj Catchment Topography in the Tibet Region (II)

3-8

Figure 3.4 - Satluj Catchment Topography in the Tibet Region (III)

3-8

Figure 3.5 - IRSWiFS Imagery showing Distribution of Snow Cover in Baspa Basin
(November 2000 to February 2001)

3-14

Figure 3.6 - Hydrology Trends: Total Average Flows at Nathpa Intake

3-15

Figure 3.7 - Lean Season Average Flows at Naphta Intake

3-15

Figure 3.8 - Wet Season Average Flows at Nathpa Jhakri Intake

3-16

Figure 3.9 - Total Annual Energy

3-16

Figure 3.10 - Annual Generation, Peaking Operation

3-17

Figure 3.11 - Lean Season Peaking Energy (Morning + Evening Peaks)

3-17

Figure 3.12 - Sensitivity of Economic Returns to Hydrology Trends

3-18

Figure 3.13 Artificial Lake Formation in River Parechu in Tibet, China

3-19

Figure 3.14 Damages due to Flash Flood of June 2005

3-20

Figure 3.15 - Grain Size of Suspended Sediments at Upstream Locations of RHEP

3-23

Figure 3.17 Siltation in the Project Region

3-25

Figure 3.18 Eroded Material Transported by Tributaries of the Spiti

3-26

Figure 3.19 Unstable and Erosion-prone River Banks of the Satluj

3-26

Figure 3.20 Typical Topography above the Nathpa Dam

3-28

Figure 3.21 Epicenters of Major Earthquakes 200km around the Project

3-29

Figure 3.22 - Views of a Landslides in the Project Area

3-32

Figure 3.23 Digital Elevation Model of the Satluj Basin (in Himachal Pradesh)

3-35

Figure 3.24 Water Flow in the Satluj at Different Locations

xviii

Figure 3.25 Water Quality Trends: pH Values

3-49

Figure 3.26 Water Quality Trends: DO and BOD

3-50

Figure 3.27 Land Use of the Satluj Basin

3-57

Figure 3.28 Soil Erosion in the Satluj Basin

3-58

Figure 3.29 Agriculture in the Projects Surrounding Area

3-59

Figure 3.30 Grazing Land in the Vicinity of the Project Area

3-60

Figure 3.31 Fishing in the Tributaries of the Satluj

3-66

Figure 3.32 - Wildlife Protected Areas in Himachal Pradesh

3-80

Figure 3.33 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in the Satluj Basin

3-81

Figure 3.34 - Trees of the Area

3-90

Figure 3.35 - Shrubs of the Area

3-91

Figure 3.36 - Herbs of the Area

3-92

Figure 3.37 Muck Dumping Sites identified by SJVNL

3-132

Figure 3.38 - Water Level along the River at a Flow of 1500 cumec

3-139

Figure 3.39 Relationship between Rainfall and Production of Apples

3-143

Figure 4.1 Emergency Notification Flowchart

4-52

Figure 4.2 Environment Management Department in SJVNL

4-78

xix

xx

EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY

RAMPUR HYDRO-ELECTRIC PROJECT


HIMACHAL PRADESH, INDIA
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

INTRODUCTION
1.1
Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (SJVN) - a joint venture between the Government of India
(GOI) and the Government of Himachal Pradesh (GoHP) - has proposed construction of the 412
MW Rampur Hydro Electric project (RHEP) on the River Sutlej in Himachal Pradesh to tap the
hydropower potential of the Sutlej River between Jhakri and Bael village. The proposed project is
conceived as a tailrace development from the 1500 MW Nathpa-Jhakri Hydro Electric Project
(NJHEP); hence the operation of Rampur project would be closely interlinked with NJHEP. Thus,
the Rampur project will not include the construction of a dam, nor will it involve any land
inundation. The following summarises the studies and activities undertaken to assess the
environmental and social impacts of the Rampur Hydropower Project. Further details on all aspects
can be found in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EA) full report and its associated
documents, prepared by DHI (India) Water & Environment Pvt. Ltd., Himachal Pradesh University,
Consulting Engineering Services India Ltd.), FQA Management Services Pvt. Ltd., National Safety
Council of India, and the Himachal State Forest Department.
1.2

The summary is set out under the following sub-headings:

Project location and context

Project description

Important site characteristics

Environmental and social assessment process

Analysis of alternatives

Environmental & social impacts & mitigation measures

Implementation arrangements

PROJECT LOCATION & CONTEXT


2.1
India, on account of the large river systems and favorable geographical features, has a
vast potential for hydropower, estimated at over 148,000 MW, which has been identified as Indias
solution to its low carbon energy growth strategy. The hydroelectric schemes, which have been
developed to-date, utilize only about 20% of this total potential. For the purpose of hydroelectric
E-1

Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

development, the river basins can be divided into six major groups namely the Indus, the
Brahmaputra, the Ganges, the Central Indian Rivers, the West Flowing Rivers and the East Flowing
Rivers. There is a broad consensus in the Government of India to expand power generation by
developing the countrys hydropower potential.
2.2
Himachal Pradesh has a significant hydro-potential, indeed this is one of the states key
resources. The major river systems of the region are the Chandrabhaga or the Chenab, the Ravi,
the Beas, the Sutlej and the Yamuna. Through preliminary hydrological, topographical and
geological investigations, it has been estimated that about 18,820 MW of hydro power can be
generated in the State by constructing various major, medium, small and mini/micro hydel projects
on the five river basins. Out of the total hydropower potential a little over 6,000 MW has been
harnessed so far.
2.3
The River Sutlej, which is one of the key river basins featuring in the hydro development
plan of the state of Himachal Pradesh, rises in the Tibetan Plateau (Rakastal-Mansarovar lake; at
an elevation of about 4570m above mean sea level), travels about 1450km (320km in China,
758km in India, and 370km in Pakistan) before it meets the Chenab River and subsequently the
Indus. Governments of Himachal Pradesh and India are working to exploit the full hydro-potential
of the Sutlej river Basin though both private and public developers. The location of Sutlej basin is
shown in the map at Figure 1.
2.4
Some of the projects proposed for construction are Khab and the 1000 MW Karcham
Wangtoo project upstream of Rampur and Luhri and 800 MW Kol dam projects down stream. The
1500 MW Nathpa Jhakri HEP, immediate upstream is already in stage of operation. The most
celebrated dam on the river is the Bhakra Dam, which was completed in 1963. Downstream of
Bhakra too there are structures on the river, including the Nangal diversion dam and Ropar
barrage.
Figure E.1 - Location of Sutlej Basin in State of Himachal Pradesh, Northern India

2.5
RHEP is located, near the town of Rampur in Shimla and Kullu districts of Himachal
Pradesh. The project area is enclosed by latitudes 77o35N and 77o43; and longitudes 31o23E and
31o30E.

E-2

Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

Figure E.2 - Location & Lay-out of the Rampur Project

E-3

Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

PROJECT DESCRIPTION
3.1
The project is designed to divert water from the tail race pool of Nathpa Jhakri hydro-electric
power project (NJHEP) 1 project (located near the village of Jhakri on the east bank of the Sutlej)
through a 15km head race tunnel to a surface power station (located near the village of Bael on the
west bank of the Sutlej), from where the water will be returned to the river. The project does not
divert any additional water downstream of the Nathpa dam, and will not require any new dam to
divert the water, any de-silting chambers to clean the sediments flowing in the river and intake
arrangements, nor will it involve any additional land inundation.
3.2
The water from the Rampur Intake structure will be conveyed through a 484m long tunnel
before it crosses under the river to the right bank through a 43.2m cut-and-cover conduit, from
where it is conveyed via a 10.50m diameter head race tunnel (HRT) of 15.08km length terminating at
a 140m high, 38m diameter Surge Shaft. The water will then enter three surface penstocks of 5.4m
diameter each, which bifurcate into six branch tunnels, of 3.8m diameter. These feed six 68.7 MW
Francis turbines, housed in a surface power station.
3.3
On completion, the project would use a gross head of 139m to generate approximately 412
MW of peaking power and 1,770GWh of electricity in a 90% hydrological dependable year. The
Project office and construction sites will be approached by project roads connected to National
Highway-22A on the east bank of the river. This run-of river project will be located between the two
other run-of-river projects: the upstream and already operating 1500MW Nathpa-Jhakri project
(which has a small diurnal storage) and the proposed Luhri project downstream of Rampur.
3.4
The power generated by Rampur HEP will feed the Northern Indian Energy Grid, directly
benefiting consumers in the states of north India and improving the availability of power at
reasonable cost. Amongst other supplies being developed, this power can also be used to provide
service for those who currently have limited or no access to electricity. Sale of power will provide the
state of Himachal Pradesh with a royalty benefit of 12 per cent of the power generated equivalent
to some $12 million each year in addition to the states share in the plants dividends.

IMPORTANT SITE CHARACTERISTICS


4.1
The catchment area of the Sutlej at Rampur is about 50,800km2 (49,800km2 at Nathpa
Dam), of which about 30% falls in India and the remainder in China. The rivers in the catchment are
fed by snow melt, particularly in China. A small portion of the project catchment also receive
precipitation due to the South-West monsoon (June-September).The peak flows of the river occur
during June to September, while the lean period occurs between October and April.
Much
hydrological study of the Sutlej has previously been performed in preparation for the construction of
the existing Bhakra Dam, which is downstream of Rampur, and for the construction of the upstream
existing Nathpa Jhakri scheme. Water availability studies were carried out from 1963 onward by
using observed discharges at Rampur town. The discharge data has been related to the Nathpa dam
site considering the catchment area and rainfall variability proportions.

NJHEP was built on the River Sutlej and was commissioned in 2003-04. This project included construction
of a 60m high dam on a deep gorge, 27km headrace tunnel, a 1km tailrace tunnel; one of the worlds
deepest surge shafts; and one very large de-silting chamber. The project was financed by the World Bank.

E-4

Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

4.2
An independent study of alternatives has also been carried out in anticipation of the
proposed Rampur scheme, confirming the prudence of investing further funds to utilize the flows
exiting the Nathpa Jhakri scheme.
4.3
Design flood: Both the permanent works and the temporary river diversion works will be
designed to withstand a river flow corresponding to a 10,000 years return period flood, which has
been assessed to be 7,150 cubic meters per second at Rampur.
4.4
Geology of the locale and lessons learnt in constructing Nathpa Jhakri: Due to
RHEPs proximity to Nathpa Jhakri, the geological experiences encountered in the construction of the
Nathpa Jhakri scheme are of direct relevance for the planned construction of the Rampur project.
Nathpa Jhakri and Rampur are located in the lesser Himalayas, which are characterized by very
rugged topography and lofty steep-sided mountains. The lithology in the area has played a significant
role in the development of its surface landforms. The granite and gneisses, with subordinate schist
bands, which are exposed in the eastern parts, form high peaks, steep escarpments, and glaciated
deep valleys. The terrain in the western part has subdued topography due to the presence of
essentially schistose rock. The rock types in the area of the two schemes comprise of a variety of
metamorphic rocks, including gneisses, schistose gneiss, schist and quartzite. Amphibolites as basic
intrusive, granite, and pegmatite and quartz veins as acidic intrusive were also encountered. These
unfossiliferous rocks belong to Jeori-Wangtu Gnessisic complex of the Precambrian age. The
geologists and construction engineers, employed on the NJHEP, successfully met the difficult
challenges, which the geology posed in the excavation and construction of the project and these
lessons will inform the development of the Rampur HEP, particularly the tunneling.
4.5
Seismicity: The project area lies in the seismic zone IV as per the seismic zoning map of
India as incorporated in Indian Standards, a high damage risk zone. It has been rocked by a number
of major earthquakes in the recent past. As far as the project area is concerned it is observed that no
epicenter of magnitude more than 5 lies within distance of 50 km. The Detailed Project Report (DPR)
prepared for the project addresses seismic performance by calculating stresses induced in key
components of the project under seismic loading. The considerations are also made on permanent
deformations induced by seismic loading.
4.6
Sedimentation and Silt Erosion: The Sutlej River normally carries a considerable volume
of sediments particularly during the high-flow season. Sediment and erosion control measures
upstream of Nathpa Jhakri, by soil management and afforestation, offer only very limited possibilities
to reduce the sedimentation load. This is because of - (a) the natural physiography and soil
morphology of the region and (b) it is not practical to introduce vegetation at the high altitudes
around the higher reaches of the river, from where much of the silt is derived. Recognizing that the
river silt loads will be high for the life of the project, the design of Nathpa Jhakri (a) provided for
gates in the dam to facilitate the periodic flushing of the fore-bay pond in its intake area; (b)
specified turbines materials to minimize equipment wear and down-time for maintenance; and (c)
includes, at the head of the power tunnel, wide underground de-silting chambers, where the water
flow reduces, and heavy sediments above 0.15 to 0.2mm in diameter settle into troughs. The
resulting slurry is returned to the river.
4.7
Extensive research and dimensional analysis modeling supported the inclusion of these
measures in the project design. However, silt erosion of the turbines runners (impellors) and the
associated equipment has been proved more deleterious during the first three years of operation
than was expected when the project was planned. This is mainly because the silt load content of hard
quartz is higher than was expected, when the river content was analyzed and the project designed in
the 1980s. Runners have been repaired by adding replacement metal to the runner blades and other
worn parts by specialized welding technique. This is an expensive and lengthy exercise and
necessitates each turbine being unavailable for generation while this work is carried out. SJVN is

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

carrying out experiments and research with modern ceramic and other coatings in an effort to reduce
this wear at Nathpa Jhakri. Modifications to the stations intake design to avoid the ingress of water
with high silt contents are also being investigated.
4.8
The design of the Rampur runners and other related equipment has taken into account the
considerable experience gained at Nathpa Jhakri project.
5

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ASSESSMENT PROCESS


Environmental Context & Project Location
5.1
The project area and the projects influence area are located in the lower Himalayas, and are
characterized by rugged topography with steep hills (altitude varying from 850m to 2000m). The area
experiences subtropical to sub-Himalayan climate; and is sparsely vegetated. Immediate vicinity of
the projects supports patches of dense forests, but has a long history of deforestation. The hill slopes
are steep, and are generally covered with sparse vegetation, over burden and outwash material. Most
of the human population in the project influence area are concentrated in the villages along the
highway and the connecting district roads.
5.2
Although forestry is the major land use in the hill state of Himachal Pradesh (with 37,033km2
or about 66% of the state area under legally defined forests), there has been a long history of forest
degradation. As a result, only about 8976km2 area of the state currently is classified as dense
forest, and the remaining is a mix of open forests, meadows, grasslands and barren scree slopes.
Most of the good quality forests remain in the relatively remote and inaccessible areas, whereas the
forest cover near the traditional settlements, major towns and near major transportation routes are
relatively poor. The patches of good quality forests close to the major transportation routes, such as
highways are the results of government initiatives for protection of forests since 1980.
5.3
As part of the governments plans and programs for managing forests, biodiversity and
wildlife, vast tracts of forest land is currently being protected in the state. Of these, 1896km2 (5.1%
of state area) are reserved forests, and 11,378km2 (31% of state area) are demarcated protected
forests. These areas support 3295 plant species (7% of the total plant wealth of India). Similarly, for
conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, an area of 7000km2 (12.7% of the state area) are under the
protected area network, which include 2 national parks (1440km2) and 32 wildlife sanctuaries
(5562km2). This protected area network supports 5721 recorded wildlife species (7.4% of total
animal wealth of India).
5.4
Historical reasons combined with the natural setting, have led to areas around the Rampur
project having relatively poor forest cover or biodiversity. The project is located by the side of a
major transportation route (National Highway 22A), and in the midst of a number of traditional
settlements including the major town of Rampur. The steep rocky slopes by the deep gorges of the
Sutlej and its tributaries do not support good forests. There is no reserve forest and only 12 patches
of protected forests within the projects influence area (defined as an area 7km around the project).
The protected forests (about 20km2) overall occupy about 8% of the projects influence area. The
closest of the protected forest patches, the Baruni Protected Forest is located about 750m away from
the project; all others are more than 2-3km away. Of all the protected areas of the state (national
parks and wildlife sanctuaries), none is located within the projects influence area, and the closest
one the Rupi-Bhava Wildlife Sanctuary is located 13km away from the project.
Impact Assessment process
5.5
The Rampur Hydropower project is classified as a Category A operation under the World
Bank environmental screening procedures specified in operational policy 4.01. The project triggers 6

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

of the 10 World Bank safeguard policies 2 , and required comprehensive environmental assessments.
The project also required a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) stipulated by the
Government of India as well as the Government of Himachal Pradesh. An initial environmental
impact assessment was prepared by WAPCOS Ltd. (India) in parallel with the detailed project report.
The baseline surveys covered a period of June 2003 to September 2004. Subsequently, 6 supporting
studies by independent consultants were undertaken to enhance the analysis, which involved
additional detailed field investigation and community consultations over a period of about a year
(November 2005 November 2006). Further, the Himachal State Forest Department prepared the
catchment area treatment plan, and the emergency preparedness plan was prepared in-house. The
initial EIA, the background studies and plans have been integrated into a consolidated environmental
assessment and environmental management plan (EA/EMP) by DHI (India) Water & Environment Pvt.
Ltd.
Policy & Regulatory Framework
5.6
From environmental impact assessment point of view, the project is subject to a variety of
national and state laws, rules and regulations. Among these, the prominent are the following:
The Forest Act 1927; the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980; the Wildlife (Protection) Act
1972; National Wildlife Action Plan 1983; National Conservation Strategy 1992; National
Forest Policy, 1988;
The Environment (Protection) Act 1986; the Environmental Impact Assessment Notification,
1994
Government of Himachal Pradesh Order on Minimum Flow of Rivers, 2005.
5.7
As per the prevailing procedures, the project required (i) forestry clearances, (ii)
environmental clearances. Forestry clearances were required to acquire forest land (although none of
the area acquired was defined either as reserved forests or as demarcated protected forests) and
clear fell about 1000 trees on such land. These were obtained through a process of joint verification
of land and trees by the forest department of GoHP.
5.8
The project has obtained the 3-stage environmental clearance from the Ministry of
Environment, GoI (MOEF). The final environmental clearance to the project was granted on 31 March
2006. This was preceded by the Stage I and the Stage II clearances from MOEF; the forest and
environmental clearances by the GoHP; and a no-objection certificate from the Himachal Pradesh
State Pollution Control Board (HP SPCB), based on a formal public hearing of the project.
5.9
The project does not require any regulatory clearance under the GoI Ancient Sites and
Remains Act, as it does not impact, directly or indirectly any known or notified cultural heritage
resource. The State Department of Culture had also provided no-objection to the project on the basis
that no cultural property is impacted by the project.
Key Safeguard Documents
5.10
A detailed description of the projects baseline environmental conditions; probable adverse
social and environmental impacts; and detailed environmental and social management plans
including institutional responsibilities, implementation schedules, budget, arrangements for
monitoring and evaluation, are provided in the following documents (i) the Environmental

These 6 World Bank Safeguard Policies are those on - Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01), Forests
(OP/BP 4.36), Cultural Property (OPN 11.03), Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12), Safety of Dams
(OP/BP 4.37), and on Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP 7.50).

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

Assessment and Management Plan (EA/EMP) consolidated/prepared by DHI-India Pvt. Ltd.; (ii)
Baselin socio-economic survey of project affected people carried out by Himachal Pradesh University,
(iii) the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) prepared by Consulting Engineering Services India Ltd.; (iii)
the Social Impact Assessment (SA) prepared by FQA Management Services Pvt. Ltd.; and (iv)
Sustainable community Development Program (SCDP) was prepared by SJVN in assistance with CES..
5.11
The EA/EMP is supplemented by the following supporting documents: (i) Study of the
Managed River Flow in the project stretch of the river Sutlej prepared by DHI-India Pvt. Ltd.; (ii)
Assessment of the Terrestrial Biodiversity Impacts from the project prepared by Consulting
Engineering Services India Ltd.; (iii) Analyses of Induced Impacts of the Rampur Hydropower Project
& Cumulative Impacts of Hydropower Development in the Sutlej Basin in India prepared by DHI-India
Pvt. Ltd.; (iv) Safety Assurance Plan for the project prepared by National Safety Council of India; (vi)
Archaeological Study Report prepared by Archaeological Survey of India, Shimla Office, and (vii) a
Catchment Area Treatment Plan for the project prepared by the Himachal State Forest Department.
The project has also prepared an Emergency Preparedness Plan (EPP), summary recommendations
from which are incorporated in the EMP.
Disclosure & Consultation
5.12
The project has engaged stakeholders including the project-affected people in discussing
different aspects of the project over the last 3 years. SJVN has organized community meetings,
meetings with village elders and elected leaders of the villages. During the preparation of EA and
social assessments, a number of informal, but significant, meetings were organized. As part of the
regulatory clearance process, a formal public hearing was organized. At village Bael, a public
information centre (PIC) had been set up since December 2005, where the local community and any
other stakeholders have full access, and this public information centre has been helpful for the local
public in recording their views about the project. Additionally, SJVN has sponsored and participated in
the traditional village fairs, special events such as the Republic Day celebrations, and sports events in
all the villages in the project area.
5.13
As part of social assessment, 17 consultations were held with various stakeholders such as
local villagers, affected people elected representatives, Government officials, women and youth
organizations, media persons, etc. In all, 207 persons participated in these meetings. The key issues
discussed included employment opportunities, health and education facilities, concerns about drying
water sources, impact of tunnel construction, mobile health facilities, monitoring project
implementation of community development activities, etc. The proposed measures for the above
concerns are incorporated in the Resettlement Action Plan and the Sustainable Community
Development Plan. Similarly, as part of Resettlement Action Plan, seven consultations were held
which were participated by 142 persons discussing about the impact of land acquisition and proposed
resettlement measures, options for resettlement, site selection, opportunities for employment, etc.
5.14
The EIA report (based on which regulatory clearance for the project was granted) was
disclosed before the formal public hearing, with assistance from the state pollution control board. The
revised EA/EMP, SA, RAP (including its translation of Executive Summary in the local language Hindi) and SCDP reports have been disclosed, in October 2006 in public information centers in Bael
Village and Jhakri, public libraries in Shimla and Kullu, and in SJVN corporate office in Shimla. All the
documents are also available online in the Rampur Project webpage (accessible through the SJVN
website www.sjvn.nic.in). The availability of these documents was also announced in the local
newspapers (both English and Hindi newspapers) in October 2006. The current (January 2007)
version of the Executive Summary of the EA has also been locally disclosed.
5.15
A complete set of these safeguard documents can also be found in Banks Info Shop in
Washington DC and New Delhi, where these have been available since October 2006. A final round to

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

publicly disseminate the final versions of these safeguard documents was held at PIC in Bael village
on March 30, 2007 and was attended was more than 200 persons.
6

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES
Identification of the Rampur Project
6.1
The key GoI policy statements that guide hydropower development are National Policy for
Hydropower Development (1998) and the 50,000 MW Hydroelectric Initiative (2003). The policy
statements describe the policy objectives of hydropower development as: (i) environmental benefits,
in particular avoidance of pollution and emissions from thermal plant, (ii) benefits for power system
operation, especially for meeting peak demand, (iii) energy security - reducing exposure to fuel price
and supply risks. The policy statements also propose several actions to promote hydropower.
6.2
A key feature of these policy statements is the concept of planning for the development of a
shelf (portfolio) of hydroelectric projects. India had adopted a portfolio approach to project
development given (i) the scale of projected demand increases relative to individual project size, and,
(ii) the benefits of having a portfolio of projects in terms of diversifying project development and
timing risks.
Initial Ranking
6.3
In October 2001, the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) produced a study which ranked 399
candidate hydro schemes (with an aggregate capacity of est. 106,910 MW) into three categories (A,B
& C) according to the following criteria: (i) rehabilitation and resettlement impacts, (ii) whether
projects are in areas subject to international water treaties, (iii) likelihood of delay due to
complexities of inter-state co-ordination, (iv) project size, (v) type of scheme, preference being given
to projects that do not involve large storage, (vi) height of dam, preference being given to projects
with lower dams, (vii) length of tunnel / channel, preference being to projects with shorter tunnels,
(vii) status of upstream and downstream hydroelectric project development, preference given to
projects on rivers were there are already other projects, (ix) accessibility of site, and, (x) status of
project development, preference being given to projects for which site investigations and feasibility
studies are ready. This approach, therefore, screened a large universe of candidate projects using
proxy indicators for (i) environmental and social impacts, (ii) political risk, (iii) construction risk, (iv)
project cost, and (v) development lead time. Rampur is a CEA category A project, high in the
development portfolio.
Analysis & Prioritization
6.4
A major activity under the 50,000 MW (2003) initiative was preparation of Preliminary
Feasibility Reports (PFRs) for 162 new hydroelectric projects. CEA was entrusted with responsibility
of leading this exercise, and it in turn tasked a number of agencies to prepare these reports following
a standard guideline. PFRs include a conceptual project design, preliminary project and equipment
layouts, environmental and geological studies, planning for power evacuation, cost estimates and
financial appraisal. The 162 PFRs where then screened according to the following criteria; (i)
projected levelised tariff below Rs 2.5 / kWh 78 met this criterion, (ii) excluding projects with major
environmental impacts or international issues 5 were excluded on this basis. Therefore, 73 projects
were selected for detailed feasibility analysis, i.e. preparation of detailed project reports - Rampur
project is one of these. Each of these projects is being followed up by Government of India. Rampur
falls within the top ten projects (excluding the small projects 27-85 MW) in the Indus basin and as
such is a Government priority.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

6.5
Detailed Project Reports also follow a methodology specified by CEA. The main components
of this feasibility analysis are: (i) comparison of alternative technical options for exploitation of the
hydro resource, (ii) hydrological analysis, (iii) quantification of power generation potential, (iv) site
survey, (v) geological investigation, (vi) construction methodology and equipment design, (v)
environmental and social assessments, and (vi) financial analysis.
The No Project Alternative
6.6
NO PROJECT ALTERNATIVE: Rampur project is one of the priority elements in the
hydropower development program for India. Currently, India faces severe power shortages (10%
average, and 13.5% during peak hours), which translate into a substantial loss to the economy. India
will require an additional 100,000 MW of generating capacity by 2012, even with a significant pace of
loss reduction and enhanced efficiency gains, to continue with its current growth trajectory and to
provide universal access to electricity. If India continues to rely heavily on indigenous coal resources;
supplies and consumes energy under a business as usual scenario, it might produce 13% of the
worlds total CO2 emissions by 2031, up from the current share of 4% of global CO2 emissions. For a
lower carbon development path, it would be important that cleaner power generation activities,
such as hydro are scaled-up; and a substantial portion of the new and additional generation capacity
come from hydro.
6.7
A no-project scenario will ensure that the resulting increased demand-supply gap for
electricity will be filled up by development of additional coal fired power stations (the fuel of choice
given Indias abundant coal reserves) during off-peak time and small diesel or coal fired plants during
peak time. These would result in significant net increase in GHG emissions (12,000 tonnes of SOx,
6,000 tonnes of NOx, and about 2 million tonnes of CO2).
6.8
Due to the finite nature and limited number of feasible of hydropower project, it is unlikely
that a gap created by not developing Rampur project can be filled up by developing another
hydropower project which is currently low in CEAs ranking and feasibility studies. Even if any such
project replaces Rampur, the environmental and social impacts of that project will be higher than the
Rampur project (as the CEA studies are good proxy for environmental and social footprints).
6.9
At the state level, hydropower is a major resource in Himachal Pradesh, important for the
states economic progress and revenue accrual. The state is expected earn about US$245 million of
revenue as royalty from hydro projects in 2013, which is more than 17% of the States current level
of own tax and non-tax revenues and more than double the States current level of own non-tax
revenues. A no-project scenario would mean an annual revenue loss of US$18.25 million for the
state (which is equivalent to 1.25% of the states current revenue receipts, or about 16% of current
non-tax revenue receipt). It is unlikely that a coal fired plant (that would come up as a response to
the no project scenario) will come up within Himachal Pradesh, being away both from the coal
mines and the centers of power demand. The no-project scenario therefore will also mean a
forgone power production worth more than US$ 100 million, which is equivalent to 1.9% of the
current state gross domestic product.
6.10

Overall, the no project alternative is not a desirable option.

Projects Design Alternatives


6.11
Six alternative layouts were formulated and analyzed for Rampur Hydroelectric Project. As
the intake structure for the Rampur project had already been built along with the outfall structure of
the 1500 MW (6 x 250 MW) Nathpa Jhakri project this is a constant in all the 6 alternative layouts.
6.12
ALTERNATIVE I: This involved a short tunnel on the left bank followed by an inverted
siphon aqueduct and further transfer tunnel on the left bank. The surface powerhouse would be
located on the right bank of the river Sutlej near the village of Bael to use a gross head of 138.7 m

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

with an installed capacity of 412 MW. For this alternative no de-silting arrangement or storage
reservoir was envisaged since only silt free and regulated flows from tailrace of Jhakri powerhouse
are proposed to be used for power generation.
6.13
During construction, this alternative would have involved problems of handling a large
diameter steel lined inverted siphon aqueduct and problem of accumulation of silt at the bend
/depression points of the inverted siphon during operation. Further, the siphon will have to be long
due to (i) the need to achieve workable gradients and (ii) the requirement of clearance of its ends
from river banks.
6.14
ALTERNATIVE II: This was a modification of Alternative I. The difference was that the river
crossing was proposed by means of a 43.2m long cut and cover reinforced cement concrete conduit
in place of the deep siphon aqueduct of Alternative-I. In addition, construction of upstream and down
stream coffer dams and a concrete lined horseshoe shaped diversion tunnel are also involved.
6.15
ALTERNATIVE III: This was similar to alternative-II except that the powerhouse would be
located near village Behna at the confluence of Behna Khad with river Sutlej about 20km downstream
of outfall of alternative-II to gain an additional head of 80.22m. The unfavourable rock conditions for
the power house were found to add complexity to this alternative which already required a very long
(even longer than NJHEP) head race tunnel.
6.16
ALTERNATIVE IV: In this alternative, the powerhouse was envisaged on the left bank of
river Sutlej. It envisaged a 11km long head race tunnel on left bank of river Sutlej from Jhakri to
Nogli. A long tailrace tunnel of around 8.2km would be required for releasing water back to Sutlej
River.
6.17
In this alternative, the HRT would encounter overburden or inadequate rock cover in the
initial stretch. The powerhouse caverns would have to be set deep inside the hill and reinforced. The
tailrace would also pass through unfavorable rock classifications; and an additional surge shaft in the
downstream water conductor would be required, since it is so long. The only suitable site for an adit
is too close to the populated Rampur town, which was considered unlikely to be permitted.
6.18
ALTERNATIVE V: This Alternative comprised all the features of Alternative-II and also
involved picking up additional water from the Sutlej river at a point downstream of its inter section
with Kajo Khad by constructing a diversion dam. It was thus proposed to utilize additional water of
about 150 cumecs through a second parallel HRT. An underground de -silting chamber and additional
tail race tunnel would also be required. This alternative will utilize a gross head of 138.7 m with an
installed capacity of 574MW and a design discharge of 533.88 cumecs.
6.19
The geo-technical features of this proposal were similar to those for the alternative II. The
difference lies in the introduction of a diversion dam across the Sutlej, an additional HRT diameter
coupled with a de-silting chamber for picking up the additional 150 cumecs of water during the
monsoon months.
6.20
ALTERNATE VI: This alternative contemplated the construction of a pickup gravity dam with
a dam toe power house near the Village of Bael so as to utilize the entire releases of Jhakri power
house besides the additional waters generated from the intermediate catchment area. The height of
the dam was to be around 140m so as to fully utilize the available head between Jhakri power house
and Village Bael. The length of the dam at the top would have been more than 600m at this location.
I6.21 In this alternative, a large portion of Rampur Township, Brau, Nogli and other villages would
have to be displaced. A wide stretch of arable land would be submerged. Three main bridges, the
National Highway between Khaneri and Nirsu on the left bank and Rampur bypass road on the right
bank as also the link roads on the two banks would have been affected. In addition, the 2.5MW Nogli
power station and some of the transmission towers of SJVN would also be submerged.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

Identification of the most favourable alternatives


6.22
Based on the preliminary studies of geological features, environmental and sociological
aspects, project components and operational parameters discussed above, the No Action (or no
project) Alternative, Alternatives I, IV and VI were not considered for further examination. Power
potential studies and selection of optimum proposal in respect of the alternative II, III and V were
taken up. The parameters for such investigation included water availability, water levels in intake
pool, tail water level of powerhouse, water conductor losses, rated head, power generation and
installed capacity, and investment cost. From all perspectives, alternative II is technically feasible,
optimum from social and environmental impact points of view, and economically the most attractive.
7

ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL IMPACTS & MITIGATION MEASURES


7.1

The following are reviewed in this section:

Involuntary Resettlement

Impacts on Scheduled Tribes

Impacts on Forests, Natural Habitats and Wildlife

In stream Flow Impacts and Water Quality Issues

Construction-Related Impacts including Impacts of Associated Works

Safety of Workers and Communities

Impacts on Physical Cultural Resources

Other Induced Impacts and Cumulative Impacts

Dam Safety

Operations Manual and Emergency Preparedness

Riparian Issues

Catchment Area Treatment Plan & Other Environmental Enhancements

Involuntary Resettlement
7.2
The land acquisition and resettlement impacts of this project are small compared to similar
hydropower projects. The total private land required for the project is estimated to be about 30
hectares belonging to about 167 landowners (141 families). Out of these, 35 families are likely to
become land less (less then 0.40 hectares of remaining land holding) and 28 families will be
physically displaced. There are no impacts to non-title holders except for two tenants. A rental
allowance and shifting allowances are proposed for those affected tenants. However, provisions for
assistance are kept in the policy provisions in case any non-titleholders are affected during the
implementation.
7.3
As part of Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the state Government and SJVN,
a Resettlement Policy has been executed. The policy includes several improvements over the
previous entitlements used for Nathpa-Jhakri project. The key improvement includes: top-up money
for loss of land, options for resettlement of displaced families (cash or cash and developed plot and
constructed house) and provision for award of small contracts to Project Affected Persons (PAPs).
The policy also incorporates several provisions for taking up community development works including
operation of a mobile health unit. A copy of the policy provisions (in English and Hindi) has been

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

circulated widely amongst the potential project affected people. However, there are a few gaps in
comparison with the Banks operational policy on Involuntary Resettlement. These gaps include: noninclusion of non-title holders as PAPs, lack of clarity of mitigation of impacts due to ancillary activities
such as transmission lines, access roads, borrower areas, and dump sites, cut off date for eligibility of
benefits as on the date of survey or land acquisition notification, developmental approach for income
restoration or improvements, valuation of loss of structures based on scheduled rates and excluding
the depreciated amounts; disclosure procedures. These gaps have been addressed through the
Resettlement Action Plan (RAP).
7.4
A Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) has been prepared, and the report is available both in
English and Hindi (Executive Summary only). This describes the policy provisions for payment of
compensation and resettlement assistance and implementation arrangements consisting of
institutional mechanisms, grievance procedures, monitoring and evaluation arrangements, time table
and budget provisions. It also contains the outcome of baseline socio-economic survey and
consultations and the baseline values for the key performance and impact indicators, which will be
used for measuring the outcomes of resettlement implementation. A transit plan for resettlement of
physically displaced families is in place and the livelihood support activities are also highlighted. The
Resettlement Action Plan contains the provisions for assistance to non-title holders, it has also taken
into account of the impacts related to land acquisition for ancillary services, dump sites, etc. The
compensation rates for private lands were assessed by a special committee based on various
parameters such a recent sale transactions, recent court order on enhanced compensation in the
near by projects and land rates paid for some private hydro projects. A third party assessment was
undertaken by approved valuers for payment of compensation to the structures which is based on
recent Himachal Government scheduled rates. The RAP also outlines the assistance for income
generation activities and the first notification under land acquisition act for land owners and date of
baseline survey for non- title holders will constitute the cut-off date. The draft documents are
disclosed in the Public information Centre and web site of SJVN. It was disclosed in the Banks Info
Shop. These provisions in RAP will address the gaps in relation to comparison of the resettlement
provisions of the client with the Banks involuntary resettlement provisions.
7.5
The key baseline socio-economic characteristics are summarized below and these will be
used during the impact evaluation to judge whether the objectives of resettlement have been realized
or not.
Table E.1 - Baseline Characteristics of Project-Affected Persons
No

Indicator

Value

Economic

Average annual income ( Rs)

1,20,648

Proportion of families living below poverty line* (%)

Housing

2.76

Proportion of families having outstanding debt (%)

29.0

Proportion of workers in service or business (%)

13.0

Proportion of families living pucca houses** (%)

35.0

Average size of the house (sq.ft)

578

Proportion of families having separate kitchen (%)

79.0

Proportion of families having separate toilet (%)


Ownership of Average land holding size (ha)
Land and
Proportion of households having Refrigerator (%)
assets
Housing having LPG connection (%)
Average livestock/household (in number)

Remarks

Average Rs. 81,000

68
10.35
46
82
2.12

* based on per capita monthly income of Rs. 289


** A house constructed by using cement, brick and steel.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

7.6
A separate Sustainable Community Development Program (SCDP), has been prepared
describing the proposed infrastructure facilities in the project area for next 5 years with an estimated
cost of INR 256.8 million (US$ 6.2 million). This program includes implementation of basic
infrastructure facilities in the affected villages, operation of mobile health van, scholarships to the
wards of affected and local people, sponsoring children to industrial training institutions for acquiring
technical skills, support services to agricultural and horticultural activities, improving drinking water
facilities in the local villages, support to educational institutions, etc.
7.7.
Implementation Progress (current status): The overall land acquisition is proceeding
satisfactorily. The principle approval has been obtained from MOEF for transfer of government land
(49 hectares). The private land acquisition is in advance stage and so far about 14 hectares of private
land (49%) has already been acquired and the compensation has been offered to the affected land
owners. This land is mostly required for the civil works and the balance land acquisition is required
for townships, for which construction is due to start only in the middle of 2008. Further, the options
for resettlement have been explained to all those affected and have been finalized for all the families
who have only one house and they have expressed their preference for cash and a developed plot on
which to construct a house. They will be offered developed plots shortly. The alternative sites have
been identified in consultations with the displaced families and it may take some time to acquire
these lands. Since the construction of houses will take about 12-18 months, the project authorities
have proposed transitional arrangements with an alternative of leased accommodation or rental
allowance of INR.2000 per month for a maximum of 18 months. The implementation of SCDP has
also commenced. Some of the facilities already initiated include a mobile health van, contribution
towards construction of a new bus station and parking space at Rampur, construction of school
buildings and a bridge. In addition, 35 youths, including 5 girls, belonging to the families of the
project affected area have been provided sponsorship for admission in Industrial Training Institutes
(ITIs) for acquiring technical skills. The first year annual program on small infrastructure, which is
based on the proposals received from each of the affected villages, is also in progress.
Impacts on Scheduled Tribes
7.8
The impact on scheduled tribes is negligible. Only two tribal families are being affected by
the project. The proportion of tribal families living in project area is about 3% compared to 4% in
Himachal Pradesh and 8% in India. The socio-economic characteristics of tribal people in the project
area reveal that they own agricultural land, livestock and also own material assets like television,
cooking gas etc i.e. similar to the non-tribal people. A social assessment was carried out by a team of
independent consultants and social scientists employed by the project developer (SJVN). It was
determined that the tribal families from the Negi and Gujjar tribes migrated to the project area some
50 years ago. Based on the screening of the representative sample of tribal families against the five
criteria listed in the World Banks OD 4.20, Indigenous Peoples, (which covers scheduled tribes),
paragraph 5, the social assessment team concluded that the families do not possess three of the five
characteristics (close attachment to ancestral territories; self-identification as members of distinct
cultural group and presence of customary social and political institutions). The World Bank social
scientist on the Task Team, who has been visiting the project site from time to time since 1998,
concurs with the determination and conclusion of the social assessment team that the families do not
meet the criteria of the Indigenous Peoples as listed in OD 4.20. This issue was subject to review by
the Indigenous Peoples Coordinator of the World Bank who concurred with this decision. Therefore,
the project will not trigger the Indigenous Peoples Policy (OD 4.20).

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

Institutional arrangements for implementation of RAP and SCDP


7.9
Institutional arrangements to ensure the implementation of the RAP and SCDP are in place
including suitable staff at project site and in Shimla. Regular review procedures are specified and a
grievance redressal committee consisting of representatives from Government (sub-Divisional
Magistrate), Bloc Development Officers, and PAP representatives has been formed. The Corporate
Office at Shimla is responsible for overall policy guidance, planning and monitoring of R&R activities.
Implementation of resettlement and rehabilitation component at field level is the responsibility of
Environment and R&R Cell at Rampur project office. The responsibility includes implementation,
monitoring, contingency planning; R&R related programme and reporting during RAP implementation.
The Head of the department of Environment & R&R Cell at Rampur project office and other field
officers will coordinate with various government departments like revenue, forest, and other
administrative units at various levels to facilitate smooth implementation of RAP
7.10
During implementation and subsequent operation of the 1500MW Nathpa-Jhakri Hydropower
project, SJVN has already implemented a range of good social practices successfully such as: (a)
uninterrupted operation of a mobile health van for more than 5 years in the affected villages; (b)
offering employment to about 60 project affected persons in the project; (c) construction of a
resettlement colony and market complex for project affected people; (d) support to income
generation activities to about 50 families; and, (d) infrastructural developmental works worth about
INR 25 million in the affected villages.
Impacts on Forests, Natural Habitats & Wildlife
7.11
Baseline studies were conducted for the projects influence area (PIA - 7km area around the
project), projects immediate influence area (PIIA 1.5 km area around the project), and the directly
affected areas (DAA which includes all 86.5ha of land being acquired for the surface level works of
the project, of which 48.9 ha is forestland).
7.12
Based on the baseline data and a comparison with the available data for the state, or the
Sutlej basin as a whole suggest that the projects influence area is relatively poor in terms of forest
cover, plant wealth, wildlife and biodiversity. The projects immediate influence area and the directly
affected area has the minimum possible forest types in hilly areas - sub-tropical euphorbia scrub and
dodonea scrub, which are sparsely distributed along foothills and hill slopes. Only four species of
wildlife are reported from the projects influenced area of which Himalayan Black Bear is reported
only during summer while Musk and Barking deer showed altitudinal migration during winter. The
Common Leopard is reported to follow cattle/goat/sheep herd commonly surrounding the villages in
forest areas. No endangered, rare or protected species is found from the projects immediate
influenced area or the directly affected area.
7.13
Impact of the project on the existing landscape, at the basin or even at the district level is
truly insignificant, owing to the environmental setting of the project. Impacts at the more immediate
level will also be small, if not insignificant. The project acquires 48.9ha of degraded forest land (with
very little forest or tree cover), and notionally acquires (but does not disturb as the works are deep
underground) another 20.47 ha of similar degraded forest land over the tunnels. Together these
represent 0.07% of the total forest area of the Rampur and Anni forest divisions (which together
have 90,596 ha of legally defined forests).
7.14
There are total 12 protected forests under the study area of which 6 forests fall in Rampur
Division while 6 are in the outer Seraj division of the Kullu district. None of these are directly
impacted by the project.
7.15
The project will clear fell 1075 trees, of which 996 are (exotic) eucalyptus trees, which were
earlier planted by the forest department. The other 79 trees to be felled are commonly distributed

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

throughout the projects immediate influence and influence area. For each of the land parcels
affected by the project, the diversity is very low. The highest value of diversity index recorded is 1.28
for the powerhouse and approach road area. For all other sites, the diversity index is even lower than
that - indicating that the area is not rich in floral wealth and represents poor diversity.
7.16
No endangered, rare, threatened or endemic trees are lost due to felling in project. The
dominant shrubs are of species which are widely distributed throughout the project immediate
influence area as well as project influence area and are not endangered, rare, threatened, or
endemic in nature. Owing to their common distribution and not having significant ecological status
loss (although some of them have community use and medicinal values), losing these trees and
shrubs will not significantly affect existing biodiversity status of the project influence area, the Sutlej
Basin in general, or Himachal Pradesh in totality. It will also not affect the structure composition, of
existing forest types, forest cover or distribution characteristics of flora.
Table E.2 - Comparative Status of Forests and Natural Resources in the Project Area
Parameter
Forests

Himachal
Pradesh

Sutlej
Basin

Projects
Influence Area

Projects Immediate Projects Directly


Influence Area
Affected Area

Type

Sub-Groups

36

10

3256

NA

119

77

63

Flora: Diversity Index

1.17 1.41

0.27 1.3

Protected
Areas

Flora (total trees, shrubs,


climabers, grasses, ferns,
epiphytes, etc)
National Park
Wildlife Sanctuary

32

Existence of Endangered/
Threatened/ Rare fauna (number
of species)

11

11

1 (Common
Leopard)

Other Wild Fauna

Altitudinal Migration
3 more species
5710

NA

58

Mainly domestic animals

7.17
To compensate for the loss of the acquired forestland, a compensatory afforestation (CA)
plan will be implemented by State Forest Department. The Compensatory Afforestation will be carried
out on 139 ha as per the Forests (Conservation) Act 1980 in Arsu and Nichar ranges of Ani forest
division. The impacts of the project will be more than sufficiently compensated by such afforestation.
In fact, development of 139 ha of forested area instead of the 48.9 ha of degraded forest land will be
an environmental enhancement in the area. Additional measures by the project includes payment of
net present value of forests of about US$ 10 million (to generate forests of equivalent area elsewhere
in the projects influence area), and a catchment area treatment plan, costing US$ 5.3 million.
7.18
Indirect impacts of project activities on flora are expected to be mostly limited to projects
immediate influence area. Indirect impacts will be due to various construction activities such as
generation of dust due to earthwork, excavation, transportation of construction materials (sand,
aggregate, cement etc), quarry, crusher & blasting operations; air pollution due to movement of
construction vehicles, equipments and machinery; influx of laborers; and pollution generated through
provision of labor camps established temporarily at construction sites etc. These impacts will be
short term and limited to construction period only. Long-term exposure of dust may affect some
vegetation and lead to various morphological effects such as chlorosis, necrosis, discoloration and
ultimately reduction in primary productivity. This is important for the vast number of orchards in the
project area. The project will take sufficient measures to control dust during the construction period.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

Blasting will be controlled, so as not to create great noise, although noise impacts on wildlife would
not be significant owing to the lack of wildlife in the area.
7.19
The EMP also includes measures related to prevention of disturbance to forests and wildlife
by construction labourers, procedures for disposal and management of muck and debris, and
redevelopment of muck disposal sites (see below). Dumping areas are either devoid of vegetation or
show a few weedy shrubs. Very limited adverse impact on flora is expected as these shrubs are
widely distributed in project immediate influence area as well as project influence area. To mitigate
this loss of shrubs, an approved muck disposal plan should be strictly implemented. As such no
vegetation was recorded at the proposed quarry site, however to avoid impacts due to quarry
operations on surrounding quarry site, adequate dust suppression measures should be implemented.
After completion the quarry operation, the area would be redeveloped.
Instream Flow Impacts & Water Quality Issues
7.20
The Rampur Hydroelectric project will in effect be operated as a cascade station to the
Nathpa-Jhakri run of the river power plant. The only change in the river flow will occur between the
intake works at Jhakri (where the Nathpa-Jhakri tailrace water is currently re-entering the river
Sutlej), and the tailrace outlet at Bael village. At Jhakri, the current flow of river is constituted by (i)
the water from Nathpa-Jhakri tailrace, and (ii) the combined flow of all tributaries joining the river
Sutlej between the Nathpa dam and Jhakri (except a stream called Shoulding, where 6 cumec of
water is diverted to augment the Nathpa-Jhakri lean season peaking power generation). The project
uses all the water coming from the Nathpa-Jhakri tailrace, but does not use any of the water coming
through the tributaries.
7.21
The Government of Himachal Pradesh requires all projects to provide an instream flow of a
minimum of 15% of the lean season flow, immediately downstream of any dam/diversion structure.
The minimum lean season flow available at Nathpa dam is 47.4 cumec. Thus a minimum lean season
flow of about 7 cumec would be required to meet the spirit of the GoHP regulatory guidelines. The
actual lean season flow that would be available from tributaries (at Jhakri, Rampur and upstream of
the RHEP tailrace outfall at Bael village) is more than this required minimum flow.
7.22
Detailed studies carried out examining the issues of water pollution, flushing required to take
care of the pollution and sewage load in the stretch between the intake and outlet works of the
project, suggest that the available minimum lean season flow would be sufficient. There is no direct
consumptive use of water (for drinking, irrigation and other household purposes) from the Sutlej
since it sits in such a deep gorge in this area. The natural springs and chashme are the key sources
of water for people living in the area for their own consumption, livestock use and irrigation
purposes. In most of the villages except those, situated on high hills, the state department of water
supply (department of public health) has provided piped water supply for domestic purposes. The
existing plans to augment water supply also do not include use of any water from the Sutlej.
Irrigation in the area is rain fed or the very limited water demand for agriculture practice (only about
10% of the land area is under agriculture) is being fulfilled by khuls (canal). Therefore, the reduced
flow in the river due to proposed project will not hamper the water supply schemes in the area.
7.23
Maximum discharge of river Sutlej goes up to 10000-12000 cumec and minimum discharge
remains in the range of 70-80 cumec. The absolute minimum 10-day flow at the Nathpa dam is 47.4
cumec (see table E-3 below).
7.24
Owing to geographical reasons, and very high silt load coming from snow melts in China and
cold desert areas of Spiti Vally, the acquatic life in the river is poor. Great hazards are caused due to
variable velocities of water, ice formation during winter, occurrence of periodic floods due to cloud
burst and continuous rolling of bottom material consisting of boulders, stones, gravels etc. High flood

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

causes dislodging of benthic animals, but still the turbulent river Sutlej has provided microhabitats for
a few micro-organisms to get suitably adapted to the environment.
Table E.3 - Minimum Flow at Various Locations from Khab to Suni (cumec)
Monthly min

10 Daily min

Absolute Minimum

Site

90 percentile

60 percentile

90 percentile

60 percentile

Monthly

10 Daily

Khab

64

46

59

44

17

Nathpa

116

91

106

93

59

48

Rapmur

104

92

102

89

69

65

Luhri

108

98

104

90

70

56

Suni

110

99

106

96

72

71

7.25
To assess the existing scenario of fish type available in the river body, 20 days monitoring
was carried out in month of March 2006. No fish were reported in the Sutlej River in the project area
during surveys of 1998, 2004 and 2006. However, fishes were monitored in the side streams
particularly Nogli Khad, Sumej Khad and Kajo Khad, near the confluences with Sutlej River. These
side streams have less flow instability, favorable temperature and less turbidity than the main Sutlej.
The sole fish species monitored was a trout (Schizothorax spp, Schizothoraichthys spp.) and it was
caught downstream of the confluence of Nogli khad with main Sutlej River. This is a small sized,
migratory fish variety and is locally known as asla. Market surveys (in 4 markets where fish is
available in the project area - Tapri, Bhabanagar, Rampur and Bael) and consultation with community
and experts suggest that the main Sutlej river has very little fish population in the stretch between
Jhakri and Bael. Only one person was found involved in fishing activity that too on one of the side
streams. For commercial purposes, the fish is mainly brought from downstream areas like Bilaspur.
Upstream, a few sites such as Sangla, are being developed by the state fisheries department for
sport fishing. Mahseer is migratory fish, and was historically reported to be present in Sutlej.
However, for about 50 years now its migration is affected by construction of Bhakra dam on the
Sutlej. Even without the Bhakra dam, its availability in project area is a remote possibility due to the
low water temperature.
7.26
Rampur, which is only town in the project area has a sewerage scheme. The sewerage
treatment plants have been damaged by floods and are only partially operating and repairs are being
taken up. In the mean time most of the population of the town is served by septic tanks. Other than
Rampur, no other town puts effluent into the river. In Jhakri township, established under NathpaJhakri project, the households are connected to sewage pipeline network, which is finally connected
to eight septic tanks. Most of the villages have provision of soak pits (some up to 20-30ft deep) for
collection of human excreta. Liquid effluent leaches into the ground and solid effluent is converted
into manure after mixing with soil. There are no industries that could result in pollution. SJVN has
proposed to fund establishing a sewerage treatment plant, as part of the EMP, to treat the sewage
flowing into Sutlej river from the Jagatkhan and Brow villages located opposite Rampur town, to
further improve the water quality.
7.27
As per the primary water quality criteria as laid by the Central Pollution Control Board, the
Himachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board, has kept the river Sutlej under A category of water
quality with respect to pH, DO and BOD in general. The critical parameters observed in past in some
stretches of the river is total coliform for which category of river comes down to C category. The
level of dissolved Oxygen (DO) in the project stretch varies from 8 to 8.5 (mg/l) between Jhakri to
Bael. The high DO levels in the river indicate high water quality in the study stretch. This may be
because of higher water flow in the river and low environmental temperature. The pH value is 8.1

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

and 7.88 at Bael and Jhakri respectively indicates that the river water is slightly alkaline in nature.
The level of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the river is around 1.0 mg/l at all places except at
downstream of Rampur town, where value observed was 1.2 mg/l. The BOD and COD values are
very low, which indicates the absence of organic pollution loading. This is mainly due to the low
population density, low agro-chemical dosing and absence of industries in the area. Water quality in
terms of pathogenic bacteria appears to be good except at immediately downstream of Rampur
town, where faecal coliform was observed as 4 MPN/100ml and the value of total Coliform was
observed as 14. Otherwise none of the samples (Jhakri outfall, Rampur u/s, Bael) has shown the
presence of faecal contamination. Iron and Zinc were found <.05 at Jahkri outfall and at Bael but
value of mercury was observed on higher side. Mercury was found 7.11 ppb at Jhakri outfall that
may be due to mecahnical processing taking place in Jhakri Power house. However, all these values
are much below the standard water quality norms. However, the fluorides level was of the order 1
mg/l which just meets the permissible limit for drinking purposes (note that there is no supply of
drinking water from the Sutlej).
7.28
In past, no major epidemic has been reported in the area. Thus, even without lots of sewage
treatment facilities in the area, the pollution loading (organic and bacteriological) is well within the
carrying capacity of the water available for dilution in river Sutlej and its tributaries. The findings of
the village level surveys, data collected from the Health Department and Government hospital,
Rampur do not indicate prevalence of water borne diseases in the area. However, during summers
(April-July) about 50 cases on an average have been recorded related to gastroenteritis, diarrhea and
dysentery from the project area.
7.29
In light of the above, the parameters on which the medium and long term adequacy of river
flow will depend include desired dilution to the sewage, limited functions as aquatic habitation, and
favourable flow condition for flushing of sediments. Adequate flow in the river especially during lean
season becomes essential to provide the desired dilution to the sewage, which is being disposed into
the river with or without treatment. It is important to maintain the river ecology aesthetically as well
as for the sustenance of its natural functions i.e. aquatic habitation etc. Several different scenarios of
water demand due to increased population in the project area, and increased sewage load have been
simulated for different flow releases varying from 1 cumec to 10 cumec as well as zero release. The
studies suggest that the available minimum lean flow would be adequate for the needs of the water
quality impacts in the Jhakri-Bael stretch. However, for maintaining water quality in the Nathpa-Jhakri
stretch, a release of 5 cumec from the dam would be necessary. The project will, in fact, release
more water from the dam (7 cumec), as per the regulatory requirement of the GoHP, which,
according to the studies should be more than sufficient for water quality and aquatic life. All residual
impacts due to managed river flow will be monitored by SJVN as part of the projects overall adaptive
monitoring program, and all relevant actions including augmentation of lean season managed flow
will be taken up if warranted by such monitoring.
Construction-Related Impacts
7.30
Management of construction-related impacts would be the responsibility of the SJVN
(through its contractors, as and where relevant, and as described in the EMP). The plans for
managing the construction site impacts include plans and guidelines for managing and restoring the
muck disposal sites (including advance protection measures for the sites, before muck is actually
disposed in these sites), management and reinstatements for the quarries, management of effluent
discharge, management of safety and health issues (including a plan to manage the HIV/AIDS risks),
and a chance find procedure for conservation of cultural properties. These measures are described in
detail in the EMP, and in the supporting environmental documents. Supervision and monitoring will
be essential to ensure full implementation of the detailed plans. These arrangements have been
described as part of the EMP.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

7.31
Control of Pollution from Labour Camps during Construction Phase: The aggregation of large
labour population and technical staff during construction phase is likely to put significant stress as a
result of discharge of sewage, solid wastes and other pollutants. The total population due to
congregation of work force and their families during construction phase is expected to increase the
local population significantly. This is likely to affect the existing infrastructure. Thus, the EMP has
identified a number of measures to be implemented to maintain the facilities in labour camps,
sanitation and sewage treatment facilities, solid waste management, and provision of community
kitchen.
7.32
Environmental Management in Road Construction: In hilly terrain, road construction often
generates significant quantity of wastes (muck) due to the stripping of the rocks to make way for the
roads. The stripped muck is generally cleared by dumping the material along the slopes. These
dumped materials finally flow down to the valleys and ultimately finds its way in to the river. The
EMP includes measures so that the stripped material would be collected and dumped in the
designated muck disposal areas, protection against erosion, and bio-engineering measures to protect
the road slopes.
7.33
Muck Disposal: For managing the 3 million m3 of muck to be generated by the project, a
muck disposal plan has been prepared. The plan includes, over an above reuse of part of the muck
as construction material for the project, site protection and rehabilitation measures which includes
civil works, vegetative measures, fencing and planting. As three of the four dumping areas are
located closed to river Sutlej, there are chances of rolling down of muck/ loose material leading to
blockage in river flow or contamination of water due to silting. To avoid this, retaining walls of 27m
height are to be developed along the bank of the river at all muck disposal areas.
7.34
The EMP includes measures related to the control of air pollution and noise pollution. All
crushers will have cyclone, and particulate filters. Workers would be provided with effective personal
protective gears such as masks, ear muffs or ear plugs. Equipment and machinery should be
maintained regularly to keep the noise generation at the design level. Silencers and mufflers of the
individual machinery are to be regularly checked. The sewage generated from various labour camps
shall be treated in septic tanks before disposal by discharging into the river. The septic tanks shall be
located so as not to pollute the drinking water sources.
7.35
Transmission, Township, and Workers Camps: The project does not construct any new
power transmission lines. Power would be evacuated through a short loop-in loop-out arrangement
by connecting to the existing high voltage transmission line at Duttanagar. The existing transmission
line was built following the environmental and social standards of the Power grid Corporation, which
is recognized to be among the best in India. Similarly, the project does not construct any new
township, and instead uses the existing facilities at the Jhakri Township constructed by the Nathpa
Jhakri project. The small project facility at Bael village and the camp sites for the contractors had
been included in assessments of impacts related to land acquisition and resettlement, biodiversity
and forest, etc.
Safety of Workers and Communities
7.36
Given the typical context of Himalayan geology, and the substantial underground
construction works, the project involves serious potential safety risks for the workers. SJVN has
adopted, as part of its overall environment policy, a Health, Safety and Environment Directive
which includes the commitment to provide a safe place to work for SJVN employees; and
acknowledges that SJVN has the ultimate responsibility for compliance with all the requirements of
applicable safety rules and regulations. To implement this directive for the Rampur project, a site
safety assurance plan has been prepared. This plan will install systems so that safe procedures are
followed in construction of the project (documented in the safety manual of the project).

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

7.37
The safety manual for the project describes a systems approach using an established
standard similar to the well known ISO 9001 standard. Describes the applicable safety policies and
rules; specifies the use of personal protective equipment for all workers. It also specifies the
standards and methods to adhere to in the various stages of project construction period such as in
cutting and welding operations, excavation and trenching, tunnel excavations and drill operations; in
using explosives, cranes, ladders scaffolds and stairways; in working around high voltage and in
other electrical safety contexts, etc.
7.38
The site safety assurance plan represents a program approach to safety in which specific
documentation and practices had been developed for the Rampur project. This project specific plan
describes responsibilities for safety assurance, including the organizational set-up to effectively
monitor and manage compliance with SJVNs corporate safety directives. It specifies methods and
schedule for hazard identification, employee orientation, subcontractor orientation and training;
accident investigation and reporting, contractor/SJVN interface, safety documentation and record
keeping, and a safety incentive program. The plan also includes provisions for securing occupational
health by ensuring hazard communication, hearing conservation and protection, respiratory
protection, and prevention of infectious diseases. The plan detailed the requirements for emergency
response including worker refuge stations, evacuation of work area or jobsite, tunnel rescue team,
and securing the accident scenes.
Impacts on Physical Cultural Resources
7.39
The project area does not have known archaeological or historical sites or remains. This has
been confirmed by a field based archaeological examination of the project area. There is only a small
possibility of impacts on cultural properties (such as community religious properties, sacred groves,
and chance-finds). The EMP includes procedures to identify such properties, and mitigate and
manage impacts in the case such properties are affected.
Other Induced Impacts and Cumulative Effects
7.40
The induced impacts of the project could include increasing urbanization of the area around
the project, particularly at Rampur town, and the consequent demand for water, effects on water
quality due to increased sewage load, increased demand for timber rights from the forests, possible
drying up of small water sources, and perceived damage to built properties. The GoHP is constructing
sewage treatment facilities at Rampur. The state forest department has already exhausted the stock
to cater to the future demand for traditional timber rights (for which new settlers also become
eligible), and will not entertain demands from new settlers in the area. The states Hydropower Policy
commits that in the event of increased future demand for drinking water, all water allocation could be
reviewed to ensure primacy of drinking water supply. The project has committed that any water
source that dries up during construction or operation of the project will be compensated by the
project, either by supplying water directly or by developing and protecting alternative sources. For
this, the project, jointly with the villagers, has collected baseline data (on flow, location, use)
including videographs of all the water sources in the villages in the vicinity. These water sources will
be monitored as part of the adaptive monitoring program for the project. In addition, the project is
providing for some augmentation of water supply to the villages as part of the SCDP. On the
perceived damage to built properties although it is unlikely that the underground works hundreds
of meters below the surface could result into such damages the project agreed to develop a
baseline jointly with the villagers (complete with photographs and video) so as to use this baseline as
a basis for compensation in the event of damages. Progress on this baseline is uneven given the
varied willingness of individuals to document their properties.
7.41
Major cumulative effects of hydropower development in the Sutlej basin include the creation
of additional employment, including that for the local communities. In addition, parts of the revenue

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

from the projects, and the Rampur project in particular, goes to the state which could be used to
provide better access to social amenities. The possible negative cumulative affects relate to the influx
of population to the project area, and include threats to biodiversity, deterioration of water quality,
increased pollution levels all over the Sutlej basin, and increased HIV/AIDS risks. Most of these
possible effects had been described in the preceding paragraphs. For addressing the HIV/AIDS
issues, the project will partner with the state level initiatives under the National HIV/AIDS program,
and will have close cooperation with state AIDS control society. The project will implement through
its contractors a program for awareness, diagnosis and referral as is the spirit of the National
HIV/AIDS control programs. Climate change, extreme weather events and increasing flash floods
could also pose a set of risks to the project. These risks had been analyzed for the project. The
Rampur project uses water which is available through the Nathpa Jhakri tailrace, and is therefore
protected from the impacts of flash floods or increasing/decreasing water flows unless the Nathpa
Jhakri project is also impacted. Further, the economic and the financial sensitivity analyses suggest
that viability of the project is not affected by the worst-case scenarios for the climate change and the
possible extreme events.
Dam Safety
7.42
This project does not construct any dam, but uses tailrace water diverted by the dam earlier
constructed by the Nathpa-Jhakri Power project. The Nathpa-Jhakri Dam was constructed following
the Banks policy on safety of dams (as the project was funded by the World Bank). During
construction of the Nathpa-Jhakri project, a panel of experts was in place to advise SJVN on all
aspects of construction of the dam and the underground works. In Rampur project, therefore,
aspects related to safety of dam needed to be only re-confirmed. Accordingly, SJVN engaged the
Dam Safety Organization, from Nashik to examine the dam and related works with respect to stability
and maintenance of the structures. The safety of the dam was confirmed and this review will now be
regularly followed up.
Operations manual and emergency preparedness
7.43
Additionally, an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual has been drafted, which
incorporates elements pertaining to civil works and addresses the issues of instrumentation, rock
anchors in the rock slope upstream on the dam, tunnel de-watering and filling procedures, and gate
operation in case of floods. The O&M manual will integrate the relevant elements of the emergency
preparedness plan (EPP), which covers emergency identification, evaluation, and classification, where
each emergency situation is analyzed in terms of identification (observations, monitoring, instrument
readings), evaluation (comparison with reference values, descriptions, etc.), classification (what
measures to take). The EPP covers potential emergency situations such as excessive uplift pressures
on the dam-concrete foundation contact, slope instability upstream of the dam (rock slope with
anchors), emergency evacuation of the power house (flooding, fires, etc.), and underground water
ways incidents (partial or total tunnel collapses).
Riparian Issues
7.44
The River Sutlej (a tributary of the Indus) is an international river (flowing through China,
India and Pakistan). This run-of the river project is located in between two existing dams. The
upstream dam at Nathpa, about 50 km upstream of the project, has a small storage (an inundation
of about 22 ha, all within the river gorge, mainly for producing peaking power for the 1500MW
Nathpa-Jhakri project). The downstream Bhakra dam and the storage of Govindsagar were
completed in 1960s, and constitute a major multi-purpose project of Northern India. The Bhakra Dam
has a gross storage of 9621 million m3, and is about 200km downstream of the Rampur project.
Thus, there is no significant impact of the project related to water flow and availability on either the
upstream or downstream riparian countries. The water quality impacts of the project are assessed to

E-22

Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

be minor even at the immediate project area, and would be truly negligible downstream of Bhakra. In
addition, the Sutlej is one of the 3 eastern rivers defined by the Indus Treaty (between India and
Pakistan), and is earmarked for sole (consumptive) use by India.
7.45
According to the World Bank policy on International Waterways, both the upstream and
downstream riparian countries, China and Pakistan were notified and provided with relevant project
details. No objection to the project was raised by either of the riparian countries.
Catchment Area Treatment Plan & Other Environmental Enhancements
7.46
The Saltuj River flows in narrow deep channels with steep hills rising on either side in the
project area. The hills are very steep with poor or no vegetation cover. Due to poor vegetation cover
the rate of soil erosion is high. Different forms of erosion such as sheet erosion, gully erosion,
riverbank erosion are quite prevalent throughout the project affected/immediate influence and
project influence area. Common anthropogenic factors leading to erosion are over gazing, collection
of trees for fuel, fodder, timber and unscientific farming practices. The project activities accelerating
soil erosion will be quite significant during construction phase such excavation work,
tunneling/blasting, construction of temporary and permanent road in project area to move vehicle/
machinery/equipments and workforce.
7.47
The induced impacts of the project are largely confined to the projects influence area, and
relate to the dependency of local people on forests. These impacts include various anthropogenic
activities affecting forest such as traditional timber rights, new migrant laborers, associated
development, and induced commercial developments.
7.48
To address these catchment-wise issues, the Forest Department, Government of Himachal
Pradesh has formulated a catchment area treatment (CAT) plan for the Rampur hydroelectric project.
The objective of this plan is to ensure that the sediment load does not increase due to construction
and operation of the project. The CAT plan also addresses the need to protect the watersheds in the
region and, as per the directives of the GoHP; covers area treatment measures, soil conservation
measures, and includes measures for improvement of degraded forest areas within the project
catchment. The plan will be implemented over a 10 year period, at a cost of Rs.220 million.
7.49
The CAT plan will cover the following types of degraded area - degraded forest, degraded
pasture and barren land, erosion prone area, treatment of active land slides, treatment of drains. In
the open forest areas, the CAT plan will support replenishment afforestation, assisted natural
regeneration, development of NTFPs. As part of pasture improvement, it will provide for subsidiary
silvicultural operation, treatment of erosion prone area, stabilization of active landslides, roadside
erosion control, avenue plantation and landscaping. It will also support village infrastructure
development, such as village ponds and tanks, soil/water conservation structures, repair of
springs/baunes/water sources, strengthening of village paths/roads, treatment of private lands,
distribution of seedlings, etc.
7.50
The project will support the GoHP program for development of fisheries in the state. The
GoHP has proposed to implement supplementary stocking program for snow trout (Schizothorax
richardsonii) an endemic species. The stocking will be done annually by the Fisheries Department.
To achieve this, facilities to produce seed of trout need to be developed at suitable sites, for which
the project will contribute Rs.10 million, to be utilized for developing hatcheries. Similarly, to support
the GoHP programs for conservation of wildlife, the project will contribute Rs. 6.25 million.

E-23

Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS
Institutional Framework
8.1
Whereas the primary responsibility to implement the EMP is of the SJVN, a number of EMP
activities, such as the compensatory afforestation, the CAT plan, the fisheries and the wildlife
conservation support activities will be implemented by the state government agencies.
8.2
In view of the extensive hydropower development planned in Himachal Pradesh and the
limited capacity of the Forest Department of GoHP to implement the compensatory afforestation and
catchment area treatment plan in the Sutlej basin, the Forest Department and the hydropower
development agencies (particularly SJVN) will share the implementation responsibility. The overall
principle of such division of responsibility would be to make best use of the comparative advantages
for implementation (which suggests that all mechanical, i.e. non-plantation works will be
implemented directly by the hydropower agencies). The cost norms will be as per the Forest
Department norms, and overall monitoring will be done by the Upper Satluj Watershed Society (a
part of the Forest Department). For the Nathpa-Jhakri and the Rampur projects, SJVN will discuss on
the actual division of works with the Conservator of Forests (CF), Rampur Circle. The forest
department will also modify the catchment area treatment plans, so as to treat the priority areas
(such as current landslides) first. To this end SJVN and the CF, Rampur Circle will review and agree
on the modified CAT plan. Additionally, as per the recent discussion between the SJVN and the GoHP,
an integrated CAT plan will be prepared for the entire Sutlej basin, based on satellite imageries and
remote sensed data. SJVN will prepare this plan.
8.3
As per the hydropower policy of the state, the GoHP will constitute a multi-disciplinary
committee under the chairmanship of Chief Minister. Other members shall be state Power Minister
(Vice Chairman), Minister/Member of Legislative Assembly of the area where Projects are being
executed, representatives of the hydropower company, representatives from various concerned state
government departments, Chairman/Managing Director of the concerned Power Utility and Chairman,
Local Area Development Committee (LADC). The Committee will be monitoring the issues arising
during the implementation of the project; employment related monitoring, relief and rehabilitation,
review of progress of LADC schemes, implementation of CAT plan, compensatory afforestation,
environmental management plan, and restoration of facilities which get damaged because of the
implementation of the project. The committee will also review the recommendations (and
implementation thereof) of the Forum of Hydroelectric Power Producers. The Committee will draw up
the methodology to regulate the payments to be made by the Company to the various departments
of the Government in connection with the implementation of the project.
8.4
The World Bank (financed by PPIAF) is also supporting the GoHP through a technical
assistance in preparing river basin development optimization strategies, for the Sutlej basin. The
ongoing study would demonstrate the methodology for optimization of hydro-development in the
Sutlej basin with the goal of facilitating coordinated and sustainable development by private and
public sector developers, with due regard for the environmental and social impact of river-basin-wide
development. The optimization study will cover environmental and social implications of multi-project
development, including but not limited to: (i) implications for water resource management, (ii)
catchment area treatment plans, (iii) potential cumulative impact on natural forests and other
protected areas; (iv) social impacts arising from multiple projects; and (v) communication/public
outreach issues.
Adaptive Management of Environmental Issues
8.5
SJVN has adopted a corporate environmental mission statement and environmental policies.
The SJVN mission statement (developing and supplying to the nation, state and local communities,

E-24

Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

and efficient, economic, environmentally sustainable, and socially responsible hydropower) stresses
the need to develop adequate long-term capacity to mange environmental issues in all its projects.
The environment policy specifically requires SJVN to develop and maintain adaptive environmental
management mechanisms and adequate risk management systems. To this end, SJVN has prepared
an adaptive environmental management plan for its corporate operations. This would help managing
environmental issues in the Rampur project.
Continuous Stakeholder Consultation
8.6
The project will continue to engage the local communities and stakeholders, through periodic
public consultation meeting, special events such as cultural programs, and will take community view
in consideration in all stages of the project construction and operation. A community communication
plan has also been prepared, and will be implemented by SJVN. The PIC will also continue to function
throughout the project construction and operation period for continued public disclosure, and for
recording public comments and suggestions. A committee consisting of representatives from the
state government, elected representatives, PAPs and project implementing agency has been
constituted to serve as grievance redressal committee to deal with the grievances of the project
affected people.
Institutional Capacity Building
8.7
SJVN has already taken a number of actions to augment the capacity of the environmental
cell. For medium term capacity building, a capacity building plan has been prepared. It includes the
development plan for staffing of the environmental cell, and procurement of monitoring equipments.
Additionally, a detailed training plan has been prepared, which includes training of the staff of the
environmental and social cell, training of contractors staff, as well as training of the corporate and
project level managerial staff on environmental management.
9

BUDGET FOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT


The overall budget for implementing the EMP is INR 455 million (~ US$ 11 million). A detailed breakup is given in Table below.
Table E.4 Budget for Implementing EMP
Implementation
Responsibility

Item
Compensatory Afforestation including payment of NPV of Forests
Wildlife Conservation

HP State Forest
Department (SFD)

Catchment Area Treatment Plan

SFD and SJVN

Muck disposal Plan, including Restoration of the Disposal Areas

SJVN

Budget
Million INR

Million USD

66.03

1.59

6.25

0.15

219.90

5.30

23.66

0.57

Restoration and Landscaping of Sites directly affected by the Project

SJVN

2.50

0.06

Fisheries Development Activities

Hp Fisheries Department

10.00

0.24

Sanitation Facilities

SJVN

21.86

0.53

Solid Waste Management

SJVN

11.11

0.27

Construction of Settling Tanks

SJVN

2.00

0.05

Sewage Treatment Facilities for Jagatkhana and Brow towns

SJVN

10.00

0.24

Pilot Works on Muck Dumping & Active Landslide Sites

SJVN

5.00

0.12

Public Awareness Programme

SJVN

0.50

0.01

Development of Environmental Laboratory and Monitoring Instruments


for Rampur Project

SJVN

1.95

0.05

Control of Pollution from


Labour Camp during
Construction

E-25

Rampur Hydropower Project: Executive Summary of EA

Item

Implementation
Responsibility

Environmental Monitoring during Project Construction and Operation

HP Pollution Control Board

Independent Environmental Monitoring, Regulatory Compliance, Reporting) SJVN


Environmental Monitoring
Equipment, Tools and MIS
Software (Corporate &
Project)

Budget
Million INR

Million USD

7.50

0.18

10.00

0.24

Environmental Monitoring

SJVN

5.50

0.13

Silt Analysis

SJVN

3.00

0.07

Emergency Communication and Information


SJVN
Systems

3.50

0.08

1:15,000 Topographic Maps

SJVN

2.50

0.06

Emergency Preparedness Plan: VSAT for communication

SJVN

5.00

0.12

Adoption of Environment management Systems (ISO-14000 & OSHAS18000) Rampur Project

SJVN

2.00

0.05

Panel of Safety Experts


Implementation of
Environmental Training
Program (Corporate &
Project)

SJVN

6.60

0.16

On-Site Training

SJVN

17.20

0.41

Off-Site Training in India

SJVN

5.60

0.13

Overseas Training & Exposure Visits


(Environment & Sediment Control)

SJVN

Total Budget for EMP Implementation

6.00

0.14

455.16

10.97

NOTE: In addition to the above budget for implementation of the EMP, the budget for Implementation of the RAP and the SCDP are INR
320 million (USD 7.7 million) and INR 256.8 million (USD 6.2 million).

The budget for implementing the RAP (INR 320 million ~ US$ 7.7 million) and the Sustainable
Community Development Plan (INR 256.8 million ~ US$ 6.2 million) is not included in the Table
above. The total budget for managing social and environmental issues in the project is US$ 25
million, which is about 4% of the overall project cost.

E-26

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION &
PROJECT
BACKGROUND

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

1.1

INTRODUCTION & PROJECT DESCRIPTION


The Rampur Project
Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (SJVNL), a joint venture owned by the Union Government of India
India (GOI) and the State Government of Himachal Pradesh (GoHP), will construct a 412MW hydro
project known as Rampur Hydroelectric project (RHEP) on river Satluj in Himachal Pradesh The
project will tap the hydropower potential of the Satluj River between Jhakri and Bael villages and
project will be a tailrace development of the 1500MW Nathpa-Jhakri Hydro Electric Project (NJHEP)
constructed and operated by SJVNL. The operation of RHEP would be closely interlinked with
NJHEP project.
The RHEP will divert 383.88 cubic m per second (cumec) of de-silted water of the tailrace pool of
NJHEP through 15km headrace tunnel to a surface power station near Bael Village. On completion,
the project would utilise a gross head of 138m to generate approximately 1969.69 GWh of design
energy in a 90% dependable year. The catchment area of the Satluj at the Nathpa dam is
49,800km2, and up to Rampur HEP is 50,800km2. Several tributaries join the Satluj between the
Nathpa Dam and the RHEP tailrace outfall.
The main works of the RHEP comprise of the Head Race Tunnel from the Rampur Intake, which
envisages diversion of the entire 383.88 cumec of desilted water from Tail Race Outfall of NJHEP
located on the left bank of river Satluj at Jhakri. The water from Rampur Intake structure shall be
conveyed to the right bank through a cut & cover Conduit, 10.50 m dia HRT of 15.08 Km length
terminating into a 140 m high, 38 m dia Surge Shaft. The length of HRT on left bank is 484 m
before it crosses the river Satluj with a 43.2 m long Cut and Cover Conduit. The water will further
enter into three underground penstocks 5.4 m dia each bifurcating into six Branch Tunnels each of
3.8 m diameter, to feed six generating units in a surface Power House equipped with Francis
turbines driven generating unit each of 68.67 MW capacity.
Since Rampur hydro project will take water from the NJHP tailrace, it will require neither a dam nor
any new reservoir capacity or land inundation. No desilting chambers will be required since desilted
water from NJHP plant will be used. Owing to Run-of-river design of RHEP, environmental and
social impacts are not very serious in nature and are manageable.
The power generated by Rampur HEP will feed the Northern Indian Energy Grid, directly benefiting
consumers in the states of north India and improving the availability of power at reasonable cost.

1.2

Project Location
The Rampur hydroelectric project is located about 115km east of Shimla, the capital of the state of
Himachal Pradesh (Figure 1.1). The project area falls within latitudes 77o35N to 77o43 N and
longitudes 31o23E to 31o30E (Figure 1.2).
Various sites of the Project are approachable by project roads connected to National Highway-22
on the left bank of the river stream. RHEP project is one among series of projects that are being
developed on river Satluj. It is located in the Jhakri village on the left bank of Satluj.
The catchment area of Satluj at Rampur discharge site, about 7 km up stream of the proposed
RHEP Power House site, is about 50,800 sq. km, of which about 30% falls in India and the
remaining portion in China, which is mainly covered with snow.

1-1

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 1.1 Location of Shimla Town and the State of Himachal Pradesh India
There are number of tributaries flowing into the Satluj between Nathpa Dam and Rampur tailrace
outfall. Both of its banks have population residing at high elevation as well as close to the river. In
the project affected stretch of river Satluj (of about 23km from Jhakri to Bael villages) the major
town is Rampur, and there are another 53 villages (24 villages on left bank and 29 villages on right
bank) Right bank is relatively less populated or developed. The RHEP would use right bank for
headrace tunnel and other facilities of the project. Rampur town is the main human settlement with
a population of about 10,000, and offers relatively better socio economic conditions.

Boundary of
Satluj Basin

Rampur
project

Figure 1.2 Location of the Satluj Basin within Himachal Pradesh

1-2

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

1.3

Context of the Project

1.3.1

Hydropower Potential in India


India, on account of the great river systems and favourable geographical features, has a vast
potential for hydropower estimated over 84000 MW at 60 percent load factor with an anticipated
generation of 600 billion units per year. The various hydroelectric schemes presently under
operation utilise only about 14-15 % of the total potential. Efforts are on to increase the present
installed capacity. For the purpose of hydroelectric development, the river basins could be divided
into six major groups namely Indus, Brahmaputra, Ganga, Central Indian Rivers, West Flowing
Rivers and East Flowing Rivers. There is a broad consensus in the Government of India to expand
power generation by developing the countrys hydropower potential of which, very less has been
harnessed so far. While State and Central Government agencies are largely concentrating on megahydel projects, the private sector is being roped in to execute the mini- and micro-hydel segment
projects. Funding for these projects has come in from the World Bank, private banks like ICICI,
nationalized banks like Central Bank of India, various State Banks, and institutions like IFCI and
PFC. As per the estimates of CEA, region wise hydro power potential of India has been given
below:
Table1.1 - Hydropower Potential of India
Region

Principal Features of Hydro Project


Potential at
60%Load
Factor

Feasible
Installed
Capacity in MW

Potential in
billion kWh
per year

Pumped Storage
Feasible Installed
Capacity in MW

Small Hydro (up


to 25 MW)
Potential in MW

Northern

30155

53405

225

13065

5210

Western

5679

8928

31.4

39684

2100

Southern

10768

16446

61.8

17750

2230

5590

10965

42.5

9125

1660

31857

58956

239.3

16900

3330

84044

148700

600

95524

14530

Eastern
North-Eastern
Total

Source: Estimates of Centtral Electricity Authority (CEA)


Note on potential: Estimates of Small Hydro potential vary. According to one estimate, it could exceed 10,000 MW. Grid
quality power potential from wind, small hydro and biomass is estimated to be about 50,000 MW.

To tap the existing hydroelectric potential, Government of Himachal Pradesh has undertaken
several projects. The sites thus identified by the State Government are complying with the
guidelines prescribed by the Central Government and the procedure thus followed insists upon a
greater public consultation, better monitoring of environmental and social aspects of projects,
improvements in resettlement policy and practise, as well as in institutional capacity related to
project identification, engineering and design.
1.3.2

Hydro Power Potential in Himachal Pradesh


The State has been hallowed by tremendous hydropower potential. A comparative overview with
regard to hydropower potential of various river basins in the state has been presented below (Table
1.2). The total potential of various river basins in the State in terms of power generation is
estimated to be 20463.5 MW approx. As of June, 2003, Himachal Pradesh had 145 Hydro Electric
projects worth Rs.47, 479 crore in various stages of planning and implementation. Table 1.3 gives
an overview of capacities of different ongoing and proposed projects hydroelectric projects on the
Satluj in Himachal Pradesh (also see Figure 1.3).

1-3

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 1.3 Operating and Proposed Hydropower Projects in the Satluj Basin

1-4

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 1.2 - Hydropower Potential in River Basins of Himachal Pradesh


River Basin

Identified potential (MW)

Satluj
Beas

9728
4293

Ravi

2181

Chenab

3301

Yamuna

960

TOTAL

20463

Source: EIA for Rampur HEP, H.P, Year 2005, SJVNL Consultancy Division, Oct, 2005

Table 1.3
Type
Currently
Generating
Projects
(3145.0MW)

Projects
under
Construction
(2283.5MW)

Proposed
Projects
under
Investigation
(2760.5
MW)

Name of
Project

Hydropower potential of Satluj Basin in Himachal Pradesh


Generation
Capacity
(MW)

Bhakra

1200.0

Implementing
Agency / Owner

Bhakra Beas Board

SJVNL

Nathpa-Jhakri

1500.0

120.0

HP Electricity
Board

Nogli Stage I

Ganvi

22.5

HP Electricity
Board

Baspa Stage II

300.0

Ganvi-II

10.0

HP Electricity
Board

Rampur

412.0

Bhava
Augment

5.5

HP Electricity
Board

Keshang-I

66.0

Sorang

60.0

Sal I

6.5

SVP Bhaba

Karchham
Wangtoo

2.5

1000.0

Kol Dam

800.0

Shongtong
Karchham

402.0

Kashang II

60.0

Tidong I

100.0

Kashang III

132.0

Thopan
Powari

400.0

Khab

600.0

400.0?

Luhri

600.0?

Jangi Thopan
Other
Identified
Proposed
Projects
(619.0 MW)

Name of Project Generation


Implementing
Capacity
Agency / Owner
(MW)

Kuling Lara

40.0

Lara

60.0

Ropa

60.0

Mane Nadang

70.0

Lare Sumate

104.0

Sumate Khatang

130.0

Chango
Yangthang

140.0

Kut Khad

15.0

HP Electricity
Board
JP (Private Sector)
SJVNL
Private Sector
NTPC
-

SJVNL
SJVNL
-

Source: SJVNL, Infra/ Consultancy Division Oct, 2005

1.4

Rationale for the Project

1.4.1

Demand for Energy in India


India is on a road to rapid growth in economy. During the period 1981-2000, it has witnessed an
impressive GDP growth rate of around 6%/yr. Policy initiatives of the Government of India during
the past decade have resulted in a faster growth of GDP and forecasts by several agencies point
towards continued growth of Indian economy. Reports suggest that India has the potential to show
the fastest growth over the next 30 to 50 years. Growth could be higher than over the next 30

1-5

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

years and close to 5% as late as 2050 if development proceeds successfully. To ensure that the
development proceeds successfully, Government of India has been very proactive and several steps
have been taken in the recent past. These include policy initiatives as well as planning and
launching of projects aimed at improving energy, transport and communication infrastructure in the
country.
As elsewhere in the world, the energy and electricity growth in India is closely linked to growth in
economy. Since Independence, average growth rate of electricity generation over the entire period,
has been an impressive 8.6%/yr. In spite of this impressive growth, per capita electricity as well as
primary energy consumption are still very low. In addition, the share of non-commercial energy
resources continues to be much higher than what it is in developed countries. Domestic production
of commercial energy has registered an average growth of about 5.9%/yr during the period 19812000. Various constraints, particularly poor hydrocarbon resource base, have forced an increased
reliance on energy imports, which have grown at the rate of about 7.1%/yr. The electricity sector
also has experienced severe shortages during the above period despite an impressive growth.
During the year 2000-01, there was an average electricity shortage of 7.8% and a peak power
demand shortage of 13% . It has now increased to 10% and 15% respectively.
The growth rate of electricity has been substantially higher than other forms of energy, the reason
being convenience of use and cleanliness at the user end. Electricity generation in India during the
fiscal year 2002-03 was about 532 billion kWh from electric utilities and about 104 billion kWh from
captive power plants. On per capita basis it turns out to be about 610 kWh per year. As already
mentioned, Indias GDP has been growing quite fast and it is forecast that it will continue to be so
in the coming decades. GDP growth is accompanied with growth of primary energy consumption as
well as electricity consumption.
1.4.2

Power Demand Scenario in the Country


India has achieved remarkable progress in the field of power development since independence in
1947. The rate of growth of installed capacity, though impressive, has not been able to keep pace
with the increase in power demand and the country is presently facing peak power shortages of
varying degree in various regions of the country.
The power availability in 2005-06, in the northern region, comprising Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, UP and Uttaranchal, was 168, 511
million units (MU) against the requirement of 188,418 MU. This region suffered a shortfall of
19,907 MU in 2005-06 which works out to be 10.6 per cent.
In a projection made by Assocham on Power Sector Performance, since only about one-third of
10th Plan capacity target addition had been accomplished by March, the impact would be much
higher in the northern and western regions, which suffered power shortage to the extent of 11 and
14 per cent during 2005-06. In the year 2006-07, total energy and peak energy demands in the
northern region shall be 220,820 MU and 355,540 MU against availability of 181,468 MU and
29,667 MU respectively. Thus, there shall be deficit of 17.8% and 16.5% for total energy and peak
energy respectively, in the northern region. These deficit figures for all India are 12.9% and 12.3%
respectively. Further, the Report of the Group on Power for 10th Plan estimated the need based
capacity addition of 62,213 MW during 11th Plan.
Thus, it is necessary to commission projects to generate power to bridge the ever-increasing gap in
demand and supply scenario. Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (SJVNL) has proposed for complete
Basin development by constructing several hydropower projects along the Satluj basin (refer Fig
1.2) to exploit such an enormous source of energy which lies untapped in the State.

1-6

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

1.4.3

Need for Hydropower


India, on account of the great river systems and favourable geographical features, has a vast
potential for hydropower, estimated to be over 84000 MW at 60 percent load factor (60% L.F.)
with an anticipated generation of 600 billion units per year. The various hydroelectric schemes
presently under operation in the country utilise only about 14-15 % of the total potential. Efforts
are on to increase the present installed capacity. For the purpose of hydroelectric development, the
river basins could be divided into six major groups namely Indus, Brahmaputra, Ganga, Central
Indian Rivers, West Flowing Rivers and East Flowing Rivers. There is a broad consensus in the
Government of India to expand power generation by developing the countrys hydropower potential
of which, very less has been harnessed so far. While State and Central Government agencies are
largely concentrating on mega-hydel projects, the private sector is being roped in to execute the
mini- and micro-hydel segment projects. Funding for these projects has come in from the World
Bank, private banks, and institutions like IFCI and PFC.
To tap the existing hydroelectric potential, Government of Himachal Pradesh has undertaken
several projects on various sites which identified by the State Government in compliance with the
guidelines prescribed by the Central Government. Procedure thus followed insists upon a greater
public consultation, better monitoring of environmental and social aspects of projects,
improvements in resettlement policy and practise, as well as in institutional capacity related to
project identification, engineering and design.

1.4.4

Identification of Rampur Hydro-Electric Project


Rampur HE Project was identified by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) as the least cost option
plan for meeting the projected energy and power shortage in the Northern Region by the end of
11th Five Year plan i.e. by 2011-12). Environmentally Rampur HE Project is least damaging owing to
its nature being run of the river scheme and advantageous location between Nathpa Jhakri (1500
MW) project which is under operation and Luhari (425 MW) project, which is under planning. As
both the upstream and down stream projects are also run of the river schemes,
Rampur HEP will
have no effect on the operation of upstream and downstream projects.
The design of the Rampur scheme encompasses the experience gained from successful projects in
hydropower in India, and in its preparation has avoided the pitfalls experienced by the less
successful hydroelectric projects. Rampurs technical design, layout and cost estimates result from
careful analysis of alternatives. A range of sites, capacities, designs and engineering techniques
were studied, before the final layout and design was decided upon.
Further rationale for the Rampur Hydropower project is described in the section on the Analysis of
Alternatives, below.

1.5

Analyses of Alternatives

1.5.1

Identification of the Rampur Project


The key GoI policy statements that guide hydropower development are National Policy for
Hydropower Development (1998) and the 50,000 MW Hydroelectric Initiative (2003). The latter
sets a long term target for hydroelectric power to meet 40% national generation mix, and medium
term target as 28.63% of generation mix by end 10th Plan (the starting point being 25% in 2003).
The policy statements describe the policy objectives of hydropower development as: (i)
environmental benefits, in particular avoidance of pollution and emissions from thermal plant (ii)
benefits for power system operation, especially for meeting peak demand (iii) energy security reducing exposure to fuel price and supply risks. The policy statements also propose several policy
actions to promote hydropower.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

A key feature of these policy statements is the concept of planning for the development of a shelf
(portfolio) of hydroelectric projects.
India had adopted a portfolio approach to project
development given (i) the scale of projected demand increases relative to individual project size
(ii) the benefits of having a portfolio of projects in terms of diversifying project development and
timing risks.
1.5.2

Initial Ranking of Hydropower Projects


In October 2001, Central Electricity Authority (CEA) produced a study which ranked 399 candidate
hydro schemes (with an aggregate capacity of est. 106,910 MW) into three categories (A,B & C)
according to the following criteria: (i) rehabilitation and resettlement impacts (ii) whether projects
are in areas subject to international water treaties (iii) likelihood of delay due to complexities of
inter-state co-ordination (iv) project size (v) type of scheme, preference being given to projects
that do not involve large storage (vi) height of dam, preference being given to projects with lower
dams (vii) length of tunnel / channel, preference being to projects with shorter tunnels (vii) status
of upstream and downstream hydroelectric project development, preference given to projects on
rivers were there are already other projects (ix) accessibility of site (x) status of project
development, preference being given to projects for which site investigations and feasibility studies
are ready. This approach, therefore, screened a large universe of candidate projects using proxy
indicators for (i) environmental impact (ii) political risk (iii) construction risk, (iv) project cost, and
(v) development lead time. Rampur is a CEA category A project, high in the development portfolio.

1.5.3

Analysis & Prioritization


A major activity under the 50,000 MW (2003) initiative was preparation of Preliminary Feasibility
Reports (PFRs) for 162 new hydroelectric projects. CEA was charged with responsibility for leading
this exercise, and it in turn tasked a number of agencies, including SJVNL. PFRs were prepared in
accordance with CEA guidelines. A PFR includes conceptual project design, preliminary project and
equipment layouts, environmental and geological studies, planning for power evacuation, cost
estimates and financial appraisal. The 162 PFRs where then screened according to the following
criteria; (i) projected levelised tariff below Rs 2.5 / kWh 78 met this criterion (ii) excluding
projects with major environmental impacts or international issues 5 were excluded on this basis.
Therefore 73 projects were selected for detailed feasibility analysis. Rampur project is one of these.
Detailed Project Reports follow a methodology specified by CEA. The main components of this
feasibility analysis are: (i) comparison of alternative technical options for exploitation of the hydro
resource (ii) hydrological analysis (iii) quantification of power generation potential (iv) site survey
(v) geological investigation (vi) construction methodology and equipment design (v) environmental
assessment (vi) financial analysis.

1.5.4

Development Status of Hydropower Projects in the Indus Basin


There are 9 projects (excluding 4 small projects of capacity 27-85MW) in the entire Indus basin
ranked higher than the Rampur project in the CEA pre-feasibility ranking exercise. Of these 2
project are in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, and are yet to be taken up for construction. The
remaining projects are in the Satluj basin. Two of these projects (Allain Duhangan- 192MW and
Karcham Wangtoo-1000MW) are under development by private entrepreneurs. For 4 other projects
(all in the range of 420-600MW) detailed project reports are being prepared, and for one project
(Shongtong Karcham 780MW) the preparation is yet to start.

1.5.5

Projects Design Alternatives


Six alternative layouts had been formulated and analyzed for Rampur Hydroelectric Project. As the
intake structure for the Rampur project had already been built along with the outfall structure of

1-8

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

the 1500 MW (6 x 250 MW) Nathpa Jhakri project this is a constant in all the 6 alternative
layouts.
ALTERNATIVE I: Beyond Rampur intake, around 402 m long 10.5m diameter concrete lined
Head Race Tunnel (including suitable transition from 10.15 m to 10.5 m diameter) on the left bank
will join a 182m long steel lined inverted siphon aqueduct of 10.50 m diameter. Immediately after
the inverted siphon aqueduct, a concrete lined circular headrace tunnel having 10.5 m diameter
and about 14.5 km long begins on the right bank of river Satluj. This alternative envisages an
open to sky, surge shaft of 38m diameter and about 140m depth along with three numbers
partially underground penstocks of 5.4m diameter, 402/409m long each and a valve chamber for
housing three Butterfly valves. The surface powerhouse will be located on the right bank of the
river Satluj near village Bael to utilize a gross head of 138.7 m with an installed capacity of 412
MW. The powerhouse cannot be located further downstream, since the area is a low lying flat
made of alluvium through which tunneling is not possible. It is not feasible to construct a channel
due to presence inhabitation and agricultural field in the area. Therefore, the water is led to the
river through a relatively short tailrace tunnel of around 54m length. For this alternative no desilting arrangement or storage reservoir is envisaged since only silt free and regulated flows from
tailrace of Jhakri powerhouse are proposed to be utilized for power generation.
The proposed headrace tunnel cuts across all the three rock groups viz., the Jeori-Wangtu Gneissic
complex, Kullu group and Rampur group, thereby negotiating both the thrusts interpreted in the
area. A major fold axis viz., Rampur Anticlinal axis is interpreted adjoining the Suman Khad
crossing besides the general tunneling problems expected in the Himalayas. The closely jointed
and fractured quartzite along the thrusted contact between the Jeori Wangtu Gneissic complex and
Rampur Group is for an approximate thickness of 500 meters. Hot water conditions along the above
mentioned thrust shall have to be tackled. The surface temperature of hot water from the spring is
reported to be about 31oC. However, the temperature at depth is likely to be higher.
During construction, this proposal involves problems of handling a large diameter steel lined
inverted siphon aqueduct and problem of accumulation of silt at the bend /depression points of the
inverted siphon during operation. The more complicated inverted siphon will take longer to
construct. Silt would deposit in the siphon when power discharge is low or during shut down. The
longer the shut down the more will be the silt deposit. It will cause operational problems. Further,
the siphon will have to be long due to (i) the need to achieve workable gradients and (ii) the
requirement of clearance of its ends from river banks.
ALTERNATIVE II: This is a modification of Alternative I. The difference is that the river crossing
is proposed by means of a 43.2m long cut and cover reinforced cement concrete conduit in place of
the deep siphon aqueduct of Alternative-I. In addition, construction of upstream and down stream
coffer dams and a concrete lined horseshoe shaped diversion tunnel of 10m diameter and 223.5m
length are also involved. The remaining components like 10.5m diameter and 15.08km long HRT,
38m diameter 140m deep open to sky surge shaft, three partially underground steel penstocks of
5.4m diameter and 402/409m length, a surface Butterfly valve house, surface power house near
village Bael and a tail race tunnel are similar to those of Alternative-I for utilizing a gross head of
138.7m with an installed capacity 412 MW.
The proposed headrace tunnel cuts across all the three rock groups viz., the Jeori-Wangtu Gneissic
complex, Kullu group and Rampur group, thereby negotiating both the thrusts interpreted in the
area. A major fold axis viz., Rampur Anticlinal axis is interpreted adjoining the Suman Khad
crossing besides the general tunneling problems expected in the Himalayas. The closely jointed
and fractured quartzite along the thrusted contact between the Jeori Wangtu Gneissic complex and
Rampur Group is for an approximate thickness of 500 meters.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Hot water conditions along the above mentioned thrust shall have to be tackled. The surface
temperature of hot water from the spring is reported to be about 31oC. However, the temperature
at depth is likely to be higher. This is being explored further by drilling a hole at the required
location.
Major drainages across the headrace tunnel are the Kajo Khad, the Kuni Khad and the Suman Khad
and the ground cover over the proposed tunnel alignment across these drainages is approximately
100 m, 250 m and 80 m respectively. The depth to bed rock and requirement of minimum sound
rock cover in these sections vis--vis internal water pressure in the tunnel will have to be kept in
view during the construction stage.
The Suman Khad - HRT intersection (bend) lies in the axial zone of the Rampur Anticline. The
tunnel is interpreted to lie within phyllite/metabasic flows in this section and the metabasics are
expected to be of a poor tunneling media.
The Kullu group of rocks is hetrogeneous in nature and as such is expected to be more problematic
while tunneling. Presence of limestone with solution effects and inflow of water along with weak
carb-phyllites may pose tunnelling problems.
The proposed headrace tunnel will have a ground cover of less than 600m for a length of around
13km. The ground, however, touches a maximum elevation of 2080m (near Kumsu, east of
Nermand) indicating the maximum ground cover over the tunnel to be about 1100 meters. This
stretch of around 1800 meters will need additional precautions coupled with timely treatment so as
to achieve good progress in adverse tunnelling conditions.
The option of providing an underground powerhouse near village Bael would be to locate it in
phyllites, carb phyllites and lime-stone strata with solution effects in a synclinal structure, which is
likely to pose a number of problems while tunneling. Locating the tailrace tunnel could also be a
problem due to presence of thick river terrace material between the river and underground
powerhouse. As such an underground powerhouse at this location is likely to face a number of
limitations and even Geological Survey of India has opined in favour of a surface powerhouse at
this location. In this connection, a preliminary geological report on Rampur HEP, District Shimla
(Himachal Pradesh) by Mr. Yogendra Deva of Geological Survey of India for Annual Programme
1996-97 be referred. [Appendix 2, volume IV of Detailed Project Report on Rampur HEP (May
2005)]. In contrast, the surface powerhouse location here is more favorable on account of being on
the riverbank and well above the highest flood level.
ALTERNATIVE III: This is similar to alternative-II except that the powerhouse is located near
village Behna at the confluence of Behna Khad with river Satluj about 20km downstream of outfall
of alternative-II to gain an additional head of 80.22m. Also, as suggested in the Geological Report
of the Geological Survey of India (1996-97), the proposed headrace tunnel alignment has been
modified so as to increase the rock cover over the tunnel at Kurpan Khad and also to reduce the
maximum rock cover from 1700m in the remaining reach. With this, the length of HRT increases to
36km; and 4 more working adits with a cumulative length of 6km will be required over and above
the adits already envisaged for the proposed 15km long headrace tunnel for Alternative II.
This alternative also contemplates utilization of the entire tailrace discharge of 383.88 cumec from
Nathpa Jhakri HEP and comprises of structures similar to those of Alternative II. The concrete
lined Head Race Tunnel of 10.5m diameter will be from Jhakri tail pond to the surge shaft near
village Behna. As suggested in the Geological Report of the Geological Survey of India (1996-97),
the proposed headrace tunnel alignment has been reviewed and modified so as to increase the
rock cover over the tunnel at Kurpan Khad and also to reduce the maximum rock cover from 1700
meters in the balance reach. With this, the length of HRT increases to 36km. In view of the long
length of HRT, four more working adits with a cumulative length of 6km will be required over and
above the adits already envisaged for the proposed 15.08 km long headrace tunnel for Alternative

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

II. The depth of surge shaft will be about 180m and open to sky, steel lined pressure shaft of
about 350m length and underground powerhouse near village Behna with a tail race tunnel of
about 1km length terminating near the confluence of Behna Khad with river Satluj to utilize a gross
head of 238m with an installed capacity of 690 MW.
The possible underground powerhouse location is in the Dolomite/limestone, phyllite and
carbonaceous phyllite slates. Large solution cavities are present in the dolomite/limestone.
Therefore, the underground powerhouse shall require elaborate support system and may face
heavy water inflow problems. For locating a surface powerhouse, terrace is not wide enough to
accommodate the proposed structure.
ALTERNATIVE IV: In this alternative, powerhouse is envisaged on the left bank of river Satluj.
It envisages a 11km long concrete lined head race tunnel of 10.5m diameter on left bank of river
Satluj from Jhakri to Nogli. A long tailrace tunnel of around 8.2km is required for releasing water
back to Satluj River. The surge shaft would be of 110m height; and steel lined pressure shafts of
5.40 m diameter, about 200m long and an underground power house on right bank of Nogli Khad
are the other features of the alternative. The tailrace tunnel will join the Satluj river immediately
downstream of Duttnagar on NH-22 (opposite to the Kurpan Khad) to utilize a gross head of 147.5
m with an installed capacity of about 424 MW.
Flat bedrock has been proved by geophysical survey along the riverbank, above which the hill
slopes are completely under the cover of unconsolidated overburden, comprising silty/sandy soil
with boulders and rock fragments of quartz mica schist. At the proposed powerhouse site, the Nogli
Khad waters flow through an antiformal valley with the quartzite and phyllite dipping in opposite
directions on the nala banks. A major fault along the Nogli Khad is also suspected. The phyllites on
the right bank of the Nogli Khad are found to be structurally disturbed and weak for which lot of
excavation and rock stabilization problems are expected for the underground complex.
In this alternative, the HRT will encounter overburden or inadequate rock cover in the initial reach.
The tunnel shall pass through a major thrust zone in Brauni Khad area. Huge seepage problem
would be encountered, during construction and operation, as the joints dip towards these caverns.
The caverns will have to be set deep inside the hill. The tailrace will be passing through a thrust
and carbonaceous phyllites. An additional surge shaft in the downstream water conductor will be
required, since it is long. Space for pothead yard will have to be created by excavating huge chunk
of hill on the opposite bank at considerable cost. The only suitable site for adit is too close to
Rampur town. This may not be permissible.
ALTERNATIVE V: This Alternative comprises almost all the features of Alternative-II but
involves picking up additional water from the Satluj river at a point about 500m downstream of its
inter section with Kajo Khad by constructing a diversion dam. It is thus proposed to utilize this
additional water of about 150 cumec through a second 6.2m diameter concrete lined tunnel, which
will run parallel to the HRT of Alternative- II before meeting at surge shaft. An underground de silting chamber on the 6.2m diameter tunnel will also be required. From surge shaft, underground
steel lined pressure shaft of about 200m length will feed a surface powerhouse located near village
Bael, with twin tail race tunnels of about 1km length carrying water to a point near the confluence
of Kurpan Khad with the river Satluj opposite Duttnagar on NH-22. This alternative will utilize a
gross head of 138.7 m with an installed capacity of 574MW and a design discharge of 533.88
cumec.
The geo-technical features of this proposal are similar to those for the alternative II. The
difference lies in the introduction of a diversion dam across the Satluj, an additional HRT of 6.2 m
diameter coupled with a de-silting chamber for picking up the additional 150 cumec of water during
the monsoon months.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

ALTERNATE - VI: This alternative contemplates the construction of a pickup gravity dam with a
dam toe power house near Village Bael so as to utilize the entire releases of Jhakri power house
besides the additional waters generated from the intermediate catchment area. The height of the
dam above the river bed will be around 140m so as to fully utilize the available head between
Jhakri power house and Village Bael. The length of the dam at the top shall be more than 600m at
this location.
In this alternative, large portion of Rampur Township, Brau, Nogli and other villages will have to be
displaced. A wide stretch of arable land will get submerged. Nearly three main bridges, the National
Highway between Khaneri and Nirsu on left bank and Rampur bypass road on right bank as also
the link roads on the two banks will be affected. In addition, 2.5MW Nogli power station and
transmission towers of SJVNL will get submerged. About 100ha of land on right bank owned by
Army will also go under water. Besides the foregoing losses, additional arrangement for periodic
flushing of reservoir during monsoon shall be required to be made thereby disrupting generation of
power for 2 to 3 days at a time. Further, such a scheme does not appear in the master plan of
Hydro Power Development in Sutlej Basin prepared by CEA (2004).
1.5.6

Analyses to Identify the Most Favorable Design Alternatives


Based on the preliminary studies of geological features, environmental and sociological aspects,
project components and operational parameters discussed above, Alternative I, IV and VI were not
considered for further examination. Power potential studies and selection of optimum proposal in
respect of the alternative II, III and V were taken up. The parameters for such investigation
included water availability, water levels in intake pool, tail water level of powerhouse, water
conductor losses, rated head, power generation and installed capacity, and investment cost.
ALTERNATIVE II
Water Availability: Discharge series at Nathpa Dam have been utilized for Rampur H.E.P as the
discharge from tailrace of existing Jhakri Power House would be directly used for Power Potential
studies. Ten daily discharge data series (May to April) for 41 years at Nathpa dam site (1963-64 to
2003-2004) have been given in Annexure -5.1. Ten daily discharge data series (May-April) of
Sholding Khad (1963-64 to 2003-2004) have been given in Annexure 5.2. The series for Sholding
Khad consists of the generated series from 1963-1970 and 1987-2004 and observed data for the
period 1970-1987. Discharge from Sholding Khad restricted to 6 cumec, carried through a tunnel
joins the HRT of Nathpa Jhakri Hydo-Electric Project through a drop tunnel. The discharge from
Sholding Khad alongwith the discharge from Nathpa dam is utilized at Jhakri Power House.
However, for meeting the environmental requirement 15% of minimum flow of the hydrological
series at Nathpa Dam site has been deducted during the lean period, to arrive at the discharges
that eventually after passing through the tail race, is available for generation at Rampur Hydroelectric Project.
Water Levels in Intake Pool: In the tailrace outfall structure of Nathpa Jhakri HEP, an intake
pool in front of Rampur Intake has been provided which has a limited capacity. The tail water level
in the pool is at EL 1005.00 m, when all the six (6) units at Jhakri are running. But when one (1)
unit is running the tail race water level would be EL 1002 m. The average TWL of Jhakri tail pool
would be at EL 1003.5 m.
Tail Water Level (TWL) of Rampur Power House: Geologically good site is available for
locating Power House on right bank of river Satluj near village Bael opposite to Dutt Nagar, which is
about 15 Km downstream of Rampur town. The maximum and minimum tail water levels of
Rampur Hydo-electric project have been fixed as EL 866.7 m & EL 862.9 m respectively. Thus, the
average TWL would be at EL 864.8 m.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Water Conductor Losses of Rampur HEP: Head loss would be varying according to the
variation in discharge from time to time. The water conductor losses in the head race tunnel,
penstocks and tailrace tunnel due to friction and bend losses etc. on different values of water
discharge have been computed as follows:
Table 1.4 Water Conductor Loss in Alternative II
Discharge (cumec)

Head Loss (m)

383.88

19.6

350

16.6

300

13.0

250

9.3

200

6.5

150

4.4

127.96 (corresponding to discharge for two units)

3.2

Rated Head: The gross and net rated heads for Rampur HEP have been determined as indicated
below:

Max. TWL at Jhakri Pool

EL 1005 m

Min. TWL at Jhakri Pool

EL 1002 m

Average TWL at Jhakri Pool

EL 1003.5 m

Normal TWL for Rampur HEP

EL 866.7 m

Min. TWL for Rampur HEP

EL 862.9 m

Average TWL for Rampur HEP

EL 864.8 m

Gross Rated Head

138.70 m

Max. Head Loss in water conductor system at a discharge of 383.88 cumec = 19.60 m

Rated net Head

119.10 m

The 90% And 50% Dependable Years: The 10-daily discharge series (1963-2004) at Nathpa
Dam (Annexure 5.1), and the 10-daily discharge series (1963-2004) of Sholding Khad (Annexure
5.2) have been utilized to determine the dependable years to assess the power potential of the
project.
The discharge series of Sholding Khad (1963-2004) limited to 6 cumec which is restricted by the
capacity of the desilting chamber and tunnel emanating from the Sholding Khad weir, have been
added to the discharge series at Nathpa Dam of respective years. The combined 10-daily
discharge series so obtained is given as Annexure 5.3. Considering various parameters viz.
combined 10-daily discharge, combined turbine generator efficiency of 92%, gross head of 138.70
m and head losses as indicated in para 5.2.4, unrestricted power, and unrestricted energy
generation have been determined as shown in Annexure 5.4 and 5.5 respectively. The
unrestricted energy has been arranged in the descending order as given in Annexure 5.6.
The 90% and 50% dependable years are determined as follows:

90% dependable year = [(N+1) x 0.9] year

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

50% dependable year = [(N+1) x 0.5] year, where N is the total number of years for
which discharge series is available.

Here N is 41, therefore,

90% dependable year = (41+1) x 0.9 = 42x0.9 = 37.8 = 38th year

50% dependable year = (41+1) x 0.5 = 42x0.5 = 21st year

2000-01 and 1972-73 works out to be 90% and 50% dependable years respectively.
Power Generation and Installed Capacity: For the 90% dependable year which works out to
be 2000-01, the power potential assessment has been carried out considering the full utilization of
the discharge from Nathpa Jhakri Power House. The rated discharge of Jhakri plant corresponding
to rated out put of 1500 MW at rated head of 428 m is 383.88 cumec. The same discharge would
be utilized for Rampur HEP. For a given net head of 119.10 m and specific speed of 214.3 RPM,
Francis turbine is an obvious choice. For a discharge of 383.88 cumec and a net head of 119.10 m,
it would be possible to develop 412 MW at Rampur. The annual energy generated, with an installed
capacity of 412 MW, in the 90% dependable year is 2025.55 GWh and the design energy with 95%
availability of installed capacity and allowing for 15% deduction for meeting the environmental
requirement, is 1969.68 GWh. The annual energy generation in the 50% dependable year is
2182.06 GWh. A summary of the study is given below:
Table 1.5 Energy Generation in Alternative II
Particulars
Annual Energy (GWh)
Lean Period Power (MW) (Oct-April)
Design Energy (GWh)

90% dependable year

50% dependable year

2025.55

2182.06

124.42

153.4

1969.68

634.30

781.25

Lean flow load factor (%)

30.20

37.23

Annual load factor (%)

56.12

60.46

Lean Period Energy (GWh) (Oct.-April)

ALTERNATIVE III
Water Availability: This scheme is similar to alternative-II except that the power house is located
near village Behna in the proximity of confluence of Behna Khad with river Satluj about 20 km
downstream of outfall of alternative-II to gain additional head of 80.22 m. The discharge series at
Nathpa Dam and Sholding Khad as adopted in alternative-II, after deducting 15% of minimum flow
of the hydrological series at Nathpa Dam site, during the lean period, to meet the environmental
requirement, has been utilized for generation at Rampur Hydro-electric Project. The ten daily
discharge data series (May-April) at Nathpa dam site (1963-64 to 2003-04) and Sholding Khad
(1963-64 to 2003-04) are given as Annexure 5.1 and 5.2 respectively.
Water Level in Intake Pool: The maximum and minimum levels in tail race pool of Jhakri plant
would be as EL 1005 m and 1002 m respectively as discussed in 5.2.2 above.
Tail Water Level (TWL): The average tail race water level has been estimated to be EL 765.5 m.
Water Conductor Losses of Rampur HEP: Head losses would be varying according to the
variation in discharge from time to time. The water conductor losses in the head race tunnel,
penstock and tail race tunnel due to friction, bend losses etc. have been computed as follows:

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 1.6 Water Conductor Loss in Alternative III


Discharge (cumec)

Head Loss (m)

383.88

38.68

350

32.42

300

24.24

250

17.32

200

11.66

150

7.25

127.96

5.28

Rated Head: The net rated head has been computed considering average tailrace water level as
EL 1003.5 m at Jhakri (refer Sec 5.2.5), which is also intake for Rampur HEP and average tail water
level as EL 765.5 m at the proposed power house site. The rated head adopted for the turbines
has been taken as 199.32 m as indicated below.

Max. TWL at Jhakri Pool

EL 1005 m

Minimum TWL at Jhakri Pool

EL 1002 m

Average TWL at Jhakri Pool

EL 1003.5 m

Tail water level at proposed Power house site = EL 765.5 m

Gross rated head

Head loss in water conductor system at a discharge of 383.88 cumce = 38.68 m

Net rated head

238.0 m

199.32 m

For a net rated head of 199.32 m and specific speed of 125.5 RPM, Francis turbine is an obvious
choice. Alternative III provides a gain of net head of 80.22 m over Alternative-II.

The 90% and 50% Dependable Years: The combined 10-daily discharge series as given in
Annexure 5.3, has been utilized to determine 90% and 50% dependable years. Unrestricted
power and unrestricted energy have been determined considering the combined 10-daily discharge,
combined turbine generator efficiency of 92%, gross head of 238 m and water conductor losses as
indicated in para 5.3.4, and are given in Annexure 5.9 and 5.10 respectively.
The unrestricted energy has been arranged in descending order as given in Annexure 5.11 and
90% and 50% dependable years determined as explained in para 5.2.6. The years 2000-01 and
1972-73 are the 90% and 50% dependable years respectively, as given in Annexure 5-11.

Power Generation and Installed Capacity: For the 90% dependable year, which works out to
be 2000-01, the power potential assessment has been carried out considering the full utilization of
the discharge from Jhakri Power House. With a discharge of 383.88 cumec and a net head of
199.32 m. it would be possible to develop 690 MW approximately. The annual energy generated
with an installed capacity of 690 MW in the 90% dependable year is 3426.87 GWh and the design
energy with 95% availability of installed capacity, is 3239.75 GWh. The annual energy generation
in the 50% dependable year is 3769.88 GWh. A summary of the study is as given below:

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 1.7 Energy Generation in Alternative III


Particulars

90% dependable year

Annual Energy (GWh)

3426.87

Design Energy (GWh)

50% dependable year


3687.71

3239.75

Lean Period Power [MWc (Oct-April)]

213.66

262.33

Lean Period Energy (GWh) (Oct-April)

1089.24

1336.04

Lean flow load factor (%)

30.97

38.02

Annual Load factor (%)

56.70

61.01

ALTERNATIVE V
Water Availability: This scheme is similar to Alternative -II but with an additional utilization of
surplus water available in Satluj river at Jhakri. The 10-day discharge series (1963-2004) at
Nathpa dam and Sholding Khad. The additional discharge diverted from river Satluj, downstream
of Jhakri, by constructing a pick up dam and underground desilting chambers joins the discharges
from the Jhakri power house at the surge shaft through another tunnel of 6.2 m dia parallel to the
main head race tunnel. Further, for meeting the environmental requirement, 15% of minimum flow
of the hydrological series has been deducted during the lean period of the discharge series. The
present study has been done considering a combined discharge of 533.88 cumec.
Water Levels In Intake Pool: As the intake structure of Rampur is at the tail pool of Nathpa
Jhakri HEP, the average tail water level of EL 1003.5 m fixed for Nathpa Jhakri tail pool has been
taken as water level for computation of gross head.
Tail Water Level (TWL): The maximum and minimum tail water levels for the proposed power
house have been kept as EL 866.7 m and EL 862.9 m respectively which are same as in alternative
II.
Water Conductor Losses of Rampur HEP: Head losses would be varying according to the discharge
from time to time. The water conductor losses in the head race tunnel, penstocks and tailrace
tunnel due to friction, bend losses etc. have been computed as follows:
Table 1.8 Water Conductor Loss in Alternative IV
Discharge (cumec)

Head Loss (m)

383.88

19.6

350

16.6

300

13.0

250

9.3

200

6.5

150

4.4

127.96

3.2

Rated Head: The gross head has been considered corresponding to average water level as EL
1003.5m in Intake for Rampur H.E.P at Jhakri & average Tail Water level as EL 864.8m at proposed
Rampur Powerhouse. The rated head adopted for the turbines has been taken as 119.1m as
indicated below.

Normal TWL at Jhakri Pool

EL 1005 m

Minimum TWL at Jhakri Pool

EL 1002 m
1-16

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Max. TWL for Rampur HEP

EL 866.7 m

Minimum TWL for Rampur HEP

EL 862.9 m

Average water level at intake

EL 1003.5 m

Average Tail water level

EL 864.8 m

Gross Rated head

138.70 m

Head Loss in water conductor system at 533.88 cumec = 19.6 m

Net rated head

119.10 m

The 90% And 50% Dependable Years: The combined 10-daily discharge series utilized for
alternative-II, as given in Annexure 5.3, along with the 10 daily discharge series of additional
flow, from the pick up dam has been utilized. Unrestricted power and unrestricted energy has
been determined considering the combined 10-daily discharges, combined turbine generator
efficiency of 92%, gross head of 138.70m and water conductor losses as indicated above.
The unrestricted energy has been arranged in descending order and 90% and 50% dependable
years determined to be 2000-01 and 1995-96.
Power Generation and Installed Capacity: For the 90% dependable year the power potential
assessment has been carried out considering the full utilization of the discharge from Nathpa Jhakri
Power House and the additional discharge diverted from Satluj limited to a maximum of 150
cumec. The total discharge is a combination of 383.88 cumec from NJHEP and 150 cumec from
the pick up weir. With a discharge of 533.88 cumec and a net head of 119.10 m, it would be
possible to develop 574 MW approximately. The annual energy generated with an installed capacity
of 574 MW in the 90% dependable year is 2412.49 GWh and the design energy with 95%
availability of installed capacity, is 2312.70 GWh. The annual energy generation in the 50%
dependable year is 2729.41 GWh. A summary of the study is as given below:
Table 1.9 Energy Generation in Alternative II
Particulars

1.5.7

90% dependable year

Annual Energy (GWh)

2412.49

Design Energy (GWh)

50% dependable year


2729.41

2312.70

Lean Period Power [MWc (Oct-April)]

126.55

166.70

Lean Period Energy (GWh) (Oct-April)

645.11

848.95

Lean flow load factor (%)

22.05

29.04

Annual Load factor (%)

47.98

54.28

Overall Selection
Economic analysis has been carried out for alternative- II, III and V. Design energy for alternatives
II and III has been computed considering the water availability from tailrace of Jhakri Power Plant.
For AlternativeV additional discharge diverted from River Satluj by constructing a pick up dam has
also been considered along with the tailrace discharge from Jhakri power house. Plant availability
has been considered as per the norms of Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). The
tariff has also been determined for each case based on prevailing norms.
From all perspectives, alternative II is technically feasible, optimum from social and environmental
impact points of view, and economically the most attractive (Table 1.4).

1-17

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 1.10: Summary Analysis of Alternative Project Designs


Alternative

1.6

Reason for
Rejection

Energy
Generation
(MU)

Tariff (Rs/kWH)

Geological
uncertainties

Note: Considerations include suitability of available construction material, huge


and insurmountable silt load issues.

Levelized

First Year

Investment Cost (Rs.


Crore)

II

2021.98

1.75

1.94

2145.95

III

3329.3

1.97

2.18

3969.64

IV

Geological features,
social issues

VI

Social and
Note: This includes storage and consequent high levels of loss of forests and
environmental impacts private properties. Additionally, the town of Rampur and other human
settlements would need to be displaced.

Note: Considerations include inadequate rock cover, excavation in fragile


material, huge seepage problem; adit at Rampur town.
2366.54

2.81

3.11

4032.66

Construction Components of the Selected Project Design


The project envisages construction of the following structures (Figure 1.4). The salient features of
the project are given in Table 1.11.
Intake Tunnel: A diversion tunnel of 10.50m dia, 169.00 m long to carry design discharge of 405
cumec after puncturing TRT outfall of Nathpa Jhakri Project at 45o angle has already been
constructed.
Cut & Cover River Crossing: A cut & cover river crossing of 10.50m diameter, 43.20m long RCC
box section type is to be constructed to take water from left bank to right bank.
Head Race Tunnel: The water discharge of 405 cumec is carried through a 10.5m diameter and
14.56km long concrete lined head-race tunnel provided on right bank of Satluj up to surge tank.
The tunnel is designed with a bed slope of 1 in 431.
Surge Shaft: A surge shaft is provided at the end of HRT. Surge shaft is concrete lined with
finished diameter of 38m and 140m high open to sky. Surge shaft entry, 3.8m diameter is of
restricted orifice type.
Penstock: Three penstocks of 5.4m diameter steel lined with approximate length of 402m for the
central penstock and 409m for each side penstock.
Powerhouse and Switchyard: A surface power-house 136m long and 23.5m wide including
control room, etc., is proposed to be constructed on the right bank of Satluj river near village Bail.
The power-house and switchyard will be connected to NH-22 on left bank by constructing a bridge
over Satluj.
Tail Race Channel: Tail water will be discharged into river on the downstream side through
horseshoe concrete lined section of 10.5m dia and 7.2km length.
Adits: Four adits have been proposed for construction of head race tunnel. In addition one adit
cum spill tunnel on left bank is also proposed.
Transmission System: Evacuation of power generated at Rampur Hydroelectric Project will be
undertaken by a 400KV Jhakri-Nalagarh D/C line at Duttnagar.

1-18

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 1.4: Location & Lay-out of the Rampur Project

1-19

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 1.11 - Salient Features of Rampur Hydroelectric Project


LOCATION

HYDROLOGY

State

Himachal Pradesh

District

Shimla / Kullu

Vicinity

Intake works are at Jhakri in Distt. Shimla (The tail water


of Nathpa Jhakri HE Project has been utilized) and the
Power House is located on right bank of river Satluj near
village Bayal in distt. Kullu about 15 Km d/s of Rampur

Catchment area at Nathpa

49820 km2

Catchment area at Rampur


(G & D Side)

50880 km2

Design Flood (At Rampur) (As per SJVNL)

INTAKE STRUCTURE

100 Year

4104 m3/sec

1000 Year

5572 m3/sec

10,000 Year

7151 m3/sec

Av. Annual run off in 50%


average ear

10181.22 Mm3

Av. Annual runoff in 90%


average year

8195.35 Mm3

Normal Pond level

1005.00 m

Minimum water level (MWL) 1002 m

INTAKE TUNNEL

Design discharge

383.88 cumec

Top elevation of wall /


structure

1026.5 m (corresponding to Design flood of 5660 cumec


with freeboard of 1.8m)

Number of Intake Gates

2 (6m wide x 7m high)

Type

Circular, concrete lined

Size

10.15m / 10.50 m dia

Length

484 m

Design discharge

383.88 cumces

INTAKE CONDUIT (CUT & Type


COVER)
Length
HEAD RACE TUNNEL

43.2 m

Design discharge

383.88 cumec

Type

Circular Concrete lined

Size

10.50 m finished diameter

Length

15.08 km

Design discharge

383.88 cumec

Bed slopes

1 in 90 & 1 in 431

Velocity
ADITS

Circular Concrete lined, 10.5 m dia.

4.43 m/sec

Length of adit at RD 14625 590 m


m (upstream of surge shaft)
Length of Goshai khad adit
at RD 11720 m

1116 m

Length of adit near Kunni


khad at RD 5854 m

604 m

Length of Kazo khad adit RD 760 m


2712 m
Length of adit, cum spill
tunnel at left bank

342.5 m

All the adits are 7.5 m DShaped

1-20

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

SURGE SHAFT

BUTTERFLY VALVE
CHAMBER

PENSTOCKS

Numbers

One (Open to sky)

Type

Restricted Orifice

Diameter

38 m

Depth

140 m

Orifice dia.

4.45 m

Elevation of centre line of


head race tunnel

949.54 m

Elevation of invert of surge


shaft

944.29 m

Max. up surge

1049.38 m

Minimum down surge

978.05 m

Type

Surface type

Size of chamber

69, long, 10.50 m wide and 23 m high

No. of butterfly valves

3 Nos.

Size of valves

5.40 m internal dia.

Numbers

Three number bifurcating into six

Size

5.40/ 3.80 m circular, steel lined

Type

Partly underground

Length

Middle 489 m (including bifurcation)


Side 499.5 m each (including bifurcation)

Velocity in 3.8 m dia portion 5.64 m/sec


Type and thickness of steel
liner
POWER HOUSE COMPLEX Type

TAIL RACE
TUNNEL/CHANNEL

ASTM-537 (20 mm to 16 mm) (Main pipe) (12 mm)


(Branch pipe)
Surface

Installed capacity

412 MW

Size

136 m long x 23.5 m wide x 47 m high

Type of Turbine

Francis, vertical axis

Speed of Turbine

214.3 RPM

Gross head (Rated)

138.7 m

Net head (Rated)

119.10 m

Generators

6x68.67 MW, 0.9 pf, generation voltage 11 kV

Step up unit Transformers

6 Nos, 84 MVA 3 phase 11/400 kV OFWF type

Type

Horse shoe concrete lined/Trapezoidal

Size

10.5 m dia.

Length

72 m + open channel

Maximum Tail water level


for power generation (Q =
383.88 cumec)

EL 866.70 M

Minimum Tail water level (Q EL 862.90 M


= 32 cumec)
OUTFALL ARRANGEMENT

SWITCHYARD

Type

Broad crested weir type

Crest elevation

EL 862 M

Number of gates

Size of Gate

7.5 m wide x 4.33 m high

Design discharge

383.88 cumec

Size and type

Surface 400 kV Switch Gear


GIS type with double bus bars arrangement

TRANSMISSION OF
POWER

It is proposed to evacuate the power generated at Rampur Hydro Electric Project by


loop-in, loop-out system (LILO) of 400 kV Jhakri Nalagarh D/C line

1-21

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

POWER GENERATION

Annual energy generation in 2077.84 GWh


a 90% Dependable year
Annual energy generation in 2230.31 GWh
a 50% dependable year

COST ESTIMATE

FINANCIAL ASPECTS

1.7

Civil & E&M cost of Project

Rs. 2221.55 Crores

Civil works

Rs. 1565 Crores

Electrical works

Rs. 656.55 Crores

IDC

Rs. 254.36 Crores

Grand Total

Rs. 2475.91 Crores

Cost per MW of installed


capacity

Rs. 5.39 crores

Project Requirements
Land Acquisition
The total land required for the project is approx. 80 ha. The details of the land requirement for the
project are as follows:
Table 1.12 Land Requirement for the Project
Type of land

Area (ha)

Government land/ Forest land

50

Private land

30

Total

80

Construction Material
The Project would involve handling of large quantities of construction materials. The project would
require 3 lakh m3 of concrete for which an estimated 2.72 lakh m3 of coarse aggregate and 1.38
lakh m3 of five aggregate will be required. Similarly large quantity of steel, cement, etc. would be
required. The estimated quantities of construction materials required are given in Table 1.13.
TABLE 1.13 - Estimated Quantities of Construction Materials
Type of Construction material

Unit

Quantity

300,000

Coarse aggregate

272,000

Fine aggregate

m3

138,000

Cement

MT

133,000

Structural steel

MT

5,057

Reinforcement steel

MT

20,323

High tensile strength plates

MT

12,824

Concrete

Source: Detailed Project Report, Rampur 2001

For meeting the requirements of coarse and fine aggregates, it is proposed to use the Koel quarry
site, located on right bank of river Satluj near Pacchada Khad on NH-22 about 2km from the power
house site. Sufficient quantity of deposits is available. The barren government land available in the
vicinity of the Koel quarry area can accommodate crushing plant and other accessories required for
quarrying purpose.

1-22

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Construction Schedule
The project implementation schedule envisages the completion within a period of six years.
1.8

Lessons Learnt from Implementation of the Nathpa-Jhakri Hydropower Project

1.8.1

Major Issues as per Implementation Completion Report


The World Bank funded the construction of the Nathpa Jhakri Hydroelectric power Project (NJHEP).
The two major concerns were:

Tthe speed of decision making within the SJVNL, earlier known as the Nathpa Jhakri
Power Corporation (NJPC),

The time taken for environmental protection and remediation work to be arranged with
the Himachal Pradesh Department of Forests.

One of the major concerns was the issue of the institutional strength of NJPC (now SJVNL). For
example, there are still frequent periods when the organisation has less then its full complement of
Directors. The following issues relating to the NJHP remain. These are of significance to the
Rampur HE project, and will be monitored during project preparation.

There remain some disputed payments on the major civil works contracts as some claims
have been referred to arbitration or court. This is not unusual for large civil works
contracts. At present this does not seem likely to have a major impact on the
contractors enthusiasm for the Rampur project, but this will be monitored. SJVNL have
taken action to revise the scheme of delegation of authority and the procedures for
issuing variation orders to reduce the number of disputes on future contracts;

Implementation of the Catchment Area Treatment plan is still proceeding as planned with
Ministry of Environment and Forests (Government of Himachal Pradesh).
The
implementation is being closely monitored now.

Implementation of all agreed resettlement actions were completed before the project was
commissioned, apart from the allocation of seven shops which was held up due to court
cases. However, since the project was commissioned, the Government of Himachal
Pradesh has retrospectively changed the definition of a project- affected family and thus
additional families have become eligible for resettlement and rehabilitation benefits.
SJVNL is actively processing these new requirements;

NJHP has suffered from a higher than expected silt content in the river water, and
consequently there has been increased wear on the turbines, which has increased
maintenance costs. In August 2005 the project was closed for nearly three weeks due to
excess silt in the water, which was beyond the capacity of the desilting chambers.
Closures due to silt were predicted in the design of NJHP but were expected to be in the
region of 5 days per year. The project authorities are now in the process of determining
the probability that such high silt loads as happened in 2005 are likely to recur. This has
implications for the Rampur project because Rampur can only generate when NJHP is
operating, and Rampur will be utilising the same water. These factors are being taken
into account in the technical design and financial and economic analysis of the project.

To summarise, several elements are essential for the successful implementation of large projects of
such nature. These include:

careful selection of the site and appropriate engineering design;

solid initial investigations, especially regarding geological conditions;

strong and competent implementing agencies with the capacity to take quick decisions;
1-23

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

1.8.2

continued and substantive consultations with stakeholders;

early attention to social and environmental aspects of projects; and

appropriate financing and tariff design which are critical to the financial sustainability of
projects with long gestation periods.

Good Practices implemented in the Nathpa-Jhakri Hydropower Project


Nathpa Jhakri Hydro-Electric Project (NJHEP) is one of the most eco-friendly Projects in the
country. Being run of the river project, it has minimum impact on ecology of the area and least
disturbance to flora and fauna. The positive impact on the environment are on very high scale of
appraisal, because this project will generate in to Northern Region Grid about 7,000 GWh of
electricity each year. In doing so, it will delay the necessity of the construction of either coal or gas
fired thermal plant of the same capacity, and will thus hugely reduce Indias green house gas
emissions and positively impact on Indias global warming effect.
The Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd. has prepared and followed a comprehensive Environment
Management plan and Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan for its various Environment and R&R
related activities.
Environment
Salient features of Environment activities undertaken by SJVNL in Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Project
are as below:
ER & R Department: SJVNL has established a separate ER&R Department for Nathpa Jhakri
Hydroelectric Project site and also at corporate level under the direct control of Director (P). This
department undertakes all activities of Environment and R&R at Project and at corporate level.
Works under Execution through Forest Department, GoHP: The Forest Conservation Act of
1980 stipulates strict forest protection measures and raising compensatory afforestation on double
the degraded forest land in lieu of diversion of forest land for non forest purposes. The 171 hectare
of Forest land and 224 hectare of private land was acquired by SJVNL for the construction activities
of the Project. SJVNL is utilizing 171 hectare of forest land for non forest purposes. To fulfil the
stipulation of Ministry of Environment & Forest, GOI to minimize impacts on the environment in and
around Project site, SJVNL through State Forest Department, GOHP is implementing massive
compensatory afforestation, soil stabilization, avenue plantation and Catchment area treatment
activities.
Figure 1.5 - Afforestation Works in Nathpa-Jhakri Project

1-24

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Under afforestation plan at a cost of 3.20 crores, a total of 6, 73,860 plants of selected species
have been planted in and around the project area. Nurseries have been raised at various

locations through Forest Department GOHP as well as of SJVNL. Soil conservation works
have been carried out by way of constructing check walls, retaining walls and terracing with wire
crates at various locations identified by Forest Department based on the priorities fixed by them
with reference to criticality of the location. A total of 145 hectare area has been treated by Katta
crate technique. A total of 27 kms khads, nallahs, prone to flood have also been treated.
Avenue Plantation: To clean and green the project area, avenue plantation involving more than
10,000 ornamental trees have been planted in and around the Project colony, along the road etc.
Reclamation of Muck Disposal: The reutilization and scientific reclamation of about 65 lacs m3
of muck which was generated from excavation of this mega project was given due care. This
excavated material has been planned to be disposed off in ten muck disposal site duly
rehabilitated. About 22 lacs m3 of muck has been re-utilized for various purposes within the
Project.
Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan: It is well established fact that reservoirs formed due
to construction of dam are subjected to sedimentation. The process of sedimentation embodies
sequential processes of erosion, entrainment, transportation, deposition and compaction of
sediments. The Catchment area Treatment has been envisaged to ensure that sediment load do
not increase due to construction and operation of the project and reservoir life remain at least to
the extent envisaged in the design. The CAT Plan of the Project is a comprehensive activity at an
estimated cost of 29.57 crore. The 280 sq. km area of Catchment will be treated by various
activities like afforestation, pasture development, soil stabilization, erosion & land slide protection
works. Due consideration will be taken to involve local residents in this work through awareness
campaigns. So far a sum of Rs. 2 crores have been released to State Forest Department for raising
nurseries and other CAT related works. A sum of Rs. 94.30 lacs have been spent by the State
Forest Department towards CAT activities of NJHEP.
Sustenance & Enhancement of Fisheries: SJVNL has proposed supplementary stocking
programme for sustenance and enhancement of Fisheries through Department of fisheries, GOHP
at a cost of 1.60 crores. Under this programme Fisheries department will undertake construction of
Hatchery building, race ways and development of fingerlings of trout fish. A sum of Rs. 50 lacs
have already been released to the Fisheries department by SJVNL.
Figure 1.6 - Awareness Camps in Project Affected Areas of Nathpa-Jhakri Project

1-25

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Veterinary & Horticulture Camps at Project Area: To familiarize the local people with
technical know how of breeds/ animal health / common diseases etc., SJVNL has organized two
Veterinary & four Horticulture camps at Project affected villages. These camps also provide
awareness of local residents regarding their veterinary and horticulture need based requirements.
Free inputs in the shape of seeds, farm equipments are also distributed to local residents through
these camps.
Medical Infrastructure Facilities: To create awareness amongst the local project affected
people regarding health and hygiene, SJVNL has started mobile health van and which visits the
project affected villages. The health and hygiene aspects of project affected persons and other
residents are taken care of through these facilities.
Environmental Monitoring: To assess the base line conditions at the project site with respect to
air, water, waste water and soil characteristics during construction stage and after commissioning,
SJVNL through HP Pollution Control board is conducting Pre & Post commission of environmental
parameters evaluation work. In this activity the Air, Water, soil and waste water samples are being
taken and evaluated for environmental monitoring. The pre commissioning work is already
completed and Post Commissioning work has started now.
Solid Waste Management: SJVNL has planned and designed the proper solid waste
management system, which includes network for collection, transportation, storage and disposal of
solid waste. The Nigam has a goal for development and enforcement of sanitation standard in
project vicinity. Incinerators have been installed in the project area for solid waste management.
Resettlement & Rehabilitation
SJVNL as a responsible corporate citizen took utmost care in re-settlement and rehabilitation of few
Project Affected Families (PAFs) whose land or house or shop was affected due to construction of
Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Electric Project. The Nigam followed the resettlement and rehabilitation policy
formulated in consultation with Government of Himachal Pradesh to provide assistance and
rehabilitation measures to all those who were affected by the project. Its various provisions are:

Developed agricultural land to land less Project affected families (PAFs) equivalent to the
area acquired or 5 bighas which ever is less. These 5 bighas would include any land left
with the family after acquisition. Allotment of land will be made on the basis of landless
certificate issued by the sub Divisional Magistrate of the concerned area who also acts as
R&R Officer of the Project.
Figure 1.7 - R&R Colony at Project Site

1-26

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Alternative house with a plinth area of 45 sqm. or a payment of Rs. 45000/-only


according to their choice to each landless PAFs.

Allotment of plots for shops at the market developed for displaced shopkeepers.

Preference of allotment of shops at the shopping complex built at Project site Jhakri to
the displaced shopkeepers.

Provision for suitable employment to one member of each landless PAFs according to his
capacity and qualifications, subject to availability of vacancy. However, a PAF who has
been allotted a shop or plot will not be eligible for employment.

All these benefits are in addition to land benefit to PAFs under Land acquisition Act 1894. The
salient works under taken under R&R are as below:

Land was acquired from 480 families from 22 villages in the project area.

62 families became landless.

43 families were given cash in lieu of alternative house.

17 families were provided built up house.

41 were provided with land for land benefit.

71 displaced shop keepers have been given shop plots.

have been provided shops in shopping complex.

One member of 60 PAFs have been provided employment.

Other facilities: In addition to above salient features the following facilities/ schemes have been
started with specific aim of care and development of Project Affected Families and local
residents.

Mobile health Van: A mobile health van for the benefits of Project Affected Families
which visits the affected villages for health and hygiene awareness and treatment since
Jan. 2000. So far 20,000 patients have been benefited and a sum of Rs. 25 lacs has been
incurred on this activity.
Figure 1.8 The Mobile Health Van in Nathpa-Jhakri Project Area

1-27

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Income Generation Activities: Support is provided to PAFs for starting Income


Generation Activities such as poultry farm, milk diaries, taxis etc. A financial assistance is
provided under this activity.

Merit Scholarships Scheme for wards of PAFs: SJVNL has also started Merit
Scholarship scheme for the wards of PAFs who are undergoing vocational / professional
courses in the fields of ITIs, Diploma in Engineering/ Pharmacy ,Degree in engineering /
Medicines .Under this scheme the wards will be provided scholarship @ Rs. 700/- Per
Month to Rs. 1500/Per Month.

Infrastructural Facilities and other aids to School: Infrastructural facilities and


other aids in the shape of grants for Primary to Sr. Secondary level Government Schools
within two Project area. Under this scheme financial assistance will be provided to the
school so as to improve the infrastructure and other aids such as books, notebooks,
computer, overhead projector, scientific equipment, extension of room etc., as per the
requirements of the school . This scheme is linked to afforestation campaign also, where
school students will be encouraged to plant saplings under a grant.

Compensation for Blast Damages: A compensation of 5.45 crores has been


distributed to 5509 nos. local residents whose houses were affected due to blasting
activities. This compensation was assessed by expert scientist of National Institute of
Rock Mechanics and Geologist of Government of H.P.

Scheme for Restoration of Water Sources: The construction activities of NJHEP


extended in districts of Kinnaur and Shimla because of which water sources and schemes
in the vicinity got affected. A sum of Rs. 88 lacs has been provided to Irrigation & PH
Department, GOHP for restoration of dried up water sources and augmentation of water
supply schemes got affected by project activities. A total of Rs. 145 lacs will be provided
for this work.

Infrastructural Development Works: SJVNL has spent Rs. 226 lacs on Infrastructural
Development works in project affected area (project affected Panchayats ) ,where
assistance is provided to affected Panchayats for community development buildings,
school rooms, school play grounds, foot paths, foot bridges , cremation grounds etc.
Figure 1.9 - Infrastructure Development Works in Nathpa-Jhakri Project

Impact Assessment Study of R&R Implementation: SJVNL has got conducted Impact
Assessment Study through Agro Economic Research Centre-Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla on
1-28

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Resettlement Implementation of NJHEP. The study reveals that, There is considerable


improvement in living standard, Health & Hygiene, Education of PAFs in NJHEP. In fact R&R
Implementation Scheme of NJHEP has achieved its objectives.
Employee Welfare
The company respects and cares for its employees and the persons living in the project vicinity and
has extended various schemes for them like:

Establishment of branch of Delhi Public School at Jhakri.

Subsidized Canteen facilities.

Recreational Club with indoor games facilities.

Multi-dish Antenna System.

Consumer Cooperative Stores.

Distribution of LPG.

Provision of facilities such as Shopping Centre, Bank and Post Office in the Project
Township

Ladies Club

Auditorium

Figure 1.10 Health Service Provided to the Communities by Nathpa-Jhakri Project

1.9

Environmental Assessment in Rampur Hydropower Project

1.9.1

Environmental Context & Project Location


The project area and the projects influence area are located in the lower Himalayas, and are
characterized by rugged topography with steep hills (altitude varying from 850m to 2000m). The
area experiences subtropical to sub-Himalayan climate; and is sparsely vegetated. Immediate
vicinity of the projects supports patches of dense forests, but has a long history of deforestation.
The hill slopes are steep, and are generally covered with sparse vegetation, over burden and

1-29

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

outwash material. Most of the human population in the project influence area are concentrated in
the villages along the highway and the connecting district roads.
Although forestry is the major land use in the hill state of Himachal Pradesh (with 37,033km2 or
about 66% of the state area under legally defined forests), there has been a long history of forest
degradation. As a result, only about 8976km2 area of the state currently is classified as dense
forest, and the remaining is a mix of open forests, meadows, grasslands and barren scree slopes.
Most of the good quality forests remain in the relatively remote and inaccessible areas, whereas the
forest cover near the traditional settlements, major towns and near major transportation routes are
relatively poor. The patches of good quality forests close to the major transportation routes, such
as highways are the results of government initiatives for protection of forests since 1980.
As part of the governments plans and programs for managing forests, biodiversity and wildlife,
vast tracts of forest land is currently being protected in the state. Of these, 1896km2 (5.1% of state
area) are reserved forests, and 11,378km2 (31% of state area) are demarcated protected forests.
These areas support 3295 plant species (7% of the total plant wealth of India). Similarly, for
conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, an area of 7000km2 (12.7% of the state area) are under
the protected area network, which include 2 national parks (1440km2) and 32 wildlife sanctuaries
(5562km2). This protected area network supports 5721 recorded wildlife species (7.4% of total
animal wealth of India).
Historical reasons combined with the natural setting, have led to areas around the Rampur project
having relatively poor forest cover or biodiversity. The project is located by the side of a major
transportation route (National Highway 22A), and in the midst of a number of traditional
settlements including the major town of Rampur. The steep rocky slopes by the deep gorges of the
Satluj and its tributaries do not support good forests. There is no reserve forest and only 12
patches of protected forests within the projects influence area (defined as an area 7km around the
project). The protected forests (about 20km2) overall occupy about 8% of the projects influence
area. The closest of the protected forest patches, the Baruni Protected Forest is located about
750m away from the project; all others are more than 2-3km away. Of all the protected areas of
the state (national parks and wildlife sanctuaries), none is located within the projects influence
area, and the closest one the Rupi-Bhava Wildlife Sanctuary is located 13km away from the
project.
1.9.2

Impact Assessment process


The Rampur Hydropower project is classified as a Category A operation under the World Bank
environmental screening procedures specified in operational policy 4.01. The project triggers 6 of
the 10 World Bank safeguard policies 1 , and required comprehensive environmental assessments.
The project also required a comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) stipulated by
the Government of India as well as the Government of Himachal Pradesh. An initial environmental
impact assessment was prepared by WAPCOS Ltd. (India) in parallel with the detailed project
report. The baseline surveys covered a period of June 2003 to September 2004. Subsequently, 6
supporting studies by independent consultants were undertaken to enhance the analysis, which
involved additional detailed field investigation and community consultations over a period of about
a year (November 2005 November 2006). Further, the Himachal State Forest Department
prepared the catchment area treatment plan, and the emergency preparedness plan was prepared
in-house. The initial EIA, the background studies and plans have been integrated into a
consolidated environmental assessment and environmental management plan (EA/EMP) by DHI
(India) Water & Environment Pvt. Ltd.

These 6 World Bank Safeguard Policies are those on - Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01), Forests
(OP/BP 4.36), Cultural Property (OPN 11.03), Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12), Safety of Dams
(OP/BP 4.37), and on Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP 7.50).

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

1.9.3

Regulatory Clearances for the Project


From environmental impact assessment point of view, the project is subject to a variety of national
and state laws, rules and regulations. Among these, the prominent are the following:

The Forest Act 1927; the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980; the Wildlife (Protection) Act
1972; National Wildlife Action Plan 1983; National Conservation Strategy 1992; National
Forest Policy, 1988;

The Environment (Protection) Act 1986; the Environmental Impact Assessment


Notification, 1994

Government of Himachal Pradesh Order on Minimum Flow of Rivers, 2005.

As per the prevailing procedures, the project required (i) forestry clearances, (ii) environmental
clearances. Forestry clearances were required to acquire forest land (although none of the area
acquired was defined either as reserved forests or as demarcated protected forests) and clear fell
about 1000 trees on such land. These were obtained through a process of joint verification of land
and trees by the forest department of GoHP.
The project has obtained the 3-stage environmental clearance from the Ministry of Environment,
GoI (MOEF). The final environmental clearance to the project was granted on 31 March 2006. This
was preceded by the Stage I and the Stage II clearances from MOEF; the forest and environmental
clearances by the GoHP; and a no-objection certificate from the Himachal Pradesh State Pollution
Control Board (HP SPCB), based on a formal public hearing of the project.
The project does not require any regulatory clearance under the GoI Ancient Sites and Remains
Act, as it does not impact, directly or indirectly any known or notified cultural heritage resource.
The State Department of Culture had also provided no-objection to the project on the basis that no
cultural property is impacted by the project.
1.9.4

Key Safeguard Documents


A detailed description of the projects baseline environmental conditions; probable adverse social
and environmental impacts; and detailed environmental and social management plans including
institutional responsibilities, implementation schedules, budget, arrangements for monitoring and
evaluation, are provided in the following documents (i) the Environmental Assessment and
Management Plan (EA/EMP) consolidated/prepared by DHI-India Pvt. Ltd.; (ii) the Resettlement
Action Plan (RAP) prepared by Consulting Engineering Services India Ltd.; (iii) the Social Impact
Assessment (SA) prepared by FQA Management Services Pvt. Ltd.; and (iv) Sustainable community
Development Program (SCDP) prepared by FQA Management Services Pvt. Ltd.
The EA/EMP is supplemented by the following supporting documents: (i) Study of the Managed
River Flow in the project stretch of the river Satluj prepared by DHI-India Pvt. Ltd.; (ii) Assessment
of the Terrestrial Biodiversity Impacts from the project prepared by Consulting Engineering Services
India Ltd.; (iii) Analyses of Induced Impacts of the Rampur Hydropower Project & Cumulative
Impacts of Hydropower Development in the Satluj Basin in India prepared by DHI-India Pvt. Ltd.;
(iv) Safety Assurance Plan for the project prepared by National Safety Council of India; (vi) Report
on Archaelogical and Cultural Properties prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India, Shimla
Office, and (vii) a Catchment Area Treatment Plan for the project prepared by the Himachal State
Forest Department. The project has also prepared an Emergency Preparedness Plan (EPP),
summary recommendations from which are incorporated in the EMP.
Disclosure & Consultation
The project has engaged stakeholders including the project-affected people in discussing different
aspects of the project over the last 3 years. SJVNL has organized community meetings, meetings
with village elders and elected leaders of the villages. During the preparation of EA and social
assessments, a number of informal, but significant, meetings were organized. As part of the
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regulatory clearance process, a formal public hearing was organized. At village Bael, a public
information centre (PIC) had been set up since December 2005, where the local community and
any other stakeholders have full access, and this public information centre has been helpful for the
local public in recording their views about the project. Additionally, SJVNL has sponsored and
participated in the traditional village fairs, special events such as the Republic Day celebrations, and
sports events in all the villages in the project area.
As part of social assessment, 17 consultations were held with various stakeholders such as local
villagers, affected people elected representatives, Government officials, women and youth
organizations, media persons, etc. In all, 207 persons participated in these meetings. The key
issues discussed included employment opportunities, health and education facilities, concerns about
drying water sources, impact of tunnel construction, mobile health facilities, monitoring project
implementation of community development activities, etc. The proposed measures for the above
concerns are incorporated in the Resettlement Action Plan and the Sustainable Community
Development Plan. Similarly, as part of Resettlement Action Plan, seven consultations were held
which were participated by 142 persons discussing about the impact of land acquisition and
proposed resettlement measures, options for resettlement, site selection, opportunities for
employment, etc.
The EIA report (based on which regulatory clearance for the project was granted) was disclosed
before the formal public hearing, with assistance from the state pollution control board. The revised
EA/EMP, SA, RAP (including its translation in the local language - Hindi) and SCDP reports have
been disclosed, in October 2006 in public information centres in Bael Village and Jhakri, public
libraries in Shimla and Kullu, and in SJVNL corporate office in Shimla. All the documents are also
available online in the Rampur Project webpage (accessible through the SJVNL website
www.SJVNL.nic.in). The availability of these documents was also announced in the local
newspapers (both English and Hindi newspapers) in October 2006. This current (January 2007)
version of the Executive Summary of the EA has also been locally disclosed.
A complete set of these safeguard documents can also be found in Banks Infoshop in Washington
DC and New Delhi, where these have been available since 23 October 2006. A further round of
public consultation on the final versions of these safeguard documents is scheduled to be held in
Bael village in February 2007.
1.10

Structure of the Report


Chapter 1 The Chapter gives an overview of the need for the project and hydro-power potential of
river Satluj and the state of Himachal Pradesh. Good practices of SJVNL and the lessons learnt
during NJHEP have also been summarized. The chapter also includes a brief write-up on various
project appurtenances, construction schedule and related aspects.
Chapter 2 of this report summarizes the policy, leagal and regulatory framework for the project.
In addition, the environmental, health and safety policies adopted by SJVNL, during preparation of
the Rampur Hydropower project are described.
Chapter 3 describes the baseline environmental conditions including physical, biological, socioeconomic parameters and resource base. The baseline study involved both field work and review of
existing documents, which were already prepared in connection with project conceptualization,
planning and design. Chapter 3 also describes, simultaneously, the anticipated positive and
negative impacts as a result of the construction and operation of the project. This Chapter further
describes the overall mitigation measures that would be required, relevant to each environmental
impact from the project.
Chapter 4 Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for amelioration of anticipated adverse impacts
likely to accrue as a result of the proposed project is outlined in this Chapter. The approach for
formulation of an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) was to maximize the positive
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environmental impacts and minimize the negative ones. After selection of suitable environmental
mitigation measures, the cost required for implementation of various management measures is also
estimated, to have an idea of their cost-effectiveness. This Chapter further includes the description
of the environmental monitoring and reporting arrangements, as well as the capacity building
requirements. At the end, the budget for implementing the EMP is included.

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CHAPTER 2
POLICY, LEGAL &
REGULATORY
FRAMEWORK FOR
THE PROJECT

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

POLICY, LEGAL & REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

2.1

Constitutional Provisions
The constitutional provisions and key points of policy and regulatory framework of India are
discussed below:

2.1.1

2.1.2

Water Resources

As per Constitution of India water is primarily a State subject and the role of Government of
India comes in only in the case of interstate river waters.

States are free to enact water laws and frame policies in accordance with this provision.

Regulation and development of inter-state rivers and river valleys is under the control of the
Union.

Indian Parliament may, by law (1) provide for the adjudication on any dispute or complaint
with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any inter-state river or
river valley and (2) that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall exercise
jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint as referred to in (1).

Environment
The first constitutional provisions related to environment were made in the Forty-Second
Amendment to the Indian Constitution. This amendment was passed in response to India being
party to the Stockholm Declaration adopted by the International Conference on Human
Environment in 1972. The Forty-Second Amendment introduced Article 48-A into the Directive
Principles of State Policy in Chapter IV of the Constitution. The article declared the State's
responsibility to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the
country. Another provision, included in Article 51-A (g), stipulated the duty of every citizen to
"protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to
have compassion for living creatures." These amendments imposed an obligation on the
Government and the courts to protect the environment for the people and the nation.
Specific Reference to Environment Protection in the Constitution
The State's responsibility with regard to environmental protection has been laid down under Article
48-A of our Constitution, which reads as follows:
"The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard
the forests and wildlife of the country".
Environmental protection is a fundamental duty of every citizen of this country under Article 51A(g) of our Constitution which reads as follows:
"It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural
environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for
living creatures."
Article 21 of the Constitution is a fundamental right which reads as follows:

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"No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to
procedure established by law."
Article 48-A of the Constitution comes under Directive Principles of State Policy and Article 51 A(g)
of the Constitution comes under Fundamental Duties.
The State's responsibility with regard to raising the level of nutrition and the standard of living and
to improve public health has been laid down under Article 47 of the Constitution which reads as
follows:
"The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of
its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in
particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption
except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to
health."
The 42nd amendment to the Constitution was brought about in the year 1974 makes it the
responsibility of the State Government to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard
the forests and wildlife of the country. The latter, under Fundamental Duties, makes it the
fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests,
lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
2.2
2.2.1

The Policy Framework for Hydraulic Infrastructure & the Environment


National Water Policy
The National Water Policy was first adopted in September 1987. It has been reviewed and updated
in response to a number of new issues emerged of late. The 2002 National Water policy (Ministry
of Water Resources, Government of India) has emphasized on several facets that are important
from an environmental and social viewpoint including the following statements:

Water is part of a larger ecological system. Realising the importance and scarcity attached
to fresh water, it has to be treated as an essential environment for sustaining all life forms.

Water is a scarce and precious national resource to be planned, developed and conserved
and managed as such, and on an integrated and environmentally sound basis, keeping in
view the socio-economic aspects and needs of the States

Water resources development and management will have to be planned for a hydrological
unit such as drainage basin as a whole or for a sub-basin, multi-sectored, taking into
account surface and ground water for sustainable use incorporating quantity and quality
aspects as well as environmental considerations

Preservation of the quality of environment and the ecological balance should be a PRIMARY
consideration at project planning and the adverse impact on the environment, should be
minimised and should be offset by adequate compensatory measures

There should be an integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to the planning, formulation,


clearance and implementation of projects, including catchments area treatment and
management, environmental and ecological aspects, the rehabilitation of affected people
and command area development.

The detrimental environmental consequences of over-exploitation of ground water need to


be effectively prevented by the Central and State Governments.

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2.2.2

There should be a close integration of water-use and land-use policies

Reclamation of water logged/ saline affected land by scientific and cost effective methods
should form a part of command area development programme

On resettlement and rehabilitation, there is the need of a skeletal national policy and
States should evolve their own detailed policies.

Effluents should be treated to acceptable levels and standards before discharging them in
to natural streams and that minimum flow should be ensured in the perennial streams for
maintaining ecology and social considerations

Special efforts should be made to investigate and formulate projects either in, or for the
benefit of, areas inhabited by tribal or other specially disadvantaged groups such as socially
weak, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes

Water Policy of Himachal Pradesh


The State Policy is in consonance with National Water Policy of 2002. It makes a clear statement of
objectives. Some of the statements in this policy document relevant from social and environmental
viewpoint are:

Promotion of a participatory approach and involvement of local communities and


stakeholders, including women, in the management of water resources, in an effective and
decisive manner in various aspects of planning, design, development and management of
the water related schemes.

Ensure ecological and environmental balance while developing water resources

Promotion of equity and social justice among individuals and groups of users in water
resource allocation and management

Ensure self-sustainability in water resources development

Provision of a well-developed information system, for water related data for resource
planning. A standardized state information system should be established with a network of
data banks and data bases, integrating the State and Central level agencies and improving
the quality of data collection and analysis

Effective monitoring of policy implementation

Among the important provisions included in this policy document are:

Non-Conventional methods for augmenting availability of water such as artificial recharge


of ground water and traditional water conservation practices like rainwater harvesting,
including roof-top rainwater harvesting and use of such water through dual plumbing
systems in all buildings need to be promoted. Pilot projects will be supported for
demonstration effect. Research and development in these areas shall also be supported.

Water resource development projects should as far as possible be planned and developed
as multipurpose projects but provision for drinking water shall be a primary consideration.
There should be an integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to the planning, formulation,
clearance and implementation of projects, including catchment area treatment and
management, environmental and ecological aspects, the rehabilitation of affected people
and command area development. Besides, in projects for hydropower generation involving
impounding of water, adequate water shall be released round the year to meet the needs
of downstream users. The sustainability evaluation of the Project shall determine
Environmental Discharge to be prescribed for the Project, which shall not be less than
15% of the available discharge at any given time. In forest areas the extraction of water

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shall be planned keeping in view the needs of the flora and fauna of the area. The
involvement and participation of beneficiaries and other stakeholders will be encouraged at
the project planning stage itself.

2.2.3

All water resources projects should be examined from ecological and environmental
considerations and remedial measures wherever needed should form a part of the project
itself and implemented along with it. A minimum flow in the natural streams should be
allowed.

Water Harvesting should be given consideration in planning water resources. Viable


projects, especially in scarce ground water areas, should be investigated and implemented
to increase the surface water availability would also help in recharging the ground water.

All the water resources projects shall give due regard to the ecological health and other
needs for which adequate provision shall be made on priority basis.

National Environment Policy


The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) is the nodal administrative agency of the Central
Government for planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the formulation and
implementation of environmental and forest policy, legislations and programmes. Regulatory
functions like grant of Environment Clearance, Forest clearance are part of the mandate of this
agency.
The essential components of environmental policy in India are the prevention of pollution at
source; the encouragement, development and application of best available feasible technology; the
application of the polluter pays principle; the focus on critically polluted areas, and the participation
by the people in the environmental planning of development.
Agenda 21 of the Earth Summit guides the current environmental policies in India. The national
environment policy statements reflect the strong commitment that the government of India has for
environmental protection and improvement.
The main features of the national environment policy are described below:

Definition of environment has been enlarged to include all entities, natural or manmade,
external to oneself, which provide value, now or perhaps in the future, to humankind.

Foundational aspirations have been addressed, which are (i) that human beings should be
able to enjoy a decent quality of life; (ii) that humanity should become capable of
respecting the finiteness of the biosphere; and (iii) that neither the aspiration for the good
life, nor the recognition of biophysical limits should preclude the search for greater justice
in the world. The principles of good governance, viz., Transparency, Rationality,
Accountability, Reduction in time and costs and Participation with stakeholders.

Mainstreaming environment in all activities.

Responsibilities of the State and the citizen have been stated in the light of the
amendments introducing fundamental duties in the Constitution of India.

International commitments on global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and


transfer of hazardous wastes and loss of biodiversity.

Certain new principles for environmental management have been included in the policy, some of
them based on judicial interpretations. The new principles include the following:

The precautionary approach

Polluter pays principle

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2.2.4

Economic value of services of environmental resources

Priority for incomparable entities like Taj Mahal and others

Equity, both intra-generational and inter-generational

Civil liability for environmental damage

State is trustee (not the owner) of all natural resources

Standards should be set in the context of society and economy

National Forest Policy


The principal aim of Forest Policy is to ensure environmental stability and maintenance of ecological
balance including atmospheric equilibrium, which is vital for sustenance of all life forms, human,
animal and plant. The basic objectives that govern the National Forest Policy are the following:

Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and, where necessary, restoration


of the ecological balance that has been adversely disturbed by serious depletion of the forests
of the country.

Conserving the natural heritage of the country by preserving the remaining natural forests with
the vast variety of flora and fauna, which represent the remarkable biological diversity and
genetic resources of the country.

Checking soil erosion and denudation in the catchment areas of rivers, lakes, reservoirs in the
"interest of soil and water conservation, for mitigating floods and droughts and for the
retardation of siltation of reservoirs.

Checking the extension of sand-dunes in the desert areas of Rajasthan and along the coastal
tracts.

Increasing substantially the forest/tree cover in the country through massive afforestation and
social forestry programmes, especially on all denuded, degraded and unproductive lands.

Meeting the requirements of fuel-wood, fodder, minor forest produce and small timber of the
rural and tribal populations.

Increasing the productivity of forests to meet essential national needs.

Encouraging efficient utilization of forest produce and maximizing substitution of wood.

Creating a massive people's movement with the involvement of women, for achieving these
objectives and to minimize pressure on existing forests.

Essentials of forest management include the following provisions:

Existing forests and forestlands should be fully protected and -their productivity improved.
Forest and vegetal cover should be increased rapidly on hill slopes, in catchment areas of
rivers, lakes and reservoirs and ocean shores and, on semi-arid, and desert tracts.

Diversion of good and productive agricultural lands to forestry should be discouraged in view of
the need for increased food production.

For the conservation of total biological diversity, the network of national parks, sanctuaries,
biosphere reserves and other protected areas should be strengthened and extended
adequately.

Provision of sufficient fodder, fuel and pasture, especially in areas adjoining forest, is necessary
in order to prevent depletion of forests beyond the sustainable limit. Since fuel wood continues
to be the predominant source of energy in rural areas, the programme of afforestation should

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be intensified with special emphasis on augmenting fuel wood production to meet the
requirement of the rural people.

2.3

Minor forest produce provides sustenance to tribal population and to other communities
residing in and around the forests. Such produce should be protected, improved and their
production enhanced with due regard to generation of employment and income.

The forest policy provides strategy for area under forests, afforestation, social forestry & farm
forestry, management of state forests, rights and concessions, diversion of forest lands for
non-forest purposes, wildlife conservation, tribal people and forests, shifting cultivation,
damage to forests from encroachments, fires and grazing, forest-based industries, forest
extension, forestry education and forestry research.

Environmental Regulations & Legal Framework for the Project


The RHEP project has been developed by meeting the requirements of State as well as Central
Government environmental regulations. The project issues have been addressed to comply with
following mentioned environmental regulations.

2.4
2.4.1

Environmental Regulations
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
This is the national umbrella legislation for preservation and conservation of the environment.
Under this, an environmental clearance from MoEF is required.
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 was introduced as an umbrella legislation that provides a
holistic framework for the protection and improvement to the environment.
In terms of responsibilities, the Act and the associated Rules requires for obtaining environmental
clearances for specific types of new / expansion projects (addressed under Environmental Impact
Assessment Notification, 1994, and subsequently in 2006) and for submission of an environmental
statement to the State Pollution Control Board annually.
Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
According to the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 "wildlife" includes any animal, bees, butterflies,
crustacea, fish and moths; and aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat. In
accordance with Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 no alternation of boundaries /
National Park / Sanctuary shall be made by the State Govt. except on recommendation of the
National Board for Wildlife (NBWL).
Further, in terms of Supreme Court Order dated 13.11.2000 the State Govts have to seek prior
permission of Supreme Court before submitting the proposal for diversion of forest land in National
Park sanctuaries.
Whenever, any part of Wildlife Sanctuary / National Park is getting affected by a hydro project the
forest proposal in respect of such project is entertained by MoEF, GOI only after permission of dereservation / de-notification of Wildlife Sanctuary /National Park has been accorded. After
recommendation of Standing Committee of NBWL proposal for de-reservation/ de-notification is
ratified by Honble Supreme Court.
Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
This Act provides for the conservation of forests and regulating diversion of forestlands for nonforestry purposes. When projects fall within forestlands, prior clearance is required from relevant
authorities under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. State governments cannot de-reserve any

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forestland or authorize its use for any non-forest purposes without approval from the Central
government.
For diversion of forestland (for inundation and for locating project components), the project
proponent needs to apply (on standardized formats) to the state government. Depending on the
area required to be diverted, the proposals are cleared by MoEF regional or central offices provided
that the cost of compensatory afforestation, cost of rehabilitation of endangered/rare species of
flora/fauna, and the net present value of the forest resources are deposited upfront with the state
Forest Departments.
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, & Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1981
The requirement is to obtain from the State Pollution Control Board a no-objection certificate, by
demonstrating that the prescribed standards are not likely to be exceeded, by avoidance or
mitigation measures.
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002
The Ministry of Environment and Forests has enacted the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 under the
United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity signed at Rio de Janeiro on the 5th day of June,
1992 of which India is also a party. This Act is to provide for the conservation of biological
diversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising
out of the sued of biological resources, knowledge and for matters connected therewith or
incidental thereto. As per the provision of the Act, certain areas, which are rich in biodiversity and
encompasses unique and representative ecosystems are identified and designated as biosphere
reserve to facilitate its conservation. All restrictions applicable to protected areas like National Park
& Sanctuaries are also applicable to these reserves.
Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2003
These Rules classify used mineral oil as hazardous waste under the Hazardous Waste (Management
& Handling) Rules, 2003 that requires proper handling and disposal. Organisation will seek
authorisation for disposal of hazardous waste from concerned State Pollution Control Boards (SPCB)
as and when required.
Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000
MoEF vide its notification dt. 17th July, 2000 under the section of 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment
(Protection) Act, 1986 has notified rules for regulation/ control of Ozone Depleting Substances
(ODS) under Montreal Protocol. As per the notification certain control and regulation has been
imposed on manufacturing, import, export, and use of these compounds. Organisations as per
provisions of notification shall is phase out all equipment, which uses these substances, and is
aiming at CFC free organisation in near future.
The Serais Act, 1867
The Act enjoined upon a keeper of Serai or an inn to keep a certain quality of water fit for
consumption by persons and animals using it to the satisfaction of the District magistrate or his
nominees. Failure for maintaining the standard entailed a liability of rupees twenty.
The North India Canal and Drainage Act, 1873
Certain offences have been listed under the Act contained in Section 70.

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Indian Easements Act, 1882


Sections 7, illustrations (f), (g) and (h) of the Act deal with pollution of waters.
The Indian Fisheries Act, 1897
The Indian Fisheries Act, 1897 contains seven sections. Section 5 of the Act prohibits destruction of
fish by poisoning waters.
The Factories Act, 1948
Factories Act, 1948 is a social welfare legislation intend to secure health, safety and welfare of the
workers employed in factories. Hiowever,some of the provisions of this Act are concerned with
prevention of water pollution.
The Mines Act, 1952
Chapter V of the Act deals with provisions regarding health and Safety of the employees. Section
19(i) Government upon arrangement for the quality of water for drinking purposes.
The River Boards Act, 1956
The Act provides for the creation of River Boards for regulation and development of interstate
rivers and river valleys. One of the functions of the Board is to advise to the Government
concerned on prevention of pollution of the waters of the interstate rivers.
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958
The legal requirement is to obtain from ASI a no-objection certificate if any protected cultural
property is within 10km of the project.
EIA Notification, 1994
This restricts and prohibits on the establishment, expansion and modernization of certain activity or
projects unless environmental clearance has been accorded (applicable to hydropower projects
costing Rs. 1 billion or more). This notification was amended in 1997 to elaborate on the procedure
for public hearing. MoEF environmental clearance is given only when the other applicable
clearances are obtained.
EIA Notification, September 2006

Note: This is not applicable to RHEP but will be applicable to any new hydropower project.
This notification separates projects in two categories. The first category of projects requires
environmental clearance from the Central Government through MoEF on the recommendation of
Expert Appraisal Committee and the second category of projects requires environmental clearance
from state/union territory environmental impact assessment authority (SEIAA). SEIAA takes
decision on the recommendation of state/union territory level expert appraisal committee. All
hydropower projects with more than 20 MW capacity and/or 10,000ha of culturable command area
will require environmental clearance from MoEF. Projects less than 20 MW and/or 10,000ha
culturable command area respectively will need to take environmental clearance from SEIAA.
2.4.2

The Environmental Clearance Process


Environmental and forest clearances are two important regulatory requirement for the hydropower
project. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) is the nodal agency which is entrusted with the
authority of issuing these clearances after thorough appraisal process. The application for
environmental clearance has to be made in the proforma as specified and has to accompanied by a

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project report which should, inter alia, include an Environmental Impact Assessment Report,
Environment Management Plan and details of public hearing as specified and prepared in
accordance with the guidelines issued by the Central Government in the Ministry of Environment
and Forests from time to time.
Before starting the process of EIA study, the project authorities have to intimate the location of the
project site to the Ministry of Environment and Forests while initiating any investigation and
surveys. The Ministry of Environment and Forests then has to convey a decision regarding
suitability or otherwise of the proposed site within a maximum period of thirty days. The said site
clearance is then granted for a sanctioned capacity and shall be valid for a period of five years for
commencing the construction, operation or mining.
The EIA study done for the cleared site leads to EIA report which is submitted in required format to
MoEF. The reports submitted with the application is evaluated and assessed by the Appraisal
Committee constituted by MoEF. The said Committee of Experts has full right of entry and
inspection of the site at any time prior to, during or after the commencement of the operations
relating to the project.
The Impact Assessment Agency then prepares a set of recommendations based on technical
assessment of documents and data, furnished by the project authorities supplemented by data
collected during visits to sites or factories, if undertaken and details of the public hearing.
The assessment is completed within a period of ninety days from receipt of the requisite
documents and data from the project authorities and completion of public hearing and decision
conveyed within thirty days thereafter.
The clearance granted is valid for a period of five years for commencement of the construction or
operation of the project.
As per the latest September 2006 notification, the responsibility of environmental clearance has
been divided between state and central government depending on the category of the project.
However, this notification was not applicable on RHEP since RHEP clearances were obtained in
March, 2006.Discussed below is the detailed process which was followed for obtaining various
applicable clearances required for RHEP project.
2.4.3

The Forestry Clearance Process


This Act provides for the conservation of forests and regulating diversion of forestlands for nonforestry purposes. When projects fall within forestlands, prior clearance is required from relevant
authorities under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. State governments cannot de-reserve any
forestland or authorize its use for any non-forest purposes without approval from the Central
government. The steps for forest clearance are described below:
Identification of Forest Area Involved (Location of Project): Preliminary location of project is
done by using tools such as the forest atlas and Survey of India maps. During route alignment, all
possible efforts are made to avoid the forest area (like national park and sanctuaries) or to keep it
to the barest minimum. Whenever it becomes unavoidable due to the geography of terrain or
heavy cost involved in avoiding it, different alternative options are considered to minimize the
requirement of forest area.
For selection of optimum proposal, the following criteria are taken into consideration:

any monument of cultural or historical importance is not affected by the project;

the proposed alignment of the project line does not create any threat to the survival of
any community with special reference to Tribal Community;

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

the proposed alignment of the project does not affect any public utility services such as
playgrounds, schools and other establishments;

the alignment of the project does not pass through any sanctuaries, National Park,
Biosphere reserves or eco-sensitive zones; and

the alignment of the project does not infringe with area of natural resources.

To achieve this, selection of forest area involved is undertaken in close consultation with
representatives from the State forest departments and the Department of Revenue. Minor
alterations are made to avoid environmentally sensitive areas and settlements at execution stage.
Trees on such locations are felled but after stringing is complete and natural regeneration is
allowed to specific heights and whenever required the tree plantation is taken.
Formulation of Forest Proposal: After finalization of forest area involved for project location the
proponent submits details in prescribed proforma to the respective DFO/ Nodal Officer (Forest) of
concerned State Government. The DFO/ Nodal Officer forward the details to the concerned
Divisional Forest Officer (DFO) or the Conservator of Forest for formulation of forest proposal for
processing of clearance under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. The DFO then surveys the
relevant forest area required for the construction of project under the possible alternatives. Forest
authorities conduct a cost-benefit analysis to assess the loss of forest produce, loss to environment
vis--vis benefits of project. Compensatory Afforestation (CA) scheme is prepared to compensate
loss of vegetation and is the most important and integral part of the proposal. For CA, the forest
authorities identify degraded forestland of twice the area of affected land. The proponent provides
undertaking/ certificate to meet the cost of compensatory afforestation and the Net Present Value
of forestland diverted. The NPV rate varies from Rs. 5.8 to Rs. 9.2 lakh per hectare (as per MoEF
Notification dt. 23.04.04) and is payable to the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and
Planning Authority (CAMPA). If the forest is rich in wildlife, then the Chief Wildlife Warden also
gets a detailed assessment report prepared including measures to protect the wildlife, which is
submitted with the proposal.
Approval of Proposal: The proposal is submitted to the state forest department and then
forwarded to the principal chief conservator of forests in the state and finally to the state
secretariat. The State Government recommends the proposal for further processing and approval to
a) Concerned Regional Office of the MoEF if the area involved is 40 hectare or less b) MoEF, New
Delhi if the area is more than 40 hectare.
To facilitate speedy approval of forest proposal involving lesser area, Ministry of Environment &
Forests had established Regional Offices in each region for processing and approving these
proposals. The MoEF approves the proposal in two stages. In principle or first stage approval is
accorded with certain conditions depending upon the case. Second stage, or final approval is
provided after the compliance report of the conditions stipulated in first Forest Proposal (FP) is
received by MOEF,GOI from State Forest Department .
2.5

Environmental Clearances Obtained for the Project


RHEP clearance was undertaken at two stages (i) from the HPEPPCB at state government level and
(ii) from the MoEF at Government of India level.

2.5.1

At State Level
Pollution Control and Environmental Conservation
No objection certificate (NoC) under Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, & Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 is a mandatory requirement for Hydropower and the

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

same was applicable to RHEP. To obtain NoC, a detailed environmental Impact assessment study
and public consultation was undertaken. The HP Environment Protection and Pollution Control
Board (HPEPPCB) and the State Council of Science,Technology and Environment (SCSTE) were the
two nodal agencies responsible for assessing EIA study, organising public hearing and then issuing
No Objection Certificate for the said hydro power project.
Additional Clearance for Environmental Flow
HPEPPCB issued a notification on July 16, 2005 for quantum of minimum flow of water to be
released and maintained immediately downstream of diversion structures of existing and upcoming hydel projects through out the year. As specified, minimum flow should not be less than
10%. This notification has been partially modified vide notification No PC-F(2)-1/2005 dated Sept 9,
2005. Updated notification stipulates that the quantum of minimum flow of water to be released
and maintained immediately downstream of the diversion structures of existing and up-coming
hydel projects through out the year should be threshold value of not less than 15% of the
minimum flow observed in the lean season; to main river water body whose water is being
harnessed by these projects.
RHEP has been designed with above-mentioned requirement of maintaining minimum release in
river Satluj during lean season.
2.5.2

At the Government of India Level


A 3-stage procedure for project preparation as per the guidelines of the Ministry of Power was
followed for RHEP. Activities of the 3 stages were tied up with a concurrence or clearance from the
HPEPPCB/ MoEF.
Stage-I Environmental Clearance
This comprised activities for preliminary selection of the project site including (a) a desk study on
meteorology, hydrology and topography; (b) essential topographical survey and geological
investigations, (c) establishment of observatories for weather and river flow; (d) preliminary layout
of project facilities and a preliminary cost estimate; (e) cost estimates for Stage-II activities; (f)
commencement of EIA and EMP studies; and (g) site clearance from MoEF as per EIA notification,
1994.
Site clearance (Stage I) for RHEP was obtained from MoEF in September 2004. The purpose of
clearance was to get approval for further investigation at the site before seeking environmental
clearance from the MoEF.
Stage-II Environmental Clearance
Activities in this stage included (a) complete topographical, geo-physical and construction material
surveys, geological exploration; (b) collection and analysis of hydro-meteorological and silt data;
(c) preparation of detailed project report and techno-economic clearance from CEA; (d) preparation
of EIA & EMP reports. The project authorities then approached H.P. Environment Protection and
Pollution Control Board (HPEPPCB) and State Council of Science, Technology and Environment
(SCSTE) for No Objection Certificates (NOC). Environment Planning Unit (EPU) of SCSTE examined
the proposal and circulated EIA/EMP to all line departments within a week. The departments were
required to submit their response with in three weeks. Meanwhile the SJVNL was asked to make
preliminary presentation to the State Pollution Control Board-HPEPPCB. The EPU by the time
conveyed the departmental comments to SJVNL for making suitable changes in EIA/EMP. The state
board organized internal presentation before the specialist on EIA/EMP submitted by the RHEP
authorities. Observations by the specialists were conveyed to the project authorities and were
asked to integrate observations in EIA/EMP.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Issues Raised in Presentation: Presentation before specialists, prior to public hearing, raised
issues, significant of them are detailed below:

The spatial dimension of ambient air quality monitoring needed to be increased from the
current two locations to more locations so as to represent all adits and the villages of the
project area.

Water Quality Monitoring needs to be monitored for two more seasons in addition to the
one season already undertaken.

Video recording of all ground and surface water sources to be done by the project
authorities

Technical plan for muck disposal should be submitted to HPEPPPCB and proper measures
shall be taken for a safe dump site

Sewage treatment plants shall be used in the townships rather than septic tank and
Incinerator shall be used for treating garbage of the township.

EMP Implementation cost should include cost of third party monitoring during
construction and post construction stages of the project.

Flow in the natural regime of river Satluj available at Jhakri should not be diverted for
Rampur Hydel project.

After project authorities complied with all the requirements including above mentioned, SCSTE
informed the HPEPPCB to conduct public hearing as per procedures laid down in EIA Notification.
Public notices for holding environmental public hearing near proposed power house in village Bayal
and near Kunni khad bridge in village Chatti were published in news paper for holding the Public
Hearing on 26-10-2005. There were significant issues raised by stakeholders from villages
surrounding the project.
Project authorities were asked by HPEPPCB to prepare action plan for addressing those issues.
After receiving the action plan, HPEPPCB issues No Objection certificate (NOC) to the SJVNL and
recommended the case to MOEF for environmental clearance.
Stage-III Environmental Clearance
Post NOC from HPEPPCB, environmental clearance was obtained from MoEF in March, 2006.
Environmental clearance was granted by MoEF with prior mandatory conditions for implementation
by the project during construction and operation phases. Simultaneously, Mining lease and
permission for diversion of 69.3762ha of forest land was obtained by SJVNL from Director of
Industries and MoEF (FC Division) respectively.
Environmental safeguards insisted upon by MoEF: MoEF stipulated additional conditions to
ensure safeguards from the uncertainties, and weaknesses, if any, in the EIA/EMP. These are
described below:

Preparation and implementation of (a) a resettlement and rehabilitation plan, (b) a


catchment area treatment plan.

Dissemination of clearance to the village panchayat/local NGO and advertisement in local


newspapers for general disclosure.

Implementation of fish management plan in consultation with the state fisheries


department.

Conservation of medicinal plants.

Compensatory afforestation and involvement of local people in afforestation.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Restoration of borrow pits and quarry sites.

Disposal of muck at designated sites and landscaping of the sites.

Maintaining the specified minimum flow of water in the stream.

Health check up for construction workers.

Availability of minimum 23.7 cumec water during lean season in the river downstream of
dam for sustaining aquatic life.

Establishment of multi-disciplinary institutional mechanism for environmental monitoring.


This to include experts on ecology, forestry, wildlife, soil conservation and NGOs, etc.

A more detailed description of the staged environmental clearance process is contained in Table 2.1
below.
2.6

Responsibilities of Government of India under International Treaties


India is responsible to follow guidelines of Indus river treaty before developing any water resource
project on these basins. The utilization of waters of Indus river systems have to be in accordance
with the Indus water treaty, 1960,concluded between India and Pakistan with the help of World
Bank. Under this treaty, the water of the Sutluj, the Beas and the Ravi referred to as eastern rivers
can be fully utilized by India whereas the other rivers i.e., the Indus, the Chenab and the Jhelum,
the so called western river fall to the share of Pakistan. The treaty, however, enables India to
develop hydro potential in the upper reaches of the western rivers, where they traverse through
the Indian Territory. RHEP, on the river Satluj project is fully independent project of India as per
the Indus treaty and there is no limitation on its development.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 2.1 Environmental Considerations and the Environmental Clearances Obtained in the Rampur Hydropower Project
Project stage

Subject

Period before
Agency
the Project was
transferred to
SJVNL

Prioritization

Specific Queries

Responsibility for identification of Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board. The project was envisaged as extension of the Nathpa Jhkari
the project.
Project
The status of project preparation Only Project Feasibility Report was provided. This was developed by the HP State Electricity Board
when the project was transferred (HPSEB). The Detailed Project Report (DPR) including the Detailed Cost Estimate was prepared by
to SJVNL.
SJVNL on 31st May 2005.. However, M/S WAPCOS was appointed a Review Consultant for reviewing
the DPR before submission to CEA.
Was this part of the prioritization
Yes.
by the CEA?
The environmental parameters
considered in the CEA
prioritization?

Analysis of
alternatives

SJVNL RAMPUR PROJECT

The following environmental parameters were considered :

1. Extent of Forest land to be used


2. Extent of private land required
3. Statutory requirements for diversion of Forest land
4. Statutory requirements for Environmental clearance
5. Land use pattern
6. Wild Life clearance
7. Indus Water Treaty clearance
8. Defense / civil aviation clearance.
9. Number of persons likely to be displaced and their rehabilitation
Consideration of any site,
Six different alternatives utilizing the tail race waters of the existing 1500 MW Nathpa Jhakri HE
technology or storage alternative Project besides picking up additional water from Satluj river at a location suggested by Geological
at this stage. Brief results.
Survey of India were studied for firming up the location and layout of the project. These were studied
briefly, and which also rejected 2 alternatives on social/environmental grounds.
Evidence that the site was
selected carefully to avoid
environmental (or resettlement)
issues.

The alternatives were selected in such away that the population to be displaced be minimum. Avoided
flooding of the Rampur town.

Reasons for selecting the particular site (hydrology, topography,


geology, environment or any other).
Initial scoping

The suitability of alternative was done based on cost benefit study,


which also rejected 2 alternatives on social/environmental grounds.

Undertaking a preliminary (or initial or rapid) environmental Yes. The key issues identified were: Forest Clearance aspects,
examination (of any form) to identify key issues. Key issues were Environment clearance aspects. The need for the EIA Study, and
identified.
the issues around the muck disposal sites.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Project stage

Subject

Specific Queries

SJVNL RAMPUR PROJECT

Stage I
Clearance

Changes from the What were the changes, if any? Why were those changes made?
earlier proposal
Was any modification of storage or inundation proposed?
by SJVNL
Was the site of the storage, powerhouse, etc., changed? If yes, then why? Was
environment a factor?
Was public consulted before or after these changes?
Site selection

Were alternative sites examined at this stage? What issues triggered search for
alternative sites?

Public
consultation

Was public informed/ consulted about the proposed project

First stage Site


Clearance by
MoEF

When was the application submitted?

None
None
Not Applicable
No
Yes.
On 22-04-04

Did MOEF raise any objection, or


Yes they required Satellite Imagery of the Project area showing land use pattern vide their letter
wanted any modification of the
dated 24-05-04
proposal? By what date?
Was a revised application
submitted?

Reply submitted on 27-07-04

When was the clearance


obtained? Date/Year?

On 3-09-04

Did MOEF lay any major condition


at this stage? What were those?

Other relevant
clearances

None

The fund required for Environmental Aspects should be included in the budget of the
project.
Tandem operation process with NJPS has to be mentioned in detail in PFR

Was any other (Wildlife Board/ASI/State PCB) clearance obtained, which included any
consideration of environmental issues? If so, what were the issues?

Involvement of
At what stages were the
the Environmental environmental officers involved?
Group of SJVNL
What was their scope of works?
What specific improvement or
modification was suggested by
the environmental officers, if
any?

NO

Environment officers were involved right from the start of the case.
Environment Officers at Project site were involved for detail application , survey related to
environment information.
Environment officer at corporate Office was also involved for TOR preparation of EIA /EMP study and
for filling up the applications column related to stage-I.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Project stage

Subject

Specific Queries

Feasibility
Study

Agency

Responsibility for the study

Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board. The project was envisaged as extension of Nathpa Jhkari
Project. It was feasibility report.

Analysis of
alternatives

Was any site, technology or


storage alternative considered at
this stage? Briefly, what were the
results?

Six different alternatives utilizing the tail race waters of the existing 1500 MW Nathpa Jhakri HE
Project besides picking up additional water from Satluj river at a location suggested by Geological
Survey of India were studied for firming up the location and layout of the project.

Any evidence that the site was


selected carefully to avoid
environmental (or resettlement)
issues? If so, what issues?
Scoping

Stage II
Clearance

Finally 2nd alternative which envisages utilization of tail race water of NJHEP and construction of cut
and cover RCC conduit for crossing the river ,15.08 Km head race tunnel, 140 m deep surge shaft six
partially underground penstocks and a surface power house has been found to be most suitable
alternative and adopted for RHEP.
The alternative has been selected in such away that alignment should have minimum number of
trees to be uprooted and popution to be displaced be minimum. The number of houseless families by
this way has been zeroed down to twenty.

Preliminary environmental examination (of any form) identify key issues.


What key issues were identified?

Public
consultation

SJVNL RAMPUR PROJECT

As described earlier.

Was public informed/ consulted


General Manager of the project had number offormal and informal meetings with the public. Also ,
about the main features and
potential impacts of the proposed press statements were issued to bring about the details to public.
project.

Second stage Site Date of submission of the


Clearance by
application.
MoEF
MOEF objections on the
application.
Date of submission of the
revised application.
Date of Stage II Clearance.
Other relevant
clearances

Carried out.

On 20-12-04
Yes, objections were raised vide their letter dated 14-01-05
Yes, revised application was submitted on 14-01-05
On 28-02-05

Major condition stipulated by MOEF at this stage.

NO

Was any other (Wildlife Board/ASI/State PCB) clearance obtained, which included any consideration of
environmental issues? If so, what were the issues?

NO

At what stages were the environmental officers involved? What was Environment officers were involved right from the start of the case.
Involvement of
the Environmental their scope of works? What specific improvement or modification Scope of their work included compilation of information and
Group of SJVNL
was suggested by the environment group, if any?
submitting the case for environment clearance.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Project stage

Subject

Specific Queries

EA (EIA) &
Public
Consultation

Public
consultation

Was public informed/ consulted


about the main details and
assessed environmental impacts
of the proposed project?
Give details (Date, Place, Who
Attended, Number of Attendees,
Whether the meeting was
recorded or not, etc.)

SJVNL RAMPUR PROJECT

YES
DATE:- 26-10-05

DATE:- 26-10-05

PLACE:- Village Bayal (Near PH site)

PLACE:- Near Kunni Khad in village chatti

No. of Attendees:- 230

No. of Attendees:- 113

The meeting was video graphed and minutes were recorded.


Who Attended:- MLA(Anni)-cum-chairman HPMC, Member secretary HPSEP & PCB, Environment
Engineer Rampur, SDM Anni, Env. Engg(ST), Executive Engg. IPH Div. Rampur, Executive Engg. IPH
Div. Anni, SDO IPH Nirmand, DFO Anni, HPPWD Officials, HDO Horticulture Dept. , BDO Nirmand,
Health Dept. officials, Chairman Panchayat Samiti , Senior Citizens.

EIA Clearance
(Stage II
Clearance)

What was the response of the


public? Was it considered for
modification of the project
proposals?

Response of the public was good and supportive. There were no modifications in the proposal for the
project.

Public disclosure
of information

By what means was information


publicly disseminated or
disclosed? Give details of PIC.

PIC was setup in village Bael on 19-12-05. An officer of Executive Rank is presently posted there. A
No. of Boards in Hindi and English are displayed in the PIC giving Information of the Project features
and the various R&R and Environment works that will be carried out by the project.

Environmental
assessment

How was the EA/EIA/EMP evaluated/appraised?

It was evaluated at Project site with the assistance of Corporate


ER&R .

Involuntary
resettlement

How were the proposals for Involuntary Resettlement evaluated


/appraised?

It was evaluated at Project site with the assistance of Corporate


ER&R .

Environmental
Clearance by
MoEF

When was the application submitted?

On 14/12/2005

Did MOEF raise any objection, or


wanted any modification of the
proposal? By what date?

Yes. on 31-01-06 observations were raised,


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

The report of CAT plan shall be submitted to member of appraisal committee.


The unit of land use has not been mentioned.
The project is in severe seismicity zone.- the eeismicity report needs to be corrected.
Clearnce from National Committee of Seismic Design Parameters of CWC is required.
A statement that private land are of non agriculture category and do not belong to tribals.
The number of tribal people affected Families be stated.
2-17
Soil (N P & K) should be reported in standard form and unit i.e., kg of nutrients/ha.
On introductory page annual unit of power generation is mentioned as 1946 GWh, but on
page 2-5 it is mentioned 2230.31. Correct figure was to be intimated.

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Project stage

Subject

Specific Queries

SJVNL RAMPUR PROJECT


8.

Quantity of water to be released during lean season for maintaining the aquatic life may be
intimated..
9. The committee also decided to depute a sub group to vivit project.
The MOEF,GOI later cancelled the visit and fixed new date for presentation..
Was a revised application submitted?

Revised reply submitted on 6-02-05

When was the clearance obtained? Date/Year?

On 31-3-06

Did MOEF lay any major condition 1. The treatment proposed in CAT plan be submitted to MOEF .
at this stage? What were those? 2. Clarence from National Committee on seism city Design Parameters of CWC should be obtained.
3. The families affected due to acquisition of land should be rehabilitated as per R&R policy of SJVNL
and NPRR-2003.
4. All assurance/ commitments given by project authority in the public hearing must be honoured in
letter and spirit , particularly with regard to employment to project affected persons and locals.
5. Implementation of fish Management Plan should be carried out in consultation with State Fisheries
department and sent to MOEF,GOI within three months of isuue of this letter .
6. During lean period 23.7 cumec water should be made available in the released downstream of the
dam for immediately aquatic life.
In addition to above there are 11 general conditions.

Other
Clearances

Other relevant
clearances

Was any other (Wildlife Board/ASI/State PCB) clearance obtained,


which included any consideration of environmental issues? If so,
what were the issues?

State Pollution
Control Board

Procedure followed? Any problem


Procedure was followed.
or delay encountered

State Deptt. of
Science & Tech

Procedure followed? Any


problem or delay encountered

Yes State Nodal Deptt takes NOCs/ Clearances from Wild life forest
department , State Archeology etc.

Objections were raised by the Dept. and were replied.

Forest
Department

Procedure followed? Any problem


Yes, at various levels objections were raised and attended to.
or delay encountered?

Archaeological
Survey of India

Procedure followed? Any problem A certificate stating that no Archeological structure is coming within the project area was acquired not
or delay encountered?
from ASI but State Archeology Deptt. .

Indian Wildlife
Board

Procedure followed? Any problem A certificate/undertaking from the DFO wildlife was obtained mentioning that there is no wild life
or delay encountered?
sanctuary falling in the project area was acquired.

Any Other?

Fisheries Department also gave clearance.

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2.7

Applicability of the World Bank Safeguard Policies


The World Bank safeguard concerns and the policies that are applicable to the RHEP are
summarized below. The project has been designed with full compliance to the requirement of WB
safeguard policies.

Note: The Social Safeguard Policies, viz., the Policy on Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12) and the Policy
on Indigenous Peoples (OD 4.20) are included below, but are dealt separately by the social assessment
studies, and the resettlement action plan not covered under the EA/EMP.

Environmental Assessment (OP/BP 4.01) - APPLICABLE


The major environmental issues in the project would include (a) disturbance to the forest cover in
the project influence area, and the catchment; (b) impacts on the potential water use downstream;
(c) induced erosion and landslides in the project area and its vicinity; (d) impacts from the projects
associated facilities; and (e) the construction-related impacts.
Natural Habitats (OP/BP 4.04) NOT APPLICABLE
Based on the baseline data and a comparison with the available data for the state, or the Satluj
basin as a whole suggest that the projects influence area is relatively poor in terms of forest cover,
plant wealth, wildlife and biodiversity. Impact of the project on the existing landscape, at the basin
or even a district level is insignificant, owing to the environmental setting of the projects. Impacts
at the more immediate level will also be small, if not insignificant.
There are total 12 protected forest under the study area of which 6 forest falls in Rampur Division
while 6 in outer Seraj division of Kullu district. The details of protected forest are given in Table 3.
None of these are directly impacted by the project.
Owing to their common distribution and not having significant ecological status loss (although some
of them have community use and medicinal values), loss the trees and shrubs will not significantly
affect existing biodiversity status of the either project influence area, the Satluj Basin in general, or
Himachal Pradesh in totality. It will also not affect the structure composition, of existing forest
types, forest cover or distribution characteristics of flora.
Involuntary Resettlement (OP/BP 4.12) - APPLICABLE
The land acquisition and its associated resettlement impacts are very moderate and manageable.
The project involves relatively a small amount of land acquisition and physical displacement,
consisting of about 29 hectares of private land belonging to 180 title holders and transfer of about
49 hectares of forest government land. Among 180 title holders, 29 title holders will also loose
their houses and 55 land owners will become land less retaining less than 0.40 hectares.
Indigenous Peoples (OD 4.20) NOT APPLICABLE
The impact on tribal is negligible. Only one tribal family is being affected and the proportion of
tribal families living in project area is about 3% compared to 4% in Himachal Pradesh and 8% in
India. The socio-economic characteristics of tribal in the project area reveal that they own
agricultural land, livestock and own material assets like television, cooking gas four wheelers similar
to non-tribal. They do not exhibit any indigenous characteristics as described in the Banks
Operational Policy on Indigenous Peoples as confirmed by the social analysis described in Social

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Assessment. The analysis carried out by the borrower indicates that the tribal are fully integrated
into the mainstream economy of the local area.
Forests (OP/BP 4.36) - APPLICABLE
The project acquires 48.9ha of degraded forest land (with very little forest or tree cover), and
notionally acquires (but does not disturb as the works are deep underground) another 20.47ha of
similar degraded forest land over the tunnels. Together these represent 0.07% of the total forest
area of Rampur and Anni forest divisions (which together have 90,596ha of legally defined forests).
The project will clear fell 1075 trees, of which 996 are (exotic) eucalyptus trees, which were earlier
planted by the forest department. Other 79 trees to be felled are commonly distributed throughout
the projects immediate influence and influence area.
Safety of Dams (OP/BP 4.37) - APPLICABLE
This project does not construct any dam, but uses tailrace water diverted by the dam earlier
constructed by the Nathpa-Jhakri Power project. Construction of the 60m high Nathpa-Jhakri Dam
followed the Banks policy on safety of dams (as the project was funded by the World Bank). In this
project, the aspects related to safety of dam needed to be (only) re-confirmed. The borrowers have
prepared an Emergency Preparedness Plan, which takes adequate care of the safety features for
the project, and reconfirms the safety of the Nathpa-dam.
Physical Cultural Resources (OPN 11.03) - APPLICABLE
The project area does not have known archaeological or historical sites or remains. This has been
confirmed by an archaeological examination of the project area.
There is only a small possibility of impacts on cultural properties (such as community religious
properties, sacred groves, and chance-finds). The EMP includes procedures to identify such
properties, and mitigate and manage impacts in the case, such properties are impacted.
Projects in Disputed Areas (OP/BP/GP 7.60) NOT APPLICABLE
No part of the project area, and in fact, no part of the state of Himachal Pradesh is under any
international dispute.
Projects on International Waterways (OP/BP/GP 7.50) - APPLICABLE
The River Satluj (a tributary of the Indus) is an international river (lies in China, India and
Pakistan). This run-of the river is located in between two existing dams. The upstream dam at
Nathpa, about 50km upstream of the project, has a small storage (an inundation of about 22ha, all
within the river gorge, mainly for producing peaking power for the 1500MW Nathpa-Jhakri project).
The downstream Bhakra dam and the storage of Govindsagar were completed in 1960s, and
constitute a major multi-purpose project of Northern India. The Bhakra Dam has a gross storage of
9621 million m3, and is about 200km downstream of the Rampur project.
Thus, there is no significant impact of the project related to water flow and availability on either
the upstream or downstream riparian countries. The water quality impacts of the project is
assessed to be minor even at the immediate project area, and would be truly negligible
downstream of Bhakra. In addition, the Sutlej is one of the 3 eastern rivers defined by the Indus
Treaty (between India and Pakistan), and is earmarked for sole (consumptive) use by India.
According to the Bank policy on International Waterways, both the upstream and downstream
riparian countries, China and Pakistan, were notified and provided with relevant project details. No
objection to the project was raised by either of the riparian countries.

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2.8

SJVNL Corporate Policy Statements


As stated in the Environment Policy, the mission of SJVNL is to:
To Plan, Investigate, Organise, Execute, Operate and Maintain Hydropower
Projects in the Satluj River Basin in Himachal Pradesh and at any other place.
SJVNL Corporate Vision statement is as follows:
To Make India a Fountainhead of Hydro Power and the Energy Source of the
Future by Reorganising Development with Passion and Professionalism for
Sustainable Viability of the Corporation on Bedrock of Sound Commercial
Principles.

In the pursuit of above mission, SJVNL had set for itself the following Corporate Objectives :

Operating and maintaining power stations with maximum performance efficiency.

Establishing and following sound business, financial and regulatory policies.

Taking up of other hydro power projects.

Completion of the new projects allocated to SJVNL in an efficient and cost effective
manner.

Dissemination of available in-house technical and managerial expertise to other utilities /


projects.

Creating work culture and work environment conducive to the growth and development
of both the organization and the individuals through introduction of participative
management philosophy.

Fulfilling social commitments to the society. Achieving constructive cooperation and


building personal relations with stakeholders, peers, and other related organization.

Striving clean and green project environment with minimal ecological and social
disturbances.

To strive for acquiring Mini Ratna Status.

It could be seen that sustainability of the projects, and conservation and protection of environment
had been part of the Corporate Objectives.
2.9

SJVNL Corporate Policy on Environment


In 2006, the SJVNL Board of Directors adopted the following corporate policies on environment,
health and safety. All projects of SJVNL, including the currently operating project, viz., the NathpaJhakri Hydropower project will implement these policies, as applicable. The Rampur Hydropower
project has been prepared in due consideration of these policies.

2.9.1

SJVNLs Environmental Policy Statement


Following is the text of the SJVNLs Environment Policy:

SJVNL is a supplier of environmentally friendly electric power generation. The Company is


committed to the ownership and operation of generation facilities which contribute to the reduction
of greenhouse gas emissions and which minimise environmental impact both in construction and
operation.
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SJVNL will:

Discharge its obligations under the national and State environmental legislations,
regulations, guidelines and directives; and operate in an environmentally responsible
manner.

Strive to minimize the impact of its operations on the environment by means of a


program of continuous improvement.

Identify aspects of activities which have a significant environmental impact as an integral


part of its decision-making and its commitment to prevention pollution.

Develop and maintain adaptive environmental management mechanisms for the


establishment and maintenance of environmental objectives.

Develop and maintain efficient and two-way communication with the local communities,
and partner and assist them in resolving environmental concerns

Respond promptly and effectively to any known significant environmental impacts caused
by operations under its control.

Promote the development of efficient and clean operations procedures.

Promote the efficient use of energy, raw materials and other resources within its
operations.

Manage land under its care with sensitivity, having due regard for local environmental
sensitivities.

When appropriate, maintain close liaison with regulators, authorities and environmental
organizations.

Promote environmental awareness among employees, suppliers and contractors

Educate and train employees to conduct their activities in an environmentally responsible


manner.

Make this policy known and available to the public

In support of this policy, SJVNL will review all new projects for compliance and conduct regular
reviews of existing projects from legal stipulations angle as well as internal procedures. SJVNL will
prepare and maintain procedures to support this policy in the light of changes in knowledge and
understanding. However presently procedures enlisted will act as guidelines or directives for
implementing the Policy.
2.9.2

SJVNL Health, Security, Safety & Environment Directive


Following is the text of the SJVNLs Health, Security, Safety and Environment Directive:

Objective
SJVNLs ambition is to demonstrate courage, foresight, respect and a strong sense of responsibility
for people and the environment. SJVNL will be in the forefront in environmental care and industrial
safety. This directive lays down the necessary SJVNL policy and requirements governing our
Health, Security, Safety and Environment (HSE) efforts to achieve this ambition.
Scope
The directive covers all HSE aspects, applies to all parts of the value chain, and all our other
activities.

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Responsibilities
All employees are responsible for their own health, security and safety and shall cooperate and
contribute to the creation of a safe, secure and healthy working environment and to the
achievement of the SJVNLs environmental obligations and goals. Specifically, every employee shall
execute his or her task in a secure, safe and efficient manner in compliance with applicable
requirements and guidelines.
The SJVNL Board is responsible for the establishment and deployment of SJVNLs policy
concerning Health, Security, Safety and Environment, and for the elaboration of those related
corporate steering documents as are deemed necessary.
General Managers and all Project Managers shall address all relevant HSE issues. They are
accountable for the HSE performance of their operations/activities, including an appropriate level of
security, and for compliance with statutory requirements and SJVNLs own corporate requirements.
They are responsible for integration of applicable HSE practices into the business processes for
which they are responsible and shall show determination and commitment to HSE through active
leadership, i.e. driving the continuous improvement process: setting goals, follow-up and support
the HSE activities, and building a sustainable HSE culture.
Corporate Environmental, Safety and Social Development Unit shall, on behalf of the
SJVNL Board, ensure that all SJVNL activities are carried out in conformity with statutory
regulations and SJVNLs own corporate requirements. They shall assume ownership of the Health,
Security, Safety and Environment Processes, assist in making information concerning HSE available,
and facilitate cooperation, networking and the exchange of best practices in these fields.
In cooperation with the Corporate HSE staff, All Project Units shall facilitate information
exchange and develop common attitudes and standards across all SJVNL projects.
Health, security, safety and environmental issues shall be resolved within the appropriate
organizational level, i.e. as low as possible and practical.
Description of the HSE Policy
SJVNL is determined to work ambitiously, through continuous improvement, for a healthy work
environment, safe and secure conduct, and low environmental impact.

We will design our projects, develop and use technology to produce minimum adverse
effect on the environment, making efficient use of energy and resources.

At the strategic and operational levels we will show due concern to HSE, including the
health and safety of our neighbours. When acquiring or entering into commercial
agreements with companies that are far from our standards, we shall strive to set
ambitious goals to ensure significant improvements in their HSE performance.

We will systematically seek to deepen our understanding of HSE risks and effects of our
activities, promote transparency and routinely publicize our health, security, safety and
environment goals and report on status and progress in a dialogue with our stakeholders,
including local communities.

We will continuously work to reduce environmental impacts and risks related to our
activities, and contribute to sustainable power generation in a life-cycle perspective.

We are determined to have no injuries on our premises, and work continuously to avoid
work related illnesses, property damage and production loss.

We will encourage our employees to adopt a healthy, safe life-style for themselves and
their families.

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If accidents occur, we shall be prepared to do the utmost to prevent and mitigate injury,
damage to the environment, property and SJVNLs reputation. Saving life will be our
highest priority.

We will protect personnel, premises and activities against conscious and negligent
unauthorized actions, balancing the companys need for protection of the integrity of
employees and third parties.

HSE Management System

2.9.3

All our activities shall be in compliance with statutory requirements and SJVNL corporate
requirements.

All SJVNL projects shall be in compliance with the ISO 14001 standard or equivalent.

We shall achieve our goals through the systematic management of HSE risks and
opportunities, and the development of and adherence to a common HSE management
system built on good practice and experience, as described in detail in Safety Assurance
Plans and Environmental Management Plans of all individual projects.

SJVNL encourages the use of nationally and internationally recognized standards,


guidelines, procedures and acceptance criteria. If needed, sector specifications should be
established for issues not covered by such.

SJVNL will strive to develop Corporate Guidance on Health, Safety, Security and
Environmental Management. Wherever possible, SJVNL will encourage adoption of
Occupational Health, Safety and Social Accountability Management Systems.

SJVNLs Biodiversity Conservation Policy


Following is the text of the SJVNLs Biodiversity Conservation Policy:

The Biodiversity Challenge and Our Commitments


Respect for the values of the Earth and the resources it provides for present and future generations
belongs to the key values that SJVNL lives by. We recognise that:

Our operations have impacts that, if not properly addressed, may result in reduced
biodiversity; i.e. losses in the variety of ecosystems, species and genetic material

Action is required now to protect the variety of ecosystems as providers of services to


people

There is need for a global regulatory framework for the safeguarding of biodiversity

There is need for knowledge of the primary and secondary effects of hydropower
development activity on biodiversity

Our ambition is to be aware of risks to biodiversity from our activities, and to contribute to
biodiversity conservation where we operate.
To meet the biodiversity challenges - we will

Respect the Government of India (and IUCN classification, as far as applicable) of


protected areas and management regulations applicable to them

Take actions to avoid or mitigate impacts on biodiversity from our operations. This will
include compensatory measures to conserve biodiversity in sensitive areas

Consider primary and secondary effects on biodiversity in our Environmental and Social
Impact Assessments

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Monitor biodiversity in connection with our activities

Contribute to the development of a better knowledge on the effects on biodiversity of our


business

Actively support the development of frameworks on biodiversity conservation

Engage in partnerships and stakeholder dialogue to meet our ambitions

In the River valleys that SJVNL is involved in developing hydropower, we will:

2.9.4

Encourage a consistent dialogue on conservation of biodiversity

Assist, as far as practicable, the State Governments and River basin Authorities in the
implementation of their stated biodiversity conservation plans and programs

Partner with other hydropower developers in the river basin in developing knowledge
base on biodiversity and its linkages to community life and well being.

SJVNLs Climate Change Commitments


Following is the text of the SJVNLs climate change commitment:

We Recognize

That the risk of long term climate change requires action now to reduce global
greenhouse gas emissions

That our own projects face potential threats from climate change and the ensuing
variability in hydrological regime and landscape degradation

That technology development is necessary for emissions reductions and development of


long term sustainable systems

In SJVNL, we are committed to participate in the development of knowledge regarding the climate
change issues, in our own emissions reductions and in the development of sustainable systems.
We will support
The National and State Governments, other relevant stakeholder and parner agencies involved in
developing, managing and regulating hydropower in the river valleys that SJVNL is involved:

To implement best practices and best available technologies in the short term

To develop bridging solutions for the intermediate term

To develop systems and infrastructures for the longer term

We will also support the National and State Governments to develop equitable frameworks
designed to find cost efficient solutions to the potential threats arising out of climate variability and
extreme climatic events.
The framework to make it happen

We participate in and support the National and State endeavors to develop the
commitments and the frameworks like the UNFCCC/Kyoto protocol with its flexible
mechanisms, and frameworks with similar goals

We support market based emissions trading systems to provide the necessary incentives
to drive emissions reductions

We will strive to design, develop and operate our projects to ensure reductions in
greenhouse gas emission
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We will strive to design, develop and operate our projects to ensure adequate
management and response to extreme climatic events

Our actions to meet the global climate challenge

We will continue to develop our business, projects and operations in a way that will
support global green house gas emission reductions in a life cycle perspective

We will limit emissions from our production through better operations and trough
development and implementation of new technologies, wherever relevant and economical

We will take into account the expected future cost of green house gas emissions in major
investment decisions to support the choice of climate benign solutions

We will develop a trading capacity to manage our green house gas portfolio and to
provide incentives to reduce operational emissions.

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CHAPTER 3
ENVIRONMENTAL
BASELINE, IMPACT
ANALYSIS &
MITIGATION

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

THE ENVIRONMENT BASELINE & ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS


This chapter starts with a description of entire Satluj Basin. This is followed by a presentation of
issues related to Indian part of Satluj Basin such as regional biodiversity, existing
upstream/downstream hydropower projects in the region.
The next sections focus on project specific issues. The approach adopted is in this section is to first
describe the baseline conditions and significant environmental issues, then to evaluate the potential
environmental impacts and finally the ways of avoiding these impacts. Mitigation measures,
compensation measures and opportunities for environmental enhancement are discussed.
The last sections of the chapter focuses on the general and specific impacts associated with
construction activities.

3.1

River Systems of Himachal Pradesh


The Himalayan mountain chain has a dominant influence on the climatic conditions prevailing over
Indian sub-continent. They lie in the path of rain-bearing monsoon winds and thus bring rain to a
large part of India. The Himalaya houses a vast reservoir of moisture both in the form of ice, freshwater and underground water. The rivers draining the Himalayas sustain life in the Northern part of
the Indian sub-continent. The drainage system of Himalaya is very complex. It is composed both of
rivers and glaciers. Himalayan River criss-cross the entire mountain chain. In fact a number of
rivers are older than the mountain system. They have cut across the various mountain ranges. In
Himachal, rivers from two rivers systems- Indus River System (Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the
Chenab and the Jhelum) and Ganga River System (only river Yamuna) flow through.
Table 3.1 The Indus River System

3.1.1

Name of
River

Source

Total Stream
length (km)

Drainage (km2) Remarks

Jhelum

Northern of Pripanjal, Kashmir

400

28, 490

Indian Scetor Only

Ravi

Born in Bara Banghal, Kangra district

725

5957

Indian sector only

Chenab

Greater Himalayan Canton of Lahaul

1180

26,755

Indian sector only

Beas

Beas Kund at Southern face of


Rohtang pass in Greater Himalayas
(4062m)

470

25, 900

Satluj

Mansarvor group of lakes in Tibet


Himalayas 4630m

1050

24, 087

Indian sector only

Yamuna

Yamunotri in Gharwal hills and forms


the Eastern boundary with Uttar
Pradesh

1,300

359,000

Catchment area in
Himachal is 2320
km

The Indus River System


The river Indus rises from the Tibetan plateau and enters the Himalaya in Ladakh. It enters the
Kashmir region near its confluence with the river Gurtang, at an elevation of about 4200 metres.
The drainage basin of the Indus river system extends from the Naga Parbat mass in the extreme
North-Western part of the country to the Western slopes of the Shimla ridge in Himachal Pradesh.
It includes the whole of Jammu and Kashmir and most of Himachal Pradesh. The extreme Northern
tract of the Indus basin comprises of the cold desert of Ladakh, Lahaul Spiti and Pooh. South of
this tract lies the higher Himalayan mountain wall. The lower and middle Himalayas occupy the
central part of the Indus basin. The low rolling Shivalik hills occur along its Southern periphery.

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Climatic conditions in the Indus river system vary from arctic to sub-tropical. The cold desert area
remains devoid of rainfall and experiences heavy snowfall. The important rivers of this system are
the Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum. Out of these five, four flow through
Himachal Pradesh and along with their tributaries draining parts of Himachal Pradesh.
3.1.2

Satluj River in Himachal Pradesh


Satluj rises from beyond Indian borders in the Southern slopes of the Kailash mountain near
Mansarover lake from Rakas lake, as Longcchen Khabab river (in Tibet). It is the largest among the
five rivers of Himachal Pradesh. It enters Himachal at Shipkila (altitude is 6,608 meters) and flows
in the South-Westerly direction through Kinnaur, Shimla, Kullu, Solan, Mandi and Bilaspur districts.
Its coarse in Himachal Pradesh is 320 km. from Rakastal, with famous tributaries viz. the Spiti, the
Ropa, the Taiti, the Kashang, the Mulgaon, the Yula, the Wanger, the Throng and the Rupi as right
bank tributaries, whereas the Tirung, the Gayathing, the Baspa, the Duling and the Soldang are left
bank tributaries. The prominent human settlements that have come on the banks of the Satluj
River are Namgia, Kalpa, Rampur, Tattapani, Suni and Bilaspur. Its total length is 1,448 km. It
leaves Himachal Pradesh to enter the plains of Punjab at Bhakhra, where the world's highest
gravity dam has been constructed on this river. Its total catchment area in Himachal Pradesh is
20,000 sq. km. Its vedic name is Satudri and Sanskrit name Shatadru. The Satluj finally drains into
the Indus in Pakistan. The catchment area of about 50,140 km. of Satluj River is located above the
permanent snow line at an altitude of 4,500 metres. The upper tracts of the Satluj valley are under
a permanent snow cover.

3.1.3

Important Tributaries of River Satluj


Refer Figure 3.1.
Spiti River
The Spiti River originates from Kunzum range and Tegpo and Kabzian streams are its tributaries.
Water draining the famous Pin valley area are also a part of the Spiti river system. Its position
across the main Himalayan range deprives it from the benefit of the South-West monsoons that
causes widespread rain in most parts of India from June to September. The river attains peak
discharge in late summers due to glacier melting. After flowing through Spiti valley, the Spiti River
meets Satluj at Namgia in Kinnaur district traversing a length of about 150 km. from the NorthWest beyond that it flows in South-West direction in the Pradesh. Huge mountains rise to very high
elevations on either sides of the Spiti River and its numerous tributaries. The mountains are barren
and largely devoid of a vegetative cover. The main settlements along the Spiti River and its
tributaries are Hansi and Dhankar Gompa.
Baspa River
Baspa is an important tributary of the river Satluj in its upper courses. The Baspa is joined by many
smaller channels draining snowmelt waters. The Baspa River has cut across the main Himalayan
range. Thereafter it empties itself into the river Satluj in district Kinnaur. Baspa originates from the
Baspa hills, joins it from the left bank near Karcham. Satluj River leaves Kinnaur district in the West
near Chauhra and enters Shimla district.
The Nogli Khad
It joins Satluj just below Rampur Bushahar. The river Satluj enters Mandi district near Firnu village
in the Chawasigarh and passes through the areas of Mahunm, Bagra, Batwara, Derahat and Dehar.
Practically the whole of the ancient Suket state except Jaidevi and Balh circles drains into Satluj.
The main tributaries of the Satluj in district Mandi are Siun, Bahlu, Kotlu, Behna, Siman, Bantrehr,
Khadel and Bhagmati.

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Soan River
The Soan River rises from the Southern slopes of the Shivalik range also known as Solasinghi range
in the tract to the East of the Beas gap across the Southern periphery of the Kangra valley. It joins
the boundary of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Its gradient is not very steep and the slopes of the
Soan catchment vary from gentle to steep. In the summer the discharge drops drastically, while
during monsoon it is in spate.
Other tributaries of the Satluj are as in Table 3.2 below.
Table 3.2 Tributaries of the Satluj
Region of confluence

Name of Stream

Joining Satluj in Tibet in the Province of


Nari Khorsam

Zangchu, Drama, Yankti, Chonak, Manglan,


Trunsaco, Sumna, Trape
Right Bank

Joining Satluj Below Shipkila, in India


Left Bank

3.1.4

Spiti, Ropa, Taiti, Kashang, Mulgaon


Yula, Wanger, Throng , Rupi
Tirung, Gayathing, Baspa
Duling, Shoulding

Hydro power Projects on the Satluj


The Government of India and State Government of Himachal Pradesh have identified the Satluj
River as one of the main sources of hydroelectric projects. The total hydropower potential of Satluj
river basin as estimated is 9728.25 MW out of which 5515.75 MW is being harnessed through
projects that are either under operation or in construction stages (refer Table 3.3). In this
particular section, key features of main hydro- power projects that are in varying stages of
planning, construction, completion and operation have been discussed. The main hydroelectric
power plants and dams are:
Proposed Khab Hydropower Project (1020 MW), Kinnaur District
The Khab HEP located in the Northern Power region is conceived as a run-of-river development on
the river Satluj to tap the hydroelectric potential of the upper reaches of river Satluj as it enters
into the Indian Territory. The project envisages the construction of 275 m high concrete gravity
dam with 12.6 km long and 9 m dia tailrace tunnel and would generate 1020 MW of electricity with
a tentative construction cost of 14000 Crores. It is envisaged that the cost will be shared by
downstream benefitting projects due to storage of silt which increases life of downstream
reservoirs. For the scheme, diversion works on the river are located at 310 d/s of Khab, the
confluence of river Satluj and river Spiti in District Kinnaur of State, about 300km from Shimla.
Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Project (1000MW), Kinnaur District
The Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Project will utilise the head available between the tail waters
of Baspa Hydroelectric Project Stage-II and head waters of Nathpa-Jhakri Hydroelectric Project.
The project envisages a concrete gravity dam about 43 m high above the river bed (approx. 98 m
high above the deepest foundation level). The dam will have 6 sluice spillway bays of size 9m (W)
x 9m(H). The other main component of the Project are: 10.48 m diameter, 17.2 km long head race
tunnel, 4.75m dia. 4 nos. pressure shafts, an underground power-house with 4 x 250 MW installed
capacity, transformer hall and 909 m long 10.48 m dia tail race tunnel. The diversion of river is
envisaged by construction of a Diversion tunnel.

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Table 3.3 - Features of Major Hydro-Electric Projects on the Satluj


Name of the
project

Location

Hydrology

District

River

Catchment Area Average runoff in


Average runoff in
(Km2)
90% dependable year 50% mean year

Khab

Kinnaur

Satluj

44,000

4413 Mm3

7138 Mm3

Karcham Wangtoo

Kinnaur

Satluj

48,755

112558 cumec-day

75697 cumec day

Nathpa-Jhakri

Kinnaur

Satluj

49,820

7689 Mm

9596 Mm3

Rampur

Shimla/ Kullu Satluj

50,880

Luhri

Kinnaur

Satluj

52,403

9341 Mm

12074 Mm3

Source:
PFR Khab project, Year, 2004; EIA for Updation of NJHEP, Year 2003;
Report on Karcham Wangtoo Project, Year 2005; EIA for Rampur HEP, Year 2005; PFR Luhri HEP, Year 2004

Bhaba Hydel Project (120 MW), Kinnaur District


The 120 MW Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna of Bhaba Hydel Project is complete. The project includes a
weir across the Bhaba Khad, a right bank tributary of Satluj with a desilting basin, a small reservoir
2.5m (finished), 8.4 km long head race tunnel, 5m dia underground surge shaft, underground
pressure shaft, and underground powerhouse on right bank of Satluj river. The project was
commissioned by HPSEB in the year 1989.
Baspa Hydroelectric Project (300 MW), Kinnaur District
It is located about 200 km from Shimla on NH-22 and envisages construction of a 10m high
barrage across river Baspa, 8km long and 4m diameter head-race tunnel and underground
powerhouse and has installed capacity of 300 MW. Project is complete and is commissioned.
Proposed Sorang Hydropower Project, Kinnaur District
The proposed Sorang hydroelectric project is a run-of-the-river type development on Sorang Khad,
a tributary of Satluj River, in Kinnaur District. The project consists of construction of trench weir
across Sorang Khad at an elevation of + 1943.50 m. The water flow directed shall be fed through a
1.54km long HRT and 183m long pressure shaft and 970 m long buried Penstock to a under ground
powerhouse on the left bank of Tikkadda Khad near the confluence with Satluj river. The Project
thus utilizes a head rated of 667.15 m. to produce 100 MW of power. The power generated at
Sorang HEP is propose to be fed into HPSEB 220/66KW substation at Kotla near Jeori and Kunihar
in Distt. Solan.
Ghanvi-I (22.5 MW), Shimla District
Ghanvi-I hydroelectric project is a run-of-the-river scheme on Ghanvi khad a tributary of Satluj
River in Shimla District of Himachal Pradesh. The project consists of a trench weir across Ghanvi
Khad near village Ghanvi, vortex tube type desilting arrangement, power channel, underground
forebay, surface/underground surge shaft, surface/underground penstock and a underground
power house on the left bank of Ghanvi khad. The project has been commissioned in the year
2000. The development and operating scheme of Ghanvi-I & II is very similar to that of Sorang
Hydroelectric Project.
Ghanvi II (10 MW), Shimla District
Ghanvi-II hydroelectric project is being conceived as a run-of-the-river scheme on Ghanvi khad a
tributary of Satluj River in Shimla District of Himachal Pradesh. The project consists of a trench weir
across Ghanvi khad near village Rungcha, vortex type desilting arrangement, storage reservoir, 1.4
km long head race tunnel, underground surge shaft, surface/underground penstock and an
underground power house on the left bank of Ghanvi Khad.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.1 Major Tributaries and Streams meeting the Satluj

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Nathpa-Jhakri Hydel Project (1500 MW), Kinnaur District


This project is the largest run-of-the river scheme on the river Satluj to harness the Satluj River for
hydel power jointly undertaken by Haryana & Himachal governments and is. It is located 140 km
from Shimla on NH-22 and includes construction of a 60.5 m. high gravity dam built on Satluj at
Nathpa, a 27-28 km. long and 10.5 m. diameter head-race tunnel on the left bank and an
underground powerhouse at Jhakri, with an installed capacity of 1500 MW (6 x 250). The plant will
utilize the available 425m gross head between Nathpa & Jhakri. Project is complete and running with
full capacity. The salient features are:

The Nathpa Jhakri Power Project is under operation since 2003 and has a generation
capacity of 1500 MW.

The project is also utilizing the water of an intervening stream, i.e. Sholding khad through a
trench weir and a drop shaft.

The energy generation is of the order of 7425 GWH in a 50% mean year and nearly 6700
GWH in a 90% dependable year. The project has been completed at a cost of Rs.8656
crores.

Proposed Luhri Hydroelectric Project (465 MW), Kinnaur District


The Luhri HEP is foreseen as run-of-the-river developments on Satluj River, in the reach between
Luhri and Chaba villages in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh just downstream of confluence of
Behna khad with Satluj River near Luhri. The project site is about 80km from Shimla and is an
upstream development to the proposed Kol dam electric project on Satluj River. The project
envisages construction of a 60M high (above sea bed) concrete gravity dam on the river near the
village Nathan for diversion of a design discharge of 477 cumec, through 4 intakes and underground
desilting arrangement into a 15.50 km long, 10.50m finished diameter head race tunnel on the right
bank of the river. A gross head of 127m is available at the power station, which shall be utilised to
generate 465 MW (3X 155 MW) of power.
Kol Dam (800 MW)
800 MW Kol Dam hydro electric project in Himachal Pradesh to be set up by National Thermal Power
Corporation at an estimated cost of Rs 5300 crore is located in Distt Bilaspur. It envisages to utilize
power potential of Satluj. The project involves construction of 163 m high rockfill dam across river
Staluj 6 km upstream from existing Dehar power station and installation of four units each of 200
MW. The power generated will be evacuated to power deficient northern region through 400 KV
integrated transmission system lines constructed for Nathpa Jhakhri and Kol dam projects.
Bhakra Dam
The construction of this project was started in the year 1948 and was completed in 1963. It is 740 ft.
high above the deepest foundation. Bhakra Dam is the highest Concrete Gravity dam in Asia and
second highest in the world. There are two power houses namely Left Bank Power Plant and Right
Bank Power Plant. It is a Concrete straight gravity with Height above the deepest foundation equal to
225.55 metres (740 feet) Its Height above river bed is 167.64 metres (550 feet). The elevation at top
of dam above mean sea level is equal to 518.16 metres (1700 feet). The total installed capacity of
left bank power plant is 450 MW - 5 units of 90 MW each and of the right bank power plant is 600
MW - 5 units of 120 MW each. The facility uses the Satluj River to supply drinking and irrigation
water for portions of six states.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

3.2

Baseline Characteristics of the Satluj Basin

3.2.1

The River and its Catchment


River Satluj rises in Tibetan plateau in the region of the Mansarover Lake situated at an elevation of
about 4570m above mean sea level. The river enters India near Shipkila after traversing a length of
about 320 km in the Tibetan province of Nari Khorsam. The geographical limits of the Satluj basin
covers Nari Khorsam province in Tibet, China and in Himachal Pradesh, India. The Catchment area of
river Satluj up to Bhakra dam is about 56,876km2 out of which about 36,900km2 falls in Tibet and
19,975km2 in India.
Topographically and climatologically the catchment of entire Satluj basin can be divided into four
parts, viz., the Tibetan Plateau, the Spiti Valley, catchment from Khab to Nathpa dam site, and the
catchment from Nathpa dam site to Bhakra. The characteristics of Spiti valley catchment area are
identical to that of the Tibetan Plateau with Height of the catchment area falling above 3048m and
4570m. In this area also there is absolutely no vegetation and the melting of snow forms deep flow
channels on the surface. The catchment area of Khab to Nathpa dam site and Nathpa dam site is
bound by moderately high hills with elevation of 1525m to 3048m. Nathpa dam site to Bhakra dam
stretch is flanked by foothills of Shiwaliks near Bhakra Dam. Rainfall varies from little to moderate
along higher to lower reaches of the catchment. Snow fall is higher in the upper reaches of the
catchment area. The flows in the river are mainly due to snow melting which follows more or less a
regular pattern. Good forest cover is observed at lower altitudes and on flat surface active agriculture
activities are observed.
Figure 3.2 - Satluj Catchment Topography in the Tibet Region (I)

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.3 - Satluj Catchment Topography in the Tibet Region (II)

Figure 3.4 - Satluj Catchment Topography in the Tibet Region (III)

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

3.2.2

Topography
As stated earlier, topographically the entire Satluj basin can be divided into four categories viz.
Tibetan Plateau, Spiti Valley, Khab to Nathpa dam site and Nathpa dam site to Bhakra Dam. The
RHEP project is located on the topographical characteristics of region between the Nathpa dam and
the Bhakra dam site. River Satluj rises in Tibetan plateau in the region of the Mansarover Lake
situated at an elevation of about 4570m above mean sea level. The river enters India near Shipkila
after traversing a length of about 320km in the Tibetan province of Nari Khorsam. The snow melt
results in deep channel formation on the surface. There is absolutely no vegetation in this region.
Spiti River is the largest tributary of the river Satluj and joins river Satluj at Namgia (Khab), about
14km upstream of Pooh. The topography of this catchment is identical to that of the Tibetan
Plateau. From Spiti valley, the river Satluj flows through moderate to high hilly terrain with
elevation of 1525m to 3048m and has little rainfall but heavy snow. The area has steep slopes with
little earth cover. The topography of the RHEP project area catchment has high surrounding hills.
In the lower area, Rampur to Bhakra, the average slope of the river is about 1 in 300. The river
Satluj in the project area flows, in south-westerly direction with a major south-easterly loop near
Nogli, the river flows through a narrow gorge, which opens into large terraces on either bank. In
the entire stretch of river Satluj, several tributaries join it on left and right banks.
Table 3.4 Topographical Divisions of the Satluj Basin
Tibetan Plateau

River Satluj rises in Tibetan plateau in the region of the Mansarover Lake situated at an elevation of
about 4570m above mean sea level. The river enters India near Shipkila after traversing a length of
about 320 km in the Tibetan province of Nari Khorsam. There is no local rainfall in this region. The
snow melt results in deep channel formation on the surface. There is absolutely no vegetation in this
region.

Spiti Valley

Spiti River is the largest tributary of the river Satluj and joins river Satluj at Namgia (Khab), about 14
km upstream of Pooh. The characteristics of this catchment area are identical to that of the Tibetan
Plateau. Rainfall is scarce in this area. Height of the catchment area drained by river Spiti is between
3048m and 4570m. In this area also there is absolutely no vegetation and the melting of snow forms
deep flow channels on the surface.

Khab to Nathpa
Dam Site

The catchment area is bounded by moderately high hills with elevation of 1525 m to 3048 m and
has little rainfall but heavy snow. The snow line in this region is at + 3048 m. The flows in the river
are mainly due to snow melting which follows more or less a regular pattern. The area has steep
slopes with little earth covered. Due to the absence of rain, arid conditions prevail and the good
forests seen below Reckong Peo are not found at higher altitudes. The pine forests near KarchamWangtu give way to chilgoza plantations in the higher altitudes.

Nathpa dam site to The catchment has high surrounding hills like Narkanda, Shimla (3050m) etc. but is flanked by foot
hills of Shiwaliks near Bhakra Dam (915m). Rainfall in the region is moderate to heavy. The area is
Bhakra dam
forested with scattered to dense patches of trees. There is agricultural development in several
locations, mainly along the river and on flatter slopes. In the lower area, Rampur to Bhakra, the
average slope of the river is about 1 in 300, with heavier rains and silt loads. The forest cover is
sparse with denudation of vegetation because of over-grazing.

3.2.3

Geology
The rock formations in the entire Satluj basin, part of which falls in Tibet, belong to the Precambrian Age. The region is characterized by three structural units, namely, Jeori Wangtu Gneissic
complex, Kullu group of formation and Rampur group of formation. The geological formation in the
area is categorized into Pre-Cambrian system, Late Pre-cambrain systems, Silurain and
carboniferous systems. Pre-Cambrain system consists of schists, gneiss, grains and quartzites. Late
Pre-Cambrain Himanta system is marked by phylities, quartzites, contomerates, shales and states.
Silurain system is rich in Karol, limestone, Quartzite while Carboniferous formations are similar to
Silurian systems except that slate and dolomite replace karol of the system. Quartzite and
limestone are found in both the systems.
Seismologically, Himachal Pradesh can be classified into the following three sub-domains.
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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Frontal Foodhill Seismic Belt: area occupied by the Siwaliks, Tertiary and Quaternary sediments
defined on the north by the Main Boundary Fault (MBF). The southern boundary is not well defined.
The belt shows evidences of neo-tectonic activity along thrust and transverse faults known as tears
in the foothill belt.
Lesser Himalayan Seismic Belt: is bounded in the north by Main Central Thrust (MCT) and Main
Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the south. This area demonstrates the highest seismicity level with most
of the fault planes solutions being parallel to the Himalayan trend and displaying thrust type of
deformations.
Great Himalayan Seismic Belt: is the area falling north of Main Central Thrust (MCT) and is
characterised with seismic events, majority of which have magnitudes less than 5 on Richter scale.
The state of Himachal Pradesh can be classified into two distinguished seismic zones namely
Himachal Upper Seismic Zone (HUSZ) and Himachal Lower Seismic Zone (HLSZ) separated
by Basement Thrust Front (BTF). The lateral bounding of surfaces of these seismic belts/zone is
through distinct crystal blocks namely Chamba, Kangra and Shimla blocks.
3.2.4

Climate
Baseline
The climate of the whole Satluj valley region is generally temperate type, but due to large
variations in the altitude, there is a wide range of climatic variations. Climate varies from the subtropical climate of sub-mountainous areas at the bottom of the Satluj valley to the alpine in the
upper reaches, parts of which are perpetually under snow. The climate of Satluj valley is marked by
a gradual alteration from heavy monsoon of the outer Himalayas to the arid Tibetan type with a
winter snowfall practically in summer rains. The monsoon clouds advancing from the plains of India
are combed out by the outer ranges of the hill, where most of the monsoon rain falls. Hence the
inner valley, though gets good cloud, but no steady precipitation occurs during the monsoon
months. Satluj valley lying east and west is badly placed for rainfall and further local aridity is
caused by storm clouds being checked in their progress up in the valley by many spurs. This local
aridity increases by the heating of the enormous stretches of bare cliffs, turning the deep narrow
gorge absolutely stifling under the summer sun. This in turn gives a hot drying local wind, beating
up and down the main valley with great regularity. It is due to this reason that Rampur where the
RHEP is located, at 3000 ft elevation in the bottom of the gorge, receives about 800mm rainfall,
while Kotgarh at 8000 ft, almost in the same sector of valley receives about 1150 mm of rainfall.
The RHEP project area normally experiences severe cold winter during months of December to
February, followed by summer during months of April to June. Monsoon starts from July and
continues till mid-September before arrival of post monsoon/autumn season from mid-September
to November.
Rainfall & Cloud Cover
Maximum rainfall in the area occurs in monsoon months from mid July to mid September. The
western disturbance that passes over the north-western part of the country during the winter
months also affects the rain in catchments. During the months of July and August, the sky exhibits
heavily clouded to overcast conditions for almost entire months. This is a period of frequent and
heavy rainfalls over the Project area. Western disturbances create impact during December to
March but their intensity remain low and for lesser duration. A transition period, from midseptember to early December is relatively rain free. In the month of November, least cloud cover is
observed and the sky largely remains clear. December to March is a period when heavy cloud
cover could be expected for a period of 10 days in a month due to western disturbances. Monthly
rainfall analysis indicates that the rainfall in the Rampur area is highly seasonal, with about 65% of
the annual rainfall occurring between July and September. The area also receives winter rains and
snow due to the western disturbances in the months of December to March. This period
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contributes about 20% of the total rainfall in the area. The average annual rainfall recorded for
Rampur area was 800 mm. Rainfall data for Rampur area is summarized in Table 3.5 for the years
from 1999 till 2004.
Table 3.5 - Historical Monthly Rainfall (in mm) Data for Rampur
Year

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

1999

78.9

19.9

5.4

31.4

19.6

185

60.9

18.5

5.2

424.8

2000

244.9

337.9

21.3

12.1

616.2

2001

20

40

105

34

103

113.9

60

123.1

60

16

41

716

2002

61.5

142

93

104

13

45

10

152

104

725.5

2003

55

110

60

61

11

41.5

264

132

107

41

886.5

2004

67

69

57

114

93

244.5

24

81

761.5

Source: IMD

Relative Humidity
Relative humidity levels in the region are generally low throughout the year except during monsoon
months. Relative humidity declines below 40% during summer season, and exceeds 80% in wet
season, peaking at a mean of 91% in August. The average relative humidity during synoptic hours
is 53% and 62% respectively.
Temperature
Reduced temperatures are experienced in the project area with the onset of monsoon in July until
February, with the lowest in January.
Local climatic condition characterizes a faster rate of
temperature drop in day time as compared to night time. After the withdrawal of monsoons by
mid-September, the night temperature falls rapidly. January is coolest month with the mean
maximum and minimum temperatures of around 8.9oC and 1.7oC respectively. During winters,
under the influence of western disturbances, the temperature falls appreciably, touches even below
0oC. Temperature starts rising from the beginning of March till peaking up in June. The mean
minimum and maximum temperatures in this period are around 15.6oC and 24oC respectively.
Table 3.6 - Temperature Data at Rampur Station
Year
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

Temp
(C)

Jan

Feb

March

April

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Max.

16.84

19.32

23.56

30.01

33.18

33.31

32.19

31.39

31.97 29.48

23.48

17.75

Min.

3.58

6.2

8.99

12.47

17.38

20.16

22.59

20.98

18.96 13.85

8.53

5.5

Max.

20

17.46

30.08

28.24

31.97

34.66

30.53

31.72

30.68 28.56

25.51

19.58

Min.

6.21

6.52

7.52

12.38

18.13

21.33

21.72

19.81 12.84

8.81

5.75

Max.

19.26

10.04

23.4

27.07

33.1

34.18

35.34

31.39

31.68 29.73

23.74

19.26

Min.

2.47

6.42

9.28

11.87

16.73

20.62

23.67

22.02

20.48 13.9

8.42

5.44

Max.

17.25

18.96

21.39

28.94

32.11

35.11

31.61

30.98

30.75 28.24

23.77

0.66

Min.

5.66

5.42

9.87

14.18

16.05

20.31

21.45

21.98

19.59 13.65

9.68

5.39

Max.

15.82

20.77

21.39

29.4

34.46

33.85

34.64

28.01

31.63 24.03

22.68

18.45

Min.

4.64

7.36

8.13

13.01

17.77

22.88

22.5

17.31

14.62 7.49

8.11

5.5

Max.

18.27

18.86

27.74

26.35

32.65

35.96

32.29

31.16

30.88 28.96

25.2

18.96

Min.

5.5

5.21

9.36

11.87

16.81

21.7

22.24

21.89

18.27 13.18

8.46

5.86

Source: IMD

Recording of temperature at Luhri has been initiated by DFO Ani from May 2003. The recorded
data has been presented below:
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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.7 - Temperature data at Luhri


Month (Year 2003)

Maximum

Minimum

May

40.2

17.1

June

44.5

19.0

July

38.6

22.7

August

36.6

22.9

September

40.7

20.5

Source:

Luhri PFR, Year 2004

Special Weather Phenomena


Thunderstorms mostly occur from March to September. Thunderstorms also occur in association
with the western disturbances in winter, often accompanied with hail. During winter months fog is
common phenomenon.
Wet Haze and Fog
Still and cool air, when combined with the presence of hygroscopic particles in the air, forms wet
haze or fog near the ground or water surface, even when the relative humidity is as low as 75%.
With wet Haze, the number and size of the condensed droplets are both small; with fog however,
there are more and larger sized particles. Fog forms in different ways. When a surface is radiating
its energy to the clear sky, the cooling surface then cools the air directly above it. This could
happen only in areas where the water body is very shallow. Otherwise, the warmer water below
will replace the cooling water at the surface. Another type of fog, steam fog, is formed when cold
air moves over warm water. The cold air causes the condensation of the evaporating water. The
steam so formed drifts upwards and slowly disappears. The general circulation model indicates
that this can occur at times when the mountain air is very cold and the reservoir water is very
warm. This will be an early morning event.
Potential Impacts
The replacement of forest, agricultural lands and grasslands may result in some changes to the air
temperature and relative humidity over the water and around the Banks. However, it has been
experienced that these changes are more prominent in large Hydropower projects where water
reservoir and Dam activities are involved. The RHEP project does not involve Reservoir activities,
and therefore, the microclimatic changes will not have significant adverse impact on the overall
climate of the area.
The project area does not have significant presence of condensation nuclei, as the area is relatively
free of pollutants. RHEP is not likely to change haze and fog pattern significantly in the area.
Chances of formation of haze and fog will be there but will not be severe enough as the project
does not involve reservoir activity. Usually fog and haze will be seen in morning hours, near river
banks.
3.2.5

Climate Change
Baseline
According to WWF, "Himalayan glaciers are among the fastest retreating glaciers globally due to
the effects of global warming." A WWF report- An Overview of Glaciers, Glacier Retreat and
Subsequent Impacts in Nepal, India and China, states that glaciers in the region are now receding
at an average rate of 10-15 metres per year. This will eventually result in water shortage for
hundreds of millions of people who rely on glacier-dependent rivers in China, India, and Nepal.

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As glacier water flows decline, the energy potential of hydroelectric power will decrease, causing
problems for industry, while reduced irrigation means lower crop production. Rapid melting of
glaciers and snowfields may also lead to disruption of water supplies, fisheries and other wildlife.
Himalayan glaciers feed into seven of Asia's greatest rivers, the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra,
Salween, Mekong, Yangtze and Huange Ho. In India, the Gangotri glacier, which supports one of
India's largest river basins, is receding at an average rate of 23 metres per year. In China, the
report shows that Qinhai Plateau's wetlands have seen declining lake water levels, lake shrinkage,
the absence of water flow in rivers and streams, and the degradation of swamp wetlands.
A study by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the International Center for
Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) reveals that the temperature in the Himalayan region
has risen by almost 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since the 1970's. This shift in climate
causes meltdown of snowfalls and glaciers - at the fastest rate in the world (50 feet/15 m per year
in northern India) - even in winter, causing icy water to accumulate in lakes hedged by unstable
dams of sediment and stone. As the lakes swell, the dams often burst, sending muddy streams
down the narrow valleys. In addition to life and property including bridges, hydro-electric plants
and tourist facilities the flood, laden with massive boulders and sediment, also devastates
agricultural lands and irrigation systems in the valleys below.
During winter, most of the high-altitude regions experience snowfall, and snow cover plays an
important role in the ecology of the region. Therefore, understanding of snow accumulation and
ablation is important for utilization of the Himalayan water resource. The heavy snowfall is also
fortuitous for the rivers, especially snow-fed ones which will have abundant water during summers
when the snow melts, which in turn shall boost hydro-power generation. The snow has also lent
some happiness to farmers in the state who are anticipating a good yield with abundant water to
enhance their crop quality.
Snowpack ablation is highly sensitive to climatic variations. Increase in atmospheric temperature
can enhance energy exchange between the atmosphere and snowpack. This can increase snowmelting. Investigations suggest that climate of the earth has constantly changed in the course of
time, during the past ten million years or so. This increase in temperature has continued in the 21st
century and average surface temperature of the earth can rise by 1.4 to 5.8C by the end of the
century. This will have a profound impact on snow accumulation and ablation rate in the Himalaya,
as snow and glaciers are sensitive to global climate change.
Many research organizations and independent researchers are doing commendable work in
systematic analysis of accumulation and ablation of snow cover in the Himalayan region using WiFS
data of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS). A study has also been done for Baspa Basin up to
Sangla, in Himachal Pradesh. Baspa is a one of the main tributaries of river Satluj. The study
confirms that global warming has started affecting snowmelt and stream run-off in this region of
Himalyas. Winter stream flow for the Baspa glacier basin has increased 75% since 1966 and local
winter temperatures have warmed, suggesting increased glacier melting in winter (Figure 3.5)
The problems associated with glacier retreat in the face of climate change are not straightforward.
On the one hand current increased melting induces a gradual increase in discharge. In the longer
term however as glacial mass decreases there will be a tipping point as runoff begins a decrease
trend with massive implications. Perennial rivers could be changed into seasonal streams giving rise
to freshwater scarcity in the summer months when melt waters contribute the bulk of the water
(around 75%) to the Himalayan rivers.
In addition more melting is expected to increase the frequency of catastrophic events such as
glacier lake outburst floods (GLOF) that have devastating consequences for civil works like bridges,
dams and powerhouses, and communities living at downstream. Also, the increase in phenomena
such as cloudbursts is widely noted. Incidence of landslides, on other hand, was perceived to have
slightly declined or remained relatively constant over time.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.5 - IRSWiFS Imagery showing Distribution of Snow Cover in Baspa Basin
(November 2000 to February 2001)
Note reduction of snow cover from November to February.

Potential Impact
RHEP being a run of the river project is not likely to cause major issues that could add to the
global warming. Impacts on climate change (increased flooding or reduced water flow later) will
have limited impact on the Rampur project, as the operation of the project is linked to the NathpaJhakri project, in tendem. The passing of increased flood from Nathpa Dam will not effect the
Rampur project. Over a period of time, if water flow reduces such that the generation of power
during the lean season (especially during the peak hours) declines for the Nathpa-Jhakri project,
generation of power at Rampur will also reduce proportionally. Given the financial rate of return,
even a 15-20% reduction of flow will not make the Rampur project commercially unviable.
However, indirect impact of climatic change would be triggered by the associated effects of climate
change like flood and flash floods. With one more project added in the Satluj Basin, any flood will
have larger impact on the downstream people. RHEPs impact due to climatic change is likely to be
impacts related to flood and flash floods.
Effect of Climate & Hydrological Variability on the Performance of the Project
Over the past 20 years, the stream flows exhibit a statistically significant decreasing trend over
time, as shown in Figure 3.6 below.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.6 - Hydrology Trends: Total Average Flows at Nathpa Intake


500

average flow, cumecs

400

300

200

100
1964
1968
1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992
1996 2000
2004
1966
1970 1974
1978
1982 1986
1990
1994
1998 2002

The annual average flow of the 22 years 1964-1992 is 335 cumec; the annual average since then
computes to 291 cumec. However when the total flows are decomposed into lean and wet season
flows, a somewhat different picture emerges. Figure 3.xx below shows the lean season average
flows which appear to have become more volatile (coefficient of variation increased 60% from 0.1
in 1964-1992 to 0.16 in 1993-2004), while the average has declined only marginally from 127 to
126 cumec over the same period.
Figure 3.7 - Lean Season Average Flows at Naphta Intake

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

In other words, the decline has occurred in the wet season flows, as shown in Figure 3.8 below:
the average 1964-1992 flow of 626 cumec is followed by an average for the 1993-2005 period of
only 526 cumec.
Figure 3.8 - Wet Season Average Flows at Nathpa Jhakri Intake

However, what matters is not so much the total inflows, much of which is spilled anyway during
the wet season, but the corresponding energy generation. Figure 3.9 below shows the total annual
energy generation, based on the DPR data that extends just to April 2004, and which is based on
energy potential. The trend shown since the mid 1970s is unmistakable, and statistically
significant. 1
Figure 3.9 - Total Annual Energy

Source: Rampur DPR

The least squares fit shown in the figure has an R2 of 0.28.

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As an independent check on the DPR calculations we have run our project simulation model for the
entire set of years from 1964 to 2005, based on a reservoir operating rule that maximizes peakhour generation. The result is shown in Figure 3.10 below.
Figure 3.10 - Annual Generation, Peaking Operation

Source: model estimates

The downward trend in total energy depends upon the time period selected. If one starts in 1973,
the trend-line has a lesser slope than if one starts in 1990, but both are statistically significant. If
one takes the view that in a normal system (without curtailments), the most valuable energy is
lean season peak energy, does this exhibit a similar trend? Figure 3.11 below shows that this is
indeed the case: while the longer time series shows no statistically significant trend, the shorter
series shows a statistically significant downward trend.
Figure 3.11 - Lean Season Peaking Energy (Morning + Evening Peaks)

Therefore for the risk assessment of economic returns we take as one of the variables the trend
value of peaking energy. The corresponding trend variables for the wet season peaking energy,
and off-peak energy, are as follows in table 3.8.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.8 - Hydrology Risk Assessment: Trend Variables (GWh/year)


Lean season
Peaking
[Figure 18]

Total lean
season
[Annex II]

Wet season

Wet season

Peaking
[Annex II]

Total energy
[Figure 16]

[Annex II]

1974-2004

-1.4

-0.04

-3

-4.4

1990-2004

-6.4

-9.1

-1.2

-10

-20

Boldface = statistically significant at the 95% confidence level

For the corresponding probability distributions we assume that the trend variable is distributed with
mean at the mid-point of the ranges shown in Table 3.xx; truncated at zero at the low end (i.e. in
the interest of conservative assumptions, we assign zero probability to increasing trends); and
adjusted such that the probability of a downward trend greater than 6.4 GWh/year is 10%.
The trend line in Figure 3.9 indicates that in the 20 years from 1980 to 2000, the potential average
annual energy generation has fallen from 3,500 GWh to 2,800 GWh, an annual decline of around
1.25%. If this trend were applied to the design energy estimate (1,835GWh for peaking operation),
the energy generation in year 20 falls to around 1,400 GWh, but the baseline ERR decreases from
20.1% (as shown in Table 6) only to 19.1% - a reflection of the relative unimportance to economic
returns of generation beyond the 10th year or so (at the discount rate of 12%).
Figure 3.12 shows the sensitivity of returns to the magnitude of this long-term downward trend
(assuming the worst case that this is indeed a downward trend and that the trend would not
reverse itself. For the hurdle rate to be reached would need generation in year 10 to fall to about
700 GWh, or an annual decline of 6.5%, or five times greater than what has been observed.
Figure 3.12 - Sensitivity of Economic Returns to Hydrology Trends

economic rate of return

0.25

0.2

0.15
hurdle rate:= 12%
0.1

0.05

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

generation in year 10[GW h]

Such a decline in stream flows would be unprecedented, even under the most pessimistic
assessments of the impact of climate change. It may be concluded that even under a worst case
scenario of a long-term decline in inflows, the Rampur economic returns are robust. If indeed the
cause is long-term climate change, then similar trends in the hydrology of other Himalayan rivers
would be observed, so all hydro projects feeding into the Northern Region would be similarly
affected. This would aggravate peaking power shortages in the system as a whole, making greater
the economic value of Rampurs energy, which would offset Rampurs lower production.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

3.2.6

Floods, Cloud Burst and Flash Floods


The river Satluj carries the maximum amount of silt among all Indian rivers. The maximum flows in
it occur during June-August resulting from combined contribution of rainfall and snowmelt. Three
floods that submerged the entire Satluj basin in 1997, 2000 and 2005 have affected the Satluj
catchment area immensely. Those floods not only led to damages in the area but also the entire
topography,which has changed with heavy erosion of the riverbanks. Between 1991 and 2003
nearly 36 major cloudbursts and flash floods have been recorded in the basin.
An unprecedented cloudburst and flash flood on August 11, 1997 in the catchment area of river
Satluj had caused extensive damage. The river Satluj was blocked near Wangtoo and a 5 km 2
km lake was formed in a matter of hours. This nascent water body had submerged an equal length
of the National Highway. The peak discharge at Rampur during this flash flood was 2,577 cumec.
In this flood around 223 lives were lost and property worth several crores was damaged.
Figure 3.13 Artificial Lake Formation in River Parechu in Tibet, China
Satellite image of Lake Parechu, October 1, 2003

Satellite image of Lake Parechu , July 15, 2004

Satellite image of Lake Parechu, September 1, 2004

The flash flood of August, 2000, the probability of which was estimated to be one in 61,000 years,
left a trail of destruction in Shimla and Kinnaur districts, killing more than 150 persons and washing
away 14 bridges. The estimated loss to public and private property in this calamity was around Rs.
1,000 crore. The water level rose suddenly from 12 to 20 metres, damaging a 320 km stretch of
the National Highway and the 1500 MW nathpa Jhakri Hydro Electric Project.
In June 2005, there was a sudden breach in the artificial lake on river Parechu, in Tibet (China),
which led to an unprecedented rise in the water level of river Satluj and caused flash floods in five
districts of Himachal Pradesh. Parechu is 3500 metre-long 800-metre wide and 15 meter-deep lake
in Tibet close to the Indian border which was formed behind a landslide blocking the Parechu river,
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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

a tributary of the Satluj river that flows into India from Tibet. The flash floods, however, caused
extensive damage to roads, bridges, agricultural crops, Government & private properties and other
infrastructure. Also, three hydro-electric power projects in the State viz. Naptha Jakhri, Chamera II
and Baspa, had to be temporarily shut down due to heavy siltation caused by the flash floods. The
discharge recorded was about 3000 cumec.
Potential Impact
RHEP is likely to add risk of greater damage from flood or flash flood situation in the area. Although
it is not likely to trigger directly a flood or flash flood situation but may contribute in cumulative
factors for flood and flash flood situations in the region. It will also indirectly increase the damage
to downstream river streams and people and property in case of any such situations of flood/flash
flood.

Figure 3.14 Damages due to Flash Flood of June 2005

Flood loss: Broken limb of a bridge in Satluj river near Bael

Villagers collect logs of timber brought by the raging Satluj;


Portion of houses washed away by the torrents at Nogli
village, near Rampur

In the last 12 years, over 40 incidents of flashflood, cloudbursts have occurred in Himachal. Most of
these were extremely fierce, like the Chirgaon and Wangtoo flashflood, where even the army fell
helpless. Over 350 people were killed. Prior to this 1994-95 (August) the Manimahesh cloudburst
and flashfloods washed away almost entire length of Chamba-Bharmour road (62 km). Over 50
people feared dead leaving 2000 people injured.(estimated loss over 450 crores). The year 1997
again saw a heavy flashflood in Manglad in Rampur Tehsil of Shimla District. In the year 2000, the
Monsoon brought nightmare for people living in Satluj catchment areas. The dead bodies even
reached up to Kasol- Chindi (Mandi). Over 150 lost their life; several thousand lost their livelihood.
There was loss of life and property worth Rupees 200 crores.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.9 - Major Flash Floods & Cloudbursts in Himachal in 2003


Date
th

8 July 2003

Area
Rai Khud (near Sarahan in Rampur Sub division (Shimla) in which loss of crops, cattles was reported

13th July, 2003 Chunahan (Balh valley) Property, crops and real estate, cattle worth crores washed away due to flash flood
16th July

Gadsa valley (Pulia Nalla) in Kullu district loss of life over 150 (though reported only 35), Expected loss over
Rs.100 crores.

20th July, 2003. Balh valley in Mandi district in Gaggal area heavy loss of crops, fields and property reported.
24th July 2003

Bahang in Kullu Valley (near Manali) 2 people lost lives, property, houses damaged

26th July 2003

Jhakri area in Rampur Tehsil (Shimla) Indo-Tibetan Border Road, land slid caused huge loss, danger to NJPC,
buried dead, a few went missing

27th July 2003

Dansa (Bari Dhar) in Rampur Tehsil (Shimla) cloudburst caused extensive danged to coops, apple orchards,
agricultural land

2nd Aug 2003

Lulani village in Baijnath (Kangra) cloudburst revel lent f lash flood damaged houses, 5 killed 18 families
marooned

3rd Aug 2003.

Shilara on Rampur - Shimla (NH) road witnessed landslide road blocked

rd

3 Aug 2003

Bhagsunath (Kangra) land slid caused one dead, 2 injured

6th Aug 2003

Balh Valley (Mandi district) witnessed yet another cloudburst extreme damage to crops and ferhla land

th

3.2.7

7 Aug 2003

12 Kangni Nalla (Solang) in Manali area cloudburst left BRO labours 36 dead 20 stall reported missing

7th Aug 2003

Kotkhai Tehsil (Shimla) cloudburst caused, transport bus with passenger washed away 15 had miracle
escape

Soils
The majority of land in the Satluj river valley floor and lower slopes is composed of alluvium in the
form of terraces and fans. The soil is generally sandy-loam and the depth is shallow except in the
areas having vegetation cover where it is fairly deep. In the regions above 1,500 m, the soil is
generally deep. Largely the soil can be classified as podzols, both brown podzols and humus and
iron podzols are found in the study stretch. These are acidic in nature with the organic content
ranging from medium to high. Nutritional survey of soil and plant analysis suggests that the soils by
and large have low levels of Zn, Cu, B and Mo.
The soil is acidic on higher elevation because of low rate of decomposition of organic matter. Soil is
characterized by moderate permeability and low to moderate fertility. Acidic soil is considered well
suited for pasture, but moderately to poorly suited for field crops. This soil type has water
deficiency owing to the fact that moderately permeably nature of the soil allows water to drain
away.
In the RHEP influence area, the soil is largely podzols, both brown podzols and humus and iron
podzols. This soil is acidic in nature with medium to high organic contents. Soil drainage property is
satisfactory in general in the area. However in a few isolated patches soil has poor drainage
capacity as well.
Comparative account of soil properties for various locations upstream and downstream of NJHEP
area, viz. Upstream of dam near Wangtoo bridge, Upstream of NJHEP dam, Downstream of NJHEP
dam, Near power house, Downstream of tailrace discharge from power house, has been presented
in the Table 3.10.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.10 - Analysis of Soil Samples near of Rampur Hydropower Project


Parameters

U/s dam near


U/s of
D/s of NJHEP
Wangtoo bridge NJHEP dam dam

Near Jhakri
P.H.

D/s NJHEP
tailrace

pH

6.02

7.22

7.47

7.21

7.4

Electrical conductivity (s/cm)

174

310

211

575

164

Sodium as Na (meq/100 gm)

0.004

0.004

0.01

0.007

0.01

Nitrogen as TKN (%)

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Phosphates as PO4 (meq/100 gm) 0.200

BDL

BDL

1.40

0.200

Potassium as K (meq/100 gm)

0.005

0.002

0.005

0.002

0.003

Source: EIA Study for Updation of NJHEP, Year 2004; EIA study for Rampur HEP, Year 2005
BDL Below Detectable Limit

In the Luhri region, downstream of the Rampur Hydropower Project, soil texture is clayey loam rich
in organic matter with varying depth. The soil is acidic on higher elevation because of lower rate of
decomposition of organic matter. Soil drainage is generally satisfactory except in few isolated
patches where it is poor.
3.2.8

Erosion & Sedimentation


Baseline Erosion Rates
River Satluj in general is characterized by a very high silt load coming from snow melts in China
and cold desert areas of Spiti Vally. The average annual sediment load in the Spiti, a major
tributary of river Satluj, was estimated at 7.66 million tones while that for river Satluj was
estimated to be 7.30 million tones. These estimations were carried out on the basis of suspended
sediment sampling done by the Himachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board at several gauging
stations in the Satluj river system. The annual sediment transport by these two rivers was
calculated by undertaking river cross-section modelling and velocity measurement to arrive at
estimates of river discharge. The annual sediment transport for the river Spiti has been reported at
7.84 million tones and correspondingly 7 million tones for river Satluj. Snowmelt and the related
erosion processes (rapid mass wasting in combination with glacier runoff) are the major sediment
sources. The local developmental activities like construction of roads, hydro projects, residential
areas, tourism also contribute in soil erosion and are of great importance for estimating erosion
potential of the area. The density of the silt deposits is influenced by the particle size distribution
and is time dependent.
At the upper Satluj regions, the bed material is heterogeneous as a result of heavy floods which
break up the erosion pavement of coarse bed material exposing a finer substratum. Catastrophic
input from rapid mass wasting process also leads to heterogeneous nature of bed material. Both
factors result in a rapid increase in bed-load transport by the river Satluj that is reduced only when
the riverbed adapts to the new situation. River Satluj on its course of travel flows through terrain
having very little as well as loose vegetation. Such terrain does not hold soil tightly and hence
enhances the rate of erosion. Most of the loose soil is flushed into the river. This makes river high
in suspended solid and hence turbid water for larger part of the year.
The data of average silt concentration at a few locations viz. Khan, Power, Nathpa, Jhakri, Bale,
North and Sunni have been summarized in Table 3.11 and Figure 3.15 below.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.15 - Grain Size of Suspended Sediments at Upstream Locations of RHEP

mm

Grain Size Distribution of susupended particles


at different locations
Fine < 0.075
Medium 0.075-0.20 mm
Coarse > 0.20 mm

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Satluj at Khab

Spiti at Khab

Satluj at
Wangtoo

Table 3.11 - Silt Data at Khab, Powari, Nathpa, Jhakri, Bael, Nirath and Sunni, 2006
(in parts per million)
Month

Khab (1)

Powari (2)

Nathpa (3)

126.41

11.97

89.21

98.59

101.61

41.13

February

48.79

95.18

108.09

106.04

118.3

126.78

31.95

March

92.52

98.55

108.8

88.24

127.12

133.85

January

Jhakri (4)

Bael (5)

Nirath (6)

Sunni (7)

April

1181.54

816.95

478.3

1324.63

1211.86

1229.78

May

2553.11

2863.4

2007.89

3604.77

3246.58

3637.96

June

686

818.52

583.22

1261.36

1208.75

1248.42

7985.45

4086.79

4296.41

4342.68

4004.92

13155.74

8368.56

8846.56

5979.19

6310.56

July
August

Figure 3.16 - Extent of Siltation in the Project Area

Silt data (ppm)

14000
12000

January

10000

February

8000
6000

March

4000

May

2000

June

April

July
0

August

Locations

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Potential Impact
The impacts described above are not of serious consequence to either the function of the energy
production, or to the environmental impact. Generally it has been observed that changes in the
flow and flood regime do create impacts on the competence of the channel to carry sediment and
to the ability of the system to flush sediment deposited during low-flow events. In downstream,
where tributaries add more material to the river, aggradations may be more common than
degradation. Lower regulated flows, especially without the natural freshet peaks; do not have the
conveyance power to carry material produced by upstream degradation as well as that contributed
by the tributary flow. Where aggradations occur, typical responses include lateral scour, channel
widening, braiding, and a reduced mean flow depth. The runoff from the unprotected excavated
borrow pits and muck disposal sites will trigger increased soil erosion and therefore, increased
sedimentation rate downstream of the area. The erosion rates are generally significant during
construction phase. High turbidity levels in the Satluj river water due to sediments reduce the light
penetration, which reduces the photosynthetic activity and therefore the primary productivity as
well. This is well established by the low value observed for nutrients in river water during river
water quality monitoring in June, 2004.
Mitigation Measures & Monitoring
The appropriate management adopted by SJVNL will guarantee that the suitable Catchment Area
Treatment (CAT) Plan measures are implemented to control erosion and sedimentation in the river.
It will further ensure that sediment yield will remain at the current estimated low level. From an
economic and environmental perspective it is important that timber harvest in the project area is
eliminated and that slash-and burn activities be limited to current levels or less. The objectives of
the SJVNLL management will include activities to protect and rehabilitate the forest cover to ensure
adequate water flows with low sediment in the river.
Although the resettlement area represents only a fraction of the catchment area, uncontrolled
erosion will contribute to sedimentation in the nearby streams. The implementation of the
management plan will ensure that agricultural practices and forestry activities within the
resettlement area prevent such erosion.
Some existing quarries which were used for Nathpa Jhakri Project will also be used for RHEP,
resulting in no further erosion. To minimize use of natural resources, excavated material for the
HRT will be reused for construction work elsewhere because the geology of the HRT area is similar
to the quality of construction material required for the project.
Muck disposal areas have been chosen in such a manner that chances of exposure of human
settlements to these disposal areas are minimized. These disposal areas are located close to adits
for the HRT. The sites of disposal area are currently barren and hence biotic life will be least
affected. Quarrying and muck disposal activities will be undertaken strictly as per the guidelines
developed by environment management plan related to construction activities. Project releases into
the Satluj river at tailrace will be equivalent to natural discharges. Therefore it is expected that the
quantity released will not impact the current rate of erosion expected in the Satluj downstream of
RHEP tailrace.
Monitoring
To assess whether the land use and forestry plans are being successfully implemented, a water
quality-monitoring program will be used to analyze levels of suspended solids and sediment size
distribution in the river.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.17 Siltation in the Project Region

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.18 Eroded Material Transported by Tributaries of the Spiti

Figure 3.19 Unstable and Erosion-prone River Banks of the Satluj

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

3.3

Geological Characteristics of the Project Area

3.3.1

Geology
The project region lies in the Western Himalayas. Geologically, Himalayas is one of the youngest
orogenic belts and therefore represent unstable regions of the earth. The region belongs to Jutogh
series of formation, which is co-relatable to the archaen group of rocks. These are the oldest
sedimentary systems that have metamorphosed and occur more or less as a continuous band
between the central axis of higher Himalayas and outer ranges. The project area lies in lesser
Himalayas with general altitude above elevation 1000 mts. The area consists of deep and narrow
valleys and gorges having steep cliffs and escarpment faces. The rock types in the area comprise a
variety of metamorphic rocks like gneisses, schist, gneissose schist and basic intrusive and granite.
These unfossiliferous rocks belong to Rampur block and surrounded by the Jeori-wangtu, Jutog
group, Sakala group.
The RHEP project is located in Pre-Cambrian terrain of Lesser Himalayas. The stratigraphic
sequence of Pre-Cambrain rocks is presented in Table 3.12.
Table 3.12 - Stratigraphic Sequence of Rocks in the Project Area
Age

Formation

Group

Lithology

Pre-cambrian

Manikaran

Rampur

Predominantly white quartzite with minor greenish, grey phyllite and


Ortho-amphibolites bodies

Banjar

Rampur

Metabasic volcanic flows with minor white quartzite and orthoamphibiolite bodies

Garh

Kullu

Streang augen gneiss with pocket of phyllite, carbphyllite and


metabasic intrusive

Khamrada

Kullu

Phyllite carls phyllite and limestone stone with quartzite interbeds

The bedding seen in the Rampur group and that in the Jeori-wangtu complex is in the form of
compositional banding. In the Rampur area the strike direction varies from N 40 E-S40 W to N60
W with southerly dips ranging from 20 to 40. At some places gouge seams are also associated
with some of the joints. The foliation trend generally varies from N70W-S70E to N70E-S70W
having an average dip of the order of 35 in the northerly direction. Being in orogenic belt the
project area is prone to earthquakes and as per the Indian Seismic Zone categorization, the project
site falls in Seismic Zone IV.
Potential Local Thrust and Faults
Satellite imagery indicated that Main Central Thrust (MCT) treanding parallel to the Himalayan axis
is identifiable along the entire stretch of the Himalayas. In the project area the MCT treands in the
NW-SE direction. Rampur fault separates the quartzites of the Rampur from the gneisses and is
located about 1 km downstream of the Jhakri underground power house. Another fault known as
Main Boundary Fault(MBF) was found running parallel to MCT at a distance of 60-70 km south of it
and runs along the entire stretch of Himalayas. Another youngest of the regional tectonic
lineaments and quaternary/neogene deformations known as Foot Hill Thrust (FHT) has a strike
length of 60 km and runs parallel to MCT and MBF.
The Seismo-tectonic features of the geology that can significantly affect the seismicity in the area
are listed in Table 3.13.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.20 Typical Topography above the Nathpa Dam

Table 3.13 - Seismo-Tectonic Features of the Project Area


Seismo-tectonic
features

Characteristics

Main Central Thrust


(MCT)

Regional feature trending parallel to the Himalayan axis and is identifiable along the entire stretch
of the Himalayas.
In the project area, MCT trends in NW-SE direction with shortest distance from the Nathpa dam site
and powerhouse being 10 km and 26 km respectively.

Kaurik Fault

Trends in the N-S direction in the northern part and NW-SE in the southern part, it is one of the
bounding features of the Shimla block.
The fault has a length of 100-200 km and it runs at a distance of 40 km and 50 km from the Nathpa
dam site and power house respectively.

Rampur Fault

Separates the quartzites of the Rampur from the gneisses and is located about 1 km downstream of
the Jhakri underground power house

Main Boundary Fault


(MBF)

Lies parallel to MCT at a distance of 60-70 km south of it and runs along the entire stretch of
Himalayas.

Foot Hill Thrust (FHT)

Youngest of the regional tectonic lineaments and quaternary/Neogene deformations are observed.
The thrust has a strike length of 60 km and trends parallel to MCT and MBF.

3.3.2

Seismology
The project zone lies in the Lesser Himalayas Region, which is seismologically very active as per the
seismic zone categorization in India (IS: 1893-2002). The entire project area falls in Zone-IV with a
history of occurrences of series of earthquakes having magnitude greater than 5 on Richter Scale
and the last major earthquake had occurred in 1991. The list of major earthquakes that have
occurred in Rampur Project site is given in Table 3.14.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.14 - Major Earthquakes within 200km of the Project Site


Date of
Occurrence

Epicentre
o

Latitude ( N) Longitude ( E)

Magnitude on
Richter Scale

5.3.1842

30

78

6.5*

16.6.1902

31

79

6.0*

13.6.1906

31

79

6.0

28.2.1908

32

77

7.0*

20.10.1937

31.1

78

6.0

12.5.1939

32.5

78

6.3

22.6.1945

32.8

76.9

6.5

10.6.1947

32.6

75.9

6.0

27.6.1955

32.5

78.5

6.0

12.4.1963

32

78.79

6.0

19.1.1975

32.35

78.76

6.8

20.10.1991

30.75

78.86

6.6

Note:- * Estimated values based on macro-seismic effects.


Source:

Seismic parameters for Nathpa-Jhakri Hydro-Electric Project site, H.P. Project No. 575 Department of Earthquake
Engineering University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 1993.

Being an active orogenic belt, the Himalayas are more prone to earthquakes than any other part of
the country. Along with the higher frequency of occurrence of earthquakes, magnitude too is
higher in these regions as compared to the rest of India. This phenomenon is attributed to the
higher strain accumulation in the ambient compressive stress regime along the margins of the
Indian Plate, resulting from its continued convergence after collision and fusion with the Chinese
Plate along the Indus-Tsangpo (Brahamputra) Suture zone along the Himalayan Belt.
Figure 3.21 Epicenters of Major Earthquakes 200km around the Project

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Lesser Himalayan Seismic Belt


The lesser Himalayan Seismic Belt is bounded in the north by Main Central Thrust (MCT) and Main
Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the south. This area demonstrates the highest seismicity level with most
of the fault planes solutions being parallel to the Himalayan trend and displaying thrust type of
deformations.
The RHEP site is located in Shimla Block, which is bound on the west by Sundernagar fault and on
the east by Kaurik fault and its extension. The block forms the eastern most region of Himachal
Pradesh and shares its boundary with Uttar Pradesh. The rock formations exposed in the area are
openly folded with axial trends in NW-SE to E-W directions. Minor folds of varying trends superpose
these folds. Along the numerous zones/seams in the area, localized faults with length varying from
0.5 km to 3.0 km have also been observed.
The above mentioned structural features are too localized to have a bearing on the seismic activity
of the area. The various seismo-tectonic features, which can significantly affect the seismicity in the
area, are listed as below:
Main Central Thrust (MCT)
This is a regional feature trending parallel to the Himalayan axis and is identifiable along the
entire stretch of the Himalayas. In the project area, MCT trends in NW-SE direction with
shortest distance from the dam site and power house being 10 km and 26 km respectively.
Kaurik Fault
The Kaurik Fault trends in the N-S direction in the northern part and NW-SE in the southern part it
is one of the bounding features of the Shimla block. The fault has a length of 100-200km and it
runs at a distance of 40km and 50km from the Nathpa dam site and power house respectively.
Rampur Fault
This separates the quartzites of the Rampur from the gneisses and is located about 1km
downstream of the Jhakri underground power house.
Main Boundary Fault (MBF)
This lies parallel to MCT at a distance of 60-70km south of it and runs along the entire stretch of
the Himalayas.
Foothill Thrust
This is the youngest of the regional tectonic lineaments and quaternary/Neogene deformations are
observed. The thrust has a strike length of 60km and trends parallel to the MCT and the MBF.
Continuous seismic activity of the Himalayas is possible in the areas situated in the intersections of
these transverse features.
Potential Impacts
Seismically active areas generally feel tremors on regular interval. The satluj basin Region is prone
to high chance of occurrence of earthquake due to various types of normal or lateral faults. The
RHEP does not involve any reservoir activity. The Nathpa Jhakri project does involve reservoir but
only for water regulation purposes and hence the size of reservoir being small. Therefore, in both
the cases, project structures are not likely to induce additional factors for increased seismic effect.
Nonetheless, there are good numbers of hydropower projects planned along the Satluj basin, which
may trigger individual or cumulative seismic effect.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Mitigation Measures
All precaution will be taken to incorporate seismic factors in all the construction projects and
earthquake will be one of the key aspects for designing a sound emergency and disaster
management plan for the project as well as for the entire basin as part of the adaptive
management plan to be developed by SJVNL authorities.
3.3.3

Landslides
Besides earthquakes, landslide is another natural hazard, frequent in the Satluj river basin.
Landslides in the region is triggered by downslide movement of soil, debris and rocks, resulting
from natural causes, vibrations, overburden of rock material, removal of lateral supports, change in
the water content of rock or soil bodies and blocked drainage, etc. The mass movement varies in
magnitude from soil creep to landslides. Almost every year one or more major landslides affect the
state. Loss of life; damage to houses, roads and other means of communication, agricultural land;
and floods are some of the major consequences of landslides in the region. Flash floods,
particularly in the narrow river gorges are one of the leading causes of landslides in Himachal.
These in turn jeopardize the stability of the hill as a whole. Some landslides fragments have often
blocked various river gorges and streams.
At present, landslides occupy about 1% of the land surface in five central districts of Himachal
Pradesh. Some of the major landslides in the state include the following:

Thangi Slide (on the NH 22, 389.2 km on the right bank of Satluj river opposite the
confluence with Tirung Khad): It is a recurring landslide with instability caused by toe
erosion by Satluj and due to cutting in the road widening. The high discharge of Tirung
Khad has forced the Satluj river towards west to undercut the slope.

Khadra Dhang Slide Zone (75 x 1300 x 10m): It is located on the old Hindustan-Tibet
road along the right bank of Satluj, opposite to Ribba. The construction of road and
steepening of already steep slopes due to toe-cutting by river Satluj make it an active
landslide. Though the Hindustan-Tibet road has now been diverted to the left bank of the
river, but toe cutting by river Satluj during peak discharge continuously causes active
sliding.

Pangi Slide (measuring 65 x 300 x 6m): it is located on the Pangi-Kalpa link roads
junction with NH 22. Seasonal seepages along with uncontrolled blasting for the
construction of NH-22-Kalpa link road has contributed to the generation of this slide.

Powari Slide Zone (measuring 1000 x 500 x 25m): It is located on the lower slope
along the right bank of Satluj river between Powari and Peo. The construction of the
approach road from Powari to Kalpa has been one of the lead causes in making this a
major landslide area.

Barua Slide (measuring 60 x 100 x 15m): It is located in the left middle slope in the
Baspa valley about 5 km southeast of Karcham. Though the slode was triggered in 198788 it has been repeatedly activated. The removal of toe to widen the road and already
moistened glacial material and seasonal seepage from upslope has contributed to the
occurrence of this landslide.

Urni Rockfall (measuring 500 x 250 x 5m): It is located near village Tapri along the
lower slope, on the right bank of river Satluj on NH 22. Over steepening of the slopes due
to toe cutting by Satluj has been further intensified by rockfall on the opposite bank,
forcing the river towards the present slide.

3-31

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.22 - Views of a Landslides in the Project Area

3-32

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Nichar/ Nathpa Landslide (measuring 350 x 200 x 35m): It is located in the lower
middle slope on left bank of Satluj river is located on NH-22 road. The toe cutting by the
Satluj River and widening of the NH-22 road had over steepened the slopes. Thus
adverse rock dip and slope relationship and seepage of water from upper slopes have
caused this complex rockfall and debris slide.

Shoulding Khad Slide (measuring 200 x 200 x 15m): It is located along the right bank
of the Shoulding Khad, a tributary of Satluj River. The toe-cutting by the Soldan Khad
have also over-steepened the slope and contributed in sliding. The monsoonal rain of
September 1992 have further deteriorated the situation and resulted in debris flow.

Jhakri Landslide (measuring 500 x 500 x 15m): It is located on the left valley slopes of
the Satluj valley on NH-22 (288/450 km stone). The upper slope area is covered with
agricultural fields of Shah and Ghaso villages are situated. The location of the landslide is
in the vicinity of main central thrust and east-west trending Nogli Gad Fault. The greater
slide occurred on 24 Feb 1993 following heavy winter rains. The slipped mass (37.5 x
105m) temporarily blocked the river Satluj and within 48 hours a lake was formed which
was 1.5 km long, 25-30m deep and 15-20m. The lake induced dimension remains in
existence for 7-8 months.

All the landslides have a total volume of more than 2.2 x 106 m3 and a mean age of 6.5 years. This
helps to calculate the denudation rate, which is about 12mm/year (all erosive processes).
Landslides have about 2.5 mm/year denudation rate.
Potential Impacts
Planned and unplanned developments in the region over a period of time have created an increase
in the vulnerability of the geologically young, unstable and fragile rocks. Deforestation, poor road
alignment and construction techniques, terracing and water intensive agricultural practices,
encroachment on steep hill slopes in the area have lead to general increase in the intensity and
frequency of landslides. The construction of road is leading factors for increased landslide incidence
in the project area as well as in the neighbouring regions. The construction of roads in the recent
past has been extensive with the development of various hydropower projects in the area. Surface
erosion of the bank is another major cause for landslides.
Mitigation Measures
Surface erosion is best controlled by vegetation. However, in a steeply sloping terrain, difficulty lies
in growing vegetation on steeply sloping banks. Engineering solutions such as surface drainage,
sub-surface drainage, toe protection and rock bolting will be required to be used for preventing
landslides. All road construction works in the area will be planned and adequate provisions for
prevention of erosion activities will be incorporated. Landslides will be stabilized by engineering and
bio-engineering methods. A comprehensive Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan and
Environment Management Plan for road construction will be prepared by SJVNL with adequate
safeguards for land slide prevention.
3.4

Hydrology & Water Resources

3.4.1

Baseline Hydrology
The operation of the Rampur Hydro Electric Project will involve diversion of entire water from the
Jhakri Tailrace outfall of Nathpa-Jhakri Hydro Electric Project. The water, after utilization by RHEP
for power production, will be discharged in the river Satluj near village Bael in Rampur at about 23
km from Jhakri. Total catchment area at the Rampur discharge site is about 50,880km2. The
principal tributaries in the area that significantly contribute to Satluj flow especially in peak season
3-33

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

are Gaura, Barauni, Pashada, Machhada, Darshai, Jakho, Racholi and Nogli In addition, there are
several small nallas that drain into the river Satluj between Jhakri to Bael stretch.
Flow Profile of River Satluj
The course of river Satluj in Himachal Pradesh is 320 km from Rakas Lake, with principal tributaries
in India are Spiti, Kashming, Baspa, Bhaba, Nogli, Kurpan, Nauti, Shoulding, Seer, Bahrari, Ali and
Gambher. River Spiti, which confluences at Nangia, 14 km upstream of Pooh is the biggest
tributary. The upper tracts of the Satluj valley are under a permanent snow cover. The prominent
human settlements along the banks of the Satluj are Namgia, Kalpa, Rampur, Tattapani, Suni and
Bilaspur. See Figure 3.22.
To understand the changes in the river flow profile over the course of time, historical flow data
giving the minimum, maximum and average discharge for at different locations have been compiled
and plotted (Table 3.15. 3.16, 3.17 and 3.18 below).
Referring to various project documents has collected and complied the historical flow data for the
river Satluj and its tributaries at various stretches in the basin i.e. Khab, Luhri, Suni, Kasol etc.
(refer Annexure III). At Khab, the annual average flow ranges from 81.6 cumecs to about 334
cumecs, with a maximum flow of 334.58 cumecs witnessed in the year 1973. Similarly at Rampur,
the minimum flow encountered was of 247.5 cumecs in the year 2001 and a maximum of 534.5
cumecs in year 1973. At Luhri the range of flow is 273.83-557 cumecs. At Suni the maximum flow
of the value 580 cumecs was seen in the year 1973. At Kasol, the year 1979 saw the maximum
flows of value 446.67, while the leanest flow the region has seen is 336.83 in 1997.
The flow data for various tributaries, existing in Nathpa-Jhakri stretch has been compiled from
available project reports (refer Table 3.19). For the determination of the flow levels of the
tributaries joining the river in the Jhakri-Bael stretch, a flow measurement campaign was organized
for a period of two months (Feb-March, 2006) with each observation taken at an interval of 10
days (refer Table 3.20). Unlike Nogli khad, the flow in most of the tributaries was very low during
the monitoring campaign; hence a current velocity meter was used to measure the flow.
Considering, comparatively higher flow in Nogli khad, float method was used.
Similarly, flow pattern of the principal streams contributing into the river Satluj has also been taken
into account so that in later stages of impact assessment, it could be estimated that after the
restricted river flow due to NJHEP and RHEP, how significantly the tributaries contribute to the river
to maintain the minimum desired flow in it. The flow data for tributaries meeting Satluj between
Nathpa and Jhakri stretch has been compiled using data measured by IIT Roorkee on 10 daily basis
and is presented below for the months of Oct, Nov, Dec 2005, Jan, Feb, Mar and April 2006.
Further, the principal tributaries between Jhakri up to Bael have been identified and mapped;
accordingly, a flow measurement campaign for the tributaries/ khads was carried out for two
months (Feb-March, 2006) at 10 days interval of time. Considering comparatively lesser flow, the
Current Velocity Meter method was adopted to measure the flow in streams i.e. Kajo, Kunni, and
Racholi etc. For Nogli khad, which is having reasonably higher flow, Float method was used for
flow measurement.
The flow data for all tributaries (khads) from Nathpa to Bael is presented below. Table 3.22 gives
data for tributaries from Nathpa to Jhakri and table 3.23 gives data for tributaries from Jhakri to
Bael.

3-34

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.23 Digital Elevation Model of the Satluj Basin (in Himachal Pradesh)

3-35

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.24 Water Flow in the Satluj at Different Locations

1. Flow of the river near u/s Jhakri

2. Satluj river near u/s Jhakri

3. Satluj river meandering through the region

4. Satluj river at Jhakri

5. Satluj river near d/s Rampur

6. Satluj river at Bayal

3-36

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.15 - Historical Flow Data of River Satluj at Khab (downstream of Spiti Confluence): Minimum, Maximum & Average Flow

3-37

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.16 - Historical Flow Data of River Satluj at Nathpa Dam Intake: : Minimum, Maximum & Average Flow

3-38

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.17 - Historical Flow Data of River Satluj at Rampur: : Minimum, Maximum & Average Flow

3-39

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.18 - Historical Flow Data of River Satluj at Luhri (downstream of Bael Village): : Minimum, Maximum & Average Flow

3-40

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.19 - Measured Flow data for Tributaries of River Satluj (Nathpa to Jhakri Stretch) for the months of October 2005 - April 2006
Average 10 Daily Discharge (cumec)
Tributary

October 2005
I

Manglad
Chaura Khad
Chaunda Khad
Rupi Khad
Sholding Khad
Sumej Khad
Gaanvi Khad
Sorang Khad
Silaring Khad

II

November 2005

III

II

III

December 2005
I

II

III

January 2006
I

II

III

February 2006
I

II

III

1.44

1.35

1.32

1.23

1.15

1.12

0.592

0.589

0.563

0.572

0.787

0.619

0.587

0.537

0.505

0.62

0.58

0.61

0.60

0.56

0.51

0.485

0.450

0.406

0.464

0.563

0.488

0.470

0.446

0.438

1.01

0.87

0.91

0.79

0.76

0.72

0.437

0.460

0.392

0.407

0.468

0.443

0.419

0.408

0.352

1.74

1.46

1.37

1.40

1.15

0.98

0.637

0.535

0.526

0.515

0.706

0.534

0.546

0.516

0.538

1.93

1.84

1.56

1.27

1.16

0.98

1.66

1.56

1.32

1.08

1.03

1.00

1.92

1.67

1.56

1.53

1.60

1.12

1.58

1.21

0.96

0.75

0.72

0.44

0.91

1.19

1.09

0.69

0.60

0.45
0.134

0.136

0.153

0.162

0.215

0.162

0.149

0.146

0.121

0.107

0.094

0.085

0.114

0.152

0.128

0.120

0.114

0.108

0.165

0.118

0.102

0.129

0.170

0.157

0.148

0.144

0.133

0.158

0.150

0.136

0.136

0.168

0.149

0.144

0.138

0.135

Unoo Khad
Daaj Khad
Kaowil Khad
Gatti Khad

March 2006
I

April 2006

II

III

II

0.662

0.725

0.934

0.979

1.099

0.686

0.748

0.812

0.867

1.049

0.589

0.669

0.684

0.744

0.962

0.739

0.771

0.816

0.884

1.106

0.155

0.195

0.217

0.246

0.301

0.214

0.221

0.226

0.240

0.308

0.183

0.195

0.251

0.275

0.350

Source: Primary Survey by IIT Roorkey.

3-41

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.20 Computed Lean Flow for Tributaries of River Satluj (Nathpa to Jhakri Stretch)
Average ten daily discharge (cumec)
October
Tributary

November

December

January

February

March

April

Lean
Flow

Lean
Mont
h

II

III

II

III

II

III

II

III

II

III

II

III

II

Manglad

1.44

1.35

1.32

1.23

1.15

1.12

0.592

0.589

0.563

0.572

0.787

0.619

0.587

0.537

0.505

0.662

0.725

0.934

0.979

1.099

0.505

Feb

Chaura Khad

0.62

0.58

0.61

0.6

0.56

0.51

0.485

0.45

0.406

0.464

0.563

0.488

0.47

0.446

0.438

0.686

0.748

0.812

0.867

1.049

0.406

Dec

Chaunda Khad

1.01

0.87

0.91

0.79

0.76

0.72

0.437

0.46

0.392

0.407

0.468

0.443

0.419

0.408

0.352

0.589

0.669

0.684

0.744

0.962

0.352

Feb

Rupi Khad

1.74

1.46

1.37

1.4

1.15

0.98

0.637

0.535

0.526

0.515

0.706

0.534

0.546

0.516

0.538

0.739

0.771

0.816

0.884

1.106

0.515

Jan

Sholding Khad

1.93

1.84

1.56

1.27

1.16

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

0.98

Nov

Sumej Khad

1.66

1.56

1.32

1.08

1.03

Nov

Gaanvi Khad

1.92

1.67

1.56

1.53

1.6

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

1.12

Nov

Sorang Khad

1.58

1.21

0.96

0.75

0.72

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

0.44

Nov

Silaring Khad

0.91

1.19

1.09

0.69

0.6

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

Nov

Unoo Khad

0.121

0.121

0.121

0.121

0.121

0.121

0.134

0.136

0.153

0.162

0.215

0.162

0.149

0.146

0.121

0.155

0.195

0.217

0.246

0.301

0.121

Feb

Daaj Khad

0.085

0.085

0.085

0.085

0.085

0.085

0.107

0.094

0.085

0.114

0.152

0.128

0.12

0.114

0.108

0.214

0.221

0.226

0.24

0.308

0.085

Dec

Kaowil Khad

0.102

0.102

0.102

0.102

0.102

0.102

0.165

0.118

0.102

0.129

0.17

0.157

0.148

0.144

0.133

0.183

0.195

0.251

0.275

0.35

0.102

Dec

Gatti Khad

0.135

0.135

0.135

0.135

0.135

0.135

0.158

0.15

0.136

0.136

0.168

0.149

0.144

0.138

0.135

0.135

0.135

0.135

0.135

0.135

0.135

Feb

Gharsoo

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Feb

Chhota Kumba

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Feb

Shimla Khad

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Feb

Dharali Khad

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Feb

Wadhal RB

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Feb

Manglad RB

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Feb

3-42

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.21 Daily Discharge at Rampur


Daily Discharge of Satluj River Observed at 10am at Rampur G&D Sites

Date (February
2006)

Upstream of Rampur
Downstream of
Town (at
Rampur Town (at
Jagatkhana Bridge
SJVN Bridge Site)
Site)

Upstream of
Rampur Town
(at Jagatkhana
Bridge Site)

Downstream of
Rampur Town
(at SJVN Bridge
Site)

1-Mar-06

103

104

2-Mar-06

110

112

3-Mar-06

104

106
103

Date
(March 2006)

4-Feb-06

127

128

4-Mar-06

102

5-Feb-06

150

151

5-Mar-06

96

97

6-Feb-06

134

135

6-Mar-06

120

122

7-Feb-06

137

130

7-Mar-06

147

149

8-Feb-06

106

106

8-Mar-06

148

145

9-Feb-06

134

137

9-Mar-06

153

152

10-Feb-06

109

109

10-Mar-06

103

105

11-Feb-06

106

150

11-Mar-06

103

105

12-Feb-06

113

114

12-Mar-06

121

122

13-Feb-06

106

158

13-Mar-06

112

110

14-Feb-06

104

105

14-Mar-06

110

111

15-Feb-06

126

126

15-Mar-06

111

112

16-Feb-06

112

113

16-Mar-06

101

102

17-Feb-06

106

109

17-Mar-06

67

70

18-Feb-06

116

118

18-Mar-06

98

100

19-Feb-06

145

143

19-Mar-06

101

100

20-Feb-06

142

144

20-Mar-06

83

85

21-Feb-06

103

104

21-Mar-06

104

105

22-Feb-06

105

106

22-Mar-06

146

147

23-Feb-06

112

113

23-Mar-06

154

155

24-Feb-06

122

124

24-Mar-06

158

157

25-Feb-06

116

117

25-Mar-06

156

155

26-Feb-06

109

110

26-Mar-06

145

150

27-Feb-06

128

129

27-Mar-06

108

107

28-Feb-06

127

128

28-Mar-06

107

108

29-Mar-06

108

109

30-Mar-06

106

107

31-Mar-06

155

157

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.22 - Minimum Flow of the Satluj from Khab to Suni


Monthly min
Site

90 percentile

Khab

10 Daily min

60 percentile

90 percentile

Absolute Minimum

60 percentile

Monthly min

10 Daily min

64.33

45.66

59.00

44.00

17.33

8.00

Nathpa

116.01

91.45

105.97

93.13

59.13

47.53

Rapmur

104.00

91.66

102.00

89.00

69.00

65.00

Luhri

107.70

97.60

104.00

90.00

70.00

56.00

Suni

110.33

99.00

106.00

96.00

72.00

71.00

Table 3.23 - Measured Flow data for Tributaries of River Satluj (Jhakri to Bael Stretch)
for the months of February-March, 2006
S. Name of
No. stream

Kajo

Tunnan

Jhako

Pashada

Kasholi

Date

Discharge
(cumec)

Minimum
Discharge
(cumec)

S.
No.

Name of
stream

Date

Discharge
(cumec)

06.02.2006

0.422

06.02.2006

0.290

16.02.2006

0.502

16.02.2006

0.304

27.02.2006

0.432

27.02.2006

0.268

06.03.2006

0.508

06.03.2006

0.283

0.422

Kunni

15.03.2006

0.526

15.03.2006

0.316

25.03.2006

0.575

25.03.2006

0.312

09.02.2006

0.113

09.03.2006

0.103

16.02.2006

0.147

17.02.2006

0.141

28.02.2006

0.131

01.03.2006

0.102

06.03.2006

0.166

07.03.2006

0.131

15.03.2006

0.179

16.03.2006

0.121

25.03.2006

0.184

26.03.2006

0.114

17.02.2006

0.107

18.02.2006

0.133

01.03.1006

0.097

02.03.2006

0.095

07.03.2006

0.114

09.03.2006

0.092

0.113

0.097

Racholi

Barauni

16.03.2006

0.111

18.03.2006

0.083

26.03.2006

0.112

27.03.2006

0.082

08.02.2006

0.101

14.02.2006

3.39

17.02.2006

0.117

23.02.2006

4.01

01.03.2006

0.118

03.03.2006

3.54

07.03.2006

0.131

10.03.2006

3.77

16.03.2006

0.120

19.03.2006

4.01

26.03.2006

0.114

28.03.2006

4.15

18.02.2006

0.145

18.02.2006

0.175

02.03.2006

0.127

02.03.2006

0.119

09.03.2006

0.119

09.03.2006

0.106

18.03.2006

0.104

18.03.2006

0.101

27.03.2006

0.091

27.03.2006

0.089

28.03.2006

4.15

0.101

0.091

10

Nogli

Badgai

Minimum
Discharge
(cumec)

0.290

0.102

0.082

3.54

0.089

Sourec: Primary Survey by DHI-Water & Environment

3-44

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Hydrological Changes in the Satluj River


Historically managed river flow has potential to impact land, water and biodiversity environment
around the river. For RHEP, the diversion of estimated 383.88 cumec water from river Satluj at
Jhakri outfall may have impacts to the river, biodiversity as well as communities residing along it.
Throughout the year, this impact on water level will be prominent in the dry season. As per the
project estimations, a minimum of 13.537 cumec discharge without considering the evaporation
losses in tributaries will be available in the river Satluj between Jhakri and village Bael.
3.4.2

Sources and Usage of Water


The river Satluj is not the main source of water in the area. The natural springs and chashme are
the key sources of water for people living in the area for their own consumption, livestock use and
irrigation purposes. In most of the villages except those, situated on high hills, IPH Department has
laid down the pipelines to connect the natural springs (at upper reaches) to the households
through storage tanks for water supply after providing primary treatment. The villages those are
located on higher reaches depend directly on natural springs or khads flowing in vicinity. The main
khads in the NHEP area are Sholding Khad, Panvi Khad, Bhawa Khad, Baspa River, Kut Khad etc,
while in RHEP area, the main khads are Nogli, Kajo, Kunni, Racholi, Kasholi, Barauni etc. The total
flow coming to the river from main perennial streams falling in Jhakri outfall to Bael river stretch is

5.36 cumecs as measured by the consultant during lean season.


For drinking purpose, about 76.6 % of population depend upon piped water supply about 5.8 %
and 17.6 % utilize water from perennial/seasonal streams and natural sources respectively. For
cleaning and other domestic uses 49.4 % use pipe and tap, 20 % use streams and 30.6 % use
natural sources. For cattle, tap water takes care if 43 % of the requirement, 18 % of the water
comes from natural sources while streams/river and meet 39%.
Table 3.24 Water Requirement in Project Area
Water Requirements (based on findings of primary level village surveys)
NJHEP area

RHEP area

2.0 MLD* (@ 40 lpcd for villages

1.33 MLD* (@ 40 lpcd for villages

* Population of Rampur town and Jhakri Township have not been included.
The specific water demand for these areas is 0.68 MLD and 0.60 MLD respectively
Further, agriculture crops in the area mainly depend on rains, however, irrigation canals also exist
in some of the villages especially in the downhill parts of the areas. These canals are basically
known as Khuls in the area and having capacity of only 3-4 cusecs. The water in the streams,
khads, is also used by people living alongside as on requirement, especially for livestock purposes.
3.4.3

Existing Water Quality of Satluj


The water quality of river Satluj in general is good. There are no major sources of domestic or
industrial pollution, hence the Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels are good with low BOD and COD
values of the river. There is no direct disposal of domestic sewage into the river but due to open
defecation; human/animal waste finds its way to Satluj through seasonal and perennial streams
owing to natural slope of area.
The use of agro-chemicals in the area is low but it has been seen that over the last few years the
rate of consumption has increased. This can be one of the sources of water pollution; it can also
lead to production of excessive organic matter, which would deplete the DO content of the river.
The Central Pollution Control Board of India has classified water resources of the country for
different water bodies, according to their uses.This has been summarized in tablexx. As per the

3-45

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

classification, the river water quality at Rampur has been designated as Class A, making it fit for
drinking purpose after disinfection and without conventional treatment. However, this quality is
with respect to pH, DO and BOD only. By the standard of Total Coliform prescribed by CPCB and
actual value monitored in Satluj River, category of river comes down to C category. This makes it
important to control discharge of sewage in the river and also the open defecation near river and
streams.
3.4.4

Water Quality
Adequate flow in the river especially during lean season is essential for maintaining natural dilution
capacity of the river, which can then sustain a certain level of organic pollution load from sewage,
without getting polluted itself. Adequate flow is also important to maintain the river ecology
aesthetically as well as for the sustenance of its aquatic habitation .Restricted flow in the river
between Jhakri to Bael for RHEP has potential to affect dilution of the sewage discharged from
project influence area to the river. In addition to sewage, effluents from crushers and muck
disposal area will increase pollution pressure on the river.

Table 3.25 - Primary Water Quality Criteria


as laid by the Central Pollution Control Board
Designated Base Use

Class of Water Criteria

Drinking water source without


conventional treatment but after
disinfection

1. Total Coliform organism MPN/100ml. shall be 50 or less.


A

2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5.


3. Dissolved Oxygen 6 mg/l or more.
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20oC, 2 mg/l or less.

Outdoor bathing (Organized)

1. Total Coliform organism MPN/100ml.shall be 500 or less.


B

2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5.


3. Dissolved Oxygen 5 mg/l or more.
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20oC 3 mg/l or less.
1. Total Coliform organism MPN/100ml.shall be 5000 or less.

Drinking Water Sources after


conventional treatment
C

2. pH between 6 and 9.
3. Dissolved Oxygen 4 mg/l or more.
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20oC 3 mg/l or less.

Propagation of Wild Life and Fisheries.

1. pH between 6.5 and 9.5.


D

2. Dissolved Oxygen 4 mg/l or more.


3. Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less.

Irrigation, Industrial Cooling


Controlled Waste

1. pH between 6.5 and 9.5.


E

2. Electrical Conductivity at 25-mg/cm max. 2250.


3. Sodium absorption ratio Max. 26.
4. Boron Max 2 mg/l.

If three parameters falls in category A but fourth parameter falls in category C, the overall quality of river will fall under Class C.

As per the above criteria, the Himachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board has reported the river
Satluj under A category of water quality with respect to pH, DO and BOD in general. The critical
parameters observed in past is Total Coliform according to which category of river comes down to
C category.

3-46

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.26 - Drinking Water Standards


Parameters

Value
Acceptable*

Cause for Rejection+

2.5

10

7.0-8.5

<6.5

Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l)

500

1500

Total hardness (mg/l)

200

600

Chlorides (mg/l)

200

1000

Sulphates (mg/l)

200

400

Fluorides (mg/l)

1.0

1.5

Nitrates (mg/l)

20

20

Turbidity
pH

Calcium (mg/l)

75

200

Magnesium (mg/l)

30

150

Iron (mg/l)

0.1

1.0

0.001

0.002

Faecal coliform (MPN/100 ml)

Nil

Nil

Total Colifoms

10

10

Phenolic compounds (mg/l)

* Limits upto which water is generally acceptable to the consumers.


+ Figures in excess of those mentioned under `Acceptable render the water not acceptable but still may be tolerated in the
absence of alternative and better source, but upto the limits indicated under column `Cause for Rejection, above which the
supply will have to be rejected.

Satluj is marked by turbulent flow and low temperature. River water monitoring was undertaken
twice by different agencies, first in June 2004 and second in February 2006. The monitoring results
show different values for a few of the parameters. However these differences are not very alarming
and can be assumed to be the result of temporal changes as well as induced impacts. Going by the
recent monitoring in February 2006, the dissolved oxygen is relatively good (between 8 to 8.5
mg/l) between Jhakri to Bael and suggest good river purification capacity. Water is alkaline with
very low organic load. Turbidity is very low [1.2-1.6 Nephrometric Turbidity Units (NTU)], indicating
the absence of a large sediment or algal load carried by the river. This is further confirmed by low
presence of total suspended solids (22.28 mg/l).
The pH values are around 8 and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is about 1.0 mg/l.Fecal
coliform bacteria were found to occur in negligible numbers except at down stream of Rampur
town. Fecal coliform count here can be related to human and animal activities in the lower river
basin.
Heavy metals are generally present in traces, except for Mercury which was estimated on higher
side at 7.11 ppb at Jhakri outfall. This high level of mercury may be due to mechanical processing
in the power house of Nathpa-Jhakri project.Bacteria present in decaying vegetation can also
change mercury, present in rocks underlying a reservoir, into a form which is soluble in water. This
mercury in its methylated form enters the food chain and is bio-concentrated, with highest
concentrations occurring in piscivorous fish and birds. These elevated tissue levels can often
exceed those recommended for human consumption (particularly in older biota), thereby creating
associated human and environmental health risks. It is important for SJVNL to identify the source
of this mercury through series of water quality monitoring and take adequate mitigation measures
for preventing health hazard due to mercury contamination of river water. Presented in Tables
below are the water quality monitoring results for June 2004, February 2006 and drinking water
parameters prescribed by the Indian National Standard.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.27 - Water Quality Profile of River Satluj, Year 2003 Monitoring Results
Parameter

u/s

d/s

u/s

d/s

u/s

Nathpa

Nathpa

N.Sari

N.Sari

Jhakri

0.10

0.20

0.20

0.10

0.30

BOD (mg/L)
COD (mg/L)

16

20

14

14.80

48

TSS (mg/L)

214.90

322

29.70

36.10

208.90

TDS (mg/L)

254

258

80

68

207

Turbidity (NTU)

72.80

104

25.00

26.40

68

pH

8.20

8.17

7.40

8.05

7.93

Total hardness (mg/L)

160

152

26

28

134

Total Alkalinity (mg/L)

105

15

35

30

165

Faecal Coliform (MPN/100 ml)

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Total Coliforms (50 standard value)

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Mercury as Hg (ppb)

NA

ND

ND

ND

ND

Iron as Fe (mg/L)

0.03

0.09

ND

0.06

0.12

Nickel as Ni (mg/L)

0.08

nd

0.10

0.46

0.08

Cadmium as Cd (mg/L)

ND

ND

ND

0.01

ND

Chromium as Cr (mg/L)

0.03

ND

0.23

ND

0.01

Zinc as Zn (mg/L)

0.01

0.03

0.10

0.02

0.01

Source:

State Environment Protection & Pollution Control Board, 2003


NA: data not available; ND: value not detected

Table 3.28 - Water Quality Satluj, Year 2006 Monitoring Results


Jhakri-Rampur-Bael Stretch
Parameter

Below NJHEP tailrace Rampur u/s


outfall

Rampur d/s

Bael Town

BOD (mg/L)

1.00

1.05

12.00

1.00

COD (mg/L)

19.36

19.36

19.36

53.24

TSS (mg/L)

22.0

29.0

39.0

28.0

TDS (mg/L)

290

320

360

380

Turbidity (NTU)

1.4

1.2

1.6

1.4

pH

7.88

7.95

8.10

8.10

Electrical Conductivity (S/cm)

490

530

600

630

Total hardness as CaCO3


(mg/L)

175

175

170

175

Total Alkalinity (mg/L)

186

186

186

186

Absent

Absent

na

na

na

14

na

7.11

nd

Iron as Fe (mg/L)

< 0.05

< 0.05

Nickel as Ni (mg/L)

< 0.02

< 0.02

Cobalt as Co (mg/L)

0.051

0.077

Cadmium as Cd (mg/L)

< 0.1

< 0.1

Chromium as Cr (mg/L)

< 0.003

< 0.003

Zinc as Zn (mg/L)

< 0.05

< 0.05

Faecal Coliform (MPN/100 ml)


Total Coliforms (50 standard
value)
Mercury as Hg (ppb)

Source: Monitoring Results carried out by DHI-Water & Environment, 2006

3-48

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

In past, no major epidemic has been reported in the area. Thus, it can be said that although, there
are no sewage treatment facilities in the area, the pollution loading (organic and bacteriological) is
well within the carrying capacity of the water available for dilution in river Satluj and its tributaries.
A time series profile has been plotted for Rampur u/s and d/s for three parameters namely pH,
BOD and DO (Figures 3.25 and 3.26). It is evident from the data that DO levels in latest data have
dropped while BOD is increased significantly. The reason for this could be either low flows or
increased pollution load from Rampur town. But since results show same trend at upstream as well
as at downstream reaches, the reason could be attributed to low flows in the month of February.
Table 3.29 - Water Quality Data of River Satluj, July 2004
Parameters / Sampling Locations

Above Nathpa Dam

Below Nathpa Dam Powerhouse Below Tailrace

pH

7.4

7.4

7.3

7.5

Electrical conductivity (s/cm)

210

290

203

263

Total Dissolved Solids, mg/l

130

179

125

163

Total Suspended Solids, mg/l

466

60

558

880

Total alkalinity (CaCO3), mg/l

98.4

118

118

118

Carbonates, mg/l

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

BOD, mg/l

3.2

2.1

2.7

13.2

COD, mg/l

18.4

13.8

18.5

27.6

Nitrate as NO3, mg/l

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

Phosphate as PO4, mg/l

0.28

BDL

0.16

0.40

Fluoride as F, mg/l

BDL

BDL

0.2

BDL

Chloride as Cl, mg/l

7.9

7.9

7.9

7.9

Sulphate as SO4, mg/l

45.3

56

49

86

Sodium as Na, mg/l

11

11

Potassium as K, mg/l

Calcium as Ca, mg/l

34.7

44.2

28.4

38.7

Magnesium as Mg, mg/l

1.9

1.9

4.8

3.3

Oil & Grease, mg/l

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

Phenolic Compound

BDL

BDL

BDL

BDL

21

21

21

12

21

21

21

12

Total Coliforms
MPN

BDL: Below detectable limit. Source: Monitoring by WAPCOS, 2004

Figure 3.25 Water Quality Trends: pH Values


pH-Rampur d/s

pH -Rampur u/s

8.4

8.5
8.4
8.3

8.3
8.2

8.2
8.1
8
7.9

8.1
8
7.9

7.8
7.7

7.8
June, 01

June, 04

Jan,05

Feb-06

June, 01

June, 04

Jan,05

Feb-06

3-49

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.26 Water Quality Trends: DO and BOD


DO-Rampur d/s

DO-Rampur u/s

12

12

10

10

0
June, 01

June, 04

Jan,05

Feb-06

0
June, 01

BOD-Rampur d/s

Jan,05

Feb-06

Jan,05

Feb-06

BOD-Rampur u/s

1.4

1.4

1.2

1.2

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0
June, 01

3.4.5

June, 04

June, 04

Jan,05

Feb-06

June, 01

June, 04

Downstream Water Use: Impacts of Water Quality Changes


Many of the communities in the Project area live in close proximity to the existing water bodies and
currently utilize surface water and groundwater for a variety of beneficial uses, including drinking
water, recreation, and washing, irrigation, fishing and watering livestock. Therefore the quality of
water is regarded as an important issue, not only for aquatic life but also for the multi-use of water
by riverine and residents. Any of the negative changes in water quality highlighted in the analysis
above could impact these beneficial uses of water, and therefore the communities themselves.
Reduced river flow usually creates impact on downstream activities like reduced water availability
for irrigation, drinking and dilution of pollutants. RHEP stretch of river does not have any existing or
proposed irrigation/ water supply schemes linked to river Satluj, hence impact on water source
usage due to managed river flow is not a significant concern.
The survey of the project influence area during study revealed that the natural springs, khads,
chashme and bowli (kachchi and pukki) and various tributaries flowing in vicinity are the key
sources of water for villages that are located along the river stretch between Jhakri and Bael.
Majority of these sources are perennial with seasonal discharge variation between 0.7 l/sec to
0.005 l/sec. These sources are fully capable of satisfying various water needs of villagers.
Irrigation activities in the area meet water demand by rain or by canals, known as khuls locally.
Rampur town has piped water supply from government run schemes. These water supply schemes
draw water from natural springs/bowlis located on upper reaches of mountains, a permanent
phenomenon in the area. Therefore, the reduced flow in the river due to proposed project would
not be a bottleneck for running water supply schemes in the area.

3-50

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Naturally available water sources as mentioned above do get adversely impacted by construction
and blasting activities. Study undertaken during preparation of previous projects i.e. Nathpa Jhakri
Hydro Electric Project reported drying of some stream outlets due to blasting activities and
sediments carried by floods, which is common in the area. The upper outlet of a chashme along the
Kajo khad had closed during the flood in 2001. Change in flow pattern, drying of some sources and
opening of new sources is also a natural occurrence in such hilly areas where there is large-scale
construction and or blasting activities in operation. During the course of time as well, due to
changes in climatic condition, sometimes some sources show change flow behaviour, which may
also impact water activities depending on these sources. Since RHEP is a run of the river project,
not involving very large scale construction of dam / reservoir activities, adverse impacts as
enumerated above are not likely to impact existing water supply sources and thereby schemes
dependent on these sources.
Nevertheless, keeping in mind sensitive receptors of RHEP, a detailed monitoring programme will
be planned and implemented by the SJVNL for regular monitoring of the flow of natural
streams/khads in the project affected as well as project influence area. Result of monitoring will be
documented for preparation of short and long term action, if required.
Estimates of Sewage Loads
Primary village level survey in the project influence area showed that the area is inhabited by
population of 15,926 at Right Bank of the river and 25,753 at Left Bank. Cumulative generation of
sewage from villages on both bank of the river is about 0.314 MLD. This sewage when considered
on standalone basis in the river can be well taken care of by the present river flow. However, there
are other sewage loads as well from near by Rampur Town, residential colony for the project
related population and existing residential colony of the Nathpa Jhakri project near Jhakri. Out of
three above-mentioned residential areas, only Rampur has potential of creating adverse impact
owing to its sewage load since other two have provision of treating their sewage loads. The scale
of development in the town due to hydroelectric project development is very fast. Administrative
status of the town is soon going to be upgraded to District level from present Block level. This is
likely to induce rapid growth in the area hence heavy population inflow. Although, Rampur town
has sewage treatment plants of varying capacity, yet in light of ever increasing floating population
as well as settling population, the existing sewage treatments may not be fully capable of meeting
the requirement.
To estimate the generation of sewage load in Rampur Town in future, a decadal variation in the
population as noticed over the period and decadal projections has been made using linear growth
pattern. The result has been summarized in Tables 3.30 and 3.31.
Table 3.30 - Estimated Sewage Load of Villages at Right Bank of River Satluj, 2001-11
2001

2011

Population
(Census 2001)

Estimated
Water
Demand in
MLD

Estimated
Sewage
Generation
in MLD

Population
(Estimated
2011)

Estimated
Water
Demand in
MLD

Estimated
Sewage
Generation
in MLD

Duwari

240

0.010

0.008

313

0.013

0.010

Kafti

54

0.002

0.002

70

0.003

0.003

Kajo

Kharga

350

0.014

0.011

457

0.018

0.014

Kajo

Kimcha

48

0.002

0.002

63

0.003

0.003

Kajo

Kumahar

400

0.016

0.013

522

0.021

0.017

Kajo

Kund

60

0.002

0.002

78

0.003

0.003

Kajo

Narku

42

0.002

0.001

55

0.003

0.001

Stream in
Vicinity

Name of
Village

Kajo
Kajo

3-51

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

2001

2011

Population
(Census 2001)

Estimated
Water
Demand in
MLD

Estimated
Sewage
Generation
in MLD

Seri

12

0.0005

0.0004

16

0.001

0.001

Shaich

42

0.002

0.001

55

0.003

0.001

Kajo

Suraage

390

0.016

0.012

509

0.021

0.016

Kajo

Tharwa

320

0.013

0.010

418

0.017

0.013

120

0.005

157

0.007

Stream in
Vicinity

Name of
Village

Kajo
Kajo

Tributary - Kajo
Kasholi

Population
(Estimated
2011)

Estimated
Water
Demand in
MLD

0.063

Brow

0.004

Estimated
Sewage
Generation
in MLD

0.081
0.005

Kasholi

Damehli

750

0.030

0.024

979

0.039

0.031

Kasholi

Kasholi

1018

0.041

0.033

1328

0.054

0.043

Kasholi

Palli

450

0.018

0.014

587

0.023

0.018

Kasholi

Panasha

250

0.010

0.008

326

0.013

0.010

Kasholi

Pankwa

1320

0.053

0.042

1723

0.069

0.055

Kasholi

Poshna

3552

0.142

0.114

4635

0.185

0.149

Kasholi

Sharshaya

378

0.015

0.012

493

0.020

0.016

Kasholi

Tunan

4115

0.165

0.132

5370

0.215

Tributary - Kasholi

0.382

0.172
0.500

Kunni

Gad

120

0.005

0.004

157

0.007

0.005

Kunni

Bishlai

350

0.014

0.011

457

0.018

0.014

Tributary - Kunni
Satluj

Koel

Satluj

Bael

0.015
636

0.025

0.020

0.019
830

0.033

0.026

Directly Draining to the Satluj

0.020

0.026

TOTAL

0.480

0.620

Table 3.31 - Estimated Sewage Load from Villages at Left Bank of river Satluj, 2001
2001
Stream in
Vicinity

Name of
Village

Barauni

Jhakri

Population
Estimated
(Survey/
Water Demand
Census 2001)
in MLD
5890

0.23560

Tributary - Barauni

2011
Estimated
Sewage
Generation
in MLD

Population
(Estimated
2011)

Estimated
Water
Demand in
MLD

0.18848

7686

0.3075

0.189

Jakho

Darshal

287

0.011

Jakho

Khanari

1038

0.042

Tributary - Jakho

Estimated
Sewage
Generation
in MLD
0.246
0.246

0.009

375

0.0144

0.033

1355

0.0548

0.042

0.012
0.043
0.055

Racholi

Racholi

915

0.037

0.029

1194

0.0483

0.038

Racholi

Odda

437

0.017

0.014

570

0.0222

0.018

Racholi

Kandi

900

0.036

0.029

1175

0.0470

0.038

Racholi

Pal

608

0.024

0.019

793

0.0313

0.025

Racholi

Kasha

1920

0.077

0.061

2506

0.1005

Tributary - Rancholi

0.153

0.080
0.200

Satluj

Shingla

890

0.036

0.028

1161

0.0470

0.037

Satluj

Shaneri

713

0.029

0.023

930

0.0378

0.030

Satluj

Uru

220

0.009

0.007

287

0.0117

0.009

3-52

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

2001
Stream in
Vicinity

Name of
Village

Satluj

Kalna

Population
Estimated
(Survey/
Water Demand
Census 2001)
in MLD
382

0.015

2011
Estimated
Sewage
Generation
in MLD

Population
(Estimated
2011)

Estimated
Water
Demand in
MLD

Estimated
Sewage
Generation
in MLD

0.012

499

0.0196

0.016

Satluj

Besri

293

0.012

0.009

382

0.0157

0.012

Satluj

Duttnagar

1213

0.049

0.039

1583

0.0639

0.051

Directly Draining to the Satluj

0.118

0.155

Nogli

Kumsu

937

0.037

0.030

1223

0.0483

0.039

Nogli

Kamlahu

438

0.018

0.014

572

0.0235

0.018

Nogli

Rajpura

114

0.005

0.004

149

0.0065

0.005

Nogli

Masarna

337

0.013

0.011

440

0.0170

0.014

Nogli

Makroli

90

0.004

0.003

117

0.0052

0.004

Nogli

Karali

379

0.015

0.012

495

0.0196

0.016

Nogli

Thana

68

0.003

0.002

89

0.0039

0.003

Nogli

Jaguni

706

0.028

0.023

921

0.0365

0.030

Nogli

Dhar

306

0.012

0.010

399

0.0157

0.013

Nogli

Dansa

595

0.024

0.019

776

0.0313

0.025

14679

0.5873

Tributary Nogli

0.128

TOTAL

0.630

0.167
0.823

Above values have been used for assessing the DO profiles along the main river.

Effluent from Rampur Town


Rampur is the only major town falling in the diversion tunnel site under Rampur Hydroelectric
project. Presently it has a provision of STP with total capacity of 1.0 MLd to serve total population
of 7083 persons (this also includes 2800 persons under floating population) but due to huge
damages occurred to the machinery part and particularly to the main line, presently only 50
households are being served by the STP. Total about 60% of population is being served by Septic
tanks.
One another STP with capacity of 0.5 MLD is under re-construction for 1737 persons. The other
zone has provision of septic tank covering 157 persons and 2200 college students.
Considering the scale of development taking place in the town due to hydro-electric project
development in the area and also noticing that very soon administrative status of the town is going
to change from Block level to District level, which may induce heavy growth in the area and may
attract heavy population inflow.
However, in existing conditions, there is sufficient water available in the river for providing enough
dilution to the effluent waste of the town, but the reduced flow in the river as proposed under the
RHEP and induced growth of the town as foreseen, it may lead to deterioration of water quality in
the river.
The decadal variation in the population as noticed over the period with available population data
and decadal projections has been made using linear growth pattern to estimate the generation of
sewage load.

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Table 3.32 - Estimated Sewage Load of Rampur Town


Using Linear Trends of Population Growth
Year

Population

Water Demand (MLD)


0.39

Effluent generated (MLD)

1981

3310

0.312

1991

4342

0.52

0.416

2001

5653

0.68

0.544

2011

7354 (projected)

0.88

0.704

2021

9055 (projected)

1.08

0.864

2031

1,0756 (projected)

1.29

1.032

It is to be noted that the population estimate given above does not include floating population.
Thus it becomes essential to give due attention towards installation of adequate capacity of sewage
treatment plant and to maintain minimum flow in river especially during lean season to provide
enough dilution for disposal of effluents.
Effluent Disposal from Jhakri Colony
In Jhakri Township, which was constructed under under Nathpa-Jhakri project, total number of
households is one thousand. This township is well connected to sewage pipeline network, which is
finally connected to eight number of septic tanks. However, presently storage capacity of these
septic tanks is adequate and as such, no directs disposal into the river has been planned.
Effluent Disposal from Proposed Project Colony
The effluent will be purely domestic sewage in absence of any major construction activity during
operation of the proposed hydropower plant. If assume the population of proposed colony is 3000,
the water demand would be around 0.3 mld (taking 100l/capita/day water requirement). The
sewage load would be about 0.24 mld. The total BOD load would be in order of 71 kg/day, which is
insignificantly low to generate any adverse impacts on river water quality. To avoid any
concentrated point source impact, it is advised to plan for installation of adequate sewage
treatment facility for the colony.
Effluent Disposal from Temporary Labour Shelters
Taking total population inflow of 12000 during 6 years of proposed construction activities under
RHEP projects, the total water requirements would be 0.84 mld ( @ 70 lpcd ). Thus, total sewage
generation would be 0.67 mld (80% of water supply). The corresponding BOD load would be 541
kg/day.
Generally, during construction stages, labour camps get installed at two or three different locations
but even considering the entire sewage disposal as a concentrated point source enough dilution is
available in river Satluj.
As observed from the modelling results, no impacts are anticipated on water quality of river Satluj
but to have pre-construction measures, appropriate treatment facility (septic tank etc.) should be
provided to avoid any adverse conditions.
Effluent Disposal from Operation of Crushers
A crusher of capacity 120-150tph will be commissioned at the project site during construction
period and water will be required for washing of boulders and for lowering of temperature of the
crushing edge. About 0.1 m3 of water will be needed per tonne of material crushed.

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Expected effluent from the crusher: About 12-15 m3/hr

Expected discharge: 0.0033- 0.0042 cumecs

Expected suspended solids: 3000-4000 mg/lt

Considering the present minimum flow, which remains in order of 60-70 cumecs, the impact due to
disposal of crusher effluent could be considered insignificant, however, it is advised to avoid single
point disposal instead multiple location, could be identified at sufficient intervals to provide enough
dilution. It is also advised to have provision for primary treatment to effluent prior to disposal in
river.
Mitigation Measures
RHEP authorities will make a comprehensive evaluation of augmentation required for existing
sewage treatment plants and if required new sewage treatment plan will be constructed to manage
pollution load on the river. Besides sewage load, another pollution load generated will be from
muck disposal area and also crushers. Project authorities will prepare a detailed waste water
management plan.
3.4.6

Channel Sedimentation and Reduced Dissolved Oxygen


Low flow in river causes sedimentation in downstream channel and can also reduce dissolved
oxygen. Increased sedimentation and reduced dissolved oxygen have wide ranging implications for
aquatic biodiversity and river aesthetics.
A study was undertaken to measure flow velocity profile of Satluj River between Nathpa and Bael
so as to determine most favourable flow condition for flushing of sediments and dilution scenarios
for expected organic pollution loads. The different scenarios were simulated for different flow
releases varying from 1 cumecs to 10 cumecs as well as zero release. Several BOD loads for the
different merging tributaries in Satluj were used for DO modelling. Results indicate that for any
organic load (BOD) less than 5 mg/l, the DO levels at no point along the stretch, even at release of
1 cumecs in the river goes below 8. For details, refer Background Report on the study of Managed
Flow (DHI, 2006).
The MIKE 11 model was used for the simulation of flows, water quality and sediment transport in
rivers, irrigation systems, channels and other water bodies. As an assumption, instead of 23 kms of
river stretch between Jhakri to Bael for assessing the changes in river flow profile at downstream
with varying flow releases, model has been established for 63kms of river stretch between Nathpa
to Bael. The river network with different streams meeting with river is shown in fig.xxx. Among
hydrometric data, constant flow data for various streams have been used due to un-availability of
time series data. Three cross-sectional data were used for 63kms of river stretch. These were, (i)
Nathpa Dam Site (U/s)- Cross-sectional data (for about 3 kms of river stretch), (ii) Jhakri Outfall
(approximate middle of the stretch) (for about 2 kms of river Stretch) and (iii) Rampur Power
House ( Bael in D/s) (for about 1 km of river stretch).
Flow Velocity Profiles of river Satluj were worked out for different flow conditions at Nathpa Dam
Site. Varying discharge scenarios at Nathpa Dam site in the range of 0-10 cumecs have been
considered to assess the corresponding flow velocities at different stretches of river. In addition, a
simulation for 1500 cumec was also carried out to observe velocity profile of the river in worst-case
scenario of a flood.
Model results estimate that average velocities up to a release of 3 cumecs are in the order of 1.0
m/sec, which further reduce downstream. This is not a favorable condition for flushing of
sediments. For release more than 3 cumecs, the average flow velocity reaches in the order of 0.8 1.2m/sec for 4 cumec and 10 cumec of discharge respectively. This has potential of easily flushing
the sediments sizes of the order of 0.7- 0.8 mm. Aquatic ecologyl and fisheries too find a

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conducive environment in the velocity range between 0.8 -1.2 m/sec. In a scenario when 1500
cumec of water is discharged from the dam, velocity changes from 0.6 to 12.7 m/sec. The average
velocity found from upstream at Nathpa dam site to downstream till 53 km, is more than 12.7 m/s.
Dissolved Oxygen level in river stretch is estimated at above 8.0 mg/lit at all locations, with the
existing BOD load of 5-8 mg/lit and with varying discharge scenarios of 1-10 cumec.
Mitigation Measures
Adaptive Management Plan will be prepared and implemented by project authorities for mitigating
the ill effects of managed river flow on aquatic biodiversity and river aesthetics.
3.5

Land Environment

3.5.1

Land Use
The project influence area is rich in forestland. Survey result of the land use pattern in the 7km
radius area around the project site has been summarized in Table 3.33 below. See also Figure 3.

Table 3.33 Land Use of the Project Influence Area (7km all around the Project)
Land Use Classification
Water

Total Area within 7 km of Project


1.05

% of Total Area
0.68

Open

29.54

19.14

Agriculture

18.10

11.73

Degraded Vegetation

20.02

12.98

8.44

5.47

Dense Vegetation

21.76

14.10

Scrubs

26.88

17.42

Medium Vegetation

River bed

0.46

0.30

Settlement

3.62

2.35

Snow

1.75

1.13

Miscellaneous
Total

22.69

14.71

154.31

100.00

Village Nirmand is the largest one in the area with a geographical area of 1102 hectares. Other
main villages falling in RHEP influence area are Bael, Duttnagar, Poshna and Koyal. Village Bael has
smallest geographical area of 76 hectares. Details on village wise land use pattern of the RHEP
influence has been summarized below in Table 3.34.
Land use pattern detail show that Satluj basin is experiencing a general decline in agricultural
activities and specifically in the project area. There is a clear shift from agriculture based pursuits
to non-agriculture based ones. Influx of population, greater availability of opportunities and other
related development in the area that is induced by the hydro development is the key reason for a
greater dependence of local people on non-agricultural activities.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.27 Land Use of the Satluj Basin

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.28 Soil Erosion in the Satluj Basin

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.29 Agriculture in the Projects Surrounding Area

1. Agricultural fields near Bael

2. Farming done at Landless colony, Jhakri

3. Farming at Landless colony

4. Agricultural fields near Bael

5. Crops near Bael

6. Plum plantation near Tunnan village

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.30 Grazing Land in the Vicinity of the Project Area

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.34 - Land Utilization of Villages in RHEP influence area


Land Use Type

Koyal

Bael

Dutt Nagar

Tunan

Poshna

Nirmand

Area not available for Cultivation


(non-agri/uncultivable)

29

15

83

107

49

246

Other uncultivable land excluding


fallow land (permanent
pastures/other grazing land,
miscellaneous tree crop/groove
included in net area sown, culturable
waste

114

547

Area under Forests

Fallow Land (current/others)

23

22

71

Total cropped area (net sown


area/area sown more than once)

316

114

230

731

391

1553

Total Cultivable area (irrigated/unirrigated)

133

57

244

856

Village common lands

Land put to other use


(industry/community house)

Area under ponds for agriculture

Source: Baseline Demographic Socio-Economic Survey of Rampur Hydroelectric Project, Year, 2005

Land use pattern has been studied using latest satellite data (IRS P6, LISS III sensor) for the entire
Satluj basin. Raw digital satellite data was procured from National Remote Sensing Agency and
processed in house using the hardware and software facilities available with the consultant. The
land use classification has been presented in the Table 3.35 below:
Table 3.35 Land Use in the Study Area (7km all around the Project)
S.No.

Landuse Category

Percentage of total Satluj basin area

1.

Agricultural land

10.95

2.

Fallow land

0.08

3.

Plantations

0.25

4.

Land without scrubs

1.68

5.

Forest areas

24.96

6.

Water bodies

0.69

7.

Snow covered area

37.87

8.

Settlement

0.21

9.

Barren areas

20.16

10.

Grassland

3.16

Total

100
Source: Satellite Imagery, Year 2005

The influence area of RHEP includes village Nirmand, which is having largest geographical area of
1102 hectares. Other main villages falling in RHEP influence area are Bael, Duttnagar, Poshna and
Koyal. Village Bael has smallest geographical area of 76 hectares. Bael and Poshna villages do not
have any land under category of non-agriculture use. Details on land use pattern of the RHEP
influence has been presented below in Table 3.36.

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Table 3.36 - Land Use (in hectares) of RHEP Influence Area


Landuse Type

Koyal

Area under Forests

Bael

Dutt Nagar

Tunan

Poshna

Nirmand

Area not available for Cultivation (nonagri/uncultivable)

29

15

83

107

49

246

Other uncultivable land excluding fallow land


(permanent pastures/other grazing land,
miscellaneous tree crop/groove included in net
area sown, culturable waste

114

547

23

22

71

Total cropped area (net sown area/area sown


more than once)

316

114

230

731

391

1553

Total Cultivable area (irrigated/un-irrigated)

Fallow Land (current/others)

133

57

244

856

Village common lands

Land put to other use (industry/community


house)

Area under ponds for agriculture

Source: Baseline Demographic Socio-Economic Survey of Rampur Hydroelectric Project, Year, 2005

It can be inferred from the above data that there is a decline in landuse under agriculture related
activities and irrespective of form of compensation provided to affected people in the project
influence area, there has been a shift from agriculture based pursuits to non-agriculture based
ones. This could mainly be attributed to the influx of more number of people, greater available
opportunities and other related development in the area that is induced by the hydro development.

3.5.2

Soil Quality
In Shimla district, the soil is generally shallow in depth except in the areas having vegetation cover
where it is fairly deep. In the regions above 1,500 m, the soil is generally deep. Largely the soil can
be classified as podzols, both brown podzols and humus and iron podzols are found in the study
stretch. These are acidic in nature with the organic content ranging from medium to high.
Nutritional survey of soil and plant analysis suggests that the soils by and large have low levels of
Zn, Cu, B and Mo.
Comparative account of soil properties for various locations - upstream of NJHEP dam, downstream
of NJHEP dam, near the power house, downstream of tailrace discharge from power house, has
been presented in the Table 3.37.
Table 3.37 - Analysis of Soil Samples near the Rampur Project Area
Parameters

Upstream of
Nathpa dam

Downstream of
Nathpa dam

Near Jhakri
Powerhouse

Downstream of Jhakri
Tailrace Discharge

pH

7.22

7.47

7.21

7.4

Electrical conductivity (s/cm)

310

211

575

164

Sodium as Na (meq/100 gm)

0.004

0.01

0.007

0.01

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

BDL

BDL

1.40

0.200

0.005

0.002

0.005

0.002

Nitrogen as TKN (%)


Phosphates as PO4 (meq/100 gm)
Potassium as K (meq/100 gm)

Source: EIA study for Rampur HEP, Year 2005


BDL Below Detectable Limit

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3.6

Aquatic Habitat & Fish Diversity

3.6.1

Aquatic Flora
Past studies in various stretches of the river Satluj indicate inherently poor presence of planktonic
community in the river and its tributaries. The planktonic community, therefore, plays a little role in
ecological niche in the Satluj river system. A monitoring survey of Jhakri-Rampur-Bael stretch of
river in the month of March 2006 establishes presence of Green Algae and Blue Green
Algae.Diatoms,Bryophyta and pteridophytes are also significantly present in the river. The species
along with their typical characteristics are summarized in Table 3.38 below:
Table 3.38 - Floral Species in Satluj along Jhakri-Rampur-Bael stretch
Type

Species

Characteristics

Green Algae

Tetraspora, Ulothrix and Oedogonium

Contains chlorophyll, hence use captured light


energy to fuel the manufacture of sugars.

Blue green algae Microcystis, Chrococcus, Gloecapsa, Arthrospora, The blue green algae do not possess
flagellated motile cells and hence found
Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Phormidium, Schizothrix,
attached except a few forms like oscillatoria
Richella, Anabaenopsis, Cylinderospermum,
Wollea, Nostoc, Anabaena, Gloetricha, Fisherella. which shows slow creeping movement
A large number of blue green algae are able
to fix atmospheric nitrogen e.g. Nostoc,
Anabaena, Cylinderospermum etc.
Diatoms

Navicula, Gyrosigma, Nitzschia and Suriella.

unicellular algae
cell walls of these organisms are made of
silica, and are of varied shapes

Bryophyta

Riccia fluitans, Marchantia simlana


Pellia endiviaefolia, Madotheca

Pteridophytes

Equisetum ervense, E. debile, E. ramosissimum


and E.diffusum

amphibious in nature; grow in moist and


shady places on the sides on river water
containing all the vascular plants that do not
bear seeds: ferns, horsetails, club mosses,
and whisk ferns

Source: EIA for Rampur Hydroelectric Project, Year 2005; Monitoring carried out during March, 2006
3.6.2

Aquatic Fauna
The aquatic faunal communities are severely harmed by variable velocities of water, ice formation
during winter, occurrence of periodic floods due to cloud burst and rolling of stream bottom
material consisting of boulders, stones, gravels etc. Faced with tough survival conditions, these
faunal communities show inherent capability to adapt to the tough hydrological conditions of fast
flowing riverine conditions. Satluj river provides good microhabitats for various faunal communities
to get suitably adapted to the tough environment. Faunal communities in Jhakri-Rampur-Bael
stretch of Satluj River are summarized in Table 3.39 below

3.6.3

Fish Habitats
Historical survey reports of the state fisheries department, for the streams of river Satluj at high
reaches i.e. upstream of Bilaspur, estimated presence of 51 species of cold water fishes including
exotic trout, snow trout and several species of hill stream fishes. Main species are listed in tablexxx.
Another study conducted by K.L. Sehgal of ICAR,Nainital on the Ecology and Fisheries of Mountain
Streams of the North-Western Himalayas in 1988 reported a large number of fish species mainly
belonging to 13 taxonomical families (51 species) present in entire Satluj River of Himachal region.
The survey was made for the entire Satluj basin up to downstream till now existing Govind Sagar
project. These species survey results are presented in tablexx.
The study also established that in comparison with other mountain streams of NW Himalayas, the
fish population in river Satluj is very little. The river flows through deep gorges alternating with

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oblong and wide valleys. Advance debris and/or glacial moraines and landslides continuously cause
modifications in the morphology of Satluj. In the river course such places are clearly marked by a
sudden widening of the valley indicating a damming of the river and creation of a natural reservoir.
These changes have resulted in different stream ecology, which is not conducive for fish growth.
As per the historical information collected from the Fisheries department, the streams of river Satluj
at high reaches i.e. upstream of Bilaspur harbored 51 species of cold water fishes (Table 3.40)
including exotic trout, snow trout and several species of hill stream fishes.
Table 3.39 - Faunal Species in Satluj along Jhakri-Rampur-Bael stretch
Group

Species

Characteristics

Invertebrates

Arcella.

-Stagnate water containing much vegetation


-Found growing at-least 20 meter away from the riverbank.
-Secretes yellow to brown thick hard transparent and hemispherical shell

Diffusia , Monostyla

-Free living; symmetrical shell


-Feeds upon algaehence it is in plenty where algae are in abundance

Planaria naids of
Baetis, Ephemerella,
Epeorus, Rithrogena,
caenis, Heptagenia

-Found at the bottom where it is found resting on the undersurface of stones and
on the aquatic leaves.

Elmis Psephenus,
Hydrophilus amongst.

-Forewings are leathery possess antenna

Coleoptera
Vertebrates

-Planarians were collected for laboratory analysis by baiting shallow streams with
raw pieces of raw liver
-Mouth parts are chewing type.

Amphibia

-Tadpoles of Rana tigrina

Fishes

Salmo trutta fario (Fry and fingerlings), Schizothorax richardsonii (Young stages),
Nemacheilus gracilis, N. stolizkae, N. botia, Glyptothorax stoliczkae, G. conirostre
Source: EIA for Rampur HEP, Year 2005; Monitoring Results, March, 2006.

Table 3.40 - Fish Species Historically Reported in Upper Reaches of the Satluj River
Family

Species

Cyprinidae

Barilius bendelisis, B. vagra, B. barila, B. modestus, Oxygaster bacaila, Rasbora


daniconius, Carassius auratus, Cirrhinus reba, C. mrigala, Crossocheilus latius, Catla
catla, Labeo dero, L. dyocheilus, L. bata, L. calbasu, L. rohita, Cyprinus carpio var.
communis, C. carpio var nudus, C. carpio var specularis, Schizothorax richardsonii*,
S.plagiostomius, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmicthys molitrix, Tor putitora*,
Garra gotyla gotyla, G. lanita , Puntius sarana, P. ticto, P. chola and P. sophore.

Cobitidae

Biota dario, B. birdi, B. lohachata, Noemacheilus botia, N. rupicola, N. monatanus, N.


kangrae and N. horai

Bagridae

Mystus seenghala and M. aor

Schilbeidae

Clupisoma garua

Sisoridae

Glyptothorax pectinopterus and G. cavia

Belonidae

Xenentondon cancila

Ophiocephalidae

Channa gachua and C. punctatus

Mastocembelidae

Mastocembelus armatus armatus

Salmonidae

Salmo trutta fario*


Source:

Himachal Pradesh Fisheries Department


* A migratory fish

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A survey was undertaken during RHEP EIA study to confirm the earlier mentioned study reports as
well as to identify source, availability, quantity and type of fish found in river stretch adjoining
project area. The survey indicated a scanty fish population in the Satluj river stretch between
Nathpa and Bael. Here too the fish population is mainly derived from the khads that meet Satluj.
They are mainly confined to the side streams like Nogli, Samej and Kurpan. Trout is the main fish
species.
Prominence of fish population in the khads has resulted in the fish catching activity mainly
practiced at confluence of Nogli tributary with Satluj. There are only four licensee fish catchers
among the local people at the Nogli confluence area, for carrying out fishing activities. For
commercial purposes, fish is mainly brought from Bilaspur.
Satluj is category A or high mountain stream ranging 0.92 2.68 m/s in velocity. The abiotic
parameters which affect the biotic communities of the river are source of water, size, elevation,
slope, substratum, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, water hardness etc. Many of these
parameters control the biological productivity either singly or in combination. The studies available
on quantitative and qualitative analysis of micro and macro-benthic communities in the river stretch
revealed that river Satluj and its tributaries are represented by major benthic invertebrates and
vertebrates. The micro-biotic communities are represented by diatoms, blue-green and green algae
on which the invertebrate and benthic fish subsist. The invertebrates are represented by young
stages of insects, which contribute up to 80% of total invertebrates density. The vertebrates are
represented by benthic fish species belonging to garrids, nemacheilids and glyptothoracids groups.
Nektonic fish are represented by Schizothorax richardsonii and Salmo trutta fario.
No historical or existing data are available on utilization of micro- and macro- biotic life by the
fishes in river Satluj that could indicate the growth pattern of fish population in the river. From the
data available on other rivers in the region, similar to Satluj river like rivers of the Indus basin, it
can be established that ecology of river Satluj is conducive only for propagation of two
commercially important species. High velocity (Average stream velocity of 2.00 m/s ), low
temperature, lack of spawning beds (pebbles, gravel etc) in the project area induces migration of
fishes to the tributaries, which maintain relatively higher temperature. Fish here can easily mature
and spawn. The newly hatched young fish remain in the tributaries till they are sufficiently grown
up to take care of themselves.
The high flow regime in river Satluj makes the upper reaches, difficult habitats for fish. Frequent
occurrence of spates makes conditions worse for breeding and propagation of cold-water fish.
Sometimes entire species type from the river body disappears due to devastating floods, as
happened in case of river Ravi. The flood in 1947 caused complete removal of brown trout
population in Ravi. The cold-water streams of Satluj river also make it inherently poor in biological
productivity due to low temperature and scanty food. Most of the energy of cold-water fishes is
utilised in maintaining their position in fastflowing waters and hence they live under continuous
physiological stress.
The same was confirmed by referring to the thesis on Ecology and Fisheries of Mountain Streams
of the North-Western Himalayas, KL Sehgal, ICAR, Nainital, and Year1988), which reported a large
number of fish species mainly belonging to 13 taxonomical families (51 species) inhabited the
Satluj River in Himachal region in the past. As per discussions with Dr. K. L. Sehgal, these species
have been reported in the entire Satluj basin up to downstream before coming up of Govind Sagar
project. Refer Table 3.41 below.

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Figure 3.31 Fishing in the Tributaries of the Satluj


AT THE JUNCTION OF THE NOGLI KHAD WITH THE SATLUJ

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Table 3.41 - Fish Species Reported Historically in River Satluj in Himachal Pradesh
Family

Species

Local Name

Notopteridae

Notopterus chitala (Hamilton)

Pari

N. notopterus (Pallas)

Moh

Barilius barila (Hamilton)

--

B.bendelisis chedra. (Hamilton)

Patha

B.vagra(Hamilton)

Lohari

B.shacra (Hamilton)

Chilwa

Danio (danio)devario (Hamilton)

Parrandah

D.(Brachydanio) rerio (Hamilton)

Kangi

Esomus danricus (Hamilton)

Makni

Rasbora daniconius (Hamilton)

Chindolachal

Cyprinidae

Fish Type / Remarks

Tor chilinoides
Tor putitora (Hamilton)

Mahseer chiniaru

Catla catla (Hamilton)

Theila

Cirrhina mrigala (Hamilton)

Mori

C.reba (Hamilton)

Sunni

Crossocheilus latius punjabensis (Hamilton)

Tiller

Garra gotyla (Gray)

Kurka

Puntius chola (Hamilton)

Chidu

P.chonchonius (Hamilton)

Chidu

Migratory Sharp decline


in catch

P.ticto (Hamilton)
P.sophore (Hamilton)
Labeo boga (Hamilton)

Morah

L.calbasu(Hamilton)

Kalbaus

L.dero (Hamilton)

Gid

L.dyocheilus(MeClelland)

Kunni

L.gonius (Hamilton)

--

L.pangusia(Hamilton)

--

L.rohita (Hamilton)

Rohi

Schizothorax richardsonii

Trout

Botia birdi

Chipar

Noemacheilus botia(Hamilton)

Sundal

N.botia aeurus (Hamilton)

Sunda

N.corica (Hamilton)

Talana

N.kangrae(Menon)

--

Ompak bimaculatus(Bloch)

Pallu

Wallago attu (Hamilton)

Mullae

Mystus (Mystus) bleekri (Day)

--

M.(Mystus) vittatus (Bloch)

Kingra

M.(Osteobagrus) seenghala (Sykes)

Singhara

Rita rita (Hamilton)

Khagga

Amblycipitidae

Amblyceps mangois (Hamilton)

Sundal

Sisoridae

Glyptothorax conirostris (Steind)

Nao

G.pectinopterus(Hamilton)

Mochi nao.

G.stoliczkae(Steind)

Naiya

Clupisoma garua (Hamilton)

Bachwa

Cobitidae

Siluridae
Bagridae

Schilbeidae

Sharp decline in catch


over the years

(Migratory)

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Family

Species

Local Name

Belonidae

Belone cancila (Hamilton)

Takla

Muglidae

Mugil cascasia (Hamilton)

Buah

Channidae

Channa gachau (Hamilton)

Dauli

C.marulius (Hamilton)

Saul

Mastocembelidae Mastacembalus armatus (Lacepede)

Bami

Salmo trutta fario

Trout

Salmonidae

Fish Type / Remarks

Source: Ecology and Fisheries of Mountain streams of the North-Western Himalayas, K.L Sehgal, ICAR, Nainital, 1998

The data available on quantitative qualitative analysis of micro and macro-benthic communities in
the river stretch reveal that river Satluj and its tributaries are represented by major benthic
invertebrates and vertebrates. The micro-biotic communities are represented by diatoms, bluegreen and green algae on which the invertebrate and benthic fish subsist. The invertebrates are
represented by young stages of insects which contribute up to 80% of total invertebrates density.
The vertebrates are represented by benthic fish species belonging to garrids, nemacheilids and
glyptothoracids groups. Nektonic fish are represented by Schizothorax richardsonii and Salmo trutta

fario.
Although no data are available in the literature on utilization of micro- and macro- biotic life by the
fish in river Satluj but considerable literature is available in closely related rivers of the Indus
system. In river Beas, Sehgal (1988) and Sehgal et al. (1984) worked out a coefficient of
accessibility or availability factor or forage ratio (Pf/Pb where Pf is percentage of animal/plants
foraged and Pb is percentage of benthic biota in the stream) in S . richardsonii and S. trutta fario.
It was observed that forage ratio ranged 2.8- 4.2, 0.3 -1.0 and 0.3 3.7 for larvae of Diptera,
nymphs of Ephemeroptera and larvae of Trichoptera in young of S. richardsonii (15-65 mm in total
length). In the grown up specimens 140-480 mm in total length, the fish subsisted on benthic
algae. The food quotient ranged 0.9 -1.2, 0.3 -1.6 and 0.5 -2.8 for diatoms, blue green and green
algae respectively. The brown trout S. trutta fario which is sight feeder has been studied in Beas
and Jhelum. Fish ranging 101- 200 mm in total length consumed 74.2 % of Ephemeroptera in total
animal foraged although other groups were fairly abundant. Specimen ranging 201- 400 mm in
total length consumed larvae of Trichoptera to the extent of 54.6 % in total invertebrates and on
aerial insects and other small land animals to the extent of 20.9%. The forage ratio for
Ephemeroptera ranged 0.6 -1.1 against 1.0-4.3 for Trichoptera. Based on the results obtained for
other rivers of North West Himalayas it is presumed that ecology of river Satluj is conducive for
propagation of two commercially important species. Due to high velocity, low temperature, lack of
spawning beds (pebbles, gravel etc) in the project area, fish is induced to enter the tributaries,
which maintains comparatively higher temperature where they mature and spawn. The newly
hatched young fish remain in the tributaries till they are able to take care of themselves.
3.6.4

Results from Aquatic Monitoring


As mentioned earlier, a monitoring was carried out in month of March 2006 to determine the
presence or otherwise, and the typology of fish population. Small-narrow thread system, commonly
prevalent in the area, was used for fish catch. No fish could be found in the Satluj during the 20
days of monitoring. However, fishes were observed in the Nogli Khad, Sumej Khad and Kajo Khad,
near their confluences with Satluj River.
The sole fish species caught with the help of a local fisherman was a trout (Schizothorax spp,
Schizothoraichthys spp.). Fish was caught downstream of the confluence of Nogli khad with main
Satluj river. Schizothorax belongs to taxonomical family Cyprinidae and sub-family
Schizothoracinae. It is a small sized, migratory fish variety and is locally known as asla.

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Migratory Fish Species


When the temperatures start rising above 22 oC to 25 oC, sometimes during Feb-March, migratory
species in Satluj starts moving upstream to colder reaches of the river from downstream. But low
temperature of 8-9.5 o C of water due of the influx of snow-melt water does not make it conducive
for the ripe fish to spawn. Hence, Trouts enter the side streams of the river, which receive warm
ground waters (17.5-21.5oC) and spawn abundantly.
Outcomes of the Study on Fish Availability
Assessment of the available historical data, fish monitoring survey and interaction with fisheries
departments, fisheries expert and fisherman conclude following on fish availability in the river Satluj
along the stretch between Jhakri and Bael:

River has very less fish population in stretch between Jhakri to Bael. Whatever fish
population exists in the river in this stretch comes from the Khads. Fish species mainly
found are Trouts i.e. Snow trouts and Brown trouts. Snow Trouts ( S . richardsonii) is
most common fish in river Satluj. Snow trout is neither a rare nor an endangered fish but
is categorized as vulnerable one.

The side streams like Nogli khad, Samej khad have fish populations. This is mainly due to
less flow instability, favourable temperature and less turbidity. Fishes have also been
sighted at the confluence points of khads (Nogli, Sumej and Kajo).

All species available in River Satluj (stretch from Jhakri to Rampur to Bael) are endemic
except brown trout that is exotic.

Fish catching is not a very prevalent activity in the area. Only a few fishermen are
involved in fishing activity at Nogli for commercial purpose. Only four fishing licence have
been issued in this region. For commercial purpose, the fish is mainly brought from
downstream regions, Bilaspur being one among the major ones.

Migratory fishes like the snow trout etc., require free passage, to and fro from their
spawning grounds located upstream, owing to changes in water velocity, volume of
discharge, water chemistry, temperature and turbidity. But this issue is insignificant owing
to low fish population that primarily exists in tributaries and their confluences with river
Satluj.

Mahseer is migratory fish and its migration is affected by construction of Bhakra dam on
the Satluj. Its availability in project area is a remote possibility due to low water
temperature.

A detailed study shall be undertaken for the entire stretch to understand the exact route that is
being followed by the fisheries in the river especially after construction of hydroelectric projects and
to understand the microclimate needed for the fish growth in the area.

3.6.5

Potential Impacts on Aquatic Habitats & Mitigation


With the limited information on fish distribution and biology, and no information on the precise
ecological requirement or the reactions to environmental stress of the fishes native to the surveyed
area, the discussion on the potential impacts of the Project is derived from past experience with
other, related species in adjacent areas and expertise. Two main types of impacts are presented:

Impacts related to construction

Impacts related to the permanent changes to the various aquatic habitats due to water
diversion.

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Migration measures are proposed whenever possible (see EMP, Chapter 4).
Construction Related Impacts
The possible impacts of the Project on aquatic habitats and biodiversity during construction include:

Silt deposit in river bed

Construction of Project infrastructure

Water pollution

Use of explosives

Vegetation clearing

Work on the Riverbed


Silt deposit in riverbed increases the sediment load of the river. This affects fish downstream
directly and indirectly. Fish living in clear water habitats are directly affected by increased
suspended sediments that may damage their gills or accumulate in their gill chambers, leading to
death. Indirect effects of silt deposits in river bed include:

Modifications of the natural habitat by silt deposition

Destruction of spawning sites

Silt deposition over freshly laid eggs or newly hatched larvae;

Reduced primary production as a result of reduced light penetration

Mitigation: Construction material will not be dumped in the river but transported to secure
disposal areas and dumped above the level of the rainy season flows. Construction sites will be
cleared before they are flooded.
SJVNL will adhere to the erosion control plans set down in environment management plans to help
limit sedimentation resulting from construction.
Construction of Project Infrastructure
Construction of the infrastructure mainly affects the freshwater ecology when poor construction
practices result in an increased sediment loads. This happens when:

Construction material is washed into the water course

Unstabilised infrastructure is washed away in the rainy season

When temporary infrastructure or rods are constructed.

Mitigation: All infrastructure including temporary constructions, will be stabilized and bridges will
be built to respect the existing stream/ river bed and bank morphology. Construction material will
not be washed into the stream but transported to disposal areas.
Water Pollution
Spills of fuel and chemicals may have direct and indirect impacts on the aquatic fauna, as well as
humans and animals feeding on aquatic products. Pollution most often occurs where pollutants are
stored, and also when they are used incorrectly.
Mitigation: Retention tanks will be constructed around every area where liquid and solid fuels or
chemicals are stored. Empty packaging material will be eliminated in the appropriate way.
Recyclable packaging will be preferred whenever possible. The construction work force will be

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trained in the safe and proper use of fuel and chemicals and instructed in non-damaging disposal.
Safety will be controlled and enforced.
Use of Explosives
Use of explosives in water is highly damaging for fishes and other aquatic organisms. If they are
not killed instantly, their internal organs may be severely injured leading to death within e few
minutes to a few days, even if they are at a considerable distance from the explosion site. In
theory, little or no explosives will be used underwater during construction of the Project. However
experience shows that at most construction sites, large quantities of explosives are stolen or
diverted from their proper goal and used for fishing. Besides being illegal, fishing with explosives is
a very inefficient method as most killed fishes cannot be recovered. Additionally, the explosives
damage the fish habitats and occasionally kill fishermen. As these occasional fishermen are
usually Project workers, this issue is also of concern for Project security.
Mitigation: Fishing with explosives by Project workers will be totally banned in the project
influence area.
Vegetation Clearing
The mechanical removal of vegetation for construction purposes, ideally accompanied by its
transformation into any usable product, is probably the environmentally les damaging method, but
depending on the timing and locations of the clearing it will result in a short-term increased
sediment load in the river during the wet season.
Mitigation: All possible measures to reduce the transport of sediment to the main river will be
taken, including proper road construction and sediment traps. Sediment traps will be checked
frequently and maintained. Sediment will essentially be transported to proper disposal areas.
Reduced River Flow
Diversion of the waters for power generation will have the obvious consequences of reduced flow
in the Satluj River. This will have several secondary consequences and the already mentioned
effects of degraded water quality.
The reduced flow in the Satluj river will result in a decrease in water level compared to the present
lowest level, but the existing morphology will only be slightly affected. The deep pools will remain.
Runs, rapids and rifles will become narrower and shallower, with slower water. The slower water
may affect the survival of some species and their population density. It will very significantly reduce
the habitats suitable for the endemic kind. Reduction of flow coupled with increase in turbidity will
severely affect groups of micro-benthic organisms especially diatoms. The virtual suppression of
most of the seasonal, cyclic successions of low and high waters will probably have a much more
significant impact on the aquatic diversity than the reduction of the minimum flow. It is likely to
severely affect their growth, reproduction and migration.
A permanent low water level will have a negative impact on fish as it will drastically reduce the
available food sources, reduces the number of hiding places and increase s predation. This will
increase their sensitivity to diseases through increased stress. Almost all the cold water fish breed
in flowing water. The spawning areas of these fish species are found amongst pebbles, gravel,
sand etc. The eggs are sticky in nature and remain embedded in the gravel and subsequently
hatch. Any disturbance of stream bottom will result in adverse impacts on fish eggs. Even increase
in fine solids beyond 25 ppm will result in deposition of silt over the eggs, which would result in
asphyxiation of developing embryo and also choking of gills of young newly emerged fry. The
construction of a dam on river Satluj at Nathpa has lead to reduction of flow, which has already
affected the riverine ecology by converting lentic system to a lacustrine system. The ecology in the
lacustrine system has already developed over an area of 16.5 ha. As a result of reduction in flow,

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downstream of the dam i.e. from Nathpa-Jhakri-Bael, the fish stock could be affected adversely.
However, since this stretch has negligible fish population and the fish predominance is more in the
side streams/ tributaries, not much impact is envisaged due to reduced flow on the fishery.
Interruptions of Fish Migration & Destruction of Spawning Grounds
Information obtained on fish migrations in the Satluj is at present incomplete, and does not allow
clear conclusions about which fish may migrate, during which season and for what purpose.
Some migratory fish species may travel very long distances between precisely delimited feeding
and breeding over hundreds or thousands of kilometres. Others may migrate for a few km between
different places within the main river, between the main river and tributaries. Usually, Fish ladders
are constructed at many dams to allow for fish to migrate. RHEP does not involve construction of
Dam and hence fish ladder is not required for consideration.
Mahseer is the only migratory fish in the area and its migration is affected by construction of
Bhakra dam on the Satluj downstream of RHEP. Its availability in project area is a remote
possibility due to low water temperature.
Water Pollution from Use of Synthetic Chemicals
Any increase in the use of synthetic chemicals associated with Project activities has the potential to
elevate their concentrations in the surroundings water. Although low concentrations of these
synthetic chemicals may not be acutely toxic to aquatic organisms, they may exhibit chronic effects
and potentially bio-accumulate to levels that are harmful to humans.
Mitigation: A Chemical Management Plan has been developed to ensure the safe storage, use and
disposal of synthetic chemicals.

3.7

Terrestrial Biodiversity

3.7.1

Background
Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variability within and between all micro organisms, plants
and animals as well as the eco-system, which they inhabit. Himachal Pradesh is a mountainous
state in northern India known for its natural beauty, rich culture and religious heritage. The state
has a population of six million and covers 55,673 sq. km, ranging from foothills (Shivaliks), the Midhills, the High- Hills, and the Cold Dry Zone of upper Himalayas. The state is a rich repository of
biodiversity, and forms the Catchment of several major northern Indian rivers. Endowed with a
vast canvas of dense forest and colourful wildlife, state encompasses three bio geographic zones
representing great attitude and climate variations, sub tropical to cold desert supporting a vast
variety of floral and faunal biodiversity. The protected areas are the vital tools for conserving
biodiversity. The 32 Wildlife Sanctuaries together with the 2 National Parks consist the states
Protected Area Network (PAN) occupy, which 13.6% of states geographical area as compared to
national average of 4.70%. About 25.8% area of States area falls under forests which is higher
than the average national forest area of 20.64%. The status of forest of the India, Himachal
Pradesh and the two districts-Kullu and Shimla are summarizedin Table 3.42 below.

Table 3.42 - Status of Forest in Himachal Pradesh, Kullu and Shimla Districts

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Geographical Area km 2 Dense Forest km 2

Place
India

Moderately Dense
Forest km 2

Open Forest km 2

3287263

51285

339279

287769

Himachal Pradesh

55673

1093

7883

5377

Kullu District

5503

117

1295

521

Shimla District

5131

194

1587

602

Source: State of Forest Report 2003, Forest Survey of India, Dehradun

The states Protected Area Network is extremely rich in wildlife. Rare mammals include Musk Deer,
Black Bear, and Snow Leopard & Leopard. The avifauna includes rare pheasants such as Western
Trapogon and Cheer Pheasants. The state bird Monal is still found extensively in many higher
protected areas. The status of protected area is given below.
Table 3.43 Status of the Protected Area Network
Location

No. of Sanctuaries

No. of National Parks

India

490

88

Himachal Pradesh

32

Satluj basin

10

Project area

Source: Wildlife Wing, Himachal Pradesh Forest Department, Shimla

Table 3.44 - National Parks/ Wild Life Sanctuaries in Eastern Himachal Pradesh
Region

Area (km2)

S. No.

Name of Wild Life Sanctuary/National Park

1.

Bandli Wild Life Sanctuary

Mandi

41

2.

Gobindsagar Wild Life Sanctuary

Bilaspur

100

3.

Majathal Wild Life Sanctuary

Solan

40

4.

Darlaghat Wild Life Sanctuary

Solan

5.

Shilli Wild Life Sanctuary

Solan

6.

Rupi Bhabha Wild Life Sanctuary

Kinnaur

503

7.

Daranghati (Part I & II)

Shimla

167

8.

Lippa Asrang

Kinnaur

31

9.

Sangla Valley

Kinnaur

10.

Great Himalayan National Park

Kullu

765

11.

PIN Valley National Park

Lahaul & Spiti

675

Source: Environmental Information Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forests

The terrestrial biodiversity status was studied regarding flora and fauna in the Project Influence
Area, (7km surrounding the project sites), the Project Immediate Influence Area (500m on all sides
along the alignment of HRT) and the Project Affected Area (the total 49.8ha of forest land
acquired). For Terrestrial biodiversity survey, data were collected through extensive survey of the
areas. Information was also collected from different Government Organizations such as Forest
Department, Social Forestry, Dept of Science, Technology & Environment, District Statistical office,
Animal Husbandry Dept., Govt. of Himachal Pradesh. On the basis of onsite observations as well as
forest department records a checklist of flora and fauna was prepared. Public consultation and
literature review helped in identifying major uses of plant species in terms of timber, fodder, food,
medicinal.

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Botanical Survey of Flora was undertaken with respect to taxonomy, physiognomy, forest type,
Structure, Associations, Phenology and Ethno-botanical information for major forest species, etc.
Ecological status of flora and fauna with respect to endangered, rare, threatened, endemic as well
as distribution characteristics i.e. native/exotic, commercially/ locally important species, weeds or
parasites were surveyed extensively.
3.7.2

Methodology and Assessment techniques


The Primary survey & secondary data available with various state sources were collected to assess
baseline terrestrial biodiversity status.
Flora Assessment
To characterize the vegetation under the project area, study was carried out by using Standard
Quadrat Method and Random Sampling approach was followed. The project area is open scrub land
with dominant shrub species hence quadrat size of 5 5m was used for study of trees and shrubs,
whereas for grasses and herbs 1 1m quadrats were used. Immediate impact sites have been
considered for study. The number of quadrats was taken such so as to cover 8-10 % of the total
land parcel under the project area. The properties of vegetation with reference to species
composition and functional attributes are expressed on species basis. The specific formats were
formulated to collect information regarding flora & fauna of the project / study area.
Assessment Techniques
The density measurements is calculated to measure individuals present, the dominance
measurements is estimated to denote which species is largest in terms of its presence and the
frequency measurements calculation indicated how widely species is distributed among the same
plots. Importance value is used to assess the overall significance of a species since it takes into
account several properties of the species in the vegetation. Importance value index were calculated
as per Curtes & Mc Intosh (1950). The following parameters were assessed from the field data
measurements.
Shanon Weaver Index (1948)
The number of species and number of individuals in a community is measure of species diversity,
which depends on stability of the habitat. Vegetation of the study area was assess by determining
Shannon Weaver diversity index (1948)
D=

- (ni / n) log2 (ni / n)

ni = Number of individuals of each species in the sample


n = Total number of individuals
Fauna Assessment
The fauna assessment technique followed during study varied with type of animal present. The
domestic animals were listed based on direct observation during field survey; census data was also
collected from the District Statistical office, Shimla. The list of wild life was obtained from Rampur
and Anni Forest Division, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh office as well as onsite observations (direct/
indirect method). On the basis of onsite observations as well as forest department records a
checklist of fauna was prepared.

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Public Consultation
The public consultations were undertaken to understand about various aspects of biodiversity of
the area. Information about uses of various plant species by local people as well as sighting of any
wildlife species, uses, poaching, etc were gathered as part of the public consultation activities.
3.7.3

Forests and Terrestrial Biodiversity of Himachal Pradesh


Himachal Pradesh, one of the important mountainous states of India spreads over an area of 55673
Sq. Km in the Himalayan Region of India. The area is rugged and mountainous with ranges
spreading along the Indus-Satluj river system. The height varies from 244 m above Mean Sea level
(msl) in areas bordering Uttar Pradesh and Punjab plains to 6750 m in Trans Himalayan zone along
Lahaul, Spiti and Pin valleys.
Geographically area of the state can be divided into three major zones i.e. subtropical zone
extending from lower frames to a height of 1550 m above main sea level and incorporating Shivalik
foothills & lower ranges of middle Himalaya. The temperate zone incorporating all hills and valleys
situated between 1500 to 3200 m and the Alpine zone covering all hills and valleys situated above
an altitude of 3200 m, which are, characterize by extreme cold climate.
Forest
Forestry is the major land use in Himachal Pradesh, owing to a wide range of altitude, temperature
and rainfall, Himachal Pradesh supports diverse types of forests, now mostly confined to higher
hills and interior valleys. The total geographical area of 55,673 Sq. Km in the state, out of which
14,353 Sq. Km area is legally classified as forest. This includes meadows, grasslands and barren
scree slopes above the tree line as well as areas under permanent snow. 1,093 Sq. Km is classified
as dense forest and 5,377 Sq. Km as open forest.
The tree cover (dense forest and open forests) accounts for 25.78% of the geographical area of
the State (SFR, 2003). The actual forest cover has decreased by 7km2 from the assessment made
during 2001.
Table 3.45 - Change in Forest Cover of Himachal Pradesh
Year
2001

Dense Forest (Sq. Km) Open Forest (Sq. Km)

Total Forest (Sq. Km)

10,429

3,931

14360

2003

8,976

5,377

14353

Change in Forest cover

-1,453

1,446

-7

Given the wide latitudinal and climatic range in the State, a wide variety of forests are met with at
different altitudes and in different physiographic zones. See Table 3.46
The forest wealth of Himachal Pradesh, replete with diverse vegetation, ranging from tropical to
sub-tropical and temperate to alpine, has been sustaining rural life since time immemorial. The
wide range of altitude, topography and climatic conditions have contributed towards the rich and
diversified flora Coniferous forests dominant from mid to high hills, with a preponderance of Oaks
in moist depressions. In the foothills, forests are dry deciduous, thriving in a low water table and
dry soil conditions. The sub-Himalayan region is characterized by most deciduous forests, with Sal
as the predominant species. In dry the dominant species, and the moist temperate region in
characterized by the presence of Deodar forests.

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Table 3.46 - Major Forest Types Recorded in Himachal Pradesh


S.No
1

Major Forest Type

Classification Code

Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest

3C/ C 2A
3C/C2B

Tropical Dry Deciduous

5B/C-1 A
5B/C-2
5B/C2/DS1
5B/E9
5B/1-S2

Subtropical Dry Evergreen

10-C1
10-DS1

Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest

12/C-1a
12/C-1b
12/C-1c
12/C-1e
12/C2-a
12/C2-b
12/DS1
12/DS-2

Himalayan Dry Temperate Forest

13/C1
13/C2a
13/C2b
13/C4
13/C5

Sub Alpine Forest

14/C/a
14/C1-b
14/DS1

Subtropical Pine Forest

9C1
9DS1
9DS2

Most Alpine Scrub

15/C1
15/C2
15/E1
15/C3

Dry Alpine Scrub

16/C1
16/E1
Source: Forest Working Plan Rampur Forest Division

Natural Flora
It is estimated that almost 3256 species of vascular plants occur in the forests of Himachal
Pradesh. Of these, only about 100 odd are commonly utilized for timber, farming implements, fuel,
fodder, and NTFP, include medicinal use. Based on published records for the State, the Botanical
Survey of India has compiled a Flora of Himachal Pradesh (Chowdhery & Wadhwa, 1984). As per a
tentative compilation of the total higher plants found in the State, there are 3120 angiosperm and
12 gymnosperm taxa while 34 species for lower plants including pteridophytes, bryophytes, fungi
and algae.

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Natural Fauna
The estimated 5721 species of vertebrate and invertebrate fauna listed in the state, perhaps only
about 100 species are commonly observed and reported upon regularly. The faunal diversity
includes 649 Chordates (77 Mammals, 447 Birds, 44 Amphibians and 81 Fishes), 4543 Arthropods
(2 Bryozoa, 4362 Insects, 195 Arachnids, 11 Myriopods and 73 Crustaceans) and 412 others (60
Annelids, 73 Mollusks, 2 Acanthocephala, 132 Nematodes, 16 Rotifers, 90 Platyhelminths, 2
Cnidaria, 3 Porifera and 34 Protozoan). (Biodiversity Action Plan 2003)
The fauna of Himachal Pradesh is very diverse and unique. The rich faunal diversity includes 77
species of mammals, 447 species of birds, 44 species of reptiles, and 81 species of fish. Among the
pheasants, with increasing altitude, are Kalij in the foothills Koklas and Monal in the temperate and
mid-level forests, and the Snow cock in the alpine areas. The Western Tragopan, a rare and
endangered species, is confined only to the western Himalayas. Himachal Pradesh also has
probably the largest population of Chir pheasants in the world. Among herbivores are the Ibex,
Serow, Blue sheep, Tahr, Musk deer, Goral and the Barking deer or of intermediate status such as
Black Bear, Himalayan Weasel, Yellow Throated Martin, Stone Martin and Wolf are also found here.
The Common Leopards and Snow Leopards are representative of the larger cats.
Traditional Timber Rights Followed in Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh has the highest percentage of rural population (90.21%) in the country residing
more than 20000 villages across the state. The predominantly rural population is primarily
dependent on agriculture base economy for livelihood. The natural forest in the area provides wood
for building of houses, bridges, furniture, and agricultural implements, in addition to providing
much needed fuel wood. People are also dependent upon the native land races of livestock for
agricultural purposes and their daily needs of milk, meat, wool and hide. A large proportion of this
livestock feeds on grasses and leaves obtained from forest. Overall the dependency of local people
on naturally available resources of forest is very high.
The forest of Himachal Pradesh have an estimated growing stock of 10.26 crore m and more than
4.5 lakh m of timber is harvested every year in the form of salvage and to meet the demand of
right holders. As per one estimate timber worth Rs 60 crore is allocated to the right holders at
nominal cost every year (HPFSR, 2000). All green commercial harvesting of timber from the States
forests has been suspended since 1984. The forests also contribute an estimated annual income of
Rs. 25 crore to the rural communities in the form of minor forest produce.
The right to the timber is admitted under section 28 of Indian Forest Act (1927). People have a
right to get timber at nominal rates for construction/repair of houses/dwellings. The right holders
must be bonafied native agriculturist, holding land in settlements in forest areas. A right to the
timber is for following purposes:

For construction and repair of dwelling houses, cattle and grass sheds and other
agriculture buildings.

For construction & repair of temple and buildings attached to temple.

For ask of deotas and other such purposes.

For grain boxes, irrigation channels, agricultural & domestic implements.

Procedure for Obtaining Timber


The timber tree allotted to bonafied right holder on application to D.F.O. through Gram Pradhan
and Patwani of settlement. The trees are cut and removed whether dry or green stating as fallen
for building purpose only. The deputy commissioner is empowered to arrange with right holders in

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forest. The quantity of timber per annum to be granted (Thumb rule: 800 trees/year) is fixed and
quantity is distributed among right holders.
Timber Trees
A total number of 20 timber spices are recommended by forest department. The some important
timber species are Deodar (Cedrus deodara); Chir (Pinus roxburghii); Kail (Pinus wallichiana); Rai
(Picea smithiana); Tosh (Abies pindrow); Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo); Poplar (Populus deltoides)
etc.
Trees to be cut are marked by Forest Officer strictly according to the silvicultural availability.
Deodar trees are given only for irrigation channels for the construction & repair of temple buildings
and for doors and windows of dwelling houses. Green deodar trees are not cut within 10 years of
its age which are present in the premises of any temple or any building connected with temple.
While dry deodar trees standing within above mentioned places may be cut and remove only for
repair of the temple buildings. There are 250 villages belonging to 48 Panchayat in Rampur forest
division.
Table 3.47 - Timber Rights Marketed to Right Holders from Rampur Forest Division
Year

Deodar

Kail

Rai

Chir

Number Volume (m3) Number Volume (m3) Number Volume (m3) Number Volume (m3)
1987 88

533

1646.71

1058

4291.62

277

941.68

58

35.70

1988 89

408

1085.58

955

2597.34

53

786.79

70

99.36

1989 90

109

543.04

655

2397.98

236

1118.43

23

26.99

1990 91

344

1773.625

1414

378.85

86

363.99

25

58.63

1991 92

624

2448.14

1661

6694.68

65

996.29

41

116.45

Source: Working Plan for Rampur Forest Division

Table 3.48 - Major Forest Types of the Satluj Basin


S. No.

Major Forest Type

Classification Code

Northern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forests

5B/C-2

Himalayan Subtropical Pine Forests

9 C-1

Dry Bamboo Breks

5 B/E9

Himalayan Sub Alpine Fir Forests

14/ C1b

Himalayan Kharsoo Oak Forests

12/C2 a

Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests

13/ C1

Himalayan Kharsoo Oak Forests

12/C1a

Mixed Broad leaved Coniferous Forests

12/C1b

9
10

Coniferous Pine Forests


Western Mixed Coniferous Forests

13/C2a
12/C1d

Source: Enchanting Himachal Wildlife wing (2004)

3.7.4

Terrestrial Biodiversity of Satluj Basin


The river Satluj is the largest river system of Himachal Pradesh with a total catchment area of
20,398-km spread over the districts of Lahaul & Spiti, Kinnaur, Simla, Solan and Bilaspur.
Originating in Tibet, the river flows from east to west, enters the State at Shipki (6,608 m) in
Kinnaur. Its various right bank tributaries including the Spiti, the Ropa, the Kasang, the Mulgaon,
the Yul, the Wanger and the Throng in Kinnaur join it. The Tirung, the Gayanthing, the Duling, the

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Baspa, the Solding, the Manglad and the Nogli streams form some of its left bank tributaries.
Before entering the Punjab plains, it cuts a gorge in Naina Devi Dhar. A big dam across this gorge
near Bhakra village has been constructed which has created a huge reservoir called the Govind
Sagar in the district of Bilaspur.
Forest Types
The altitudinal variation in Satluj basin leads to variation on forest types. The various forest types
reported in Satluj basin is as given in Table 3.48.
Natural Flora
The marked altitudinal variation in Satluj leads to various forest types. The higher elevations i.e.
upper reaches of Satluj basin is marked by great Himalayan Ranges with very high rugged
mountains, covered with massive snow and glaciered rising as high as 6700 m above mean sea
level. The area is known as Cold Desert, which covers about 35% of total geographical area of the
state. The upper reaches of Satluj basin fall in Lahaul & Spiti and Kinnaur district. Major forest
types found are Dry Alpine Scrub predominantly in Cold Desert area form 3600 to 5500m. The
vegetation is sparse, discontinuous and scattered represented by shrubs having high medicinal
values. The dominant shrubs are Juniperus sp, Ephedra sp, Myricaria sp, with supported herbs such
as, Rosa macrophylla, Ribes orientale, R.alpestrie, Lonicera spinosa, Clematis veratie, Capparis
spinosa, etc.
The Moist Alpine Scrubs are found where cold dry conditions prevail above 3600 m elevation. The
dominant herbs represented by Berberis, Loniccra, Cotoneaster, Astragalus, Potertilla, Geranium,
Fritillaria, Corydalis etc. Himalayan dry Temperate Forests found in Kinnaur district. The dominant
tree species are Pinus wallichiana (Blue pine); Picea smithiana (Rai), Abies spectabilis, Juniperus
macropoda, Populus ciliata, Salix viminalis, Quercus dilata, Alnus indica. The dominant shrubs
comprise of Salix, Barberis, Rosa, Viburnum, Lonicera sp. etc.
The Middle basin of Satluj shows moist Deodar Mixed coniferous Forests at altitudinal range of
1800 to 2400m. & 2400 to 3300 m. Cedrus deodara (Deodar) is dominant species of forests. The
Mixed Coniferous Forests include pure Spruce & Silver fir mixed with Deodar (Cedrus deodara), Kail
(Pinus wallichiana) with associated species such as Aesculus indica, Corylus colurna, Juglans regia,
Prunus cornata etc.
The Subtropical Pine Forests occurs between 600-1700m covering district of Solan, Shimla and
Bilaspur in lower Satluj basin Pinus roxburghii (Chil) is the predominant species associated with

Quercus leucotrichophora, Rododendron arboreum, Lyonia ovalifalia, Acacia catehu, Terminalia


chebula, Syzygium cumunni, Emblica officinalis, Mallotus philippinensis and dominant shrubs as
Carissa opaca, Carissa spinarum, Dodonea viscosa, Indegofera heterantha, Rhamnus virgata etc.
Natural Fauna
The altitudinal variation, also the climatic and forest types the variation in fauna of the Satluj basin
is observed. The fauna of the upper basin i.e. Cold desert is of special concern; as most of the
endangered, endemic and rare species of wildlife is reported, form this region. A large variety of
carnivore of endangered/ rare status such as, Snow Leopard, Himalayan Brown Bear, Black Bear,
Himalayan weasel, Yellow throated martin, Wooly hair Wolf, and Common Leopard. The herbivores
are of various types of which, Ibex, Serow, Blue Sheep, Thar, Musk deer, Ghoral and Barking deer.
The small mammals include the Himalayan and long tailed marmots, Himalayan squirrels and Voles.
The lower basin of the Satluj represents the different fauna such as Jungle cat, Bengal Fox, Indian
Porcupine, Wild Boar, Common Palm Civet etc. The wildlife reported from various forests types are
given in details in table 3.50.

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Figure 3.32 Wildlife Protected Areas in Himachal Pradesh

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Figure 3.33 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in the Satluj Basin

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Table: 3.49 - List of Fauna Reported from the Satluj Basin


Scientific Name

Common Name

Family

Canis lupus

Indian Wolf

Canidae

Canis aureus

Jackal

Canidae

Capra ibex

Himalayan Ibex

Bovidae

Capricornis sumatraensis

Serow

Sciuridae

Cervus unicolor

Sambar

Canidae

Felis bengalensis

Leopard cat

Felidae

Felis caracal

Caracal

Felidae

Hemitragus jemlahicus

Himalayan thar

Bovidae

Hylopetes, Petaurista

Flying Squirrels

Hylobatidae

Hystrix indica

Indian Porcupine

Macaca mutata

Rhus Macaque

Mammals

Martes flavigula

Cercopithecidae

Yellow Throated Martens

Martes fonia intermedia, ,

Martens

Moschus moschiferus

Musk deer

Muntiacus muntjak

Barking deer or Muntjac

Nemorhaedus gora,

Gorals

Ovis nahura

Bharal

Paguma larvata

Himalayan Palm Civet

Panthera paradus

Leopard or Panther

Felidae

Panthera uncia

Snow leopard

Platanistidae

Cervidae

Bovidae

Presbytis entellus

Common langur

Cerocopithecidae

Petaurista pataurista

Common Giants squirrels

Sciuridae

Selenarctos thibetanus

Himalayan black bear

Sus scrofa

Wild pig

Tragulus meminna

Mouse deer

Tragulidoe

Ursus arctos

Himalayan Brown bear

Ursidae

Vulpes bengalensis

Indian fox

Canidae

Vulpes ferrilatus

Tibetan fox

Canidae

Suidae

Reptiles

Bungarur cacraleus

Common Indian Crait

Hemiductilus fuviviridis

Common House Geico

Naja naja

Indian Cobra

Varanus bengalensis

Monitor Lizard

Varanidae

Pyyas mocosus

Common rat Snake

Bovidae

Varanus bengalensis

Bengal Monitor Lizard


Source: Enchanting Himachal Pradesh, 2004

3.7.5

Biodiversity of Project Influence Area (7 km radius surrounding the project site)


The project influence area is defined as the zone within 7 Km radius surrounding the project sites.
Forests of this zone belong to Rampur division of Shimla District and Anni (Outer Seraj) Division of
Kullu District. All the project units will be located in Rampur division. Rampur division has a total
forest cover of 40,372ha. The details of project influence area are discussed below.

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Interacting biophysical (elevation, soil types, moisture, flooding slope), climatic and anthropogenic
factors (logging, burning, agriculture fuel wood collection, hunting, non-timber forest product
gathering) have resulted in the development of a mosaic of forest and vegetation types in this
zone.

Table 3.50 - Wildlife Sanctuaries in the Satluj Basin


Serial No.

Area (km2)

Name

1.

Bandli (Mandi)

41

2.

Daranghati (Shimla)

167

3.

Darlaghat (Solan)

4.

Gobind Sagar

100

5.

Kibber (Llauhal & Spiti)

1400

6.

Lippa Assrang (Kinnaur)

7.

Majathal (Solan)

8.

Rakchham Chitkul (Kinnaur)

304

9.

Rupi Bhabha (Kinnaur)

738

10.

Shikari Devi (Mandi)

72

349
57.55

Source: Wildlife Wing Forest Department Himachal Pradesh

Forests
Forest Type: The regional climate variation and altitudinal variation have resulted in wide variety
of forests. In general coniferous forests dominates mid to high hills while foothill forests are dry
deciduous and scrub forests, thriving in a low water table & dry soil conditions. In dry localities,
Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) occurs as a dominant species while moist temperate region is
characterized by the presence of Deodar (Cedrus deodara) forests. The details of land use pattern
of forest in the Project Influenced Area are summarized below in Table 3.51.
Table 3.51 - Land use Pattern of Forest in Project Influence Area
Details of Land

Rampur (Area in ha)

Ani (Area in ha)

Demarkated Protected Forest

14737.01

13774.80

Un Protected Forest

16562.65

16212.49

Agriculture

7560.09

4618.90

Pasture

562.90

2637.63

Other

10532.25

3252.12

Total

49955.71

40495.94

Source: Rampur Forest Divison

Table 3.52 - List of Protected Forests in Project Influence Area


S.No

Rampur Forest Division (Area in ha) Distance (km) Anni Forest Division (Area in ha)

Bahli Protected Forest (176.17)

Banavali Protected Forest

3.0

Khaira Kod Protected Forest

4.0

Baruni Protected Forest (32.4)

0.75

Ramgarh Kondi Protected Forest

3.5

Daran Protected Forest (5.5)

5.5

Sanpatu Protected Forest

4.5

Gaura Protected Forest (113.8)

3.5

Shikarwah Protected Forest

3.75

Sanathali Protected Forest (299.70)

2.5

Tandi Thera Protected Forest

3.0

2.5

Marha Kod Protected Forest

Distance (km)
5.25

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Source: Data collected form Rampur Forest Division

There are 12 protected forests under the influence zone, of which 6 protected forests fall in
Rampur Division while 6 others belong to outer Seraj division of Kullu district. The details of
protected forest are summarized in Table 3.52.
Forest Distribution: Distribution of forests in Rampur division occurs mainly between altitudes of
700 m to 2600 m. The forests distributions are as per the definition of The Forest Types of India:
by Champion and Seth (1962). Following are the typical forest types located in project influence
area.
5B/C-2 Northern mixed deciduous forest: This type is spread above Rampur, up to 40 Km
upstream of river Satluj and its tributaries on the banks of the stream. The forests are largely of
the scrub type. Major and minor associates of this type are characterized as follows:
Major Associates

Lannea - Mallotus - Cedrela


Bauhina - Albizzia - Bombax
Sapindus Dalbergia Cedrela

Minor Associates

Desmodium Rhus - Colebrookia


Euphorbia

- Woodfordia Rubus- Cannabis

Sub group 5/1-5-2 Khair Sisoo Forests: These types of forests are restricted along the river
Satluj on gravy and sandy loam soils. Major and minor associates of this type are characterized as
follows:
Major Associate:

Acacia- Dalbergia - Mallotus

Minor Associate:

Adhatoda- Zizyphus - Mallotus - Aseculus

Sub- group 9/C-1 Himalayan Subtropical Pine forests: This type occurs between 1000m to 2000m
elevation. Pinus roxburghii (Chir) occurs remarkably in pure and gregarious form. The crop is
irregular and mature trees few and widely scattered. Major and minor associates of this type are
characterized as follows:
Major Associates

Quercus - Rhododendron- Lyonia


Abizzia - Pinus wallichiana

Minor Associates

Woodfordia - Desmodium - Rhus


Rubus - Lillium - Berberis
Myrsine -Indigofera Plectranthus

Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests: This type of forest generally occurs between 1500 to 3300m.
These are well-stocked forests of good height, growth varying between 30-45m. Major and minor
associates of this type are characterized as follows:
Major Associates:

Quercus Pine

Minor Associates:

Sarococca Skimmia - Strobilanthus


Rosa - Clematis- Hedera

Sub group 12/C-1Ban Oak Forests: The Ban Oak is common low level Oak of moist zone and is
the major species over considerable area, varies from 1500 to 2100m. Major and minor associates
of this type are characterized as follows:
Major Associate:

Rhododendron - Lyonia- Litsea

Cedrela Carpinus
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Minor Associate:

Berberis - Indigofera Sarcococca


Desmodium - Inyrrine - Vibernum
Prinsepia-Spiraea - Lonicera - Rubus

Sub group 12/c-1b Mohru oak forests: These forests occur in small patches above the ban forests
between 2100-2500m.
Major Associates:

Cedrela Acer- Rhus


Aesculus Prunus Pyrus - Jugla

Minor Associates:

Rubus - Lillium - Berberis

Myrsine -Indigofera - Plectranthus


Sub group 12/DS-1 Oak Scrub: This forest type occurs near habitations between 1500-2200m and
is affected by lopping, browsing, unregulated fallings for fuel and agricultural implements. Major
and minor associates are described as:
Major Associates:

Rhododendron - Lyonia

Minor Associates:

Berberis Prinsepia

Sub group 12/DS-1/I-C Moist Deodar Forests: The deodar forest is found between the altitudinal
ranges of 1800-2400m. Deodar is poorly represented in the heavy rainfall zones adjoining Saharan
and this type can be seen in Ramgarh Kanji range of Anni division. Major and minor associates of
this type are characterized as follows:
Major Associates:

Deodar - Pinus wallichiana - Quercus incana

Minor Associates:

Berberis Launicere - Desmodium

Flora
Characteristics: The climatic and altitudinal variations markedly influence the type of species
distribution in various zones. Physiognomically flora of the study area can be categorized as trees,
shrubs, herbs and grasses. The details of Flora recorded during survey in project influence area is
summarized and presented in Table 3.53. The climax and dominant species of forests are Chir

(Pinus roxburghii) Kail (Pinus wallichiana), Deodar (Cedrus deodara) and Ban Oak (Quercus incana)
along with their major associated species. The dominant associate of (Cedrus deodara) Deodar is
Ban Oak (Quercus incana) Kharsu Oak (Quercus semicarpifolia).
The Chir (Pinus roxburghii) occurs remarkably in pure and gregarious form and constitute stable
sub climax due to biotic factors. The crop is generally irregular and mature trees are widely
scattered. It improves in quality where pure quartzite formations occur. The common associates of
Chir (Pinus roxburghii) are Ruin (Mallotus philippinenisis); Toon (Cedrela toona), Kachnar (Bauhina
varigata), Siris (Albizzia lebbek), and Semal (Bombax ceiba). The undergrowth generally consists of
Indigofera pulchella, Rosa mustata etc. The ecological features with reference to their habitat,
nature i.e. evergreen or deciduous, and their distribution in terms of altitude of the major forest
species is given in details below in Table 3.54.

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Table 3.53 - Flora Recorded in the Project Influence Area (7km all around the Project)
S.
SCIENTIFIC NAME
No.

LOCAL NAME FAMILY

TREES

S.
SCIENTIFIC NAME
No.

LOCAL NAME

FAMILY

SHRUBS

Acacia leucophloea

Subabul

Mimosaceae

Adhatoda vasica

Basuti, Vasika

Acanthaceae

Albizzia lebbek

Seris

Leguminosae

Agave americana

Rambans

Cactaceae

Bauhinia variegata

Kachnar

Leguminosae

Aloe vera

Aloe

Liliaceae

Bombax ceiba

Semal

Bombaceae

Artemesia vulgaris

Kubash

Compositae

Callistemon citrinus

Bottle brush

Myrtaceae

Berberies aristata

Karmshal,
Kashmoi

Berberidaceae

Darloi

Miliaceae

Berberis lycium

Kashmanl

Berberidaceae

Cedrala serrata

Cedrela toona

Toon

Miliaceae

Calotropis gigantea

Aak

Asclepiadaceae

Cedrus deodara

Devdaar

Coniferae

Cannabis sativa

Bhang

Cannabinaceae

Celtis australis

Kharak

Urticaceae

Carissa spinarum

Karonada

Apocynaceae

Bambher,
Sidhar

Labiatae

10

Cupressus torulosa

Leuri

Coniferae

10

Colebrookia
oppositifolia

11

Dalbergia sissoo

Shisham

Fabaceae

11

Cotoneaster acuminata Ruinish

Rosaceae

12

Embelica officinalis

Amla

Euphorbiaceae

12

Cotoneaster baciIlaris

Ruinish

Rosaceae

Chamua,
Satpura

Thymelaeaceae

13

Eucalyptus globulus

Safeda

Myrtaceae

13

Daphne papyracea

14

Ficus bengalensis

Bargad

Urticaceae

14

Debregeasia hypoleuca Sihanru

Artocarpeae

15

Ficus elastica

Rubber tree

Urticaceae

15

Desmodium tiliaefolium Martoi

Leguminosae

16

Ficus palmata

Fedu, Phegru

Urticaceae

16

Dodonaea viscosa

Mehandi

Sapindaceae

17

Ficus religiosa

Pipal

Urticaceae

17

Euphorbia royleana

Shuru

Euphorbiaceae

18

Ficus roxburghii

Timal

Urticaceae

18

Girardinia heterophylla

Bichhu, Kushki

Urticaceae

19

Grevillea robusta

Silver oak

Proteaceae

19

Hypericum
oblongifolium

Phiunli

Hypericaceae

20

Grewia oppositifolia

Biul

Tiliaceae

20

Indigofera gerardiana

Kathi

Leguminosae

21

Juglans regia

Akhrot

Juglandaceae

21

Indigofera pulchella

Sakina

Leguminosae

22

Lannea grandis

Jinghini

Anacardiaceae

22

Lantana camara

Lantana

Verbinaceae

23

Litlsea umbrosa

Shuru

Lauraceae

23

Lonicera angustifolia

Banchulu

Caprifoliaceae

24

Mallotus philippinenisis

Ruin

Euphorbiaceae

24

Mohonia nepalensis

Khoru

Berberidaceae

25

Mangifera indica

Aam

Anacardiaceae

25

Moriandra strobilifera

Pothi

Labiatae

26

Melia azedarach

Dhenk

Meliaceae

26

Murraya koenigii

Kath Neem

Rutaceae

27

Morus alba

Tut

Urticaceae

27

Musa paradisiaca

Kela

Scitaminaeae

28

Morus serrala

Himu, Tut

Urticaceae

28

Opuntia monocantha

Nagphani

Cactaceae

29

Morus sps

Paper
Mulberry

Urticaceae

29

Plectranthus coesta

Chichiri

Labiatae

30

Pinus roxburghii

Chil

Coniferae

30

Princepia utilis

Bhekal

Rosaceae

31

Populus ciliala

Poplar

Salicaceae

31

Ricinus communis

Arandi

Euphorbiaceae

32

Prunus amygradus

Badam

Rosaceae

32

Rubus ellipticus

Hinsar

Rosaceae

33

Prunus armeniaca

Chuli

Rosaceae

33

Rumex hastatus

Bhilmora

Polgonaceae

34

Prunus cerasoides

Paja

Rosaceae

34

Sarcococca saligna

Tiliari

Euphorbiaceae

35

Prunus communis

Aloocha

Rosaceae

35

Solanum surattense

Kateli

Solanaceae

36

Prunus persica

Aroo

Rosaceae

36

Strobilianthes sp.

----------------

Acanthaceae

37

Punica granatum

Aanar

Lythraceae

37

Woodfordia fruticosa

Dhaula

Lythraceae

38

Pyrus malus

Seb

Rosaceae

38

Zizyphus jujuba

Beri

Rhamnaceae

39

Quercus incana

Ban

Cupuliferae

39

Zizyphus nummularia

Beri

Rhamnaceae

40

Quercus dilata

Moru

Cupuliferae

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S.
SCIENTIFIC NAME
No.

S.
SCIENTIFIC NAME
No.

LOCAL NAME FAMILY

41

Robinia pseudoacacia

Pahari kikar

Papilionoidaea

42

Rhodondendron arboreum

Burans

Ericaceae

43

Sapindus mukorossi

Ritha

Sapindaceae

44

Syzygium cumini

Jamun

Myrtaceae

45

Tamarindus indica

Imli

Caesalpiniaceae

LOCAL NAME

FAMILY

HERBS/CLIMBERS
1

Achyranthes aspera

Aghada,
Puthkanda

Amaranthaceae 2

Argemone mexicana

Prickly poppy

Papaveraceae

Asparagus racemosa

Sahansarpali

Liliaceae

Bauhinia vahlii

Malo

Leguminosae

Chenopodium album

Bathwa

Chenopodiaceae 6

Chromolaena odorata

Triva gandha

Chromolaenae

Clemapis montana

Kauniabali

Ranunculaceae

Datura suaveolens

Datura

Solanaceae

Echinops echinatus

Gokhru

Compositae

10

Erigeron bellidioides

Horse weed

Compositae

11

Frageria indica

Bhumla

Rosoideae

12

Bhumla

Rosoideae

13

Heliotropium strigosum

Hatta-juri

Boraginaceae

14

Jasminium officinale

Chameli

Oleaceae

15

Ocimum basilicum

Vantulsi

Labiatae

16

Oxalis corniculata

Amrit sak

Oxilidaceae

17

Polygonum chinense

Jangli palak

Polgonaceae

18

Sonchus oleraceus

Dudhi, Pathari

Convolvulanceae

19

Thymus serphyllum

Hasha

Lebiatae

20

Tridex procumbens

Ground weed

Amaranthaceae

21

Trifolium pratense

Purple clover

Papilionoidae

22

Verbascum thapsus

Gidar tamakus

Scrophulariaceae

GRASSES

Frageria vesica

Ferns

Arundo donax

Phiral, Naru

Gramineae

Pteris sp

Fern

Pteridaceae

Cynodon dactylon

Dhub

Gramineae

Adiantum sp

Fern

Pteridaceae

Saccharum spontaneum

Kans

Gramineae

Epiphyte

Parthenium hysterophorus

Congress
grass

Compositae

Badang

Orchidaceae

Phragmites communis

Naal

Gramineae

Epiphyte

Erianthus munja

Munj

Gramineae

Badang

Orchidaceae

Vanda roxburghii

Vanda roxburghii

Source : Field Survey CES (I) Pvt. Ltd, Feb- April 2006

Table 3.54 - Ecological Features of Dominant Flora in Project Influence Area


S.No

Name of Species

Ecology

Scientific

Local

Habitat

Nature

Distribution (m)

Albizzia lebbek

Siris

Hills

Deciduous

300 1300

Bombax ceiba

Semal

Hill slopes

Deciduous

300 1500

Bauhinia variegata

Kachnar

Forest

Deciduous

300 1500

Cedrus deodara

Deodar

High forest

Evergreen

1800 3000

Dalbergia sissoo

Shisham

Hill slopes

Deciduous

300 1500

Mallotus philippinenisis

Roghs

Forest

Evergreen

300 1200

Pinus roxburghii

Chir

Forest

Deciduous

300 1500

Pinus wallichiana

Kail

Forest

Evergreen

1800 4300

Quercus incana

Ban Oak

Forest

Evergreen

1200 2400

10

Quercus semicarpifolia

Kharsu Oak

Forest

Evergreen

2100 3800

11

Rododendron arboreum

Brans

Forest

Evergreen

1800 4300

12

Sapindus mukurossii

Ritha

Forest

Deciduous

200 1500

Source: Data collected during field survey

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The Upper reaches are generally occupied by Kail. The common associates are Brass (Rododendron
arboreum). Ban oak (Quercus incana) is usually found in small proportion mixed with the Chil
(Pinus roxburghii), Kai (Pinus wallichiana) and Deodar (Cedrus deodana). It occupies lower
elevation in the northern slopes and along hills as it requires a good soil rich in humus. The Deodar
(Cedrus deodara) forests occur at higher elevations. The snowfall is must for the existence of these
forests. The Deodar prefers comparatively heavy soil formed by disintegration of granite. A few
species of flora types(trees, shrubs and herbs) in the area are presented here in pictorial view.
Community use of Natural Flora: The people from surrounding villages depend on forest for
various purposes. The Table 3.55 given below depicts various uses of trees by local people.
Table 3.55 - Major Uses of Trees from Forests in the Project Influence Area
Name of Tree

Local Name

Charcoal

Resins

Fodder

Fuel

Timber

Cedrus deodara
Mallotus philippinenisis
Pinus roxburghii

Chir

Pinus wallichiana

Kail

Dalbergia sissoo

Shisham

Morus alba

Tut

Quercus incana

Ban oak

Quercus semicarpifolia

Kharsu Oak

Manure

Deodar

Ruin

Source: Information Collected during Public Consultation


+ In Use

- Not in use

Considerable loss is done to the forest by the way of illicit felling of Deodar (Cedrus deodara) and
Kail (Pinus wallichiana) for agricultural implements and manufacturing of packing cases. The resins
are obtained from Kail (Pinus wallichiana) and Chir (Pinus roxburghii) by cutting deeply at the base
of trees. The local villagers debark Chir (Pinus roxburghii) trees for roofing material of sheds and
charcoal. The resinous wood is used by the villagers for igniting fires in their houses.
Horticulture offers the better and maximum use of land besides checking soil erosion and
ameliorating the economic condition of farmers. Fruit trees offer the possibility of a high food yield
per unit of land. They optimize the moisture and nutrients from the sub-soil. Some of the fruit trees
generally grown in fields are listed in Table 3.56.
Table 3.56 - Commercially Important Trees (Horticulture)
Botanical Name

English/Common Name

Juglans regia

Walnut

Pyrus malus

Apple

Mangifera indica

Mango

Prunus armeniaca

Apricot, Khumani,

Prunus avium

Cherry (sweet)

Prunus domestica

Plum

Prunus dulcis

Almond

Prunus persica

Peach, Aaru

Prunus cerasus

Cherry (sour)

Punica granatum

Pomigranate

Pyrus communis

Nashpati

Source: Information collected during Public consultation/survey

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Large number of herbs was collected for various medicinal purposes. It is estimated that if all the
household remedies are taken into account, about 1500 native plant species are used for health
care purposes by the people of the State (Chauhan, 1999). In order to exercise some measure of
control over the exploitation of medicinal plants, especially herbs, the forest department has
prescribed a four-year exploitation cycle and has also fixed an export permit fee in respect of some
heavily exploited species.
The Gentiana kurro, Podophyulum emodi are extensively exported as dhup for incense. The
important medicinal herbs of the forest are described in Table 3.57.
Table 3.57 - Medicinal Plants from Local Forests
Chemical
Property

Part of Plant
Use

Use against
Disease

Collection
Period

Carminative

Rhizome

Colic

May- June

Patis

Febrifuge

Root

Dysentery

Sept-Oct

Kashmal

Anti-malerial

Root

Jaundice

Nov - Mar

Expectorant

Leaves/root

Cough/cold

Dec-Mar

Freshener

Roots

Dhoop

Mar-May

Name of Species
Scientific

Local

Acorus calamus

Barre

Aconitum heterophyllum
Berberis lycium
Adhatoda vasica

Basul

Juranea macrocephala

Dhoop

Orchis latifolia

Salmam

Aphrodic

Tubers

Nervous debality Sept- Nov

Pistacia intergerrima

Kakarsingi

Expectorant

Leaves

Asthama

Mar-May

Podophyllum emodi

Bankakdi

Purgative

Rhizome

Gentiana kurroo

Karu

Stimulant

Rhizome

Fever

Oct- Dec

Taxus baccata

Rakhal

Anti-carcinogenic

Bark/ Laves

Asthama

Mar- May

Rhum emodi

Chukri

Purgative

Rhizome

Apr- Sept

May-Jul

Source: Information Collected during Public consultation

Table 3.58 - Ethno-Botanical Approach for Major Plant Species from Local Forests
Name of Species
Scientific

Local

Cedrus deodara

Deodar

Pinus roxburghii

Pinus wallichiana

Chir

Kail

Group Pests Part of Plant


Affected

Symptoms

Name of Pests

Insect

Defoliation

Electropis deodara

Needle
Cone

Loss of seeds

Euzophrea cedrella

Poles

Debarking

Scontus major

Roots

Stunted growth

Cockchafer malolanthea

Seedlings

Regeneration

Agrotis ypsilon

Needle

Discoloration

Brachyxstus subsignatusis

Fungus

Poles

Stunted Growth

Fomes annosus

Insect

Needle

Loss of needles

Platypus biferis

Needle

Discoloration

Chlonophrous stroilicola

Fungus

Shoots

Stunted Growth

Peridermium cedri

Needle

Shunted Growth

Peridermium comanulatum

Insect

Poles

Debarking

Inslongifolia bores

Cones

Discoloration

Polyranthus sp

Growth

Trametes pinii

Fungus

Source: Information collected from Forest Working Plan Rampur / Seraj division

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Figure 3.34 - Trees of the Area

1. Rhododendron arboretum

2 Juglans regia

3.Cedrus deodara

4.Pinus roxburghii

5. Mallotus philipinennesis

6. Callistemon citrinus

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Figure 3.35 - Shrubs of the Area

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Figure 3.36 - Herbs of the Area

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Ethno-Botanical Baseline
The climax species of forest are Deodar (Cedrus deodara), Chil (Pinus roxburghii) and Kail (Pinus
wallichiana) hence pathological and ethno-botanical information has been collected with reference
to various diseases pathogen type, major symptoms and put of plant affected. The following Table
depicts details of pathology & ethno-botanical information. See Table 3.58.

Fauna
The fauna of the study area is dominantly represented by reptiles, birds and animals. The variation
in altitude, climate, topography, forests type and forest cover in the area provides habitat for
variety of animals like reptiles, birds and animals. The fauna of the area is further classified as
domestic animals and wild life and explained below.
Domestic Animal: The cattle share dominates the fauna population by contributing 42% in the
total population of domestic animals. This is followed by 40% of sheep and 18.% of Goats. Local
people use the horses, mule and donkeys for carrying their luggage/material in hilly areas.
Domestic animal census data is summarized in Table 3.59 below:
Table 3.59 - Domestic Animal Census Data (2003) for Rampur Division
S. No.

Animal

Cows

37267

Buffaloes

862

Horses

20

Mules

99

Donkeys

57

Sheeps

35553

Goats

16449

Total

Population

90315

Source: Information collected form District Statistical Handbook Govt. of Himachal Pradesh

Wildlife
Habitat Affinities of Wildlife: Wildlife habitat is that space where the animal lives over the
seasons of a year. Habitat serves as physical location for food or nutrients, as well as for shelter.
Surveys were carried out primarily using direct sighting and indirect evidence and through
interviews with local residents. The altitudinal variation in the study area (from 700-3000 m) has
remarkable impact on the distribution pattern of wildlife in the region. The carnivore wildlife in area
is represented by Leopard (Panthera pardus), Indian Wolf (Canis lupus) and Himalayan Fox (Valpes
vulpes). Among herbivores, Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntiak) is sighted at elevations from 16002900mts. Musk Deer (Moschus moschiferus) is also seen at 3000m and above. This animal comes
down at lower elevation during the winter and goes back to higher altitude during summer. All the
valleys of Satluj Basin have good population of Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus). These wild
animals move close to habitation during crop season particularly during summer.
Among the reptiles, the most species are represented by common Indian Krait (Bungarus caerules),
Himalayan viper (Ancistrodous himalayanus), Indian cobra (Naja naja) and Rat snake (Pyers
mocosus) among Snakes, while lizards were represented by Common Indian Monitor (Varanus
monitor), common House Geeko (Hemidactylus brooki), and Rock lizard (Agamo tuberculata).

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Important birds of the study area include pheasants, showing typical altitudinal variation in their
occurrences such as Kauj Pheasat at foothill while Koklas & Monal Pheasant in temperate and mid
level forest. A list of wildlife as reported by forest department of Himachal Pradesh has been
prepared and presented here in Table 3.60 below:
Table 3.60 - List of Wildlife Reported from the Study Area and Their Status
Scientific Name

Common Name

Family

Status*

Mammals

Barbastella barbasetellus

Barbos teliobat

Canis lupus

Indian Wolf

Canidae

Endangered & Rare

Capricornis sumatraensis

Serow

Sciuridae

Special Game
Endangered & Rare

Caprolagus hispidus

Hispid hare

Cervidae

Hylopetes, Petaurista

Flying Squirrels

Hylobatidae

Hystrix hodgson

Himalayan Porcupine

Martes flavigula

Martens

Mustela sibirica

Himalayan weasel

Mos homourus

Hill mouse

Moschus moschiferus

Musk deer

Muntiacus muntjak

Barking deer or Muntjac

Big Game

Nemorhaedus goral

Gorals

Big Game

Nesekia indica

Indian Molr rat

Pteromys petaurista

Brown Flying Squirrel

Selenarctos thibetanus

Himalayan black bear

Vulpes vulpes

Red fox

Special Game
Special Game
Small Game

Cervidae

Endangered & Rare

Big Game
Canidae

Small Game

Reptiles

Agamo tuberculata

Rock Lizard

Ancistrodous himalayanus

Himalayan pit viper

Bungarus caerulues

Common Indian Krait

Hemidactylus brooki

Common House Geeko

Naja naja

Indian Cobra

Pyyas mocosus

Rat Snake

Varanus flavescens

Monitor Lizard

Varanidae

Catreus wallichii

Cheer Pheasant

Phasianidae

Ithaginis cruentus tibetanus,

Blood Pheasants

Phasianidae

Endangered & Rare

Catreus wallichii

Cheer Pheasant

Phasianidae

Endangered & Rare

Syrmaticus humiae

Humes bar backed Pheasant Phasranidae

Endangered & Rare

Lophophorus impejanus,

Monal Pheasants

Phasianidae

Endangered & Rare

Tetraogallus tibetanus

Tibetan Snow cock

Phasianidae

Endangered & Rare

Birds
Endangered & Rare

Source: Information collected from working plan Rampur/Seraj forest division


Status*: As per Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

The Census data of wildlife for Rampur and Anni Forest Division indicates large population of
monkey in both forest divisions. Leopards have been reported in Rampur Forest division however in
Anni Forest division no Leopard is reported. The detail of wildlife census conducted in 2005 for
Rampur and Anni divisions are is given in the Table 3.61 below:

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Table 3.61 - Census Data of Wildlife


Wildlife

Number

Forest division

Red Jungle Fowl

09

Rampur

Kelij Pheasant

04

Rampur

Koklas

09

Rampur

Himalayan Monal

04

Rampur

Monkey

5881

Rampur

Langur

664

Rampur

Leopard

07

Rampur

Monkey

5601

Anni

Leopard

00

Anni

Langur

552

Anni

Source: Forest Department Rampur wild Census 2005

3.7.6

Biodiversity of the Projects Immediate Influence Area


The project immediate influence area is comprised of 500m all around the project. The project
immediate influence area is characterized by steep hill slopes, foothills, national highways (NH-21)
and major settlements of Jhakari, Rampur and other townships. The entire area is interrupted by
agricultural and horticultural activities. The detail of forest types, natural flora and fauna is
discussed in following sections.

Forest Types
The major forest types within the project influence area are DS-I Himalayan sub tropical scrub and
DS-II sub tropical scrub. The extensive growing areas used as grazing grounds & hay fields by the
villagers result in formation of DS-I Himalayan Sub tropical Scrub forest. They are spread over in
between Chir (Pinus roxburghii). There is frequent and large scale burning hence this type forms
regressive serial stage.
Minor Associates: Berberts - Cotoneastor- Prinsepia
This type is due to heavy biotic interference of grazing and burning.
Another important forest variety is Sub tropical Euphorbia Scrub, spread along river Satluj. The
common associates are Zizyphus jujube, Zizyphus nummularia & Ficus sp. Occurrence of this type
of forest is usually associated with lime stone formation.

Flora
The natural flora of the immediate influence area of the project is spread along the slopes, foothills.
There is avenue plantation along the existing NH-21 as well as Eucalyptus & Dalbergia sissoo
planted by forests department. Compensatory afforestation and plantation under catchment area
treatment plan of NJHEP project too fall in the immediate project influence area. A total of 75 plant
species were observed during survey of floral species in the area. 28 species accounted for trees
followed by 26 for shrubs, 17 for herbs and 4 species for grasses. The detail of flora recorded is
presented in Table 3.62 below.

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Table 3.62 - Flora Recorded in the Immediate Influence Area


No.

SCIENTIFIC NAME

LOCAL NAME

FAMILY

No.

SCIENTIFIC NAME LOCAL NAME

FAMILY

Trees
1

Acacia leucophloea

Subabul

Mimosaceae

Adhatoda vasica

Basuti, Vasika

Acanthaceae

Albizzia lebbek

Seris

Leguminosae

Agave americana

Rambans

Cactaceae

Bombax ceiba

Semal

Bombaceae

Aloe vera

Aloe

Liliaceae

Callistemon citrinus

Bottle brush

Myrtaceae

Artemesia vulgaris

Artemesia

Compositae

Celtis australis

Kharak

Urticaceae

Berberies aristata

Karmshal, Kashmoi Berberidaceae

Cupressus torulosa

Leuri

Coniferae

Calotropis gigantea

Aak

Dalbergia sissoo

Shisham

Fabaceae

Cannabis sativa

Bhang

Cannabinaceae

Eucalyptus globules

Safeda

Myrtaceae

Carissa spinarum

Karonada

Apocynaceae

Ficus elastica

Rubber tree

Urticaceae

Colebrookia
oppositifolia

Bambher, Sidhar

Labiatae

10

Ficus religiosa

Pipal

Urticaceae

10

Debregeasia
hypoleuca

Sihanru

Artocarpeae

11

Ficus palmate

Fedu, Phegru

Urticaceae

11

Desmodium
tiliaefolium

Martoi

Leguminosae

12

Ficus roxburghii

Timal

Urticaceae

12

Dodonaea viscosa

Mehandi

Sapindaceae

13

Grevellia robusta

Silver oak

Proteaceae

13

Euphorbia royleana

Shuru

Euphorbiaceae

14

Grewia oppositifolia

Biul

Tiliaceae

14

Girardinia
heterophylla

Bichhu, Kushki

Urticaceae

15

Mangifera indica

Aam

Anacardiaceae

15

Lantana camara

Lantana

Verbinaceae

16

Melia azaderach

Dhenk

Meliaceae

16

Moriandra strobilifera Pothi

17

Mallotus philippinenisis

Ruin

Euphorbiaceae

17

Musa paradisiaca

18

Morus alba

Tut

Urticaceae

18

Opuntia monocantha Nagphani

Cactaceae

19

Morus sps

Paper Mulberry

Urticaceae

19

Plectranthus coesta

Chichiri

Labiatae

20

Morus serrala

Himu, Tut

Urticaceae

20

Princepia utilis

Bhekal

Rosaceae

21

Pinus roxburghii

Chil

Coniferae

21

Ricinus communis

Arandi

Euphorbiaceae

22

Populus ciliata

Poplar

Salicaceae

22

Rubus ellipticus

Hinsar

Rosaceae

23

Prunus amygradus

Badam

Rosaceae

23

Rumex hastatus

Bhilmora

Polgonaceae

24

Prunus communis

Aloocha

Rosaceae

24

Solanum surattense

Kateli

Solanaceae

25

Prunus persica

Aroo

Rosaceae

25

Woodfordia fruticosa Dhaula

Lythraceae

26

Robinia pseudoacacia

Pahari kikar

Papilionoidaea

26

Zizyphus nummularia Beri

Rhamnaceae

27

Syzygium cumini

Jamun

Myrtaceae

28

Tamarindus indica

Imli

Caesalpiniaceae
Amaranthaceae

Argemone mexicana

Papaveraceae

Kela

Asclepiadaceae

Scitaminaeae

Herbs
1

Achyranthes aspera

Aghada, Puthkanda

Asparagus racemosa

Sahansarpali

Liliaceae

Chenopodium album Bathwa

Chenopodiaceae

Chromolaena odorata

Triva gandha

Chromolaenae

Echinops echinatus

Gokhru

Compositae

Erigeron bellidioides

Horse weed

Compositae

Fragaria indica

Bhumla

Rosoideae

Heliotropium strigosum

Hatta-juri

Boraginaceae

10

Ocimum basilicum

Vantulsi

Labiatae

11

Oxalis corniculata

Amrit sak

Oxilidaceae

12

Pteris sps

Fern

Pteridaceae

13

Sonchus oleraceus

Dudhi, Pathari

Convolvulanceae 14

Tridex procumbens

Ground weed

Amaranthaceae

15

Trifolium pratense

Purple clover

Papilionoidae

16

Verbascum thapsus

Gidar tamakus

Scrophulariaceae

17

Jasminium officinalis

Chameli

Oleaceae
Gramineae

Cynodon dactylon

Dhub

Gramineae

Gramineae

Parthenium h

Congress grass

Compositae

Prickly poppy

Grasses
1

Arundo donax

Saccharum spontaneum Kans

Phiral, Naru

Source: Field Survey CES (I) Pvt. Ltd, Feb- April 2006

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The dominant tree species of avenue plantation are Acacia leucophloea (Subabul), Albizzia lebbek
(Seris), Bombax ceiba (Semal), Callistemon citrinus (bottle brush), Ficus palmate (Fedu), Grevellia
robusta (Silver oak), Grewia oppositifolia (Biul), Melia azaderach (Dhenk), Morus serrata (Shehtut),
Populus ciliata (Poplar), Robinia pseudoacacia (Pahari Kikar), etc. The plantation carried out by
forests department is mainly of Pinus roxburghi (Chil), Dalbergia sisso (Sisham) and Eucalyptus
globulus (Safeda).Since the area is interrupted by various agricultural and horticultural activities,
fruit trees such as Mangifera indica (Mango), Prunus amygradus (badam), Prunus communis
(Aloocha), Prunus persica (Aroo), Syzium cumini (Jamun), Tamarindus indica (Imli) etc., were
commonly recorded.
Typical of the climate and other meteorological variations in the area, the common shrubs observed
were Adhatoda vasica ()Agave americana (Rambans), Calotropis gigantean (Akh), Cannabis sativa
(Bhang), Carissa spinarum (Karonda), Colebrookia oppositifolia (Bhaber), Debregeasia hypoleuca
(Sihanaru), Dodoneae viscosa (Mehandi), Euphorbia royleana (Shuru), Girardinia heterophylla
(Bichhu Ghas), Moriandra strobilifera (Pothi), Rubus ellipticus (Hinsar) Rumex hastatus (Bhilmora)
etc.,
The common herb species of the immediate influence area is represented by Achyranthes aspera
(Aghada), Chenopodium album (Bathua), Erigeron bellidioides (Horse weed), Oxalis corniculata
(Amrit sack), Sonchus oleraceus (Dudhi), Fragaria indica (Bhumla) etc. The common climbers are
represented by Asparagus racemosa (Shatavari) and Jasminium officinalis (Chameli).
Fauna
The distribution of fauna is driven by presence of favourable vegetation providing feeding,
breeding, hiding & resting sites. Project area is dominated by hilly tracks with less vegetation cover
and further interrupted by agriculture activities in the form of trench cultivation. Fauna of the
project area is mainly represented by reptiles, birds and mammals. The reptiles are further
represented by Calotes versicolor (Common Lizard) and common Geeko (Hemidactylus brooki). The
mammals are represented by animals of local importance such as Cows, Oxes, Horese, Mule,
Donkey, Pigs etc. No wildlife is commonly observed in the area, which may be due to increased
human activity in the area. Total 35 species of birds observed in the area are summarised in Table
3.63 below:
Table 3.63 - Avifauna Recorded in the Immediate Influence Area
(500m around the Project)
S. No.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Acridotheres tristis

Indian Myna

Sturnidae

Aeridotheres ginginianus

Bank myna

Sturnidae

Cassa flavirostris

Yellowbilled Blue Magpai

Carvidae

Columba livia

Blue Rock Pigeon

Columidae

Corvus macrorhynchos

Jungle Crow

Carvidae

Corvus splendens

House Crow

Carvidae

Corvus corax

Ravan

Carvidae

Dandroatta vagabunda

Treepie

Corvidae

Dicrurus adsimilis

Black Drongo

Dieruridae

10

Egretta garzetta

Little Egret

Ardeidae

11

Gallus gallus

Common Fowl

Phasinidae

12

Lanius schach

Rofusedbacked Shrike

Campehagidae

13

Lanius excubitor

Grey Shrike

Campehagidae

14

Megalaima malabarica

Crimsonbreasted barbet

Cpilonidae

Family

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S. No.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Family

15

Megalaima zeylanica

Largegreen barbet

Cpilonidae

16

Milvus migrans

Pariah Kite

Acciptridae

17

Motacilla maderatensis

Large pied wagtail

Motacillidae

18

Myiophonus horsfieldii

Whistling Thrush

Turnidae

19

Nactarinia asiatica

Purplerumpled Sunbird

Nectarinidae

20

Nectarinia minima

Small Sunbird

Nectarinidae

21

Orthotomus sutorius

Tailor Bird

Pachycephalinae

22

Parus major

Gray Tit

Parinae

23

Passeer domesticus

House Sparrow

Passerinae

24

Psittacula krameri

Roseringed Parakeet

Psittacidae

25

Psittacula cyanocephala

Blossomheaded Parakeet

Psittacidae

26

Psittacula himalayana

Slatyheaded Parakeet

Psittacidae

27

Picnonotus articeps

Black Headed Bulbul

Pycnonotidae

28

Picnonotus leucogenys

White Cheeked Bulbul

Pycnonotidae

29

Picnonotus cafer

Redvented Bulbul

Pycnonotidae

30

Saxicoloides fulicate

Indian Robin

Muscicapidae

31

Sopsychus saularis

Magpie Robin

Muscicapidae

32

Streptopelia chinensis

Spotted dove

Columbidae

33

Streptopelia decaocto

Ring Dove

Columbidae

34

Turdoides caudatus

Common babbler

Muscicapidae

35

Terpsiphone paradisi

Paradise Flycatcher

Muscicapinae

36

Turdus merula

Blackbird

Turninae

37

Upupa epops

Hoopoe

Upupidae

38

Zosterops palpebrosa

White Eyed

Zosteropidae

Source: Field Survey CES (I) Pvt. Ltd, Feb- April 2006

Biodiversity of Projects Directly Affected Area

3.7.7

Forests Directly Affected by the Project


The project-affected area comprises of entire footprint of the project activities. Total footprint of
the project, involving various project units, consist of 86.5 ha of land. Out of this land, 48.9 ha
belongs to forestland for surface work and 20.41 ha forestland for underground work. Break up of
forestland for various project units in the project area is summarized and presented in Table 3.64.
Table 3.64 Purpose-wise Acquisition of Forest Land in the Project
S.No Name of Site
.

Forest Area Acquired


Mohal /Up Mohal

Area (Bigha) Area (Hectare)

Cut & cover and Job facilities

Falti Kushwa (Kothi 15/20)

10-19

00-88-62

Adit Approach road & Job facilities Koja Adit)

Fatti Tunan (Kothi 15/20)

12-10

01-01-16

Job Facilities (Kajo Adit)

Fatti Tunan (Kothi 15/20)

05-14

00-46-13

Dumping Area (Near Kojo Adit)

Fatti Tunan (Kothi 15/20)

89-13

07-25-53

Adit Approach & Job facilities (Kunni Adit)

Fatti Tunan (Kothi 15/20)

05-08

00-43-70

Dumping Area (Near Kunni Adit)

Fatti Tunan (Kothi 15/20)

15-03

01-22-61

Bridge & Approach road 9near Kunni Adit)

Fatti Tunan (Kothi 15/20)

00-13

00-07-69

Adit & Job Facilities (Goshai Adit)

Fatti Tunan (Kothi 15/20)

18-00

01-45-67

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

S.No Name of Site


.

Forest Area Acquired


Mohal /Up Mohal

Area (Bigha) Area (Hectare)

Dumping Area

Fatti Nirmand

29-10

02-38-74

10

Dumping Area

Fatti Nirmand

45-01

03-64-59

11

Approach road & Job facilities

Fatti Bayal

198-09

16-06-04

12

Power House, Penstocks, Approach Road & Job facilities Fatti Bayal

82-17

06-70-50

13

Approach road, Tail Race & job facilities

Fatti Bayal

08-02

00-65-55

14

Approach road & Job facilities

Fatti Bayal

15-11

01-25-84

15

Quarry road, Crusher & Job facilities

Gadej (Koel)

Total

67-05

05-44-25

604-15

48-96-62

Forest Type
The forest type is influenced by hilly mountainous tracks, steep hill slopes, foothills and Satluj river
valley. Forest type is mainly represented by dwarf shrubby vegetation interrupted by patches of
Eucalyptus plantation. The major forests type occurring in project affected area are discusses in
details below.
DS-I Himalayan Sub tropical Scrub: The extensive growing areas used as grazing grounds & hay
fields by the villagers forms this forest type. There is frequent and large scale burning hence this
type farms regressive seral stage.
Major Associates: Dodonea - Rhus - Woodfordid
Minor Associates: Berberis - Cotoneastor- Prinsepia
DS-II Sub tropical Euphorbia Scrub: Euphorbia royleana and Opuntia sp constitute this type of
forest, which spread along river Satluj. The common associates are Zizyphus jujuba Zizyphus
nummularia & Ficus sp. This type is associated with lime stone formation.
Flora
The flora of project area is dominated by 64 species belonging to 52 genera and 34 families.
Physio-gnomically vegetation has been categorized as trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses. The flora
recorded under the project-affected sites is presented below in Table 3.65:
Table 3.65 - Flora Recorded in the Projects Directly Affected Area
No.

SCIENTIFIC NAME

LOCAL NAME

FAMILY

No.

Trees

SCIENTIFIC NAME

LOCAL NAME

FAMILY

Shrubs

Acacia leucophloea

Subabul

Mimosaceae

Adhatoda vasica

Basuti, Vasika

Acanthaceae

Bombax ceiba

Semal

Bombaceae

Agave americana

Rambans

Cactaceae

Celtis australis

Kharak

Urticaceae

Aloe vera

Aloe

Liliaceae

Dalbergia sissoo

Shisham

Fabaceae

Artemesia vulgaris

Artemesia

Compositae

Eucalyptus globulus

Safeda

Myrtaceae

Berberies aristata

Karmshal, Kashmoi Berberidaceae

Ficus palmata

Fedu, Phegru

Moraceae

Calotropis gigantea

Aak

Grewia oppositifolia

Biul

Tiliaceae

Cannabis sativa

Bhang

Cannabinaceae

Mangifera indica

Aam

Anacardiaceae

Carissa spinarum

Karonada

Apocynaceae

Melia azaderach

Dhenk

Meliaceae

Colebrookia oppositifolia Bambher, Sidhar

Labiatae

10

Millingtonia hortensis

Akas Neem

Sapotaceae

10

Debregeasia hypoleuca

Sihanru

Artocarpeae

11

Mallotus philippinenisis

Ruin

Euphorbiaceae

11

Desmodium tiliaefolium

Martoi

Leguminosae

12

Morus alba

Tut

Meliaceae

12

Dodonaea viscosa

Mehandi

Sapindaceae

Asclepiadaceae

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No.

SCIENTIFIC NAME

LOCAL NAME

FAMILY

No.

SCIENTIFIC NAME

LOCAL NAME

FAMILY

13

Pinus roxburghii

Chil

Coniferae

13

Euphorbia royleana

Shuru

Euphorbiaceae

14

Prunus communis

Aloocha

Rosaceae

14

Girardinia heterophylla

Bichhu, Kushki

Urticaceae

15

Prunus persica

Aroo

Rosaceae

15

Lantana camara

Lantana

Verbinaceae

16

Robinia pseudoacacia

Pahari kikar

Papilionoidaea

16

Musa paradisiaca

Kela

Scitaminaeae

17

Tamarindus indica

Imli

Caesalpiniaceae

17

Opuntia monocantha

Nagphani

Cactaceae

18

Princepia utilis

Bhekal

Rosaceae

Arandi

Euphorbiaceae

Herbs
1

Achyranthes aspera

Aghada,
Puthkanda

Amaranthaceae

19

Argemone mexicana

Prickly poppy

Papaveraceae

20

Rubus ellipticus

Hinsar

Rosaceae

Asparagus racemosa

Sahansarpali

Liliaceae

21

Rumex hastatus

Bhilmora

Polgonaceae

Chenopodium album

Bathwa

Chenopodiaceae

22

Solanum surattense

Kateli

Solanaceae

Chromolaena odorata

Triva gandha

Chromolaenae

23

Zizyphus nummularia

Beri

Rhamnaceae

Echinops echinatus

Gokhru

Compositae

Erigeron bellidioides

Horse weed

Compositae

Fragaria indica

Bhumla

Rosoideae

Heliotropium strigosum

Hatta-juri

Boraginaceae

10

Ocimum basilicum

Vantulsi

Labiatae

11

Oxalis corniculata

Amrit sak

Oxilidaceae

12

Pteris sps

Fern

Pteridaceae

13

Sonchus oleraceus

Dudhi, Pathari

Convolvulanceae

14

Tridex procumbens

Ground weed

Amaranthaceae

Achyranthes aspera

Aghada, Puthkanda Amaranthaceae

15

Trifolium pratense

Purple clover

Papilionoidae

Argemone mexicana

Prickly poppy

16

Verbascum thapsus

Gidar tamakus

Scrophulariaceae

Asparagus racemosa

Sahansarpali

Liliaceae

17

Jasminium officinalis

Chameli

Oleaceae

Chenopodium album

Bathwa

Chenopodiaceae

Ricinus communis

Herbs
Papaveraceae

Source: Field Survey CES (I) Pvt. Ltd, Feb- April 2006

Table 3.66 - Major Uses of Trees found in the Projects Directly Affected Area
Name of Tree

Fence

Ornamental

Avenue Planting Fodder

Fuel

Timber

Fruit

Acacia leucophloea

Bombax ceiba

Celtis australis

Dalbergia sisso

Eucalyptus globulus

Ficus palmata

Grewia oppositifolia

Mangifera indica

Melia azaderach

Millingtonia hortensis

Mollotus phillipinenisis

Morus alba

Pinus roxburghii

Prunus communis

Prunus persica

Robinia pseudoacacia

Tamarindus indica

Source: Public Consultation

+ In use - Not in use

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Community Uses of Natural Flora: The trees in the project area are used for various purposes.
The major uses of trees falling under the project area are as given in Table 3.66.

Fauna
Project, area is dominated by hilly tracks with less vegetation cover and interrupted by agriculture
activities in the form of trench cultivation. Fauna of the project area is mainly represented by
reptiles, birds and mammals. The reptiles were represented by Calotes versicolor (Common Lizard)
and Hemidactylus brooki (Common Geeko)
Avifauna: The common birds observed are tabulated below:
Table 3.67 - Avifauna Recorded in the Projects Directly Affected Area
S. No

Scientific Name

Common Name

Acridotheres tristis

Indian Myna

Sturnidae

Aeridotheres ginginianus

Bank myna

Sturnidae

Columba livia

Blue Rock Pigeon

Columidae

Corvus macrorhynchos

Jungle Crow

Carvidae

Corvus splendens

House Crow

Carvidae

Corvus corax

Common raven

Carvidae

Dandroatta vagabunda

Treepie

Corvidae

Dicrurus adsimilis

Black Drongo

Dieruridae

Egretta garzetta

Little Egret

Ardeidae

10

Lanius excubitor

Grey Shrike

Campehagidae

11

Megalaima malabarica

Crimson breasted barbet

Cpilonidae

12

Milvus migrans

Pariah Kite

Acciptridae

13

Motacilla maderatensis

Large pied wagtail

Motacillidae

14

Nactarinia asiatica

Purplerumpled Sunbird

Nectarinidae

15

Nectarinia minima

Small Sunbird

Nectarinidae

16

Orthotomus sutorius

Tailor Bird

Pachycephalinae

17

Passeer domesticus

House Sparrow

Passerinae

18

Psittacula krameri

Rose ringed Parakeet

Psittacidae

19

Picnonotus leucogenys

White Cheeked Bulbul

Pycnonotidae

20

Picnonotus cafer

Red vented Bulbul

Pycnonotidae

21

Sexicoloides fulicate

Indian Robin

Muscicapidae

22

Sopsychus saularis

Magpie Robin

Muscicapidae

23

Streptopelia chinensis

Spotted dove

Columbidae

24

Turdoides caudatus

Common babbler

Muscicapidae

25

Terpsiphone paradise

Paradise Flycatcher

Muscicapinae

26

Turdus merula

Blackbird

Turninae

27

Upupa epops

Hoopoe

Upupidae

Family

Source: Field Survey CES (I) Pvt. Ltd, Feb- April 2006

Domestic and Wild Animals: The common domestic animals observed are Cow, Bulls, Sheep,
Goats, Dogs, Cats and Fowls. The major grazers are cows and bulls while browsers are sheep and
goats.Wildlife is not observed in the area.

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Table 3.68 - Livestock in all Villages in the RHEP Influence Area


Name of Gram
Panchayat

Total Cattle Population


(Cow/Ox / Sheep /Goat)

Name of Gram
Panchayat

District Shimla

Total Cattle Population


(Cow/Ox / Sheep /Goat)
District Kullu

Racholi

506

Sarga

1681

Singla

523

Kushwa

1578

Bharawali

782

Kharga

2524

Duttnagar

231

Tunan

1272

Lalsa

445

Nishani

1054

Dansa

875

Arsu

1910

Munish

3565

Bari

3289

Kuhal

2633

Kot

4207

Kashapat

3804

Poshna

631

Deem

1478

Jhakri

Source: District Census for Shimla & Kullu Districts, Year 2001 and
Report on Catchment area Treatment Plan for Rampur Block, Forest Division, Rampur

Table 3.69 - Livestock in Villages Directly Affected by RHEP


Livestock

Number per household


SC/ST

General

All

Milch cattles

0.67

0.60

0.63

Draught animals

1.32

1.21

1.26

Young stock

0.67

0.64

0.66

Sheep & Goat

0.56

0.42

0.48

Others

0.01

Neg

Total

3.22

2.88

3.03

Source: District Census for Shimla & Kullu Districts, Year 2001 and
Report on Catchment area Treatment Plan for Rampur Block, Forest Division, Rampur

Besides providing a source of supplementary income, livestock also serves as a source of balanced
diet for the people in the rural as well as for the surrounding urban areas. Bee keeping is also
being promoted in the study area as it helps in pollination of the apple crop.

3.7.8

Distribution of Endangered/Protected/Rare/Endemic Flora and Fauna


The distribution of endangered/protected and vulnerable animals in various project zones is
discussed further:
The Satluj Basin
The state of Himachal Pradesh is rich in biodiversity. Forest is an important natural resource of the
State. Forests of the state are utilized for timber collection, fuel wood source, fodder & grasses and
horticulture & leaf collection activities. These activities have induced heavy pressure on forests and
owing to this forests are under severe threats of lasting damage. Past studies undertaken in the
area reported an alarming degradation of 440 Sq km of dense forests into open forests from 1997
to 1999. The loss of forest has lead to loss of habitat for wildlife. Absence of friendly habitat has
put significant pressure on the survival ability of wildlife. Some of the wild animals that are unable
to adapt to the new conditions have become endangered/threatened. Those species of wildlife that

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are not commonly available and are in very less numbers have become a rare species and are
facing severe threat from hostile living conditions. The ecological status of flora & fauna in forest
of Himachal Pradesh, which are under pressure, is discussed here in detail.
Flora: The State forests are rich in variety of plants that are utilized for medicinal purposes. The
Alpine meadows and Alpine scrub forests provide habitat to a variety of important medicinal flora of
the state. As per an estimate, about 1500 native plant species are used for health care in the state.
Local villagers in these forests have traditional rights to harvest medicinal plants. Over exploitation
of some of these medicinal plants has put them in threatened/endangered/rare species category.
The rare & threatened/endangered plants of Himachal Pradesh are summarized in Table 3.70
below.
Table 3.70 - List of Rare and Threatened Species
S.No. Name

S.No.

Name

S.No. Name

1.

Achillea millefolium

2.

Aconitum heterophyllum

3.

Aconitum violaceum

4.

Arnebia benthami

5.

Arnebia euchroma

6.

Arnebia guttata

7.

Astragalus candolianus

8.

Astragalus grahmianus

9.

Astragalus leucocephalus

10.

Betula utilis

11.

Bunium persicum

12.

Carex borii

13.

Carum carvi

14.

Chrysanthemum pyrathroides 15.

Cortusa mathiole

16.

Dactylorhiza hatagirea

17.

Draba cachemirica

18.

Draba lasiophylla

19.

Ephedra geradiana

20.

Eremurus himalaicus

21.

Euphrasia jaeschkei

22.

Euphrasia pauciflora

23.

Euphrasia platyphylla

24.

Ferula jaeshkeana

25.

Galium serphylloides

26.

Gentiana tianschanica

27.

Hedysarum cashmerianum

28.

Heracleum candicans

29.

Heracleum thomsoni

30.

Heteropappus holohermaphroditus

31.

Hyoscyamus niger

32.

Inular racemosa

33.

Juniperus communis

34.

Juniperus recurva

35.

Jurinea tibetica

36.

Leontopodium frinbriligerum

37.

Limosella aquatica

38.

Meconopsis bikramii

39.

Orobanchhe hansii

40.

Pedicularis albida

41.

Pedicularis pychnantha

42.

Pedicularis purpurea

43.

Physochlaina praealta

44.

Picrorhiza kurrooa

45.

Pinus gerardiana

46.

Podophyllum hexandrum

47.

Potentilla curviseta

48.

Potentilla fulgens

49.

Rheum australe

50.

Rheum moorcroftianum

51.

Rheum spiciforme

52.

Saussurea gnapholoides

53.

Saussurea gossypiphora

54.

Saussurea obvallata

55.

Scrophularia koelzii

56.

Scrophulria suffruticosa

57.

Sedum jaeschkei

58.

Seseli tribobium

59.

Silene stewartii

60.

Silene stewartii

61.

Thylacospermum caespitosum

62.

Valeriana jaeschkei

63.

Veronica biloba

64.

Viola biflora

65.

Waldhemia glabra

66.

Waldhemia stoliczkei

67.

Waldhemia tomentosa
Source: Biodiversity Action Plan 2003

Among the total endangered species, 7 species are found in the project influence area. The
medicinal plant species such as Aconitum heterophyllum (Mithi patish), Picorhiza Karoo (Karoo) and
Podophyllum emodi (Bankakari) are categorized as endangered owing to 50% reduction in their
population while Rheum emodii (Rewand chini), Polygonatum verticillatum (Salammishri), velerina
wallichii (Nalchnihani) and Acorus calamus (Birch) have faced about 20% reduction in their
population in last ten years. These too are categorized as endangered species.
Project immediate influence area and the project-affected area are free from presence of any of
the above-mentioned 7 endangered species of medicinal plants.
Fauna: The entire satluj basin is rich in faunal diversity owing to significant variation in climatic
conditions, altitudinal differences and forests diversity. However, the faunal biodiversity remains

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under constant threat due to fragmentation, degradation and loss of natural habitats. The state
government has extended special protection to endangered wildlife of the state by giving them
special recognition. Musk Deer is recognized as state animal and Monal Phesant as state bird. A list
of endangered and protected wildlife of Himachal Pradesh is summarized in Table 3.71 below:
Table 3.71 - Status of Rare, Endangered and Protected Species of Fauna Historically
Recorded in the Satluj Catchment
Scientific Name

Common Name

Protected

Scientific Name

Common Name

Endangered

Panthera pardus

Leopard

Panthera uncia

Snow leopard

Panthera uncia

Snow leopard

Capra ibex

Himalayan Ibex

Felis bengalensis

Leopard Cat

Hemitragus jemlahicus

Himalayan Thar

Ovis ammon hodgsoni

Nayan

Pseudois nayaur

Bharal

Capricornis sumatraensis

Serow

Vulnarable

Moschus moschiferus

Musk deer

Panthera pardus

Leopard

Hemitragus jemlahicus

Himalayan Thar

Moschus moschiferus

Musk deer

Catreus wallichii

Cheer Pheasant

Panthera uncia

Snow leopard

The distribution of endangered/protected and vulnerable animals in project influenced area,


immediate influence area and project affected area is discussed below.
Project Influence Area (7km all around the Project)
The information about the distribution of endangered wildlife is collected from respective forest
division i.e. Rampur/Ani forest Division Himachal Pradesh. The endangered animals reported from
project influence area are Leopard (Panthera pardus), Himalayan Black Bear (Selenarctos
thibetanus), Barking deer (Muntiacus muntiak), Himalayan fox (Vulpes valpes), wolf (Canis lupus),
and among birds Monal phesant (Lophophorus impejanus), Koklaj Pheasant (Purcrasia
macrolopha), and Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) are reported from the forests of the study
area.
The carnivore representative of forest under the study area is Leopard (Panthera pardus). It is
member of cat family is a sleek short haired and agile animal with a fabulous coat marked with
close-set rosettes. It has adapted itself to the forest aera as well as to the open countryside. It is
known to lift sheep & cattle from the shed. The Himalayan Blackbear (Selenarctos thibetanus)
inhabits the oak forests from 1800m to 2500m and is considered a savage animal by villagers for
its raids on village cultivation and occasional attacks on humanbeings. Jackel (Canus aureus) have
been reported from populated areas while Himalayan fox (Vulpes valpes) reported during winter
near habitations in forests.
The Musk deer (Muschus mosehiferus), a solitary and secretive animal is reported from Alpine and
sub alpine zones of the forests at altitude above 2900-4000m elevation range The havey show fall
in higher altitudes leads to downward migration up to 2800-2500m is reported during winter. The
Rhesus macaque (macaca mulata) reported between 1200-2400m mostly in broad-leaved forests
while Langoor (Presbytes entellus) reported 1800-2800m.
The large sexually dimorphic members of phesant family are found throughout the forests. The
Monal phesant (Lophophorus impejanus) a colourful and attractive bird reported fom 300-3000m
while Koklaj Pheasant (Purcrasia macrolopha) is found on steep forested hillsides between 500-

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3000m elevation, and Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallichii) is found on hillsides between 18002500m.
Projects Immediate Influenced Area (500m around the Project)
The area is marked by degraded scrub forest, heaving populated along the National Highway
interrupted with intensive agriculture/horticulture/animal hasbandary practices, etc Hence chances
of wildlife habitats are not expected; and no records of wild life reported from the project area.
Projects Directly Affected Area
The area is marked by dry denuaded steep hillslopes, foothills with sdcanty thorney shrubs type
vegetation cover and plantation paches of Eucalyptus interrepted by agricultural activities. None of
the wildlife was noticed either direct or indirect evidences as well as there are no reports of wildlife
from forest department records.
Table 3.72 - Comparative Distribution of Forests Types
Forest Types

Tropical Moist
Deciduous Forest

Himachal Pradesh

Satluj Basin

Project Influence
Area

Project
Immediate
Influence Area

Project
Affected
Area

Siwalic Sal Forest. 3C/C2a

Bhabur Sal Forest. 3C/C2b

Dry Alpine Scrub


(3000-3600m.)

16/C1

Moist Alpine Scrub


(3000-3600m)

Alpine Pasture 15/C3

Sub Alpine Forest


(3000-3500m)

Fir Frs. 14/C1a

Himalayan Dry
Temperate Forest
(2500-3000m)

Blue Pine Frs. 13/C2b

Himalayan Moist
Temperate Forest
(1500-2500m)

Ban-Oak Frs. 12/C1a

Kharsu Oak Frs. 12/C2a

Moist Deodar Frs. 12/C1C

Sub- tropical Pine


Forest..
Sub-tropical Dry
Evergreen Forest..
Tropical Dry
Deciduous Forest.

Total

Pasture 14/DS1
Coniferous Dry D. Frs. 13/C2b
Con. Pine Frs. 13/C1

Oak- Fir Frs. 12/C2b

Mix. Con Frs. 12/C1d

Moharu Oak Frs. 12/C1

Oak Scrub Frs. 12/Ds1

Himalayan Sub- tropical Pine


Frs. 9C1

St. Euph Srb 9DS2

Dodonea Srb
10DS1

Northern Dry Mixed


Dec. Frs. 5/C2

Khair Sissoo
Forest. 5B/1S2

9/36

8/9

4/10

2/2

2/2

+ Present

- Absent

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Comparative Distribution of Forests


Table 3.72 shows comparative distribution of forest types in Himachal Pradesh, the Satluj Basin,
the Project Influenced Area, the Project Immediate Influenced Area and the Project Affected Area.
It revealed that Shivalik Sal Forest differentiate Himachal Pradesh from Satluj Basin. While High
Altitude Forest (3500-6600m), Alpine and Sub-Alpine Forest differentiate Satluj Basin and Project
Influenced Area, the Project Immediate Influenced Area and the Project Affected Area represents
minimum forest types, i.e., Sub-tropical Euphorbia Scrub and Dodonea Scrub, which are sparsely
distributed along foothills and hill slopes.
Comparative Status on Protected Area Network
The Himachal Pradesh is endowed with the vast canvas of dense forest and colorful wildlife. The
Protected Area network of Himachal Pradesh is comprised of 32 Wildlife Sanctuary and 2 National
Parks occupying 13.6% of the Geographical Area of the States. Following table shows comparative
distribution of Protected Area Network.
Table 3.73 - Comparative Status of Protected Areas
Protected Areas

Himachal
Pradesh

Satluj Basin

Project
Influence Area

Project Immediate
Influence Area

Project
Affected Area

National Park

Wildlife Sanctuary

32

Comparative Distribution of Flora


The wide range of altitude topography and climatic conditions resulted in rich and diversified flora
in Himachal Pradesh. The flora of Himachal Pradesh comprised of higher plants, ferns, mosses,
fungi and lichens. A total number of 3256 vascular plants has been reported from the State of
which 3210 are angiosperms, 12 are gymnosperms and 34 species of lower plants. Local people for
timber, fodder, fuel, food and medicines have used the flora. The comparative statement on flora
recorded during survey is given below
Table 3.74 - Comparative Distribution of Flora
Sl.No.

Nature of Flora

Trees

Shrubs

39

26

23

Herbs

21

14

16

Climber

04

02

01

Grasses

06

04

04

Ferns

02

02

02

Epiphytes

01

01

Mushroom
Total

Project Influence
Area

Project Immediate
Influence Area

Project Affected
Area

45

28

17

01

119

77

63

Taxonomically flora of the Project Influenced Area recorded highest number of 119 species
belonging to 98 Genera & 58 Families followed by 77 and 63 in Project Immediate Influenced Area
and Project Affected Area respectively. Physiognomically these can be categorized as trees, shrubs,
herbs, climbers, grasses, ferns, epiphytes and mushrooms.

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The diversity of flora of project affected area and immediate influence area does not show much
variation. The value of diversity index for trees & shrubs fall in the range of 0.27 to 1.30 for project
affected sites and 1.17 to 1.41 for immediate influence areas. The range for diversity index of
project affected sites and immediate influence area are given in the Table 3.75 below.
Table 3.75 - Comparison of Diversity Index
Area

Diversity index Range for Trees & Shrubs Diversity index Range for Grasses & Herbs

Project Affected Area

0.27 1.30

0.17 0.80

Immediate Influence Areas

1.17 - 1.41

0.87 1.13

Comparative Distribution of Fauna


The variation in forest type and vegetation pattern resulted in distribution of diversified flora
throughout the state. The rich faunal diversity includes 77 species of mammals, 447 species of
birds, 44 species of amphibians & reptiles and 81 species of fishes. The Himachal Pradesh supports
rich wildlife fauna, which is generally recorded from higher altitude forest (3500-6600m). The
comparative distribution of endangered, rare & protected species of Himachal Pradesh is given in
table 3.76 below.
Table 3.76 - Comparative Distribution of Endangered Species of Wildlife
Forest
Type

Wild life

Cold Desert
Dry Alpine
Scrub
Moist Alpine
Sub Alpine
Frs. (35006600)

Himachal
Pradesh

Satluj Basin

Project
Influence Area

Project
Immediate
Influence Area

Project Affected
Area

Snow Leopard

Him Brown Bear

Tibetan Wolf

Red Fox

Common Leopard

Him Black Bear

+*

Bharal

Him Thar

Him Ibex

Musk Deer

+*

Barking Deer

+*

+- Present,

- - Absent

*- Altitudinal Migration

Only four species of Wildlife are reported from the Project Influenced Area of which Himalayan
Black Bear reported only during summer while Musk & Barking deer showed altitudinal migration
during winter. The Common Leopard is reported to follow cattle/goat/sheep herd commonly
surrounding the villages in forest areas. None of the endangered rare or protected species is
reported from Project Immediate Influenced Area or Project Affected Area.
The base line faunal survey of the Project Influenced Area revealed that a total 58 species of fauna
recorded during survey of which 18 species are recorded for mammals, 38 species of birds and 2
species of reptiles. Fauna of Project Affected Area and Project Immediate Influenced Area show
poor distribution and mainly represented by domestic animals of local interest such as cows/
buffaloes/ horses/ donkeys/ mules/ cats/ dogs, etc.

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3.7.9

Potential Impacts on Terrestrial Biodiversity & Mitigation


Impacts to the terrestrial ecosystems on the Rampur region may be fairly significant during the
construction and operation of the power plant if it is considered separate part of the biodiversity.
However, in the context of overall biodiversity of the region,the significant will be very low owing to
nature of project being Run of the River with small forest land requirement. Impacts will be either
direct related to the physical clearance, degradation or disturbance of ecosystems and/ or indirect
resulting from the increased population and improved access. Impacts are predicted for various
project activities during construction & operation phase of project. Impacts are categorized as
direct, indirect, cumulative and induced impacts. Impacts on terrestrial biodiversity have been
considered at various levels such as project-affected area, project immediate influenced area and
project influenced area (7 Km surrounding project site).
Loss of Forest
The terrestrial biodiversity of project affected area and project immediate influence area is
represented by low floral & faunal diversity. The tree density in the forest to be acquired for the
project is low. It is around 128-184 trees/ ha , whereas in a good forest, the tree density should be
of the order of 1000-1100 trees/ ha. No rare or endangered tree species were observed in the
forest. No medicinal plants or species of economic importance is present in the proposed project
land. The forests of the area are represented by degraded forests type such as Euphorbia Scrub
and Himalayan Subtropical Scrub. Weedy shrubs with some common tree species dominate the
area. As acquire forestland is just 0.9% of the total forestland available in Rampur division
therefore it will not significantly affect existing forest cover.
Table 3.77 Density of Trees in Rampur Forest Area
Location

Density (No./ ha)

Nogli (Left bank)

128

Bael (Right bank)

184

Duttnagar (Left bank)

133
Source: EIA Study Rampur HEP, H.P

The impact due to tree felling will be insignificant, as 92.6 % of the total trees to be felled
comprised of Eucalyptus trees, which is exotic species to the natural forest. Other tree species are
commonly available in the project immediate influence area and project influence area. As a result
there will be no change in community composition and structure of forest due to tree felling.
The loss due to clearing is also not expected as weedy shrubs, which dominate the forest, are
widely distributed. None of the endangered, rare, threatened or endemic species was observed
throughout the project area hence adverse impacts on Terrestrial Biodiversity due to loss of species
are not at all envisaged.
Mitigation Measures for Loss of Forest
Afforestation programmes for the loss of forests will include tree plantations, silvipasture
development and development of vegetative shrubs. Afforestry mitigation measure will be done
only on pasture lands and grazing lands will not be taken up for afforestation. Exotic species and
dry deciduous species will be avoided. Ever green species should be preferred, to avoid fire due to
flammability of grass during dry summers. A decentralized way of participatory management
practices will be encouraged for conservation of natural resources in the area. A detailed
afforestation plan will be prepared by the project authorities. Besides, a Biodiversity Management

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Plan be prepared for construction & operation phase of the project that will mitigate indirect and
cumulative impacts of loss of forest.
Impact on Flora and Fauna
Increased human interference, direct as well as indirect will have impact on flora and fauna of the
area. The workforce of project may be tempted to cut trees to meet their fuel requirements and for
temporary shelters of their families. In absence of strict implementation of an environmental
management plan; adverse impacts on terrestrial flora may be significant.
Wild fauna is nonexistent in the vicinity of project area. Wild animals generally do not prefer
coming below the altitude of 2000m in the project area because of low density of forest and lack of
proper habitat in the region. Hence, impacts on terrestrial fauna are not expected to be significant.
Construction phase will induce movement of large number of machinery and construction labour in
the area. The operation of construction equipment and blasting is likely to generate noise that can
create some level of disturbance to wildlife population. The increased accessibility to the area due
to human interferences may also have some adverse impact on the migratory birds of the area.
Since the area does not fall on the migratory route of animals, there is no likelihood of significant
effect on migration of animals during seasonal changes.
Although project affected area does not have much flora and fauna of significant value, yet an
assessment of Importance Value Index and Diversity Index of flora of project affected areas and
project immediate influence area was conducted to understand the likely damage to biodiversity.
Importance Value Index (IVI) expresses dominance and ecological success of any species in an
area whereas Diversity Index expresses the variety of species in an area.
Table 3.78 - Diversity Index of Flora found in the Immediate Influence Area of RHEP
S.N.

SITE

DIVERSITY INDEX (H)


Trees & Shrubs

Grasses & Herbs

1.

Kunni Area

1.40

1.10

2.

Nirmand Area

1.41

1.13

3.

Near Pashada Forest Area

1.17

0.94

4.

Bayal Village

1.24

0.87

Low diversity index and project area being very small portion of the entire biodiversity, make the
potential impact on the biodiversity very less significant.
Induced Impact relevant to Traditional Timber Rights: The state of Himachal Pradesh has
the highest percentage of rural population (90.21%) in the country, with more than 20000 villages
across the state. The predominantly rural population is primarily dependent on agriculture base
economy for livelihood. The natural forest in the area provides wood for building of houses,
bridges, furniture, and agricultural implements, in addition to providing much needed fuel wood. A
large proportion of local livestock feeds on grasses and leaves obtained from forest. Overall the
dependency of local people on naturally available resources of forest is very high.
Under section 28 of Indian Forest Act (1927), the people of Himachal Pradesh have a right to get
timber at nominal rates for construction/repair of houses/dwellings and also for cremation of dead
bodies etc.
There will be increase in timber demand owing to increase in the population and hence of the right
holders. Division in the family, economic development of the people will further boost the demand
for timber rights. It is also observed that, local right holders misuse rights by selling timber
obtained in consessional rates to non-right holders & city dwellers of nearby town. Therefore a

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major impact on project influence area will happen due to various rights given to villagers residing
in forests.
Quantitative Assessment of Flora in the Projects Directly Affected Area
Assessment of flora of project-affected area was conducted to arrive at area specific diversity index
and importance value of affected project area. All the sites are open scrub areas dominated by
thorny shrubs and weed species. The dominant shrub species recorded are Adhatoda vasica,
Zizyphus nummularia, Rumex haustatus, Colebrookia oppositifolia, Cannabis sativa, Artemesia
vulgaris, Euphorbia royleana, Dodoneae viscose etc. These species are representative of degrade
area and are abundantly found in dry areas and wasteland.
The dominant herbs and grasses are represented by Pathenium hysterophorus, Arundo donax,
Cynodon dactylon, Oxalis corniculata, Tridex procumbens, Erigeron bellidioides etc. Parthenium is
weed species present in the area is indicator of degraded land and is found throughout the arid
zones and degraded areas.
The Tree species is represented by Eucalyptus globules, which is an exotic species planted in the
area. Besides Eucalyptus some fruit trees like, Prunus persica, Prunus communis, etc are present.
Assessment of flora of project-affected area has been conducted. Area specific Diversity index and
importance value of affected project area have been derived. All the sites are open scrub areas
dominated by thorny shrubs and weed species. The dominant shrub species recorded are Adhatoda

vasica, Zizyphus nummularia, Rumex haustatus, Colebrookia oppositifolia, Cannabis sativa,


Artemesia vulgaris, Euphorbia royleana, Dodoneae viscose etc. These species are representative of
degrade area and are abundantly found in dry areas and wasteland.
The dominant herbs and grasses are represented by Pathenium hysterophorus, Arundo donax,
Cynodon dactylon, Oxalis corniculata, Tridex procumbens, Erigeron bellidioides etc. Parthenium is
weed species present in the area is indicators of degraded land and are found throughout the arid
zones and degraded areas
The Tree species is represented by Eucalyptus globules, which is an exotic species planted in the
area. Besides Eucalyptus some fruit trees like, Prunus persica, Prunus communis etc. are present.
The area wise assessment of the flora is provided in the Tables 3.79 to 3.91 below:

Table 3.79 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Cut and Cover for the Head Race
Tunnel
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Artemesia vulgaris

42.85

78.26

10.81

131.9

Euphorbia royleana

42.85

17.39

30.83

91.08

Ficus palmate

14.28

4.34

58.37

77.01

Argemone mexicana

20.00

7.14

1.01

28.16

Arundo donax

40.00

42.86

89.66

172.5

Parthenium hysterophorus

40.00

50.00

9.14

99.14

Species

Herbs & Grasses

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Table 3.80 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Dumping Area I near Kazo Adit
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Adhatoda vasica

14.81

27.27

14.75

56.83

Agave americana

3.70

1.81

0.72

6.24

Aloe vera

3.70

1.81

0.662

6.18

Bombax ceiba

3.70

1.81

61.37

66.88

Calotropis gigantea

7.40

9.36

0.937

17.70

Cannabis sativa

11.11

14.54

2.245

27.90

Species

Carissa spinarum

3.70

1.81

0.49

6.01

Colebrookia oppositifolia

11.11

16.36

7.99

35.46

Dodonaeae viscosa

7.40

3.63

0.641

11.68

Opuntia monocantha

3.70

1.81

3.07

8.59

Prinsepia utilis

7.40

3.63

1.70

12.74

Ricinus communis

3.70

1.81

0.371

5.89

Rumex hastatus

11.11

7.27

0.837

19.22

Zizyphus nummularia

14.81

16.36

5.17

36.35

Chenopodium album

10.00

13.79

18.32

42.11

Chromolaena odorata

20.00

17.24

18.95

56.19

Cynodon dactylon

10.00

13.79

33.93

57.7

Jasminium officinalis

20.00

6.89

1.864

28.76

Oxalis corniculata

10.00

17.24

15.38

42.62

Tridex procumbens

30.00

31.03

11.58

72.61

Herbs & Grasses

Table 3.81 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Job Facilities Area at Kazo Adit
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Berberies aristata

10.00

3.33

1.52

14.85

Cannabis sativa

10.00

13.33

1.53

24.86

Carissa spinarum

10.00

3.33

0.42

13.75

Colebrookia oppositifolia

40.00

66.66

23.64

130.3

Desmodium tiliaefolium

20.00

10

1.41

31.41

Pinus roxburghii

10.00

3.33

71.49

84.82

Achyranthes aspera

12.49

7.69

10.44

30.63

Asparagus racemosa

6.24

2.56

3.55

12.37

Echinops echinatus

18.74

17.94

26.84

63.53

Ocimum basilicum

24.99

17.94

17.90

60.85

Oxalis corniculata

18.74

17.94

11.86

48.56

Species

Herbs & Grasses

Parthenium hysterophorus

6.24

20.51

16.24

43.00

Pteris sps.

12.49

15.38

13.07

40.96

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 3.82 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Approach Road for Kazo Adit
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Acacia leucophloea

9.09

4.00

23.44

36.53

Calatropis gigantea

18.18

8.00

0.341

26.52

Cannabis sativa

27.27

56.0

2.61

85.88

Colebrookia oppositifolia

27.27

20.0

3.91

51.18

Mallotus phillipinenisis

27.27

16.0

69.37

112.6

Rumex haustatus

27.27

16.0

0.80

44.08

Solanum surattense

9.09

4.00

0.74

13.83

Species

Herbs & Grasses

Heliotropium strigosum

25.0

22.22

18.34

65.56

Ocimum basiculum

16.66

22.22

22.53

61.42

Oxalis corniculata

16.66

18.51

15.41

50.59

Saccharum spontaneum

25.0

29.63

34.73

89.36

Verbascum thapsus

16.66

7.40

8.86

32.94

Table 3.83 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of Kazo Adit


Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Pinus roxburghii

33.33

50.05

99.78

183.16

Rumex hastatus

66.66

50.05

0.192

116.90

Parthenium hysterophorus

49.97

66.66

48.17

164.81

Saccharum spontaneum

49.97

33.33

51.83

135.14

Species

Herbs & Grasses

Table 3.84 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Dumping Area II near Kunni Adit
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Adhatoda vasica

10.71

7.84

19.50

38.06

Berberies aristata

3.57

1.96

3.02

8.55

Calatropis gigantea

7.14

5.88

6.09

19.12

Cannabis sativa

7.142

15.68

10.73

33.56

Carissa spinarum

3.57

1.96

2.46

7.99

Colebrookia oppositifolia

17.85

25.49

16.40

59.82

Species

Debregeasia hypoleuca

3.57

1.96

2.77

8.31

Dodonaea viscosa

21.42

19.60

18.90

59.93

Euphorbia royleana

3.57

1.96

5.02

10.55

Lantana camara

14.28

11.76

8.10

34.15

Rubus ellipticus

3.57

1.96

2.76

8.29

Zizyphus nummularia

3.57

3.92

4.125

11.61

Fragaria indica

18.18

15.38

18.30

51.86

Launaea procumbens

18.18

23.07

21.28

62.54

Parthenium hysterophorus

36.36

34.61

40.56

111.54

Tridex procumbens

27.27

26.92

19.85

74.05

Herbs & Grasses

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Table 3.85 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Kunni Adit


Species

Relative Frequency Relative Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Calotropis gigantea

40.00

37.50

39.67

117.17

Rumex hastatus

60.00

62.50

60.32

182.82

Cynodon dactylon

49.99

41.66

41.25

132.92

Parthenium hysterophorus

49.99

58.33

58.74

167.07

Herbs & Grasses

Table 3.86 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Goshal Adit


Species

Relative Frequency Relative Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Dodoneae viscosa

60.00

71.43

1.82

133.25

Eucalyptus globulus

20.00

14.28

91.99

126.28

Euphorbia royleana

20.00

14.28

6.18

40.47

Oxalis corniculata

50.00

60.00

58.44

168.44

Tridex procumbens

50.00

40.00

41.55

131.55

Herbs & Grasses

Table 3.87 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Dumping Area III downstream of
the Nimrand Bridge
Species

Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Adhatoda vasica

17.65

20.0

3.16

40.81

Cannabis sativa

11.76

16.00

2.56

30.33

Carissa spinarum

5.882

4.00

0.67

10.56

Colebrookia oppositifolia

17.65

24.00

7.42

49.07

Euphorbia royleana

23.53

20.00

29.89

73.4

Ficus palmata

5.882

4.00

27.19

37.07

Opuntia monocantha

5.882

4.00

2.09

11.98

Robinia pseudoacacia

5.882

4.00

25.97

35.85

Zizyphus nummularia

5.88

4.00

0.99

10.88

Fragaria indica

16.67

10.52

9.20

36.39

Oxalis corniculata

33.33

38.59

36.57

108.50

Parthenium hysterophorus

41.67

47.36

50.4

139.53

Verbascum thapsus

8.33

3.50

3.715

15.55

Herbs & Grasses

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Table 3.88 - Assessment of Flora on the Site of the Dumping Area IV at Averi
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Calotropis gigantea

25.00

29.99

1.68

56.68

Colebrookia oppositifolia

25.00

20.0

3.00

48.00

Zizyphus nummularia

25.00

29.99

2.54

57.54

Eucalyptus globulus

25.00

20.0

92.66

137.66

Parthenium hysterophorus

75.00

86.84

96.10

257.95

Cynodon dactylon

25.00

13.15

3.84

42.00

Species

Herbs & Grasses

Table 3.89 - Assessment of Flora on the Sites of the Surge Shaft and the Approach Road
to the Surge Shaft
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Adhatoda vasica

25.0

35.55

3.57

64.13

Cannabis sativa

12.5

26.66

1.16

40.33

Carissa spinarum

4.16

2.22

0.17

6.55

Eucalyptus globulus

12.5

8.88

90.0

111.38

Euphorbia royleana

12.5

6.66

3.26

22.43

Opuntia monocantha

8.33

4.44

0.65

13.43

Princepia utilis

8.33

4.44

0.52

13.29

Rumex hastatus

8.33

6.66

0.40

15.40

Saccharum spontaneum

62.5

63.63

32.03

158.17

Zizyphus nummularia

8.33

4.44

0.24

13.01

37.5

36.36

67.96

141.82

Species

Herbs & Grasses

Arundo donax

Table 3.90 - Assessment of Flora on the Sites of the Power House Area & its Approach
Road
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Adhatoda vasica

9.30

11.86

0.32

21.49

Agave Americana

6.97

5.08

2.41

14.4

Ailanthus excelsa

2.32

1.69

3.02

7.04

Cannabis sativa

6.97

10.17

0.16

17.3

Carissa spinerum

4.65

5.08

0.21

9.95

Celtis australis

2.32

1.69

2.60

6.62

Dalbergia sissoo

2.32

1.69

1.29

5.31

Eucalyptus globulus

9.30

11.8

39.0

60.20

Euphorbia royleana

2.32

1.69

0.85

4.87

Ficus palmata

2.32

1.69

3.00

7.02

Girardinia heterophylla

2.32

3.3

0.20

5.9

Grevia sps

2.32

1.69

2.70

6.72

Lantana camara

2.32

6.78

0.10

9.20

Mangifera indica

2.32

1.69

13.52

17.5

Species

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Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Melia azaderach

6.97

5.08

4.50

16.5

Milingtonia hortensis

2.32

1.69

3.43

7.45

Morua alba

2.32

1.69

3.32

7.34

Musa paradisiaca

2.30

1.69

4.21

8.23

Prinsepia utilis

4.65

3.39

0.15

8.19

Prunus communis

4.65

6.78

6.30

17.7

Prunus persica

4.65

3.39

6.01

14.0

Ricinus communis

4.65

3.39

0.09

8.13

Rumex haustatus

4.65

3.3

0.03

8.07

Solanum surattense

2.32

1.69

0.29

4.31

Tamrindus indica

2.32

1.69

2.14

6.16

Arundo donax

11.11

6.89

64.69

82.699

Chenopodium album

11.11

6.897

1.272

19.28

Cynodon dactylon

22.22

31.04

11.35

64.604

Fragaria indica

11.11

13.79

5.875

30.78

Oxalis corniculata

22.22

24.14

6.666

53.02

Trifolium pratense

11.11

13.79

5.525

30.43

Verbascum thapsus

11.11

3.44

4.627

19.187

Species

Herbs & Grasses

Table 3.91 - Assessment of Flora on the Quarry Site at Village Koyal


Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Adhatoda vasica

10.52

6.25

5.16

21.94

Calatropis gigantea

5.263

3.12

0.05

8.44

Eucalyptus globulus

5.263

12.50

12.83

30.60

Euphorbia royleana

10.52

9.37

2.79

22.69

Ficus palmata

5.263

3.12

7.34

15.73

Melia azaderach

10.52

6.25

12.30

29.08

Musa paradisiaca

5.263

6.25

10.97

22.49

Prunus communis

15.78

21.87

34.03

71.69

Prunus persica

10.52

12.50

14.18

37.21

Rumex hastatus

10.52

9.37

0.15

20.05

Zizyphus nummularia

10.52

9.37

0.1

20.05

Argemone mexicana

11.11

10.00

11.52

32.63

Erigeron bellidioides

22.22

15.00

13.65

50.87

Fragaria indica

22.22

20.00

19.36

61.58

Oxalis corniculata

22.22

20.00

18.20

60.42

Sonchus oleraceus

11.11

15.00

15.92

42.03

Tridex procumbens

11.11

20.00

21.36

52.47

Species

Herbs & Grasses

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The Diversity Index for the project-affected area has been calculated. The diversity of the area
is very low. Highest value of diversity index recorded is 1.28 for Powerhouse and approach road
area. For all other sites, the diversity index is below. This indicates that the area is not rich in floral
wealth and represents poor diversity. The diversity index of the project-affected area is given in the
Table 3.92 below.
Table 3.92 - Diversity Index of Projects Directly Affected Area
S.N

SITE

DIVERSITY INDEX (H)


Trees & Shrubs

Grasses & Herbs

Cut and Cover Head Race Tunnel

0.27

0.39

Dumping Area (near Kazo Adit)

0.90

0.58

Dumping Area (near Kunni Adit)

0.97

0.73

Kazo Adit

0.27

0.27

Kazo Job Facility

0.48

0.79

Kazo Approach Road

0.51

0.66

Kuni Adit

0.28

0.29

Goshai Adit

0.34

0.29

Dumping Area (Nirmand Bridge)

0.83

0.46

10

Averi Dumping Area

0.59

0.16

11

Surge Shaft Area (Approach road)

0.78

0.28

12

Power House Area (Approach road, tail race and job facilities)

1.28

0.75

13

Quarry road, Crusher & Job Facilities

0.97

0.76

Tree Felling in the Project: A verification of the trees to be felled fro the project reveled that, of
92.6 % of trees to be felled is Eucalyptus. The Eucalyptus is an exotic species to the natural forests
of the region, and is planted by the Forest Department under degraded forest area development
scheme. Other species reported are commonly distributed throughout the project immediate
influence area and project influence area.
Table 3.93 - List of Trees to be Felled for the Project
Sl.No. Scientific Name

Common Name

Number

Eucalyptus globolus

Safeda

996

Dalbergia sissoo

Shisham

37

Melia azadirach

Dreak

21

Grewia oppositifolia

Biul

Toona ciliata

Tun

Pinus roxburghii

Chir

Morus alba

Mulberry

Acacia leucophloea

Subabul

Salix sp

Willow

10

Ficus palmata

Fedu

Total

1
1075

Source: Tree Cutting Report Rampur Forest Division

None of endangered, rare, threatened or endemic tree is loosed due to felling in project-affected
area. Owing to their common distribution and not having significant ecological status loss, of these

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

species will not significantly affect existing biodiversity status of the either project influence area,
Satluj Basin in general or Himachal Pradesh in totality. It will also not affect the structure
composition, of existing forest types, forest cover or distribution characteristics of flora. Therefore,
adverse impacts on terrestrial biodiversity due to proposed tree felling is not at all expected.

Assessment of Flora of the Immediate Influence Area


Assessment of flora of immediate influence area has been conducted (500m from the projectaffected areas). Random Quadrat sampling has been conducted and site-specific Diversity Index
and Importance Value Index have been derived. The Diversity index is low and maximum value is
1.41. The value of diversity index for trees & shrubs is higher than grasses & herbs. Importance
Value Index (IVI) expresses dominance and ecological success of any species in an area. The flora
of the area is dominated by succulent shrubs such as Agave americana (Rambans), Euphorbia
royleana (Shuru), and Opuntia monocantha (Nagphani) followed by thorny species such as Carissa
spinarum (Karonda), Zizyphus nummularia (Beri), Rubus ellipticus (Hinsar), Solanum surrattense
(Kateli) etc. The assessment of flora depicts that Eucalyptus globules is the dominant tree in the
area followed by Mallotus phillipinenisis and fruit trees of Prunus sps.
Among herbs and grasses Parthenium hysterophorus is dominant species followed by Arundo
donax, Cynodon dactylon, Oxalis corniculata, Tridex procumbens, Erigeron bellidioides, Jasminium
officinalis, Fragaria indica etc. The site wise quantitative assessment of the flora of project affected
sites is presented below in Tables 3.94 to 3.97.
Table 3.94 - Assessment of Flora of the Kunni Area
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Callistemon citrinus

5.40

5.88

7.20

18.44

Dalbergia sissoo

5.40

3.92

9.43

18.76

Eucalyptus globules

5.40

3.92

13.91

23.24

Ficus religiosa

2.70

1.96

2.91

7.57

Ficus palmata

2.70

1.96

3.09

7.75

Ficus roxburghii

2.70

1.96

4.27

8.93

Grevellia robusta

2.70

3.92

12.32

18.95

Mangifera indica

2.70

1.96

17.07

21.73

Mallotus philippinenisis

2.70

1.96

1.43

6.10

Pinus roxburghii

2.70

3.9

12.32

18.95

Prunus communis

5.40

3.92

1.66

10.99

Robinia pseudoacacia

2.70

1.96

3.86

8.52

Adhatoda vasica

5.40

5.88

1.149

12.43

Artemesia vulgaris

5.40

5.88

0.64

11.93

Calotropis gigantea

2.70

1.96

0.21

4.87

Cannabis sativa

2.70

5.88

0.80

9.38

Colebrookia oppositifolia

2.70

1.96

0.36

5.03

Debregeasia hypoleuca

5.40

3.92

1.68

11.00

Dodonaea viscosa

2.70

5.88

1.20

9.79

Girardinia heterophylla

5.40

5.88

1.20

12.49

Lantana camara

2.70

1.96

0.13

4.79

Moriandra strobilifera

2.70

1.96

0.36

5.03

Plectranthus coesta

2.70

3.92

0.40

7.02

Species

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

Princepia utilis

2.70

1.96

0.26

4.93

Rubus ellipticus

5.40

5.88

1.10

12.39

Rumex hastatus

2.70

5.88

0.30

8.88

Woodfordia fruticosa

2.70

1.96

0.50

5.16

Zizyphus nummularia

2.70

1.96

0.10

4.76

Achyranthes aspera

4.54

6.03

15.57

Chenopodium album

4.54

4.05

13.5

Chromolaena odorata

4.54

2.5

1.86

8.90

Erigeron bellidioides

9.09

7.5

5.44

22.03

Fragaria indica

9.09

7.5

7.52

24.11

Heliotropium strigosum

9.09

12.5

10.23

31.82

Oxalis corniculata

9.09

10

7.99

27.08

Sonchus oleraceus

9.09

7.5

5.53

22.12

Tridex procumbens

4.54

2.72

12.27

Species

IVI

Herbs & Grasses

Verbascum thapsus

4.54

4.13

13.67

Jasminium officinalis

13.63

12.5

8.06

34.20

Cynodon dactylon

4.54

2.5

2.49

9.54

Saccharum spontaneum

4.54

7.5

9.10

21.15

Parthenium hysterophorus

9.09

10

24.77

43.86

Table 3.95 - Assessment of Flora of Nirmand Area


Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Acacia leucophloea

3.33

2.27

4.70

10.3

Albizzia lebbek

3.33

2.27

5.30

10.9

Callistemon citrinus

3.33

4.54

5.53

13.4

Cupressus torulosa

3.33

4.54

5.99

13.8

Dalbergia sissoo

3.33

2.27

4.61

10.2

Eucalyptus globulus

3.33

2.27

6.91

12.5

Ficus palmate

3.33

2.27

3.53

9.14

Ficus roxburghii

3.33

2.273

4.88

10.4

Grevellia robusta

3.33

2.273

5.38

10.9

Melia azaderach

3.33

4.545

8.45

16.3

Morus sps

3.33

2.273

5.76

11.3

Pinus roxburghii

6.66

6.818

18.6

32.1

Populus ciliata

3.33

2.273

5.38

10.9

Prunus communis

3.33

4.545

2.30

10.1

Robinia pseudoacacia

3.33

2.273

4.41

10.0

Adhatoda vasica

3.33

4.545

0.87

8.75

Agave Americana

3.33

2.273

0.34

5.95

Artemesia vulgaris

3.33

4.545

0.49

8.37

Cannabis sativa

6.66

9.091

1.22

16.9

Colebrookia oppositifolia

3.33

4.545

0.92

8.80

Debregeasia hypoleuca

3.33

2.273

0.69

2.96

Dodonaea viscosa

3.33

2.273

0.49

6.10

Species

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Euphorbia royleana

3.33

Girardinia heterophylla

3.33

4.545

0.99

8.87

2.273

0.384

5.99

Lantana camara
Plectranthus coesta

3.33

2.273

0.230

5.83

3.33

4.545

0.307

8.18

Princepia utilis

3.33

2.273

0.307

5.91

Rumex hastatus

3.33

4.545

0.3075

8.18

Woodfordia fruticosa

3.33

2.273

0.538

6.14

Achyranthes aspera

3.84

2.632

3.89

10.37

Argemone mexicana

3.84

2.632

5.72

12.21

Chenopodium album

3.84

5.263

4.83

13.94

Echinops echinatus

3.84

2.632

0.01

6.478

Erigeron bellidioides

3.84

2.632

2.16

8.643

Fragaria indica

7.69

10.53

11.91

30.13

Heliotropium strigosum

7.69

7.895

7.31

22.91

Oxalis corniculata

7.69

10.53

9.53

27.75

Sonchus oleraceus

7.69

13.16

10.99

31.85

Tridex procumbens

11.5

7.895

4.87

24.31

Trifolium pratense

7.69

5.263

4.81

17.77

Verbascum thapsus

3.84

2.632

2.17

8.654

Jasminium officinalis

3.84

2.632

2.06

8.54

Cynodon dactylon

3.84

5.263

5.26

14.38

Saccharum spontaneum

11.5

10.53

13.74

35.81

Parthenium hysterophorus

7.69

7.895

10.65

26.24

Species

Herbs & Grasses

Table 3.96 - Assessment of Flora Near Bayal Village


Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Ficus elastica

5.26

3.704

7.648

16.61

Mangifera indica

5.26

3.704

29.08

38.05

Melia azaderach

5.26

3.704

6.373

15.34

Mallotus philippinenisis

5.26

7.407

5.307

17.98

Morus serrata

5.26

3.704

8.633

17.6

Prunus amygradus

5.26

11.11

10.08

26.46

Prunus communis

5.26

7.407

3.476

16.15

Prunus persica

5.26

7.407

5.214

17.88

Syzygium cumini

5.26

3.704

5.62

14.59

Tamarindus indica

5.26

3.704

5.041

14.01

Adhatoda vasica

5.26

7.407

1.321

13.99

Artemesia vulgaris

5.26

7.407

0.746

13.42

Colebrookia oppositifolia

5.26

3.704

0.695

9.662

Debregeasia hypoleuca

5.26

3.704

1.043

10.01

Dodonaea viscosa

5.26

3.704

0.753

9.72

Girardinia heterophylla

5.26

3.704

0.579

9.546

Lantana camara

5.26

7.407

0.695

13.37

Musa paradisiacal

5.26

3.704

7.068

16.04

Species

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

5.26

3.704

0.637

9.604

Achyranthes aspera

8.33

3.704

6.159

18.2

Erigeron bellidioides

8.33

3.704

3.424

15.46

Fragaria indica

16.7

18.52

23.55

58.74

Heliotropium strigosum

8.33

14.81

15.43

38.58

Ocimum basilicum

8.33

7.407

7.609

23.35

Oxalis corniculata

8.33

11.11

11.3

30.75

Tridex procumbens

16.7

25.93

18.01

60.6

Trifolium pratense

8.33

7.407

7.609

23.35

Verbascum thapsus

16.7

7.407

6.884

30.96

Species

Zizyphus nummularia
Herbs & Grasses

Table 3.97 - Assessment of Importance Value Index for Flora near Pashada Forest Area
Relative
Frequency

Relative
Density

Relative
Dominance

IVI

Adhatoda vasica

4.166

5.71

0.95

10.83

Artemesia vulgaris

4.166

5.71

0.55

10.43

Berberies aristata

4.166

2.85

0.35

7.382

Bombax ceiba

4.16

2.85

6.73

13.75

Carissa spinarum

8.333

5.71

0.55

14.60

Celtis australis

4.16

2.85

5.13

12.16

Species

Dalbergia sissoo

4.16

2.85

5.57

12.60

Desmodium tiliaefolium

4.166

2.85

0.27

7.30

Eucalyptus globulus

8.33

5.71

10.04

24.08

Euphorbia royleana

4.166

2.85

0.35

7.38

Grewia oppositifolia

4.166

2.85

5.89

12.92

Lantana camara

4.166

5.71

0.51

10.3

Mallotus philippinenisis

8.333

8.57

6.45

23.35

Moriandra strobilifera

4.16

2.85

0.36

7.39

Pinus roxburghii

12.5

22.8

53.5

88.90

Plectranthus coesta

4.166

5.71

0.70

10.58

Princepia utilis

4.166

2.85

0.55

7.581

Rumex hastatus

4.16

5.71

0.8

10.75

Solanum surattense

4.16

2.8571

0.51

7.54

Achyranthes aspera

7.69

4.34

2.4

14.49

Arundo donax

7.69

4.34

4.28

16.32

Chenopodium album

7.69

8.69

7.35

23.7

Cynodon dactylon

7.69

8.69

9.55

25.94

Echinops echinatus

15.3

13.0

8.82

37.25

Fragaria indica

7.69

13.0

11.3

32.13

Heliotropium strigosum

15.38

13.0

11.7

40.1

Parthenium hysterophorus

15.38

21.739

31.86

68.98

Pteris sps

7.69

4.34

2.4

14.49

Saccharum spontaneum

7.69

8.69

10.04

26.43

Herbs & Grasses

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Mitigation Measures for Impact on Flora and Fauna


A management plan will be prepared by SJVNL along with local administrative authorities for
controlling and reducing the activities related to extraction of timber from the forest. A
compensatory afforestation plan and biodiversity preservation plan will also be prepared by the
SJVNL as mitigatory measures to the impact on biodiversity by the RHEP. Biodiversity Management
Plan as mentioned earlier will be prepared for construction & operation phase of the project that
will mitigate indirect and cumulative impacts on flora and fauna.

3.8

Impact Generated by Construction Activities


Generally many significant impacts are observed during the construction of hydropower projects.
Most construction activities will impact water, air; and will generate noise. Such impacts are
presented with associated mitigation measures in the first part of this section. This second part
deals with specific impacts associated with some of the construction activities, principally with
quarries and borrow sites, work camps, work areas and labour forces, the head race tunnel,the
Power Station and substations and the Downstream Channel. The third part of this section deals
with impacts linked to other specific construction and Project Developments, such the construction
of roads, the Transmission Lines, the impacts associated with resettlement, and the potential
impacts to physical and cultural resources within the construction areas.
Without these specific details, the EIA of these components can only be preliminary in nature and
limited to identifying the major areas of consideration. Although several areas have been identified
the precise location of the construction work camps and work areas are yet to be determined. For
spoil disposal sites, quarry sites and construction work camps and work areas, a plan detailing the
locations, designs and environmental safeguards will be prepared by construction contractors
Environmental Management and Monitoring team. A discussion of quarry sites, spoil deposal, and
construction work camp areas is included below to present the framework within which the
activities will be determined and to provide general information on location which has been
identified as possible sites.
The environmental management plan for construction activities will define best practices for a
number of relevant areas. It will also need to have a number of sub-plans for implementing
protection and mitigation measures addressing all environmental impacts created by the
construction activities. In addition, a number of monitoring programmes will be developed to
ensure that the impacts during construction are effectively mitigated and controlled. Currently, the
environmental requirements established by SJVNL on the construction contractor to minimize
construction impacts on the environment.

3.8.1

Water Quality Impacts & Mitigation


Baseline
The water of river Satluj in the project area is slightly alkaline, soft in nature and is relatively free
from organic pollution load and fluoride. The dissolved oxygen is high in the river. The reason for
good quality can be ascribed to high water flow, low temperature and absence of any industrial
activity. Faecal contamination is generally low except near areas where local population resides.
River water is relatively free from heavy metal contamination except Mercury at one location in the
project area near intake structure at Jhakri outfall.

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Sources and Type of Impacts


The major sources of construction related impacts on water quality will be from erosion of the
disturbed area required for the construction activities (construction sites, concrete batch plants,
material storage areas, vehicle maintenance areas, disposal areas), from waste water discharge
from the construction labour camps and from contaminated water (oil, grease, petro chemicals,
cement and chemicals) resulting from various construction activities. The primary impact is the
potential for introducing sediments and pollutants to the adjacent river body during the period of
construction, thereby affecting aquatic habitats, fishes and water source for residents and wildlife
downstream of the construction areas.

Mitigation
The project authority will be required to prepare several plans, including an Erosion and Sediment
control Plan, and Water Quality Monitoring Plan, incorporating the following key points:

Water management plans will comprise of the development of drainage works, sediment
traps, diversions, culverts and other structures designed to treat water to an acceptable
quality before discharge into the natural water courses. All structures will be in place prior
to beginning the construction of the facilities.

All runoff from the construction areas, including from concrete batch plants, will be
directed to sediment settling areas. Erosion control facilities will be installed throughout
the construction areas and will include silt traps, fences and sedimentation basins where
appropriate, depending upon the size of the catchment. The sediment settling basin will
have adequate storage capacity and will be regularly inspected, with accumulated
sediments removed throughout the construction period.

Catch drains, diversion drains, table drains, windrows and associated drop down will
direct site run off to established watercourses. These will be inspected regularly for any
damage caused by sourcing, sediment deposition, channel obstruction and loss of
vegetation cover, and all erosion control measures will be maintained.

Soil and spoil removed from the construction areas will be stockpiled separately and
stabilized with grasses or other vegetations

Treatment facilities to remove oil and grease from the water before discharge to the river
will be installed. This will be of particular importance for the runoff from the Vehicle
maintenance areas. Monitoring of oil and grease skimmers will be made throughout the
construction period.

Refueling of heavy equipment and machinery will be undertaken with appropriate


safeguards and protection measures to prevent spillage or contamination by chemicals or
maintenance oils and lubricants. All fuel and hazardous materials will be stored in such a
way as to minimize the potential for spills(chemical waste/spillage Management Plan,
Emergency plan for Hazardous materials of RHEP)

Waste water treatment plants will be installed to treat all waste water generated from the
labour camps and other facilities associated with the construction of the project

Any use of Synthetic chemicals will have to be done in accordance with the RHEP
Chemical waste/Spillage Management Plan.

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3.8.2

Air Quality Impacts & Mitigation


Baseline
The study area mainly comprises rural environment. Sources of air pollution affecting the region
currently are vehicular traffic, dust arising from unpaved village roads and domestic fuel burning.
The air environment around project site is free from any significant pollution source. Therefore,
Ambient air quality is quite good in and around the project area. Ambient air monitoring was
undertaken in the project area in post monsoon season in the year 2004. Monitoring established
that air quality parameters conform to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for residential
and rural areas. Maximum level of NOx and SO2 was observed as 9.4 g/m3 and 7.1 g/m3
respectively. SPM and RSPM were found to have maximum value of 105 g/m3 and 44 g/m3
respectively. See Table 3.99.
The National Ambient Air Quality Standard by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is presented
in Table 3.98.
Table 3.98 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards
Pollutants

Time weighted Average

SO2
NOx
SPM
RPM

Industrial Area
(g/m3)

Residential Area
(g/m3)

Sensitive Area
(g/m3)

Annual Average *

80

60

15

24 hours **

120

80

30

Annual *

80

60

15

24 hours **

120

80

30

Annual *

360

140

70

24 hours **

500

200

100

Annual *

120

60

50

24 hours **

150

100

75

* Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.
** 24 hourly/8hourly values should be met 98th percentile of the time in a year. However, 2% of the time, it may exceed
but not on two consecutive days.
NOTE 1: National Ambient Air Quality Standards: the levels of air quality with an adequate margin of safety, to protect the
public health, vegetation and property.
NOTE 2: Whenever and wherever two consecutive values exceeds the limit specified above for the respective category, it
would be considered adequate reason to institute regular/continuous monitoring and further investigation.
Source: S.O. 384 (E), Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 dated April 11, 1994
and [EPA Notification: GSR 176 (E), April 2, 1996]

Table 3.99 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Data


Post-monsoon Season (September 2004), (Unit: g/m3)
Station

NOx

SO2

RPM

SPM

Rampur

7.2

6.1

39

92

8.2

6.9

40

102

9.4

6.8

44

105

7.2

BDL

38

97

6.7

BDL

38

96

9.4

7.1

36

92

8.0

BDL

38

99

7.1

6.4

40

104

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Station
Village Bael

NOx

SO2

RPM

SPM

8.2

6.2

36

87

8.2

BDL

38

95

8.6

BDL

40

101

7.8

6.7

40

103

8.2

6.7

38

97

8.1

6.9

40

104

7.9

BDL

40

101

7.8

BDL

38

94

BDL: Below Detectable Limit (6 g/m for SO2)

The maximum, minimum and the average values for different air quality paramters have been
calculated and presented below for easy reference.
Table 3.100 - Maximum, Minimum, Average Values of NOx, SO2, SPM, RPM in Ambient
Air
Post-Monsoon Season (Unit: gm3)
Station

Average

Maximum

Minimum

Nitrogen Oxides
Rampur

7.9

9.4

6.7

Village Bael

8.1

8.6

7.8

Rampur

4.1

7.1

BDL

Village Bael

3.3

6.9

BDL

Sulphurdioxide

Suspended Particulate Matter


Rampur

98.3

105

92

Village Bael

97.75

104

87

Respirable Particulate Matter


Rampur

39.1

44

36

Village Bael

38.75

40

36

* Below Detectable Limit (BDL) for SO2 is 6 g/m3


* Average values have estimated excluding values Below Detectable Limit.

Observations on Ambient NOX Levels


The highest average NOx value of 8.1g/m3 was observed at Rampur in postmonsoon season.
The highest value of 9.4 g/m3 too was observed at the same station. The NOx level as monitored
by HP State Environment Protection & Pollution Control Board ranges from 5.24 to 26.34g6/m3.
The NOx level observed at various sampling stations in the project and the study area was much
lower than the permissible limit of 80g/m3, specified for residential and rural areas.
Observation on ambient SO2 levels
The maximum SO2 level of 7.1 g/m3 was observed at Rampur. Quite a few values were observed
to be below detectable limit (BDL) of 6 g/m3 during the survey conducted in post-monsoon
season. The average SO2 levels as observed by HP State Environment Protection & Pollution

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Control Board ranges from 1.84 to 9.42g/m3. The SO2 level observed at various stations was much
lower than the permissible limit of 80 g/m3 specified for residential and rural areas.
Observations on Ambient SPM levels
The maximum SPM level of 105g/m3 was observed at Rampur. At all the ambient air quality
monitoring stations, the SPM level was much below the permissible limit of 200g/m3, specified for
residential and rural areas.
Observations on Ambient RPM levels
The average RPM levels as observed at the two stations in the study area ranged from 38.75 to
39.1g/m3 in post monsoon season. The highest RPM level observed was 44 g/m3. All the values
of RPM monitored during the field survey were well within the permissible limit of 100 g/m3
specified for residential and rural areas.
Source and Types of Impacts
Vehicles and stationary equipment will impact air quality at the construction site through emissions
from the engines. Additionally quarry site activities including operation of crushers, concrete batch
plants, construction work and movement of vehicles along unpaved road will generate dust &
gaseous emission and impact air quality. The burning of waste will also affect air quality. In
absence of proper fuel, construction workers at the project site may use wood for fuel burning.
This will impact air quality.
Mitigation
Maintenance of vehicles and stationary equipment in good working order will reduce negative
impacts on air quality. Spraying water on roadways and other activity areas where there is
potential for dust emission will control dust. The burning of waste will be done in designated areas
away from settlement. Burning of wood for fuel purposes by the construction workers and any
other material, which produces toxic gases, will not be allowed. The construction contractor will
prepare an Emission and dust control plan.

3.8.3

Noise Impacts & Mitigation


Baseline
The project area is calm and peaceful with negligible high sound activity. The noise survey results
for the project area are well within the upper limit prescribed by the National Ambient Noise
Standards for residential area. The noise level at various sampling stations ranged from 32 to 44
dBA.
The noise levels at Jhakri, Near Rampur Bridge and Bael were monitored in the month of
September 2004. These two locations would be potentially affected the most by high noise
activities of the project. Monitoring was done only during daytime since the noise levels observed
were quite low, almost close to lowest permissible standard i.e. night time in silence zone; hence
measuring noise level during night time was not considered important from study point of view.
The day time monitoring was carried out continuously for 12 hours, at each location and hourly
equivalent noise level(Leq) was measured. The results are summarized in Table 3.101. Table 3.102
presents ambient noise standard prescribed by the CPCB.

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Table 3.101 - Hourly Equivalent Noise Levels in the Project Area


[unit: db(A)]
Jhakri

Near rampur Bridge

Bael

8 -9 AM

Time

34

32

32

9-10 AM

38

39

34

10-11 AM

36

38

32

11 AM - 12 Noon

34

38

34

1 2 PM

35

38

34

2 3 PM

34

37

34

3 4 PM

38

36

34

4 5 PM

37

30

35

5 6 PM

38

31

35

6 7 PM

34

38

33

7 8 PM

33

38

33

8 9 PM

32

38

32

Table 3.102 - Ambient Noise Standards


Area Code

Category of Area

Limits in dB (A) Leq


Day time

Night time

Industrial Area

75

70

Commercial Area

65

55

Residential Area

55

45

Silence Zone

50

40

NOTE 1:

Day time - 6 AM and 9 PM;

Night time is 9 PM and 6 AM

NOTE 2: Silence zone is defined as areas upto 100 metres around such premises as hospitals, educational
institutions and courts. The silence zones are to be declared by competent authority. Use of vehicular horns,
loadspeakers and bursting of crackers shall be banned in these zones.
Source: Environment (Protection) Third Amendment Rules, 2000 Gazettee notification, Government of India, date 14.2.2000.

Source and Types of Impacts


Sources of noise will be the vehicles and equipment for excavation and stationary equipment,
including concrete batch plant located at the construction sites. Other sources of noise will be the
use of explosives for blasting purposes for construction activities, drilling machines and quarrying
and crushing activities.
Construction Equipment: Under the worst case scenario, considered for prediction of noise
levels during construction phase, it has been assumed that all these equipment generate noise
from a common point. The increase in noise levels due to operation of the different construction
equipment are given in Table 3.103.
It would be worthwhile to mention here that in absence of the data on actual location of the
different construction equipment, all the equipment have been assumed to operate at a common
point. This assumption leads to over-estimation of the increase in noise levels. Also, it is a known
fact that there is a reduction in noise level as the sound wave passes through a barrier. The
transmission loss values for common construction materials are given in Table 3.105.

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Table 3.103 - Noise Level due to Operation of Construction Equipment


Equipment

Noise level dB(A)

Earth moving

Equipment

Noise level dB(A)

Materials handling

Compactors

70-72

Concrete mixers

75-85

Front loaders

72-82

Movable cranes

82-84

Backhoes

72-92

Tractors

76-90

Stationary

Scrappers, graders

82-90

Pumps

68-70

Pavers

86-88

Generators

85-90

Truck

84-90

Compressors

75-85

Vibrators

69-81

Others
Saws

74-81

Table 3.104 - Increase in Noise Levels due to Operation of Construction Equipment


Distance
(m)

Ambient noise
levels dB(A)

Increase in noise
level due to
construction
activities dB(A)

Noise level due to


construction
activities

Increase in ambient noise


level due to construction
activities

dB(A)

dB(A)

100

40

76

76

36

200

40

70

70

30

500

40

62

62

22

1000

40

56

56

16

1500

40

52

52

12

2000

40

50

50

10

2500

40

48

49

3000

40

46

47

Table 3.105 - Transmission Loss through Common Construction Materials


Material

Thickness of construction
material (inches)

Decrease in noise level


dB(A)

38

39

Light concrete
Dense concrete

40

Concrete block

32

36

Brick

33

Granite

40

Thus, the walls of various houses will attenuate at least 30dB(A) of noise. In addition there is
attenuation due to the following factors:

Air absorption

Rain

Atmospheric inhomogeneties.

Vegetation cover

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Table 3.106 - Increase in Noise Levels due to Increased Vehicular Movement


Distance (m)

Ambient noise level


dB(A)

Increase in noise Noise levels due to Increase in ambient


level due to
increased vehicular noise level due to
increased vehicular movement dB(A) increased vehicular
movement dB(A)
movement dB(A)

10

40

72

72

32

20

40

67

67

27

50

40

61

61

21

100

40

57

57

17

200

40

52

52

12

500

40

46

47

1000

40

42

44

As mentioned earlier, there will be significant attenuation due to various factors, e.g. absorption by
construction material, air absorption, atmospheric inhomogeneties, and vegetation cover. Thus, no
significant impact on this account is anticipated.
Noise Generated due to Drilling: The noise levels monitored at a 10m distance from the source
and operators cabin is given in Table 3.107.
Table 3.107 - Noise Generated due to Drilling
Equipment

Noise level at source dB(A)

Standing idle (inside cabin)

70-72

Standing idle (10 m radius)

72-74

On load (inside cabin)

78-80

On load (10 m radius)

82-84

The noise levels during various construction activities have been compared to various standards
prescribed by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which are being implemented
in our country through rules framed under Factories Act. It can be observed that for an 8 hour
duration, equivalent noise level exposure should be less than 90dB(A).
The Director General of Mines Safety in its Circular number DG(Tech)/18 of 1975, has prescribed
the noise level in mining operations for workers in 8 hour shift period with unprotected ear as
90dB(A) or less. Similar norms can be considered for construction phase of the proposed project as
well. The workers who are expected to be exposed to noise levels greater than 90dB(A), should
work in these areas upto 6 to 8 hours. In addition, they also need to be provided with ear plugs.
Thus, increased noise levels due to drilling are not expected to adversely affect the workers
operating the drill or involved in other mining activities closely.

Noise Generated due to Blasting: Noise generated by blasting is instantaneous in nature. Noise
generated due to blasting is site specific and depends on type, quantity of explosives, dimension of
drill hole, degree of compaction of explosives in the hole and rock. Noise levels generated due to
blasting have been monitored at various sites and the results have been summarized in Table
3.108.

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Table 3.108 - Noise Generation due to Blasting


No. of holes

Total charge (kg)

Maximum charge/delay (kg)

Distance (m)

Noise level dB(A)

15

1500

100

250

76-85

17

1700

100

250

76-86

18

1800

100

250

74-85

19

1900

100

400

70-75

20

2000

100

100

76-80

It can be observed from Table 3.108 that noise level due to blasting operations are expected to be
of the order of 75-86 dB(A). Since, the nearest settlement is atleast 1 km away, the incremental
noise due to blasting is expected to be 50-60dB(A). As the blasting is likely to last for 4 to 5
seconds depending on the charge, noise levels over this time would be instantaneous and short in
duration. Considering attenuation due to various sources, even the instantaneous increase in noise
level is not expected to be more than 60dB(A). Hence, noise level due to blasting is not expected to
cause any significant adverse impact.
Impacts due to Ground Vibrations: The explosive energy generated during blasting sets up a
seismic wave within the surface, which may affect the structures and cause discomfort to human
population. When an explosive charge is fired in a hole, stress waves traverse in various directions,
causing the rock particles to oscillate. Blasting also generates ground vibrations and instantaneous
noise. Various measures have been recommended to minimize the adverse impacts due to blasting:

Proper design of blast hole to be developed.

Use of noiseless trunk delays to minimize the noise due to air blast.

Use of non-electric system of blasting for true bottom-hole initiation.

Use of muffling mats to arrest the dust and fly rock.

Noise in and around the construction site will likely affect the wildlife and potentially residents in
the nearby areas. Wildlife in the area will likely move away from the noise and eventually return to
the area when construction is complete. However, there is no major wildlife observed in and
around the construction site and hence this may not be a significant issue.
Impacts on Labour: The effect of high noise levels on the operating personnel has to be
considered as this may be particularly harmful. It is known that continuous exposures to high noise
levels above 90dB(A) affects the hearing acuity of the workers/operators and hence, should be
avoided. To prevent these effects, it has been recommended by Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) that the exposure period of affected persons be limited as in Table 3.109.
Table 3.109 - Maximum Exposure Periods Specified by OSHA
Maximum equivalent continuous noise level
dB(A)

Unprotected exposure period per day for 8 hrs/day


and 5 days/week

90

95

100

110

120

No exposure permitted at or above this level

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Mitigation
Maintenance of the vehicles and construction machinery in good working order and installation of
noise mufflers on all engines will reduce the noise nuisance.
Exposure period of noise affected operation personnel will be limited. This will reduce any adverse
impact on their health
To reduce the impact of noise on wildlife, explosives will be used during the daylight hours when
wildlife is less active than during night time.
The construction contractor will prepare a Noise Control Plan to manage noise pollution.
3.8.4

Quarries
Cement, coarse and fine aggregate, sand will be required for various project uses, such as road
base for the new roads, as well as for works involving concrete constructions. The project requires
about 2.72-lac m3 coarse aggregates and 1.38 lac m3 fine aggregate. The excavated material of the
Headrace tunnel (between Kajo and Kunni khads) will be used as coarse aggregates meeting
partial requirement of the project. The remaining requirements of coarse and fine aggregates will
be met from the already existing (same quarry was used during Nathpa Jhakri Project)Koel Quarry,
located near Bael on right bank of river Satluj near Kurpan Khad on NH-22 about 2 km from the
power house site. Sufficient quantity of deposits is available. The barren government land available
in the vicinity of Koel quarry area will accommodate crushing plant and other accessories required
for quarrying purpose.
Types of impacts
Opening of the quarries will cause visual impacts because they remove a significant part of the
hills. Other impacts will be the noise generated during aggregate acquisition through explosive and
crushing, which could affect wildlife in the area, dust produced during the crushing operation to get
the aggregates to the appropriate size and transport of the aggregates, and transport of materials
to the nearby rivers.
Mitigation
Standard mitigation measures against erosion and sedimentation, noise and air pollution will be
taken, in particular for the use of explosive. At the end of the exploitation, quarries will be
rehabilitated. This will include re-establishment of vegetation, restoration of natural watercourses,
avoidance of flooding of the excavated areas, achievement of stable slopes, and avoidance of
features, which would otherwise constitute a risk to health and safety or a source of environmental
pollution.

3.8.5

Muck Generation & Disposal


Types of Impacts
The Project will generated approximately 2.76 lacs m3 of muck which will be disposed off at four
designated dumping sites having a total capacity of 2.82 lac m3. The details of the muck dumping
sites are explained in tablexx below.
The proposed project at Rampur is expected to generate approx. 2.85 million m3 of muck, which is
proposed to be disposed at the following designated sites:

near Kajo adit

near Kunni adit

dumping area in Nermand

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dumping area in Bael

These sites have been identified at right bank of the river, close to four edits of proposed tunnel so
as to minimise the risks involved in terms of affecting human settlements due to blow of dust and
frequent movement of heavy vehicles. The sites need attention in terms of surface preparation and
fencing of boundaries to avoid environmental risks i.e. land sliding, sedimentation of river, air
pollution, etc. An area of 18.3593 ha has been earmarked for disposal of muck. The details are
given as below.
Table 3.110 Requirement of Muck Disposal Area
Sl. no.

Land

Area

1.

Private land in tehsil Nirmand

2.

Government land

Total

3.8446 ha
14.5147 ha
18.3593 ha

Table 3.111 - Details of Identified Dumping Areas


Quantity of Dump mm3

S.N.

Dumping Area

Description of Area

Dumping area - I

Opposite Kaneri Hospital, Rampur

1.05

Dumping area II

Opposite HERC workshop, Rampur

0.06

Dumping area - III

D/S Nirmand Bridge

0.38

Dumping area- IV

Averi

1.32

These sites are located on the right bank of Satluj river, close to four edits of Head Race Tunnel
(HRT). The locations are favourable in minimising the risks to human settlements due to blow of
dust and frequent movement of heavy vehicles.
Mitigation Measures
The sites of muck disposal will be provided with surface preparation and fencing of boundaries to
avoid risks such as land sliding, sedimentation of river, dust pollution. A retaining wall will be
constructed at site before to prevent accidental dumping of spoil in the river. Rehabilitation of the
site will be undertaken for used disposal sites. This will include re-establishment of vegetation,
restoration of natural water courses, achievement of stable slopes, and avoidance of features which
would otherwise constitute a risk to health and safety or a source of environmental pollution.
A suitable plan for muck dumping schedule will be prepared by the construction contractor before
the start of construction work so as to control muck disposal activity in environment friendly
manner. Figure 3.37 shows pictures of identified dump sites.

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Figure 3.37 Muck Dumping Sites identified by SJVNL

Site 1- Near Kajo Adit

Site 2- Near Kunni Adit

Site 3- Near Village Nermand

Site 4- Near Village Bael

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3.8.6

Work Camps, Work Areas & Labour Force Impacts & Mitigation
Suitable zones will be identified for potential construction camp development to accommodate a
maximum construction worker population of approximately 4000 workers. It is expected that small
businesses and their families will move to the proximity of the work camps and are expected to be
higher in number than that of workers formally employed by the project.
Impacts
Potential impacts from the workforce and of the spontaneous development, at the work camps in
all construction areas, will be in terms of additional pressure on land and natural resources
including hunting near the camps and, directly and indirectly on project influence area. It is
expected that the spontaneous development will generate solid and liquid wastes. Additionally, the
spontaneous development near the construction camps could create public health risks, included an
increase in the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.
Without treatment of wastewater from the work camps and the adjacent communities could cause
water quality problems in the adjacent water bodies, and could affect local populations, the labour
force, new communities, and fish populations. Inappropriate solid waste disposal could lead to the
contamination of the soil and rivers, and the spread of communicable diseases.
Mitigation
The environmental management of construction work camps and spontaneous settlement areas will
be specified in the Environmental Management Plan for Construction Work Camps and
Spontaneous Settlement Areas . It will be made part of the contractual arrangement with
contractors. Hunting will be completely prohibited in the area by the rule of law. Project Staff
Health Programme will be established to educate and provide health services to the workforce
relative to the prevention and control of diseases vectors, communicable and sexually transmitted
diseases. Licenses to operate small businesses will be made conditional upon appropriate disposal
of wastewater, waste and good sanitary conditions. The same environmental provisions that apply
to other construction areas will also apply to the construction work camps.

3.8.7

Construction of Headrace Tunnel Impacts & Mitigation


Construction of the headrace tunnel will occur on the right bank of satluj River. Construction will
involve excavation of materials from the headrace channel and the tunnel. A section of the area will
be cleared of vegetation and overburden.
Impacts
Excavation of the headrace tunnel to the Power Station will involve movement of vehicles and the
use of excavating equipment, explosives and other types of machinery.
A primary Impact of this construction will be placement of spoils removed from the tunnel. The
clearing of the area and muck disposal will be source of impact.
The concrete batch plant will be used to mix the concrete necessary for lining the tunnel and for
the lining of the surge chambers. Placement of the concrete for the lining of the tunnel and surge
chamber will require movement of vehicles to the various locations. Installation of the concrete
batch plant could create some impacts associated with air quality, water quality and noise.
Movement of vehicles bringing aggregate to the batch plant from the quarry could also create some
similar impacts.

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Mitigation
Standard construction impacts will be mitigated as required by the various environmental
management plans to be prepared by the SJVNL (air quality, water quality, noise, spoil disposal).
3.8.8

Construction of the Power House and Tailrace Channel - Impacts & Mitigation
Construction of the Power House and the Tailrace Channel will have similar impacts to those
identified for the Headrace Tunnel. The main potential sources of impacts include

Disturbance of land

Disposal of spoil material

Operation of construction equipment

Impacts
During construction of the power station, a certain amount of land will be disturbed. The power
Station switchyard and substation construction will require the clearing of forest. Disposal of the
spoil materials will be required The major potential impact of the cleared areas in the construction
and spoil disposal areas includes the potential for erosion and the runoff of cement, oils, and
grease, particularly during the wet seasons. The potential impacts of additional sediment and the
discharge of cement, oils and grease to the streams include damage to fish populations and
pollution of water sources for residents living downstream from the construction areas.
Mitigation
Mitigation measures for prevention of contamination of the local water courses will be similar to
those described in earlier sections and will be enumerated in detail in Environmental management
Plan to be prepared by the construction contractor.
3.8.9

Road Construction Impacts & Mitigation


The project involves upgrading public roads and the construction of new roads and three of bridges
(mainly one spanning 75mts steel bridge at Jhakri near NJHEP power house, one 125 mts concrete
near RHEP power house and one permanent steel bridge at Kunni Khad). In addition, access roads
and tracks, some of them of a temporary nature, will be constructed between public roads and
project facilities to enable construction, operation and maintenance. This section presents an
assessment of the environment that will be impacted by road construction and a discussion on the
potential direct and indirect environmental impacts from the construction and use of the roads.
Finally Mitigation strategies and measures will be discussed
Impact
Upgrading of roads will not cause significant environmental impact over and above that of the
existing roads, with the exception of impacts that will occur during the upgrading construction
activities. Safeguards to ensure that road upgrades will not generate additional disturbance to the
environment and will remedy any existing poor environmental performance will be included in
various sub-plans of the environmental management plans which cover erosion control,
landscaping and best practices in drainage and earthworks.
The planning of design routes for the new roadways will incorporate inputs from ground surveys to
minimize social and environmental impacts and to provide for the best technical and financial
solution. A formal alternatives analysis has not been conducted for the siting of the new roadways
as the proposed routings have proved to be highly suitable, with expected low environmental and
social impacts.

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Environmental impacts include both direct impacts at the road construction sites and in the
immediate surroundings, and indirect impacts in the adjoining area, such as induced economic,
social or environmental effects, whether planned or spontaneous, which are the results of
increased accessibility and lower transportation costs.
Vegetation clearance, erosion and sedimentation, dust and impacts related to construction workers
will have similar impacts as mentioned in earlier sections. Additionally, disturbance to crops will
occur in areas near the roads. Traffic on the roads during construction and during operation might
cause accidents with livestock moving on the roads.
Mitigation measures are similar to the mitigation measures described above, and for impacts on
crops, the mitigation measures are discussed in the sections below. For details, refer EMP (Chapter
4).
Indirect and Cumulative Impacts on Natural Resources
The improved year round access to the whole project area from new and upgraded roads will
enable people to settle in the area.Use of the improved access will enable movement from one area
to another. This translates into the development of roadside villages, and a potential increased
pressure on the natural resources in the vicinity of the roads. The increased pressure will include
uncontrolled logging, hunting, and fishing, wildlife and non-timber forest product collection,
livestock husbandry, the shifting cultivation in forest areas and forest fires. These impacts are
expected during the economic development of the Satluj basin, and are expected to be managed
by the basin level catchment area treatment plan, and the proposed Environmental Master Plan for
the state.
Interference with Movements of Wildlife
Road construction, human presence and traffic will interfere with the natural movement of wild life.
However, RHEP area does not have significant wildlife movement.
Mitigation
Mitigation measures for road construction and upgrading are summarized in the EMP.
3.8.10

Transmission System - Impacts & Mitigation


The clearance of vegetation for construction, cutting of lopping trees within Right of Way and
access roads required for routine maintenance of the easements are the main impacts associated
with he transmission lines. Loss of socially relevant properties and lands are social issues generated
by transmission projects.
Mitigation Measures
The development of certain protocol will be required so as to minimize disturbance, through
alternative routes, or least damaging route. The following protocol will be used for routing the
transmission lines:

The route will not involve any human habitation and public utility services; The route will
not affect any monument of cultural or historical importance;

The proposed route will not threaten the survival of any community, especially tribal
communities; The route will not pass through any sanctuaries, National park, or similar
ecologically fragile areas, etc.

A comprehensive transmission route planning will be done based on the survey of the project area
so as to meet the above-mentioned protocol.

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3.9

Other Environmental Impacts on the Communities


The resettlement issues are not discussed in this EA/EMP Report. Refer the Social Assessment
Reports Prepared. The following sections

3.9.1

Impacts on Human Health


The influx of people into the area is associated with an augmented risk of transmission diseases,
including sexually transmitted diseases.More traffic on the roads during construction and operation
could increase accidents within communities living adjacent to the roads. Aquatic invertebrates
known to be vectors of disease could inhabit stagnant water created during construction of roads.
The increased prevalence of such diseases may impact the health of communities and the
construction workforce.
The findings of the village level surveys, data collected from the Health Department and
Government hospital, Rampur doesnot indicate the prevalence of water borne diseases in the area.
However, during summers (April-July) about 50 cases on an average have been recorded related to
Gastroenteritis, Diarrhea and Dysentery from the study area. Information has been collected from
Rampur Hospital for the area (Table 3.112).
Table 3.112 - Leading Causes of Premature Mortality in Himachal Pradesh, 2003
Male Population

Female Population

Road accident

12.75

Diarrhoeal diseases

13.25

Diarrhoeal diseases

10.77

Other unintentional injuries

11.32

Other unintentional injuries

9.34

Road accident

9.67

Ischaemic heart diseases

9.09

Lower birth weight

9.23

Tuberculosis

6.54

Tuberculosis

8.32

Lower birth weight

5.85

Ischaemic heart diseases

7.87

Self inflicted injury

5.78

Self inflicted injury

7.44

Other unintentional injuries

5.48

Other unintentional injuries

6.23

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

4.12

Other digestive diseases

4.82

Other digestive diseases

3.32

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

3.55

Source: Department of Health & Family Welfare, Himachal Pradesh

Table 3.113 - Leading Causes of Disability in Himachal Pradesh, 2003


Male Population

Female Population

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

26.09

Iron deficiency anaemia

20.13

Iron deficiency anemia

14.19

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

17.15

Other unintentional injuries

12.24

Diarrhoeal diseases

13.04

Dental caries

7.08

Other unintentional injuries

12.68

Diarrhoeal diseases

6.15

Other infectious diseases

11.64

Asthma

5.92

Dental caries

7.31

Other unintentional injuries

5.23

Asthma

5.87

Upper Respiratory Infection

4.80

Tuberculosis

5.61

Lower Respiratory Infection

3.24

Road accident

5.38

Otitis media

2.28

Upper Respiratory Infection

4.78

Source: Department of Health & Family Welfare, Himachal Pradesh

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The common leading causes of disability (YLD) in both sexes of Himachal Pradesh are obstructive
pulmonary disease, iron deficiency anemia, diarrhoeal disease, and other unintentional injuries as
shown in Table 3.113.
The information on prevalent disease for the area has been collected from Khaneri Government
Hospital, Rampur and is in Table 3.114 below:
Table 3.114 - Disease Profile in the Influence Area of the Project, 2005
Name of Disease

Jan

Feb

March

April

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov.

G.Entritirs

12

15

15

21

Diarrhoea

Dec

42

31

44

27

10

14

10

10

Dysentry

Pneumia

10

11

Br. Pneumia

14

10

11

na

na

Br. Asthma

11

na

na

na

na

COPD*

36

31

48

38

29

11

16

25

31

29

29

12

PGO

15

12

15

13

13

AOD**

27

* COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; ** AOD: Arteriosclerotic occlusive disease


Source: Khaneri Government Hospital, Rampur

The construction activities that are taking place because of the hydropower project in the area will
involve the engagement of a work force in the area, thus changing the population density and
increasing the floating population during construction activities. This may result in a change in the
existing health scenario due to increased pressure on existing infrastructure i.e. water supply
sources, sanitation, etc. The additional domestic sewage generated may cause increased
contamination of river water.
Lesser flow in the river due to diversion of flow may affect the dispersion and dilution time of
domestic effluent coming from major settlements, such as Rampur town, along the river, hence,
measures to maintain the levels as stated in the HPPB Standards are required. Further, due to
lesser river flow, algal growth may occur along the river stretch in the study area, which on decay
creates foul taste and odour thus making the river water unfit for use.
The diversion of water into the tunnel at Jhakri will cause a change in the velocity in river water
flow and due to this, mosquitoes may establish during lean seasons. Thus, pre and post
measurements should be identified to avoid such a situation.
Mitigation
At present, the river is not a source of drinking water for the habitants as ample natural water
sources i.e. natural springs (chashme), perennial/seasonal streams are present in the region.
However, looking at the present scenario of hydroelectric power project development on river
Satluj and indirect impacts coming on natural water sources due to extensive blasting process, in
long term (how long), natural sources may get dried up. In this case, river will be the alternative
source of water thus river ecology and flow conditions cannot be compromised. Minimum desired
quality standards for the river as specified by the Himachal State Pollution Control Board should be
maintained.
Following actions could be initiated for community health outreach programs to emphasize longterm improvements in regions health status:

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Augment existing government and NGO health programs.

Place high priority on health education for local project workers and community residents.

Vaccination programs - meningitis, tuberculosis & tetanus

HIV/AIDS Risk Level


Hydroelectric projects may cause spread of HIV/AIDS in the project area due to following reasons:

Project requires long-term input of labour from outside the area.

Project requires that significant numbers of project employees be separated from their
families for long periods of time (e.g. a month or more at a time).

Project involves the creation of large, temporary construction camp(s).

Increases mobility of people in and out of the area (job seekers, formal and informal
service providers).

Requires participation / resettlement of the local population.

Potential Management Interventions for HIV/AIDS


Following are the proposed management interventions to prevent HIV transmission and to manage
the impact of HIV/AIDS:
Specific HIV prevention activities:

HIV/STDs/AIDS awareness centres for IEC (information, education and communication)


activities.

Peer education programmes within the workforce.

Condoms provision.

Training of health personnel, social marketing of condoms, technical and material support
to STD clinics, etc.

Integration of HIV/AIDS into thematic projects (e.g. emergency training).

Workers periodically brought out of the field with pay to receive health and safety
training.

Specific HIV/AIDS management & mitigation activities:

Voluntary counseling and testing for education, free condoms and screening for sexually
transmitted diseases.

Treatment of opportunistic infections.

Provision for ART (Anti-Retroviral Treatment).

Medical Aid policies for workforce.

Addressing vulnerability of the workforce:

Adjust labour recruitment policies to (i) support better distribution across gender groups,
(ii) promote use of local labour.

Improve labour housing to accommodate families and enhance integration into the local
community.

Recreation provision.

Remittance provision.

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Labour transport.

There needs to be meaningful consultation with local communities so that management measures
are culturally appropriate locally, and will have community support. The HIV/AIDS/STD
management plans should be compatible with and integrated with local, and state initiatives, and
be implemented in consultation with State AIDS Control Society.
3.9.2

Impacts of Downstream Hazards


A water level profile has been plotted for a hypothetical 1500 cumecs flood for the reach between
Nathpa to Bael and is shown below in Figure 3.38.
Figure 3.38 - Water Level along the River at a Flow of 1500 cumec

1600

1400

1200

1000

Water Level - RL (m)


800

600

400

200

Nathpa-Jhakri

Jhakri- Bael

0
0

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

Distance (m)

Based on the above profile, it is inferred that between Nathpa to Jhakhri stretch, no habitation
would be vulnerable as the habitation is at much above elevations along the hill slopes. However,
in the downstream reach of Jhakhri to Bael, the major habitation like Rampur, Nogli and Duttnagar
are most vulnerable to flooding. An emergency action will be prepared for protecting the
downstream vulnerable areas. The Emergency Preparedness Plan will include warning and
notification procedures to be followed during the monsoon season in case of possibility of flood.
The objective is to provide timely warning to nearby residents and alert key personnel responsible
for taking action in case of emergency.
3.9.3

Water Availability for Communities


As mentioned earlier, the river Satluj is not the main source of water in the area. The natural
springs and chashme are the key sources of water for people living in the area for their own
domestic consumption, livestock use and irrigation purposes. In most of the villages except those
situated on high hills, the IPH Department has laid down the pipelines to connect the natural
springs (at upper reaches) to the households through storage tanks for water supply after
providing primary treatment. The villages those are located on higher reaches depend directly on

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natural springs or khads flowing in vicinity. Hence, the hydropower development in the area, which
is causing diversion of flow from river for power generation, will not directly put an impact on
availability of water for consumption purpose for village population.
However, drying of natural springs (at its original location) has been reported in the past by the
villagers due to construction and blasting activities. It has been reported that more than 30
chashme have dried up in Yangpa village due to the construction works for Sanjay Vidyut
Pariyojna. Also, it was found out during primary surveys conducted for the study that more than 812 chashme have dried up in Nathpa-Jhakri areas due to NJHEP project. Considering a post project
measure, SJVNL has conducted a monitoring campaign for examining the flow of springs. It was
established that blasting/digging activities can cause building up of excessive water pressure at
particular location, which may lead to shift in the position of a spring or reduction in the flow rate
of spring, but complete drying of springs is not likely.
Due to construction of NJHEP, the IPH water supply schemes were badly affected in following
villages.
Table 3.115 - IPH Department Water Supply Schemes Affected due to Nathpa-Jhakri Project
S. No.

Name of Scheme

1.

WSS Maghara Majholi Koshgar

2.
3.
4.

Name of Habitation

WSS Kartot Chandpur


WSS Khasha Shah Jaleend
WSS Sharn Rattanpur

Majhewali

490

Koshgar

130

Kartot

437

Chandpur

138

Gaso

622

Shah

326

Rattanpur

151

Rattanpur II

50

Basara

329

Sanarsa
Halti
5.
Total

WSS Jhakri

Present Population

282
229

Jhakri

4980

12 habitation

8164

Source: IPH Department, Rampur

Presently, restoration of these schemes is going on and SJVNL is providing financial support to IPH
department for restoration of these schemes. SJVNL has kept a budget provision of 5 crore for
renewal of water provision in areas where the water resources have been dried up. Immediate
measure under the scheme will be lifting of water directly from river Satluj to the affected villages
to maintain the minimum water supply to the affected areas.
Under the proposed Rampur Hydroelectric project, SJVNL is taking pre-project measurement of
flow and started monitoring the flow of existing natural springs in the influence area. All water
supply sources have also been video documented. SJVNL will compensate any affect on these
water supply sources and schemes.
3.9.4

Impact of Blasting on Agricultural & Horticultural Yield


Simla is one of the biggest apple growing districts in HP. About half of the States apple crop is
produced in the district. But for the consecutive 5-6 years from 1992-93 to 1997-98 the apple crop
was very poor due to continuous rains and widely fluctutating temperatures (maximum and
minimum) at the time of flowering during March- April. In 2001-02, there was virtually no crop in
apple growing areas situated at elevations below 6500 ft above MSL.

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Table 3.116 Horticulture Crop Trees in the Nathpa-Jhakri Influence Area


Horticulture trees

No. of Trees

Apple

6135

Plum

265

Khurmani

86

Almond

Walnut

16

Nashpati

110

Galgal

Lemon

15

Total

6644

EIA updation Study for 1500 MW NJHEP, Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, 2004

Table 3.117 - Production of Apple in Himachal Pradesh


Year

Apple Production (000 tonnes)

Year

Apple Production (000 tonnes)

1980-1981

118.01

1992-1993

279.05

1981-1982

306.79

1993-1994

294.73

1982-1983

139.08

1994-1995

122.78

1983-1984

257.91

1995-1996

276.68

1984-1985

170.62

1996-1997

288.54

1985-1986

174.61

1997-1998

234.25

1986-1987

359.32

1998-1999

393.65

1987-1988

259.27

1999-2000

491.3

1988-1989

165.15

2000-2001

376.73

1989-1990

394.86

2001-2002

180.53

1990-1991

342.07

2002-2003

348.26

1991-1992

301.73

2003-2004

459.49

Source: HP, Statistical outline of Himachal Pradesh, 2003-04,


Department of Economics and Statistics (Horticulture Department data)

This kind of reduction in apple production was attributed to dust pollution caused by various
hydropower project-related activities in Satluj Basin. Projects of these kind include activities like
blasting for various construction purposes like excavation of underground tunnels for channelising
the waters of river, open blasting for mining operations and other works of the project. A
committee was formed by Horticultural Department, HP to inspect the case. The following areas
were surveyed by the experts 1, to inspect the level of air pollution and to study whether the
particulate air pollutants emitted from blasting operations were causing any adverse effects on the
production of apple and other fruit crop:

Project sites at: Nathpa; Jhakri; Pashada quarry; Mini hydroelectric project at Kafnu/
Katgaon; Piwa crusher plant at Tapri.

Orchards near project/ quarry sites at: Pachchada and Dhar Gaura; Ponda and adjoining
areas; Katgaon/Kafnu; Kacksthal; and Tapri.

Sh TCP negi, Joint Director, Horticulture, Dr. SA Ananda, Professor of Pomology and Dr. PS Chauhan, Horticulturist

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Although atmospheric pollutants adversely affect the plants in various ways, such as causing
closure of leaf stomata, growth retardation, injury to leaves, plasmolysis, other physiological effects
like reduced photosynthesis etc, in this particular case, the findings of experts are given below:

No evidence of dust pollution were recorded being responsible for the low and declining
yield of apple in Shimla and Kinnaur areas falling within the boundaries of SJVNL projects.

Though dust deposition on flowers may reduce the period of stigma receptivity or may
hinder pollen dehiscence and pollination, or may affect pollen germination but for all
these effects to show up, the dust pollution must be very high so as to form a sufficient
thick layer of dust particles on the flower parts. But it was found that the level of dust on
the plants in the adjoining area of Jhakri, Pashada and Dhar Gaura villages were not high
enough to cause such adverse effects on flowers of fruit plants, including apple.

No such dust deposition was noticed at orchards/ sites at Ponda, Nichar area, Katgaon,
Kafnu and Kacksthal. The SPM at a site near Jhakri at a distance 250 m from Pashada
quarry as recorded during the time of inspection was around 350 g/ m3, which was
much lower than the threshold admissible limit of 500 g/ m3 for industrial areas.

At the Pashada Quarry, although open blasting was being carried out, the levels of dust
pollution caused by blasting appeared to be low because these operations were carried
out entirely on solid stone rocks. Also, most of the components of NJHE project work
were carried underground; hence underground blasting could not cause such serious
pollution problems. Similarly, no pollution could have been caused by dumping of
excavated sites as these sites were away from fruit plantation.

Similarly in villages of Jhakri, which is located just near Pashada quarry and Snarsa and
Shah, which are located on Kacha approach road to surge shaft and in the villages of
Ropru, Pashada, Dhar Gaura, Dobi and Gopalpur, it was found that the although the fruit
set for stone fruits like apricot, plum and almond was good, the fruit set in apple in Shah,
Pashada and Dhar Gaura areas was average. It was concluded that had dust pollution
been responsible for poor fruit set in apple, it should have played a similar adverse role in
fruit set in stone.

It was observed that the extent of fruit set in apple in above-mentioned areas was low, but it is
due to some other factors. The main causes might be:

Continuous rains and low temperature during the time of flowering (March April) results
in poor bee activity, inadequate cross pollination and poor fruit set. An attempt was made
to correlate the rainfall with fruit production. Table 5.4 shows drastic reduction in the
production of apple in the year 2001-2002. The rainfall data (Table 3.118 produced below
again) shows that in this particular year, there was continuous rainfall in the months of
March-April.
Table 3.118 - Rainfall at Rampur: Relationship with Impacts on Orchards
[Unit mm]

Year

Jan.

Feb.

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Total

1999

78.9

19.9

5.4

31.4

19.6

185

60.9

18.5

5.2

424.8

2000

244.9

337.9

21.3

12.1

616.2

2001

20

40

105

34

103

113.9

60

123.1

60

16

41

716

2002

61.5

142

93

104

13

45

10

152

104

725.5

2003

55

110

60

61

11

41.5

264

132

107

41

886.5

2004

67

69

57

114

93

244.5

24

81

761.5

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However, the areas located at higher elevations, i.e. 2000m above msl had good crop
because in such area flowering took place a little later which escaped the adverse effects
of rain and low temperatures.
Figure 3.39 Relationship between Rainfall and Production of Apples

Rainfall vs Apple Production


values

600
400
200
0
19992000

20002001

20012002

20022003

20032004

Year
Rainfall (mm) in the month of March
Rainfall (mm) in the month of April
Apple Production in '000 tonnes

It may be due to lesser number of pollinizer trees in the orchards 2. It was observed that
the fruit was very good in pollinizer trees of Golden Delicious variety and adjoining trees
of Royal Delicious variety, but was poor in trees away from pollinizers trees. Hence, the
reason of lesser extent of apple could be due to the inadequate and improper placement
of trees of pollinising varieties in orchards.

Potential Effect on the Occupation Pattern in the Project Influence Area

3.9.5

Employment Benefits
A large number of hydro projects are planned in the entire Satluj basin. The development of these
over the time would generate many employment opportunities in the basin directly as well as
indirectly in the form of various service providers. A tentative estimate of potential employment
opportunities have been worked out on the basis of hydro generation capacity. As per MOU signed
by government of Himachal Pradesh with all hydro developers, 70% is to be engaged from the
state. Hence around 30000 staff is expected to be employed from the state. Rest of the staff
would contribute as migrant population. The migrants will also bring their families along with them
and thus the migrant population will be around 38000. It is also expected that 2% of the migrant
population will start some petty business or business establishments for their daily needs.

Survey report on the effect of Blasting operations on Fruit production in NJ HEP areas, by Dr. SA Ananda, Professor
and Head, Department of Pomology, Dr. PS Chauhan, Senior Horticulturist, RHRS and Dr. KN Ojha, SMS, Deptt of Horticulture,
Simla

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Table 3.119 - Employment Generation in the Hydropower Projects on the Satluj


Project

Capacity
(MW)

Staff expected to be employed


Technical

Supervisor

Skilled

Unskilled

Total
4050

RHEP

412

200

350

1500

2000

NJHEP

1500

215

378

1628

2200

4421

Khab EP

1020

490

860

3700

5000

10050

Karcham

1000

480

842

3626

4802

9750

4.5

37

49

100

Bhawa augmentation
Sorang

100

48

84

362

480

974

Luhri

700

337

591

2545

3371

6844

Kol

800

385

675

2908

3851

7819

5536

2160

3789

16306

21753

44008

TOTAL

In absence of time series data (before and after) for all hydroelectric project sites that are in
operation or proposed, change in employment pattern and employment benefits has been assessed
and quantified only for NJHEP and RHEP influence areas which would be helpful to understand the
kind of scenario which could be foreseen for the region, once all proposed hydro power projects
get started
Shift in Occupation Pattern
There is clear indication of shift of type of economic activities from agriculture to business due to
massive hydropower development projects in the region. The statement has been substantiated
with the help of following:
Table 3.120 Change of Occupation of the Community (%) induced by the NathpaJhakri Project
Occupational Activities

Areas outside the Project


Immediate Influence Area

Projects Immediate Influence Areas


Pre Project

Post Project

Cultivators

51.89

49.39

40.07

Agri-Labour

0.84

1.70

2.13

Daily Wages

1.68

13.59

18.29

Service

29.95

20.15

24.35

Others

7.17

20.15

20.15

Business

8.43

11.65

12.79

Pensioners

0.84

Non-working

74.78

76.10

74.15

Source: EIA for Updation of NJHEP, Year 2003

A comparison of pre and post project employment scenario as given above reveals the following:

Average annual employment of those households who were given land for land has
increased from 393 days to 550 days per household. The average annual income has
increased from Rs.45,222 to Rs.107,422. However, the share of agriculture in the
household income has declined because of reduction in the size of their land holdings.
But their income from wage labour and services has more than doubled as compared to
there past income six years ago.

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The average income of those households who got compensation for house construction
has increased from Rs.28,333 to Rs.50,933. The employment and income from regular
jobs have increased in the group.

In the case of those households who were allotted alternative shop plot average annual
income was Rs. 79,867 in 1996, which increased to Rs.181,107 in year 2002. This change
has been mainly due to increase in pretty business/trading activities, which have
increased due to increase increased demand for daily need items from residents of new
NJPC colony and also due to increased purchasing power of project affected families.
Average income of those families who have been provided employment in the NJPC has
increased from Rs.68,874 to Rs.141,759 per annum. The increase in household income
has been mainly due to increase in employment in non-farm activities.

Those households who were provided cash compensation only have also improved their
economics position. Average annual employment of these families was 350 days in 1996,
which has now increased to 401 days. Similarly the average annual household income has
increased from Rs.77,677 to Rs.98,721 in year 2002.

Out of 62 families of project affected areas and who are rendered landless under the
project, one person each from the 51 families has already been provided a regular
employment in the NJPC, and it is to be noted that 29% of employed persons are
women.

Further, in case of RHEP, apart from students, the largest number of males is engaged in service
and females have agriculture as a main activity. The analysis indicates that annual income of the
sampled households from different sources, at overall level was Rs.107,408 per annum, which was
Rs. 77,351/- for SC/ST and 132,748 for general category. The largest share of the total income was
generated from employment including service and wage labour. This was followed by agriculture;
accounting for 18.61% and other sources, 17.71%. Business was observed to be last in this respect
and generated only 0.98% of total household income at overall terms.
It is foreseen that after operation of RHEP project, the business activities will definitely have some
impact and this would flourish due to increase in influx of the people resulting in demand for all
daily-need products.
A similar trend is predicted for the whole Satluj basin when construction of the envisaged
hydropower projects will start. Business establishments like vegetable shops, grocery shops etc,
taxis, auto rickshaw etc will come up in respective regions. Hence, the development of the basin,
in-general, would improve the living conditions of the local population by generating employment.
Accessibility to Basic Infrastructure
Infrastructure is a key facilitator of economic development. With the hydropower development in
the region, improvement in basic infrastructural amenities i.e. roads, highways, public health
institutes, telecommunications, water supply, electrification and hence, the economic development
of the area is bound to happen.
For the various projects envisaged along the Satluj basin, from upstream Khab to downstream,
which comprise the extreme boundaries of our study stretch, various infrastructural developments
have occurred due to the progress of hydro power projects. These developments would, in the long
run, i.e. even after when the projects are well-commissioned, be of great use to the inhabitant
population.
However, the villages falling under influence areas had already had accessibility to basic
infrastructural amenities like motor-able roads i.e. highways, access/approach roads, electricity,
piped water supply, health centers, primary schools, Banks/post offices and Canals (khuls) for

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irrigation but due to hydropower project development, there has been improvement in road
facilities. At various places pathways have been made, bridges have been constructed across
nullahas and rivulets, which has significantly reduced the travel time and distance of the villages
with nearby towns and also among villages of the area.
Generally, for the area, infrastructure building could be discussed under two different heads, one is
building up of these facilities which are directly must for hydro power project development during
construction stages, it could be of use of local people as well. Second category is these
infrastructure facilities, which have been built up or proposed by the implementing agencies for the
project-affected areas or indirectly catering to those areas as well, which are not directly affected
by the projects. Below is the complied information on infrastructure amenities that have been
built up under different hydropower projects:
Infrastructure Building to Cater to Community Needs during Construction of the Projects:

For the movement of heavy trailer/ machinery up to Karcham, for execution of NJHEP
and Baspa HEP II, the highway has been widened with the quality improvement of road
surface as well.

For movement of heavy machinery during construction of NJHEP project, 15 m wide road
has been constructed at right bank of the river up to Jhakri along with the connecting
bridges, which has helped in connecting the local villages to the highway and hence, in
improving their
quality of life.

From Karcham up to Khab, the widening of the road and strengthening of bridges (five in
number from Jhangi to Khab) has been kept in the purview under Khab project.

At Luhri, the existing High way from Shimla to power house site/ dam site will be suitably
widened/ improved to 7-10 m wide specifications in about 80 km length to serve as
approach road to the project site for construction. In addition, NH way will be re-aligned
at some stretches where blind curved exist. Also a 70R bridge for crossing over to the
right bank of river Satluj will be constructed near dam.

Under proposed Luhri project, it has been proposed that schools and college education
institutes, hospitals, market, recreational facilities at Nathan and Suni would be
constructed for the staff posted on the project, which would also cater to the local village
population.

Infrastructure Building during Operation to Cater to Community Needs

Under the NJHEP project, infrastructure has been created for nearby rural areas which,
helped farmers in switching from the traditional subsistence farm production system to
the high value cash crops in the area, which would ultimately helped in increasing the
employment opportunities.

A mobile Health Unit has been started under NJHEP project, which is functioning since
January 2000. The unit makes four visits per week to nearby villages that include two in
project-affected villages of Kinnaur district and two Shimla district. Through this, doctors
of the team are also helpful in making the local people aware about common health
diseases and ailments.

A project hospital in NJPC colony at Jhakri at the cost of Rs.13.22 million has also been
established under NJHEP project, which is also serving local people of villages.

A 200-bed hospital has been constricted at Khaneri, Rampur by the State Government
with the financial assistance of Rs. 80 million from the NJPC.

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A school has been established at Jhakri with a grant of Rs. 20 million from NJPC for the
children of the staff. It is also providing quality educational facility to the local people and
helping other schools to improve their existing level of infrastructure and quality of
education. The project affected area villages have to pay subsidized fees for their children
in this school, which is otherwise a very costly affair for them as compared to any other
government school.

NJPC also helping in building up of new infrastructure facilities or in improving the


existing ones in government schools of the area in terms of construction of classrooms,
play grounds etc. A sum of Rs. 70 lacs has already been spent on school building and
playgrounds by the ER&R department of the NJPC. The school at Sansara village has
been provided playground with the financial assistance from NJPC. Financial assistance
has been provided for construction of school building at Shah Village.

The displaced shopkeepers were provided alternative shop plots in the market complex.
NJPC has provided water supply, sewerage system, streetlight and other amenities in the
market complex. All shops in the new market complex are of permanent type, unlike the
old shops, which were kuccha structures.

All the project-affected villages have been electrified and have provision of piped water
supply.

IPH has various schemes for renovation of water supply schemes for the local village
people and the places where water sources have been dried up, alternate sources would
be provided. NJPC is providing financial support to IPH for such schemes.

Similar provisions are expected to be provided by various project proponents of the various
envisaged hydropower projects in the Basin. The living standards, access to infrastructure,
education and health and hygiene will improve considerably. The State Development Plan of the
Government may incorporate such changes in anticipation.
Power Generation and Transmission Benefits
There is a broad consensus in the government to expand power generation by developing the
countrys hydropower potential, of which only 30 percent has been harnessed so far. The
government has set the target for Indias optimum power system mix at 40 percent from
hydropower and 60 percent from thermal/nuclear power. The present ratio at 25:75 falls far
short of this optimum, causing severe power shortages particularly during peak periods and
technical and economic problems in grid operations. The country, therefore, plans to increase
hydropowers share in power generation to 28 percent by fiscal 2007, and to reach the target of 40
percent over the longer term.
Table 3.121 shows the major hydropower projects along river Satluj, their generation capacities
and transmission benefits.
The Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board is planning the evacuation system in totality in view
of the multiple hydropower projects in the State. The power generation will improve the quality of
electrical supply to existing consumers, especially at peak times, and also benefit farmers and other
consumers in the northern Indian states who currently have either no access or constrained access
to electricity. While the benefits from the additional power generated are indisputable, the financial
benefits from the projects are also immense for the Government of Himachal Pradesh as the state
is entitled to get 12% free power generated from the projects and there would also be additional
revenue earnings by way of direct & indirect taxes by the sale of electricity.

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Table 3.121 - Power Generation & Transmission Aspects for Hydropower Projects in
Satluj Basin
S.No. Project

Power Benefits/ capacity

Power Transmission

1.

Khab

Capacity: 1020 MW

The proposed evacuation plan is under


review as suggested by CEA in view of the
various upcoming projects in Satluj basin.

2.

Baspa II*

Capacity: 300 MW (100 MW x 3)

A 400 KV D/C transmission line between


BASPA-II to Jhakri.

Generation:
90% dependable year: 1213 MU
50% dependable year: 1391.61 MU
3.

Karcham Wangtoo

Capacity: 1000 MW (250 MW x 4)


Generation:

Evacuation system planned by Himachal


Pradesh State Electricity Board.

90% dependable year: 4463.88 GWh


50% dependable year: 4810.56 GWh
4.

Nathpa Jhakri*

Capacity: 1500MW (250 MW x 6)


Generation:
90% dependable year: 6684 MU
50% dependable year: 7425 MU

5.

Rampur

Capacity: 434 MW (144.67 MW x 3)


Generation:

About 12% of the energy at Bus Bar is to


be supplied to the State free of cost and
about 25% of the remaining 88% will be
supplied at bus bar rates to Himachal
Pradesh.
Power will be evacuated by LILO of 400
KV Jhakri-Nalagarh D/C line at Duttnagar.

90% dependable year: 1946 MU


50% dependable year: 2206 MU
6.

Luhri

Capacity: 465 MW (155 MW x 3)


Generation:

Evacuation system planned by Himachal


Pradesh State Electricity Board.

90% dependable year: 2037.15 MU


50% dependable year: 2260.50 MU
7.

Koldam

Capacity: 800 MW (200 MW x 4)

Evacuation system planned by Himachal


Pradesh State Electricity Board.

Source: PFR Khab, Year 2004; PFR Luhri HEP, Year 2004; EIA for Rampur HEP, Year 2005; EIA for NJHEP, Year 1998
* Operational projects

Coordination among different projects for peaking power generation: An analysis has been carried
out for peaking power generation synchronization among various projects. For this assessment, the
following projects have been considered:

Khab H.E Proejct

Karchham-Wangtoo H.E Proejct

Nathpa-Jhakri H.E Proejct

Luhri H.E Proejct &

Kol Dam H.E Proejct

The distances between Khab to Karchham, Karchham to Nathpa, Nathpa to Luhri and Luhri to Kol
along with the river bed levels at all the above locations have been given in Table below. The travel
time of the releases for peaking generation during the lean discharges as well as maximum
discharges have also been calculated and given below in table 3.122.

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Table 3.122 Time Lag for Peaking Power Generation among Projects in the Satluj
Basin
Project
Khab

Distance in km River bed level in m


0

2550

Travel time at max


flow (hour)

Travel time at lean


flow (hour)

Karchham

100

1700

3.0

5.0

Nathpa

125

1450

3.75

6.0

Luhri

200

710

6.00

10.0

Kol

295

600

11.0

18.0

Synchronization of peaking power generation will need to be undertaken accordingly as per


requirement and can be coordinated by a single agency which could one of the major benefit
from a basin level water resources agency. The State Government is discussing the possibilities of
management of water resources infrastructure at a basin level management perspective.

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CHAPTER 4
ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT PLAN

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

4.1

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


Objective & Principles of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
The Rampur Hydropower Plant project will generate individual, cumulative and induced impacts
which might have some impact on the sustainability of the project influence area as well as the
region in which project influence area falls. The potential environmental and ecological impacts to
be managed from the project are related to biodiversity, erosion and sedimentation, constructionrelated impacts, fish management and instream flow management. The purpose of this EMP is to
achieve better environmental and ecological viability of the hydropower project, with an overall aim
for sustainable development around the project. The key purpose of this EMP will be to:

Minimize pollution load on the ecosystem

Minimize damage to terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity

Optimize river management for sustainable downstream use and for aquatic life

Minimize safety risk to the employees and communities

Improve the quality of life of the people associated with project directly or indirectly.

Boundaries
Environment Management Plan for the hydropower projects extends to different zones of project
impacted areas. Some of the EMP activitiess provide immediate mitigation to environment problems
while some others take longer in giving results, for example, the catchment area treatment plan
(CAT plan) or the Biodiversity Management Plan. Adaptive Management is implemented until the
mitigations measures stabilize and reach a point where they are self-sustainable.
Spatial Boundary
Area examined for the project i.e., study area for environmental impact assessment is area up to
7km upstream of the intake, 7km downstream of proposed power house, 7km on both side of the
river. This study area is termed as the Project Influence Area(PIA). The study area has been further
divided in two inner zones for evaluating impacts on significant influence zones of the project.
These are:

Activities within Projects Directly Affected area (PAA)

Activities within Project Immediate Influence area (PIIA) i.e. within 500m radius of the
project site

Temporal Boundaries
Environmental Impact Assessment for primary data collection was carried in post monsoon season
of year 2006. However, references have also been made to past and current studies going on in
the area on issues related to fisheries, biodiversity and catchment area improvement. Environment
Management Plan has been developed for immediate as well as long term project impacts. The
CAT Plan is developed for a 10 years period. Adaptive Management Plans are designed with
minimum five years duration, expecting that within five years adaptive management plans will
stabilize and start delivering results. In case where adaptive management plan is successful in
establishing its approach before five years, further changes will be stopped and that plan will be
established as the environment management plan for specific project impact.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

4.2

Methods & Approaches

4.2.1

Stakeholder Consultations
Stakeholder consultations provided sound platform for planning mitigation measures for the project
and the influence area. Site selection, project design, resettlement and rehabilitation measures,
social development of the area and biodiversity issues were all addressed by the project with
properly organized stakeholder consultation sessions. SJVNL adopted an extensive and multistage
consultation process for arriving at a good hydropower project. Details of stakeholder consultations
are explained below.
Public Consultation and Disclosure
The Public Consultation and Disclosure (PCD) process has been guided by the requirements of the
Government of Himachal Pradesh, Government of India and the World Bank. Its overriding goals
had been to ensure transparency in decision-making and provide for stakeholder involvement in
selecting resettlement sites, designing the project and determining appropriate remedial measures
for impacted people and communities. More specifically the objectives were to:

Ensure Stakeholder concerns are incorporated in Project design and planning

Increase public awareness and their understanding of the Project

Enhance positive development initiatives through the direct involvement of affected


people.

Public Consultation Activities


Stakeholder consultation activities for this Project began at the conception stage of the project;
there have been significant number of public consultation and participation meetings and briefings.
This project was indeed significant that a large-scale public consultation process was undertaken
and substantial capacity and understanding on stakeholder involvement in decision making has
been built and strengthened as a result. Consultation ongoing has provided constructive proposals
form local villagers about the resettlement and compensation programme, mitigation measures for
environmental issues and about enhancing the positive development of the project. This is
providing an excellent basis on which to make improvements to the entire environment and social
management plan.
The PCD program had been and continues to be carried out in a three stage process:

Phase I: Information Collection and Dissemination: data collection on the human and
physical characteristics of the current environment in order to predict Project impacts. As
part of this phase, information was disseminated to stakeholders regarding Project
features and its potential implications in terms of changes to the social and physical
environment.

Phase II: Consultation with Stakeholders: Comments continue to be sought from


stakeholders in response to information gathered as part of Phase I. The information was
disseminated and discussion of the alternative and proposed mitigation measures were
encouraged. Issues for stakeholders that may previously have been overlooked or are
outstanding are given a forum for review.

Phase III: Active Involvement in Project Design and Implementation: Based on the
discussion of Phase II, stakeholder input has been sought in determining mitigation
measures to address project impacts. The process of stakeholders involvement and
identification will continue during project implementations.

Techniques used have reflected the diversity of individuals and groups involved. They include:

4-2

Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Use of visual representations including pictures, diagrams and posters.

Face to face communication where levels of literacy are recognized as being low

The translation into local Language of project documents and summaries

Use of local SJVNL Project Information Centers (PIC); and

Direct contact with stakeholders through electronic or written media, group and individual
briefings, distribution of detailed project information, organization of stakeholder forums.

Efforts have been made to remain sensitive to language and gender issues. The participation of
women in consultation has received special attention because they tend to be less educated than
men or have less exposure to the outside world. The participation of women has been encouraged.
Project Planning Responses to Stakeholder Concerns
Feedback from Stakeholders has influenced or has been incorporated into the Project planning and
design. For example, the following Project design features are attributed to public consultations:

Location of the power station to avoid any resettlement

Routing of the downstream channel to minimize impacts

Construction of the Regulating Pond to minimize fluctuations in daily discharge into the
Satluj River.

The views of Project affected people have also been incorporated into the design of resettlement
areas, house designs, livelihood models and village composition.
Disclosure
Throughout Project planning, copies of key reports and draft projects environmental and social
documents have been made available. Informations has, and continues to be disseminated through
the SJVNL website including drafts of the EA/EMP and its Summary. The first draft of the EA/EMP,
the background reports, and their subsequent updates, have been disclosed to the public since
2005.
In accordance with State Government, MoEF and WB procedures, the EA/EMP were be finalized
following local, regional and national information dissemination and consultation. Local level
consultations on the E/EMP began in 2005. Any further required revisions will be made after
consultation with various stakeholders.
4.3

Environmental Regulations, Compliance & Voluntary Actions


The Rampur Hydropower Project project has been developed meeting the State as well as Central
Government environmental regulations. The project issues have been addressed to comply with
following mentioned environmental regulations.

Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, and all relevant Rules made under this Act

Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980

Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, & Air (Prevention and Control of
Pollution), Act, 1981

Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958

EIA Notification, 1994

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

4.3.1

Environmental Clearance for Rampur Hydropower Project


A 3-stage procedure for project preparation as per the guidelines of the Ministry of Power was
followed. Activities of 3 stages were tied up with a concurrence or clearance from the HPEPPCB/
MoEF. (See Chapter 2 for details.)

4.3.2

Conditions laid by the State Government


The State Government Departments and regulators laid down certain conditions (most of these
pertain to preparation of the EA/EMP), all of which had been complied by the project.

The spatial dimension of ambient air quality monitoring needed to be increased from the
current two locations to more locations so as to represent all adits and the villages of the
project area.

Water Quality Monitoring needs to be monitored for two more seasons in addition to the
one season already undertaken.

Video recording of all ground and surface water sources to be done by the project
authorities

Technical plan for muck disposal will be submitted to HPEPPPCB and proper measures will
be taken for a safe dump site

Sewage treatment plants will be used in the townships rather than septic tank and
Incinerator will be used for treating garbage of the township.

EMP Implementation cost should include cost of third party monitoring during
construction and post construction stages of the project.

Flow in the natural regime of river Satluj available at Jhakri should not be diverted for
Rampur Hydel project.

After project authorities complied with all the requirements including above mentioned, SCSTE
informed the HPEPPCB to conduct public hearing as per procedures laid down in EIA Notification.
Public notices for holding environmental public hearing near proposed power house in village Bayal
and near Kunni khad bridge in village Chatti were published in news paper for holding the Public
Hearing on 26-10-2005. There were significant issues raised by stakeholders from villages
surrounding the project. Project authorities were asked by HPEPPCB to prepare action plan for
addressing those issues. After receiving the action plan, HPEPPCB issues No Objection certificate
(NOC) to the SJVNL and recommended the case to MOEF for environmental clearance.
4.3.3

Conditions laid by the Central Government


The environmental clearance was obtained from MoEF in March, 2006. Environmental clearance
was granted by MoEF with prior mandatory conditions for implementation by the project during
construction and operation phases. Simultaneously, Mining lease and permission for diversion of
69.3762ha of forest land was obtained by SJVNL from Director of Industries and MoEF (FC Division)
respectively.
The MoEF stipulated additional conditions to ensure safeguards from the uncertainties, and
weaknesses, if any, in the EA/EMP. These are as below:

Preparation and implementation of (a) a resettlement and rehabilitation plan, (b) a


catchment area treatment plan.

Dissemination of clearance to the village panchayat/local NGO and advertisement in local


newspapers for general disclosure.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

4.3.4

Implementation of fish management plan in consultation with the state fisheries


department.

Conservation of medicinal plants.

Compensatory afforestation and involvement of local people in afforestation.

Restoration of borrow pits and quarry sites.

Disposal of muck at designated sites and landscaping of the sites.

Maintaining the specified minimum flow of water in the stream.

Health check up for construction workers.

Availability of minimum 23.7 cumec water during lean season in the river downstream of
dam for sustaining aquatic life.

Establishment of multi-disciplinary institutional mechanism for environmental monitoring.


This may include representatives from ecology, forestry, wildlife, soil conservation, NGO,
etc.

SJVNL Activities for Ecosystem Sustainability of the Satluj Basin


The power potential of Satluj basin is estimated at more than 10,000 MW installed capacity. 17
power plants of capacity 100 MW and above have been identified in Satluj basin, of which four are
under operation, two under construction and others in the planning/ investigation stage. Presently,
only Bhakra dam is a storage dam project on Satluj river. Kol dam project, immediately upstream of
Bhakra dam, has a limited life of 18 years to function as a storage dam after which it has also to
operate as a run-of-the-river plant. Nathpa Jhakri Project, the biggest power plant on Satluj with an
installed capacity of 1500 MW is a run-of-the river scheme. An acute silt problem in Satluj River has
created a need for storage dam projects in the Satluj basin for improving functioning of
downstream projects.
Cumulative impact is a major issue in Satluj basin as there are power plants in cascade in Satluj
basin and there are numerous developers in the Private sector, State sector and Central sector
operating in the basin. A consensus on co-operation strategy, for operating existing as well as
planned power plants, is essential for sustainable development of the region. It is also necessary to
reduce the impact of silt which would yield beneficial results to all the power plants operating/
planned in the basin. Long term measures for silt control like catchment area treatment through
vegetation, toe walls and bench development to stabilize slide prone areas, check dams etc. are
essential.
Further, the basic inputs for planning of the power projects in Satluj basin are the river discharge,
silt load and other meteorological parameters. Presently, there is duplicacy in observing these data
and agencies like BBMB, HPSEB, SJVNL, CWC, NTPC etc., are recording the data to meet the
requirement of their own organizations. Since the planning and development of the power potential
in the basin, keeping in view peculiar considerations, has to be based on systematic basin analysis,
it is necessary that a joint understanding on maintenance of these observation sites and exchange
of data between various organizations be resorted to as per their requirement. Similarly, testing
laboratory could be upgraded with the state of the art facilities on shared basis.
Treatment of the catchment area through CAT plans and other measures will also be taken up in a
comprehensive manner for the whole of the basin.
There are certain laws, regulations and guidelines issued by various authorities including Govt of
India & State Govrnment that make it mandatory for all the plants to release minimum discharge in
the river during lean season. There is a need for power producers to take up such matters jointly.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

In general, while operating power stations in cascade, as is the case in Satluj basin, several issues
are likely to come up and co-operation would be required amongst all the power producers.
To achieve above-mentioned objectives, idea of a permanent Forum of Hydropower Producers of
Satluj Basin is being actively promoted by SJVNL.
4.3.5

Other Parallel Activities Ongoing


Implementation of the Hydropower Policy of the State
As per the hydropower policy of the state, the GoHP will constitute a multi-disciplinary committee
under the chairmanship of Chief Minister. Other members will be state Power Minister (Vice
Chairman), Minister/Member of Legislative Assembly of the area where Projects are being
executed, representatives of the hydropower company, representatives from various concerned
state government departments, Chairman/Managing Director of the concerned Power Utility and
Chairman, Local Area Development Committee (LADC). The Committee will be monitoring the
issues arising during the implementation of the project; employment related monitoring, relief and
rehabilitation, review of progress of LADC schemes, implementation of CAT plan, compensatory
afforestation, environmental management plan, and restoration of facilities which get damaged
because of the implementation of the project. The committee will also review the recommendations
(and implementation thereof) of the Forum of Hydroelectric Power Producers. The Committee will
draw up the methodology to regulate the payments to be made by the Company to the various
departments of the Government in connection with the implementation of the project.
River Basin Development Optimization Study
The World Bank (financed by PPIAF) is also supporting the GoHP through a technical assistance in
preparing river basin development optimization strategies, for the Satluj basin. The ongoing study
would demonstrate the methodology for optimization of hydro-development in the Satluj basin with
the goal of facilitating coordinated and sustainable development by private and public sector
developers, with due regard for the environmental and social impact of river-basin-wide
development. The optimization study will cover environmental and social implications of multiproject development, including but not limited to: (i) implications for water resource management,
(ii) catchment area treatment plans, (iii) potential cumulative impact on natural forests and other
protected areas; (iv) social impacts arising from multiple projects; and (v) communication/public
outreach issues.
Planning for Basin Level Implementation of Catchment Area Treatment
In view of the extensive hydropower development planned in Himachal Pradesh, the Forest
Department has created Upper Satluj Watershed Society for implementation of the CAT Plan
and the other compensatory afforestation program. Additionally, as per the recent discussion
between the SJVNL and the GoHP, an integrated CAT plan will be prepared for the entire Satluj
basin, based on satellite imageries and remote sensed data. SJVNL will prepare this plan.

4.4

Institutional & Implementation Arrangement

4.4.1

Activities within Project Area


The activities within project area having major impact on environment will be land acquisition,
felling of tree, clearing of forest for construction work, construction of project facilities and
operation of the project once it is functional. Environment Management implementation for impacts
related to forest and tree felling is the joint responsibility of Satluj Jal Vidut Nigam Limited (SJVNL)
and State Forest Department. Compensatory Afforestation Plan (CAP) will be implemented by State
Forest Department. Muck/Quarry Area Redevelopment Plan, Avenue Plantation and Landscaping
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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

will be implemented by SJVNL. Environmental Management Plans for construction and operation of
the project is responsibility of project contractors and SJVNL respectively. Wherever contractors are
involved, SJVNL will hold responsibility for implementing EMPs through contractors.
SJVNL Environment Management Department (EMD)
The EMD of SJVNL will be responsible for the technical planning, implementation and monitoring of
all environmental mitigation and compensation measures under SJVNLs responsibility as outlined in
EMP. In addition the EMD will monitor mitigation measures that will be implemented and
supervised by the contractor to ensure compliance with constructors contract(CC). The EMD will
also work closely with the Himachal Pradesh Environment Protection and Pollution Control
Board(HPEPPCB) and MoEF, as appropriate.
EMD will prepare regular reports for submission to HPEPPCB and MoEF. The reports will address
the following items:

Progress made to implement the environmental mitigation measures in compliance with


EMP and the CC;

Schedule of implementation of environmental mitigation measures;

Difficulties with implementing the environmental


recommendation for correcting the problems; and

Any aspect that does not conform to the environmental mitigation measures and
proposed remedial measures.

mitigation

measures

and

Prior to the start of construction, the EMD will:

Ensure that the relevant environmental mitigation measures are reflected in the project
contract

Prepare plans for mobilizing subcontracts for studies that will be conducted by SJVNL

Hold discussion with the government authorities participating in the project to develop
procedures for inter-agency coordination and reporting

Ensure that the construction phase activities include appropriate environmental


monitoring;

Assist the HPEPPCB to plan and manage environmental public hearing and information
program; and

Provide any necessary background information to the HPPCB to enable response to public
comments, complaints and inquiries in relation to the environmental mitigation measures.

During the construction and the operating phases, SJVNL, through the EMD, will be responsible for
implementing and monitoring environmental mitigation measures. The management of
environment concern will include:

Developing and implementing the monitoring programs;

Managing the subcontracts for specialist studies to ensure their performance

Liaising and cooperating with the government authorities

Preparing work and cost schedules for the monitoring programs

Conducting appropriate testing to ensure that the environmental mitigation measures are
effective

Arranging for reporting of the results of the monitoring programs

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Maintaining records for reporting to HPEPPCB and MoEF

Preparing budgeting and financial reports for the operation of the EMD

Conducting internal and external audits to ensure compliance with the EMP and the
procedures of SJVNL, and

Assisting Government of Himachal Pradesh with the public consultation programs and
documenting the feedback for incorporation into program planning.

The Construction Contractors


The contractor will be responsible for implementation of measures to avoid or minimize
environmental impacts during construction. These will include protection measures relating to:

Meeting effluent standards and water quality requirements for discharges into surface
water and ground water;

Controlling erosion and sedimentation;

Managing onsite traffic;

Providing physical cultural protection and relocation as necessary

Managing onsite waste;

Managing, preventing and developing emergency plans for chemical pollution incidents;

Controlling noise emissions and dust;

Proper siting of the construction work camps

Implementing a health program for all persons engaged in undertaking construction


works.

The provisions of the contract between SJVNL and the construction contractor include clear
descriptions of the Contractors obligations for undertaking measures to minimize and/or to
mitigate impacts on the existing environment and social situation. The primary reference document
for this will be the constructions contractors environment management and monitoring plan
(CCEMMP). The CCEMMP will cover all the protection measures listed above and will be required to
contain an over view of the project impacts that the contractors work will have on the physical,
biological and social environment and including:

Details of environment control to be implemented in accordance with the requirements of


the CC;

Statutory requirements including approvals and licenses

Location of environmental control works

Timing of environmental control activities

Assignment of responsibility to implement, maintain, asses and monitor each


environmental control

Procedures and instructions to implement, maintain, asses and monitor each


environmental control

Reporting procedures

Emergency procedures, and

Corrective action requirement and verification.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

The CCEMMP will also contain the plans and sub plans addressing the contractors general
environmental measures including a manual of environmental procedures and practices applicable
to all construction works.
State Forest Department
State Forest Department will be responsible for preparing and implementing catchment area
treatment (CAT) plan. Department will work for forest conservation and improvement, soil and
moisture Conservation works, Infrastructure Development and Implementation of Eco Development
plan for reducing pressure on forest.
4.4.2

Activities in the Project Influence Area


In the project influence area, the Biodiversity Management is the joint responsibility of Satluj Jal
Vidut Nigam Limited (SJVNL) and State Forest Department. Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan
and Wild Life Management Plan will be implemented by State Forest Department. Managed river
flow responsibility will lie with SJVNL.

4.4.3

Activities in the Catchment


In view of the extensive hydropower development planned in Himachal Pradesh and the limited
capacity of the Forest Department of GoHP to implement the compensatory afforestation and
catchment area treatment plan in the Satluj basin, the Forest Department and the hydropower
development agencies (particularly SJVNL) will share the implementation responsibility. The overall
principle of such division of responsibility would be to make best use of the comparative
advantages for implementation (which suggests that all mechanical, i.e. non-plantation works will
be implemented directly by the hydropower agencies). The cost norms will be as per the Forest
Department norms, and overall monitoring will be done by the Upper Satluj Watershed Society (a
part of the Forest Department). For the Nathpa-Jhakri and the Rampur projects, SJVNL will discuss
on the actual division of works with the Conservator of Forests (CF), Rampur Circle. The forest
department will also modify the catchment area treatment plans, so as to treat the priority areas
(such as current landslides) first. To this end SJVNL and the CF, Rampur Circle will review and
agree on the modified CAT plan. Additionally, as per the recent discussion between the SJVNL and
the GoHP, an integrated CAT plan will be prepared for the entire Satluj basin, based on satellite
imageries and remote sensed data. SJVNL will prepare this plan.

4.5

Environmental Management Actions for the Rampur Project


The most reliable way to ensure implementation of the management plan is to integrate the
management measures in the overall project planning, design, construction and operation works.
In the Rampur project, the environmental management actions had been integrated into the civil
works contracts, and other project planning and design activities. The EMP measures include
mitigation or enhancement measures as appropriate to the nature of impacts, and are explained in
the following Sections. These include:

Actions related to managed flow of river (at Nathpa dam), fisheries management and
control of water pollution

Actions to conserve and protect biodiversity; and compensatory afforestation

Catchment area treatment plan

Mitigation of construction related impacts, control of pollution from labour camps,


restoration and landscaping of areas disturbed by construction and quarrying; muck
disposal plan and reinstatement of muck disposal areas; control of air and noise pollution

Delivery of public health services


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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

4.5.1

Safety assurance plan

Emergency preparedness plan

Managed River Flow


The Rampur hydro electric project will lead to reduction in flow for a stretch between Tail Race
Outfall of existing Nathpa Jhakri hydroelectric project and tail race outfall of proposed Rampur
project. The reduced flow rate will have some potential to affect the aquatic ecology (although
impact on fish species is expected to be low). Due to construction of a diversion dam on river Satluj
at Nathpa, reduction of flow has already affected the riverine ecology by converting lentic system
to a lacustrine system. As a result of reduction in flow, downstream of the dam i.e., from Nathpa
dam to Bayal village, some form of aquatic life, such as the benthic population may be affected.
The fishery study undertaken revealed that the stretch has negligible fish population in the main
river, although some fish is found in the side streams/ tributaries, hence chances for significant
adverse impact are negligible. However, reduced flow may mean decline in the water quality,
particularly due to increased sewage load. Although there is no direct consumption of water from
the river for irrigation or domestic purposes in the stretch being impacted, small impacts on grazing
land close to the river in future is ruled out. Also silt flushing could be an issue for which regular
flow is important, particularly during the lean season.
Objective of the managed river flow is to minimize, to the extent possible, potential impacts on
aquatic and terrestrial habitats from the planned diversion of river water which will curtail the
natural flow between Jhakri and Bayall village (of which the Rampur project is responsible for
diversion downstream of the Nathpa-Jhakri tailrace outfall) rendering it less useful quality wise.
Minimum Release
SJVNL will affect a minimum water release of 7 cumec from the Nathpa dam during the lean
season. This will be added by another additional 16.7 cumec from various tributaries between the
Nathpa dam (except the tributary called the Shoulding, which was already diverted to the head
race tunnel of Nathpa-Jhakri project) and Bayal, total discharge available upstream of the Rampur
tailrace outfall at Bayal will be 23.7 cumec.
Minimum flow available in various tributaries between Nathpa and Bayal will be lifeline of the
aquatic habitats in the river stretch impacted by Rampur Hydropower Project. SJVNL is obliged not
only to use all reasonable endeavours to ensure that the minimum water is released in continuous
manner but also to ensure that constant observation is maintained on the flows coming from
tributaries and in case of reduction in flow, adequate measures are implemented to restore the
minimum flow.
Waste Water Treatment
SJVNL as part of the adaptive environment management plan will monitor the water quality at
various locations of the river and adopt necessary measures to protect river water quality and
aquatic life. SJVNL, in association with state public health department will ensure adequate
treatment of sewage from the Jagatkhana and Brow towns since the river at these sewage
discharge points will be affected by lean flow and hence dilution for natural purification will not be
enough over there. Additionally, Rampur Hydropower Project project colony will have separate
sewage treatment plan for treating domestic wastewater.
Sewage Treatment Plant for Project colony: In the project operation phase, a plant colony with 300
quarters is likely to be set up. Suitable treatment facilities will be set up to treat the sewage
generated from the colony. The cost required for construction of these facilities in the project
colony has already been covered in the budget earmarked for construction of the project colony,
and therefore not included EMP budget.

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Sewage Treatment Plant for Jagatkhana and Brow Towns: SJVNL in consultation with the local
administration will develop of sewage treatment facilities for these settlements. As a preliminary
estimate an amount of Rs. 10 million has been earmarked for this purpose. The amount can be
revised at a later date, once the details of the sewage treatment plants are finalized.
During project construction phase, sufficient measures need to be implemented to ameliorate the
problem of water pollution from various sources. The sewage generated from various labour camps
will be treated in septic tanks and disposed by discharging into river Satluj. The septic tanks will be
located so as not to pollute the drinking water sources. The construction activities would require a
crusher to crush large lumps of rocks to the requisite size for coarse as well as fine aggregates.
The effluent generated from these crushers will have high suspended solids. The effluent will be
treated before disposal. Settling tanks of appropriate size for treatment of effluent from various
crushers will be provided.
During tunnelling works the ground water flows into the tunnel along with construction water which
is used for various works like drilling, shortcreting, etc. The effluent thus generated in the tunnel
contains high suspended solids. Normally, water is collected in the side drains and drained off into
the nearest water body without treatment. It is recommended to construct a settling tank of
adequate size to settle the suspended impurities. The sludge from the various settling tanks can be
collected once in 15 days and disposed at the site designed for disposal of municipal solid wastes
from the labour camps. The sludge after drying could also be used as cover material for landfill
disposal site. An amount of Rs. 20 million will be earmarked for construction of various settling
tanks.
Sanitation at the Construction Camps: The aggregation of large workforce during construction
phase is likely to put significant stress as a result of discharge of sewage, solid wastes and other
pollutants to the streams and rivers. Water requirements for the construction camps and the
labourers camps will be met by nearby rivers or streams flowing upstream of the labour camps,
strictly without affecting any existing community sources of water. Bacteriological analysis of water
to be utilized for meeting domestic water requirements be done regularly. Normally, disinfection by
chlorination would be adequate. The chlorine dosage will be fixed judiciously so that there is
adequate residual chlorine in water being used by consumers at various locations.
In the construction and labour camps, a community WC can be provided for each 20 persons or
part thereof. The sewage from the community latrines will be treated in aerated lagoons and
settling tanks. The total budget required for providing adequate sanitation facilities will be Rs.
21.86 million.
Table 4.1 - Budget for Sanitary Facilities for Construction and Labour Camps
Unit
Community latrines
Aerated lagoon and secondary settling tank including
sewerage system for from labour camps to treatment site
and to disposal sites
Total

Rate (Rs./unit)

Number

Total cost (Rs. million)

20,000

593

11.86

Lump sum

10.00

21.86

Control of Silt Runoff in the River


Adequate provisions as mentioned in sub plans of construction activities, erosion and
sedimentation control as well as mentioned in CAT plan, will be implemented during construction
and operation phase of the project to control sedimentation of the river especially during wet

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

seasons. River bank protection/stabilization downstream of tailrace discharge and lining of exposed
sections of the downstream channel will be important activities throughout the project life span.
Fishery Management and Sustenance of Endemic Fisheries
SJVNL will prepare a fishery monitoring and management plan under the guidance of fisheries
department and implement the same. The fishery study undertaken as part of the EIA study was
done for a short period of time; a detailed study will be undertaken to substantiate findings of
earlier fishery study and to develop a baseline for a comprehensive fishery management.
Snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii) is the endemic species in the Satluj and being a vulnerable
species amongst the threatened fishes of India, scientific management of the existing stock in the
region will be adopted.
Supplementary stocking program will be implemented in the project area. River will be stocked for
a length of 10 km each on the upstream and the downstream sides of the Nathpa dam site. The
rate of stocking is estimated at 100 fingerlings of about 30mm size per km. The stocking will be
done annually by the Fisheries Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh. To achieve, facilities
to produce seed of trout will be developed at suitable sites, in addition to the facility at Sangla
financed by the Nathpa-Jhakri project. The fisheries department shall prepare plan and design for
the hatcheries and rearing units, along with the budget. Seeds will be transported from this
hatchery. The supply of seeds could be augmented by collecting them from natural sources. The
total budget for developing of hatcheries will be Rs. 6.5 million. The dimension of the hatching
nurseries and rearing unit and their approximate cost is given below.
Table 4.2 - Farm Components in Snow Trout Facilities financed by the Project
Farm Component

Area (m)

Hatchery building

20x15x8.0

Number Type
1

Hatching trough each with 4 trays each 2.0x0.5x 0.4

20

Nursery ponds (Cement lined)

5.0 x 1.0 x 0.5

Rearing tanks (cement lined)

Rate of flow Cost (Rs.


(lpm)
million)
-

0.5

Flow through system

3.0-5.0

1.0

15

Flow through system

25-50

1.0

10.0 x 2.0 x 1.0

10

Flow through system

75-100

1.0

Stock raceways (cement lined)

25.0x3.0x 1.5

Flow through system

150-200

2.0

Storage cum silting tank

100x50x50

1.0

Total

6.5

Overall, the management plan for sustenance of riverine fisheries for the Rampur project will be
implemented at a cost of Rs. 10 million.
4.5.2

Biodiversity Management
An institutional framework for implementation of the State Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
has been set up by Government of Himachal Pradesh in the form of a committee comprising of Vice
Chancellor, University at Palanpur, Head of the Department of Bio-Sciences, Himachal Pradesh
University at Shimla, and the Member Secretary of the State Council for Science Technology &
Environment. The committee regulatory reviews implementation of BSAP and takes corrective
measures accordingly.
Biodiversity Evaluation Approach: The State Government of Himachal Pradesh has assigned
environmental value to forest land a sum of Rs. 800,000 and Rs. 500,000 are assigned as
environmental value per hectares for the areas having forest cover exceeding 10% and for the
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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

areas having less than 10% forest cover respectively. Cost equivalent to this value towards
compensation for loss of environmental values of forestland will have to be borne by SJVNL for
every hectare of forestland diverted for the Rampur project. The amount so collected will be used
to improve the forest cover and the quality of the forests.
Actions in the Project Influence Area (PIA)
The objective is to protect the biodiversity from adverse environmental and social impacts cause by
the Rampur Hydropower Project, by implementing various mitigation measures. This applies to an
area within 7km radius of the project site. Responsibility for implementation of biodiversity
management plan in project influence area will lie with state forest department of HP. Local people
will be involved by the forest department on its discretion, for encouraging community
participation.
Control of Timber Demand: Local people have recorded rights of timber for construction
purposes at nominal rate and due to division of families, the number of right holders is multiplying
rapidly leading to depletion of forests. Timber demand by villagers is seriously affecting forests of
the project influence area. The loss of timber trees of the forest has tremendous potential to
adversely affect the forest cover and habitat for wildlife. Mitigation measures will be taken up by
state forest department and district authorities for prohibiting felling of timber species of size less
than 90 i.e. girth at gbh (II B class) timber species. Rates at which the timebr is offered to the
villagers will also be increased at par with the market so that black marketing could be avoided,
simultaneously judicious selection of right holders will be made to avoid duplicacy in a family and
fake claims. Provision of alternate building material to timber will be promoted such as the concrete
block made of fly ash or brick for construction of houses/dwellings.
Control of Agriculture/Horticulture activities in forest areas: The agriculture/horticulture
activities at the cost of forestlands will be discouraged and control on land use in forests areas will
be gradually converted to on land capability classification. Areas under dense forests cover will
not be disturbed for agriculture/ horticulture activities
Control of Forest Fire: Effective fire protection measures like early detection systems,
communications systems, equipment and public awareness will be implemented for forest fire
control.
Control on Grazing: Overgrazing will be controlled by punitive as well as awareness building
measures, as mentioned below:

In the permitted grazing areas, the animals will be allowed to enter the forests well after
the rains so that grasses would have grown sufficiently to withstand grazing and
trampling.

To reduce the dependency of grazing on forest surrounded by heavy bovine population,


stall feeding, balanced animal nutrition, improved cattle varieties application of
concentrates etc. will be encouraged

Cattle proof trench of size 3m wide top, 1.5m wide bottom, and 1.5m deep will be dug
and dugout earth would be heaped on the edge of trench so that cattle cannot enter the
protected area. On the soil, heaped on the edge of trench, thorny species like Carissa
spinarium, Zizyphus nummularia, Euphorbia royleana, Agave americana etc. will be
planted so that it will stabilize the soil and prevent animals to jump and get into forest.

Prevention Illegal Felling of Trees: Illegal cutting of trees will be prevented by adequate
security measures and also by involving NGOs for creating public awareness against illegal felling of
trees.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Actions in the Projects Immediate Influence Area (PIIA) and the Directly Affected Area
The objective of these actions is to protect the biodiversity of the project immediate influence area
and project directly affected area from adverse environmental and social impacts cause by the
Rampur Hydropower Project, by implementing several mitigation measures. All sites where project
components will be located, and 500m area around these sites will be covered by these action.
These actions will be joint responsibility of SJVNL and State Forest Department. Local Community
will be involved to encourage community participation.
As part of biodiversity management, Compensatory Afforestation, Catchment Area treatment
(including Wild Life Management activities) will be implemented by State Forest Department.
Redevelopment and reinstatement of the muck disposal areas and quarry areas, avenue plantation
and landscaping will be implemented by SJVNL.
Compensatory Afforestation Plan
In order to compensate diversion of 69.38ha of forestland for establishment of various project
units, and 21ha forest land for notionally acquired for underground work, compensatory
afforestation will be undertaken on 139ha of land as per the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.
Compensatory afforestation will be carried out in unprotected forests of Arsu and Nither ranges of
Ani forest division of Kullu District. The cost of compensatory afforestation will be Rs. 7.45 million.
The details of sites selected for Compensatory Afforestation Plan are explained below:
Table 4.3 Sites Selected for Compensatory Afforestation
Sl. No.

Status of Land

Name of Range

Unprotected Forest

Bail

Unprotected Forest

Chebri

Unprotected Forest

Kindla

Unprotected Forest

Karnon C-11

Unprotected Forest

Rallo

Unprotected Forest

Unprotected Forest

Shalt
Sisu

C-9
C-83
C-38
C-14
C-6
C-10

Quarry/Muck Area Redevelopment Plan


The vegetative measures will be used for redevelopment of quarry and muck disposal areas.
Plantation will be done extensively for slope stabilization. Plantation of ornamental plants such as
Robinia, Ailanthus, Poplar, Silver oak, Bottle brush, Subabul, Baken will increase aesthetic nature of
these areas and also catalyze growth of biodiversity on the land and in surrounding area. The soil
binders will be used for slope stabilization.
4.5.3

Catchment Area Treatment


The CAT Plan for Rampur project aims to (i) improve the overall landscape of the catchment, (ii)
increase retension of moisture in the soils of the catchment, and (ii) reduce the sediment load in
the river. It is imperative that the sediment load in the Satluj does not increase due to disturbances
in its catchment or due to construction and operation of the project. The success of the Rampur
Hydropower Project CAT plan is however affected by the silt generation activities on the upstream
of the CAT plan area which are not presently covered under any CAT plan. Overall, the need is to
move towards a basin level planning and implementation for CAT Plans. Once such basin level plan
and implementation arrangements are ready, the CAT plan for Rampur project will be merged into
that. Until such time, the CAT Plan for the Rampur project will be implemented as follows.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

CAT Plan Area


The area covered in the cat plan is 1,062.5km2, of which 612.5km2 falls in Rampur Forest Division
while 450km2 is in Ani Forest Division. The catchment Area Treatment Plan of proposed Rampur
HEP includes Rampur Range, Bahil Range, Machhada catchment of Nankhari Range and of Sarahan
Range. Population density in the catchment area per 107/km2 and the population is predominantly
rural.
Objective of the CAT Plan
The CAT plan is designed to address catchment area degradation of the Rampur Hydropower
Project tract. The plan will support a combination of bio-engineering techniques to reduce soil
erosion, conserve water and improve vegetation cover in the catchment. Institutional strengthening
will also be undertaken to ensure sustainability of the CAT plan interventions. The main objective of
CAT plan will be:

To achieve ecological rehabilitation of the project area leading to all round economic
development on sustainable basis.

To increase the vegetation cover in the area by afforestation of areas/forest threatened


with erosion, with due consideration for fodder/fuelwood and timber demand of local
people.

To combat erosion in all forms on slopes, where possible

To promote in-situ moisture conservation, ground water recharge and to increase the
productivity of all types of land.

To carry out soil conservation measures in identified water shed to ensure the longevity
of the reservoir of Rampur Hydropower Project.

To improve carrying capacity of pastures by augmenting grass and fodder availability and
to solve the problem of migratory graziers

To provide employment to the local people by engaging them on afforestation and soil
conservation works.

To improve rural infrastructure in the project area

To increase productivity of all types of land and sustained use of natural resources.

To promote community participation

To conduct research for developing appropriate site specific tools with focus on solving
CAT plan implementation problem

To mitigate the project impacts on wild life by initiating ameliorating measures and to
strengthen wildlife management in the catchment.

Plan Period
The proposed plan is formulated by State Forest Department for the period of ten years starting
from 2006-07 until 2015-16. Emphasis in the first year will be to develop and maintain nurseries to
raise sufficient planting stock. Most of the activities will be completed within initial 5 years and the
later half of the plan will be mainly for maintenance. The afforestation work will be completed in 3
to 4 years and thereafter maintenance will be done up to 7 years. Pasture development works and
soil and water conservation works will be completed within first five years and will be further
maintained till the completion of the project period. Infrastructure work development will again be
completed within five years.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Responsibility
The CAT plan will be implemented by a society specifically created for this purpose by the
government of Himachal pradesh. The Government has notified and registered a society in the
name of Upper Satluj Valley Watershed Development Society. Overall, the execution of CAT plan
will be the responsibility of the State Forest Department with Conservator of Forests of Rampur
Division acting as the project director. Field level responsibility will be of divisional forest officers of
respective divisions and their support staff. The area of CAT plan will be divided into small
watersheds. The communities living in watershed will be associated in preparing micro plans within
the framework of CAT plan.
Forest Conservation & Improvement
In order to improve forest cover of the Catchment area it is proposed to increase vegetation cover
through implementation of various forestry schemes such as Afforestation of degraded forestland,
Replenishment, afforestation, Assisted Natural Regeneration, Development of Medicinal Plants,
Pasture improvement and subsidiary silvicultural operations barren, areas which are devoid of tree
growth or the degraded forestland with scanty vegetation will be brought under afforestation. The
details of various schemes will be implemented under forest conservation and improvement
program is given in detailed below
Afforestation of Degraded Forestland includes blank areas devoid of vegetation or degraded
forestland will be taken up for plantation. A total 780 ha area have been identified available for
taking under this scheme. Out of total 300 ha falls in Rampur while 480 ha in Ani forest division.
Replenishment Afforestation includes plantation of forest areas of the track depleted due to
excessive pressure of local community due to fodder, fuel, timber, etc., to restore such areas to
their optimum productive potential. Such forest areas will be planted by artificial means to increase
their stocking to the required level.
Table: 4.4 Activities under Forest Conservation & Improvement Component
Type of Scheme

Total Area (Ha),


No. of
Share in the CAT Plan
Forest Compartment Plants/ha Budget (%)

Degraded Area Development

780

Replenishment Afforestation

460

R:260 A:200

700

8.25

Assisted Natural Regeneration

400

R:195 A:205

300

5.17

Development of NTFPS/ Medicinal


Plants

170

R:80 A:90

2000

2.92

R:480 A:300

1100

17.31

Alpine Pasture Improvement

125

R:100 A:25

0.47

Low-lying Pasture

240

R:80 A:160

3.92

Source: Catchment Area Treatment Plan (2005) State Forest Department HP

The Assisted Natural regeneration scheme will be implemented to forest areas where conditions are
conductive to natural regeneration. Forest floor will be cleared of slash, debris and felling refuse to
afford a clean seed bed to the falling seeds & to germinate large number of villagers depends on
medicinal plants as their livelihood. In order to meet their demand as well as for in-situ
conservation of Medicinal plants, herbs such as Karoo, Dhoop, Chora, Salam Pania, Discorea, Patish
will be planted on 170ha of forestland.
Under Pasture improvement schemes, Alpine pasture and Low-lying pastures will be taken up for
treatment. A total of 3200ha of pasture area is available in catchment. It is an important source of
herbage/roughage for cattle, sheep & goats. The well developed crop areas within the forests will
taken for subsidiary silvicultural operations to improve the growth conditions & hygiene of the
forests floor such as, climber cutting (de-weeding), slash disposal, debris collection & burning.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Species Selected for Afforestation


Based on climatic & adaphic site-specific conditions following species are selected by Forest
Department for afforestation. However, preference of local communities as regard the choice of
species will be planted under this scheme. The species recommended for low-lying pastures are

Lancia lecocephala (Subabul), Salix sikkimensis (Willow), Grewia oppositifolia (Biul) and Morus alba
(Tut).
Table: 4.5 - List of Trees Recommended for Afforestation in CAT Plan
S. N.

Name of Plant species

S. N.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Cedrus deodara

Deodar

Pinus wallichiana

Robinia pseudoacacia

Lancia lecocephala

Melia azadirach

6
7

Name of Plant species


Scientific Name

Common Name

Dalbergia sissoo

Shisham

Kail

Aesculas indica

Aesculus

Robinia

10

Ailanthus sp

Maharukh

Subabul

11

Populus citiata

Paplar

Dreak

12

Picea smithiana

Spruce

Albizzia lebbek

Siris

13

Queruces incana

Banoak

Abies spectablities

Silverfir

14

Grewia oppositifolia

Biul

Source: Catchment Area Treatment Plan (2005) State Forest Department HP

Soil & Moisture Conservation Work


In order to control soil crosion in catchment area due to various project activities during
construction & operation phase, various soil & moisture conservation work will be carried out. The
soil stabilization measures such as construction of check walls, protection walls, vegetative barriers,
bushwood check dams etc. Various schemes implemented under this head are detailed out below.
Table: 4.6 Activities under Soil & Moisture Conservation Component
Name of Scheme

No. of Sites, Forest


Compartment

Measures to be Taken

Share in the CAT Plan


Budget (%)

Stabilization of Landslides prone area

71

R:34 A:40

Engineering Measures
Vegetative Measures

9.22

Treatment of Nallas

150

R:99 A:51

Engineering Measures
Vegetative Measures

17.83

Roads Side Erosion

0.48

Treatment of Private Land

Contour bunding, Terrace


Repining

0.64

Avenue Plantation/Landscaping

0.15

Source : Catchment Area Treatment Plan (2005) State Forest Department HP

A total number of 71 sites were identified in catchment area which are severely eroded and need
soil stabilization measures. Similarly about 150 number of nallas are to be treated so as to stop
excess silt load in the main river other erosion control measures includes road side erosion control,
avenue plantation and landscape works surrounding project site.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Infrastructure Development
Infrastructure development is an important part of Forest Management. In order to maintain
roads/path in serviceable conditions are needed to be improved. Various schemes implemented
under this head are discussed below.
Forest infrastructure development includes repair of forest path, construction/repair of operational
buildings, farm ponds, soil & water harvesting structures. While rural infrastructure development
includes construction/repair of village ponds & tanks, repair of springs, wells & other water
resources, repair of village roads & paths and construction of footbridges & rainwater harvesting
structures.
Table 4.7 Activities under Infrastructure Development Component
Name of Scheme

Item (Number, Forest Compartments) Share in the CAT


Plan Budget (%)

Forest Infrastructure Development

(i) Forest Path

0.69

(ii) Construction of Buildings

2.18

Repair of Village Road and Path

2.29

Rural Infrastructure Development


Village Ponds

31 Nos.

R:13

A:18

Soil and Water Conservation Structures

17 Nos.

R:8

0.63

A:9

1.09

Improvement of Water Resources

0.86

Strengthening of Village Path

2.29

0.17

Construction of Foot Bridges


Fuel Saving Devices

LPG, Pressure Cooker, Smokeless Chullas

0.1

Rain water harvesting

14 Sites

0.65

Source : Catchment Area Treatment Plan (2005) State Forest Department HP

Wildlife Management (in the CAT Plan)


The wildlife in the forest is exposed to lot of human disturbances besides stray cases of poaching.
The excessive cattle population, traditional rights of local people, lopping of trees for fodder, illegal
felling of trees etc resulted in depletion of forests and thereby reduction/loss/disturbance to wild
habitat. The wildlife Management plan is formulated by State Forest Department Govt of H.P. to
maintain viable, healthy and productive population of wildlife, to improve habitat by proving forest
cover, water holes, saltlicks etc and protect them from natural & anthropogenic hazards. Following
measures are suggested to protect wildlife.
Protective Measures: The protection of wildlife can be afforded by implementing preventive and
control measure for preservation and propagation of wildlife, as below:

Ban/Reduction in issuing crop protection licenses

Provision of Forest Guards to control hunting & poaching

Protection from forest fire

Prevention from diseases spread by domestic animals

Increase in Public Awareness about wildlife

Reward/Incentives to informers

Habitat Improvement: In order to provide suitable condition for growth, development and
reproduction of wildlife following measures are suggested

Increase in forest cover through implementation of various afforestation schemes

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Plantation of tree species, which are major sources of fodder for wildlife

Provision of Saltlicks at various places as a source of essential nutrients required for


growth of wild animals

Increase in pastureland by sowing suitable local species of grasses, bamboo plantation


etc

Besides this, there is also provision conducting of wildlife census in forest areas, as well as
conducting Public Awareness Programs, display of sign and slogan boards in forest areas for
protection of wildlife. The budgetary provision for wildlife management plan is given detailed
below.
Table 4.8 Activities under Wildlife Management Component
Name of Scheme

Amount

(Rs. Lakh)

Wildlife Improvement

47.10

Protection of Forest

25.48

Training and Studying

5.00

Awareness and Publicity

2.00

Eco Development

12.50

Source: Catchment Area Treatment Plan (2005) State Forest Department HP


4.5.4

Mitigation of Construction related Impacts


The mitigation measures aimed to mitigate and manage the construction induced impacts, are
categorized into the following, and each of these group of actions are described in the following
sub-sections.

Erosion and sediment control measures

Muck disposal planning and management measures

Quality management measures

Water quality management and monitoring measures

Chemical waste/ spillage management measures

Emergency measures for hazardous materials

Emissions and dust control measures

Noise control measures

Enhancement measures for physical cultural resources

Landscaping and re-vegetation measures

Vegetation clearing measures

Waste management measures

Environmental training for construction workers measures

On-site traffic and access management measures

Site hygiene measures for construction work camps and resettlement areas

Health assurance measures for project and contractors staff

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Erosion and Sediment Control


There is the potential for site erosion and sedimentation of downstream waterways if the site
activities are not carefully managed.
Erosion and sedimentation will be controlled during the construction of the works. Areas of the site
not disturbed by the construction activities will be maintained in their existing condition. A principal
effort at the Construction Areas will be management of erosion of excavated surfaces especially
during the wet season when the volume of the runoff is expected to be high. Contractors shall
prepare an Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan that shall include environmental
management and pollution control techniques for all these areas of activity including drainage
measures for underground works.
The Contractor shall prepare an erosion and sediment control plan in conjunction with the
Contractors Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan which will be prepared in accordance
with the Landscaping and Re-vegetation Plan. It shall detail all site-specific measures the
Contractor will implement during the construction phase to prevent an increase in pollution loads
being exported from the site. It shall cover site drainage, especially related to storm water
management. In particular it will include:

An assessment of the potential for water pollutants to be generated.

Measures to be taken to collect, store and treat storm water prior to any discharges form
the site, (considering options for water re-use on site)

Management of material storage areas, including raw materials, chemicals, fuels, and
oils;

Measures to prevent litter entering water courses and details of permanent pollutant
treatment measures or other water pollution control devices proposed for the operational
stage;

Identification of any significant effects on hydrological condition and appropriate


hydrological studies;

An inspection and maintenance program to maintain the effectiveness of erosion and


sediment control measures

Examples of activities, requirements, and practices that will be included in the Contractors
Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan include the following:
1.

Areas within the construction areas not disturbed by construction activities will be maintained
in their existing conditions.

2.

Soil erosion and sediment control practices will be implemented prior to any major soil
disturbance, or in their proper sequence, and maintained until permanent protection is
established. Only approved areas due for construction activity according to the Programme will
be cleared of vegetation and topsoil in accordance with sub-section on vegetation clearance;

3.

Prior to wet season, the contractor shall implement appropriate measures to ensure that
erosion is minimized from works where the permanent drainage and erosion control measures,
if any, are yet complete;

4.

Materials excavated by the Contractor from open and underground excavation, which are
unsuitable for incorporation into the Permanent Works or are surplus to such requirements,
will be disposed of as spoil dumps in spoil disposal areas. Materials suitable for roads, saddle
dams, slope protection, channel armoring or riprap and resettlement area fills will be stockpiled
separately from spoil disposal areas, at agreed locations for later use by the Contractor or
SJVNL;

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

5.

Soil excavated during construction will be stockpiled separately. The soil will be used for
landscaping and restoration of work areas. All stockpiles and spoil dumps will be constructed
and stabilized, including provision of drainage and erosion control measures in accordance with
the Landscaping and Re-vegetation Plan. The height of stockpiles and spoil dumps in spoil
disposal areas will be proposed in the Sub-Plan and will be limited to 3m for Topsoil and
materials for future use. The height of spoil dumps will be determined by the locations
occupied, but generally will be not more than 6m, with a 2m berm at 3m. Topsoil stockpiles
will be deep ripped to provide for moisture retention and re-growth. Drainage and erosion from
the stockpiles will be controlled by locating them in areas away from drainage lines. The
erosion of the base of the dump will be prevented by providing a silt fence to contain any
sediment in any runoff resulting from stockpile or spoil dump;

6.

Stockpiles and spoil disposal areas shall not be located on drainage lines or in floodway zones
or other areas important for the conveyance of floodwaters during major floods. Flooded area
behind spoil disposal areas will be allowed to drain to the Downstream Channel;

7.

Plans for water management during construction will be in accordance with the Best Practices,
and include development of drainage works, sediment traps, diversion, culverts and other
structures designed to treat water to the water quality requirements of this Sub Plan and
Water Quality Management Plan before discharge into natural watercourses. All these structure
will be constructed progressively prior to commencement of construction work and areas will
be directed to the sediment settling areas;

8.

The drainage works shall direct site runoff to established watercourses. They will be inspected
regularly for damage caused by scouring, sediment deposition, channel obstruction, and loss of
vegetation cover. Non-erodible segments will be established along the slope lengths. These
outlets will be located along the natural drainage lines;

9.

Sedimentation controls will be implemented in the form of silt trap fences and sedimentation
ponds where appropriate depending upon the size of the catchment, and other physical and
environmental constraints. The silt trap fences shall control flows along minor drainage lines,
whereas the sedimentation ponds will be utilized for removing sediment-laden runoff from the
construction areas. These will be built prior to the start of the activity and will be maintained
until the completion of that activity. The ponds will be designed in accordance with the Best
Practices.

Planning & Managing Muck Disposal


Impacts from spoil disposal from excavation activities on surface water drainage will be properly
addressed during construction period.
The Contractor will prepare a Muck Disposal Planning and Management Plan for the total works.
The Contractor will also submit Muck Disposal Planning and Management Plans for each proposed
spoil disposal sites, to the SJVNL for no-objection at least two months prior to commencement
work at each site.
SJVNL has already identified a number of muck disposal sites, and erected the toe protection
works. For any new site identified by the contractors, and for the currently identified sites, the
contractors will be responsible for planning and designing for all protection works.
The Muck Disposal Planning and Management Plan shall include environmental studies and
consultation which analyses the potential impacts of each proposed muck deposit and will be
complete at least three moths prior to commencement of construction activities in the particular
area.
The Contractor shall submit to the SJVNL, prior to submission of the Reference Design, drawings
showing the proposed locations for muck disposal areas. The Contractor shall also include the
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requirements of the activities given below (which are Contractors responsibility) which will be
modified in accordance with the SJVNLs comments and incorporated in the Reference Design.
The Contractor shall carry out all the following activities, and shall use the findings and results in
the preparation of the drawing showing the proposed locations of the spoil disposal areas:
1. Field inspection of sites and geomorphologic studies to determine if any proposed spoil disposal
areas are located in floodway zones of the flood plain;
2. Land use impact assessment, with attention to those areas of land used and designed for
agricultural purposes;
3. Estimation of flood stage frequency at relevant locations;
4. Determination of the reduction in flood storage volume that would result from spoil dumps in
main segments of flood plains
5. Determination of the reduction in cross-section area that would result from the positioning of
each spoil platform;
6. Assessment of impacts caused by increases in the general depth of flooding in each proposed
spoil disposal areas.
7. If preliminary flood studies show that the effect of spoil disposal in a particular site would be so
small as to have little impacts on users of the flood plain, the application of more rigorous
hydrological analysis and hydraulic modeling may not be necessary. However, if the preliminary
studies show that significant adverse impacts might accrue to the well-being of the flood plain
inhabitants, more rigorous analytical methods will be applied to determine, with greater
accuracy, the effects of spoil disposal in a particular site;
8. Consultations with the communities, if any, living close to the proposed spoil disposal sites
which may be affected. The consultations shall provide local villagers with detailed information
of the potential spoil disposal site, collect relevant information which may be of use in
determining the most appropriate site, and provide an opportunity for villagers to express their
opinions and concerns with the proposed plans. Information and feedback from the
consultation process will be incorporated into the final design for each spoil disposal site.
The SJVNL shall consider all the above requirements when reviewing the drawing showing the
proposed location of the spoil disposal area, which may require modifications to the proposals. The
modifications will be incorporated in the Reference Design.
The Contractor shall also use the findings and results of the above activities to prepare a Muck
Disposal Planning and Management Plan as a sub-plan under the Contractors Environmental
Monitoring and Management Plan. The Muck Disposal Planning and Management Plan shall:

Include allowance for muck disposal sites to be located in flood storage areas only in
those cases where the studies have determined that impact is not significant.

Include the requirement for all muck disposal sites to be located outside of flood
conveyance areas.

Not permit the obstruction of access to gardens or dwellings, or require re-routings of


roads and tracks;

Include provisions regarding the environmental management of the day-to-day


construction of muck platforms.

Require disposal sites not to be located in areas of land, which prior to the
commencement of the construction works, were used for agricultural purposes, or were
designated for agricultural purposes;

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Include provisions for incorporating the most appropriate stabilization techniques for each
disposal site;

Assess risks of any potential impacts regarding leaching of the muck, both in terms of
impacts on surface water as well as on ground water supplies;

Include appropriate engineering analysis to determine that the selected mcuk disposal
sites do not cause unwanted surface drainage;

Include recommendations for measures to be implemented regarding stabilization and


erosion relating to the muck disposal sites, in accordance with the requirements of the
Landscape and Re-vegetation Plan and the of Best Practices

Include a social and environmental assessment of risk in case of failure of each muck
disposal site

Incorporate information and feedback obtained from public consultation meetings as


provided by the SJVNL for the area identified above or as practical for other areas.

Topsoil will be stripped from areas to be used for spoil platforms and subsequently used to
landscape and grass the top and slopes of the muck platforms.
The Contractor shall identify muck materials which have potential for use by others in future
construction work. Such muck will be stockpiled and secured by the Contractor according to those
requirements relevant and in such a manner to allow future use of the muck by others.
The spoil will be placed on reverse order of excavation, with finer materials in layers towards the
top of the spoil dump, and stockpiled topsoil placed as the final layers. All layers will be of uniform
thickness and compacted sufficiently to minimize future settlement, in accordance with agreed
procedure.
SJVNL will be responsible for supervising and to assure that the spoil is placed in the appropriate
sites, to evaluate potential for failure of the slopes, and to monitor the effectiveness of erosion
control at each of the sites.
Recommendations for rehabilitation of muck disposal areas: Pending preparation of the
contractors rehabilitation and reinstatement plans for the muck disposal areas, the following are
recommended. These could form the minimum acceptable guidance for rehabilitation and
reinstatement.

The retaining wall varying from 2 to 7 m of height will be provided to prevent the
dumped material from sliding.

One meter terracing along the contour at 5 m interval along the slope in staggered
manner will be done.

The uphill side of the terraces will be provided with the walls/edging of 50 cm height and
50 cm thickness to protect the uphill side of the terraces from slipping.

Vegetative measures would include (i) suitable tree and shrub species will be planted
after fencing the area, and (ii) bBroadcasting of grass and Rumex seed will be done

Fencing and Planting - After the completion of civil works in the dumping sites to be will
be fenced with the barbed wire in strands with two diagonal strands using wooden fence
posts of eucalyptus 3m apart.

Choice of Species for planting: Keeping in view the climatic and soil conditions of the site,
broadly following species are recommended for planting:

Tree species: Robinia, Ailanthus, Poplar, Iqomoea, Siverock, Bottle brush, Ducinia,
Agave, Melia azedarach.

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Grass seeds: Heteropogan, Fescue and Chrysopogon seed at the rate of 4kg per
hectare may be broadcasted all over the area. Rumex hestatus seed in small
quantities may also be broadcast. Since this plant is naturally growing in the area in
abundance.

Maintenance: Possibility for watering the plants at least for early two or three years of
planting will be explored. Maintenance of the plants will be for five years. The dead plants
will be replaced and fencing if damaged be repaired.

Budget for rehabilitation and reinstatement of the muck disposal areas including for all measures
for stabilization of muck disposal site will be Rs.23. 26 million. Works to be carried out during preconstruction period will include constructing retaining wall or toe wall of average 5m height (2m to
7m) at a cost of Rs. 13.21 million. Works to be carried out after completion of muck disposal will
include terracing, fencing, planting and grass seeding; at a cost of Rs. 10.04 million.

Table 4.9 Budget for Protection (Retaining/Toe Wall) during Pre-Construction


Description

Quantity

Rate (Rs.)

Amount (Rs.)

Excavation

2.70m

64.00

172

Cement concrete

0.81m3

982.10

795.50

Cement mortar

2.01m3

1140.60

2292.60

Dry masonry

6.41m3

453.00

2903.73

Boulders filling

3.00m3

391.70

1175.10

391.70

1175.10

1800m

7337.73

13,212,000.00

Others
Total for 1m of retaining or toe wall
Total

7337.73

Table 4.10 Budget for Reinstatement Works after Completion of Muck Disposal
Description of Measure

Quantity

Terracing of 1 meter width with toe walling 50 x 50 cm size 18000 running metre
Fencing of area with barbered wire 4 strand horizontal and
two strand diagonal as per HPSR - 1999
Planning of different species of plants
Grass seeding
Total

Rate (Rs.)

Amount (Rs.)

145.00

26,10,000

3600 running metre

38.00

1,36,800

14000 plants

18.98

2,61,639

18.38 hectare

1320.00

24,26,160
54, 34,599

Total including escalation @ 8.5% per year for 6 years

80, 43,206

Add for maintenance for 5 years

20, 00,000

Grand Total

100,43,000

Quarry and Borrow Area Management


The project has identified 1 quarry site for acquiring aggregate and additional areas for sand.
During construction there is potential for noise, dust and sedimentation of waterways, and
increased traffic hazards if the development and operation are not carefully managed. Suitable
mitigation and closure measures will be adopted for management of these sites. The requirements

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of considerations and specifications for the use of quarry and borrow areas has been incorporated
into the construction contracts.
The contractor will be responsible for use of the quarries and borrow areas in accordance with the
provisions of the EMP. The EMD of SJVNL will ensure that the specifications are incorporated into
the construction contracts. The EMD will develop a monitoring program to ensure that the
operations are in accordance with the requirements of quarry management.
The Contractor shall have the right to quarry construction materials such as soil, sandstone,
limestone, stone, sand, gravel and any other materials from the Quarry Areas subject to the
requirements of the EMP and the Conditions of Contract.
The Contractor shall prepare an overall Quarry Management Plan for the total works in conjunction
with the Contractors Environmental and Management Plan.
At least 3 months prior to commencing any activities in a particular Quarry Area, the Contractor
shall submit a separate Quarry Management Plan to SJVNL for no-objection for the proposed
quarrying activities. The Plans shall include the following consideration:

An assessment of the following impacts at all quarry sites will be identified and assessed
for their magnitude and importance:

Erosion and sedimentation

Road damage

Spoil and other waste generation

Noise and dust generation

A plan showing the extent of the area to be developed

A method statement defining the proposed working method

The proposed access and haulage routes between the quarry and the destination for the
extracted material

A justification for the quantities of material to be extracted, an estimate of the waste


materials to be generated and disposal details for such waste materials

Details of the measures taken to minimize the quarry area and its visual impact on the
surrounding area

Measures which are recommended to minimize the significance of each identified impact

The plan will also describe details of the measures to be taken for the log-term rehabilitation of the
quarry and borrow workings. These shall include re-establishment of vegetation, restoration of
natural courses, avoidance of flooding of the excavated area wherever possible, achievement of
stable slopes, and avoidance of features which would otherwise constitute a risk to health and
safety or a source of environmental pollution.
Where the excavated quarry and borrow areas cannot be reasonably drained, the contractor shall
minimize their number and consult with the local population as to that populations preferences for
their location for reuse or other community purposes
Quarry faces and excavations will be made safe and buildings, plant, equipment and debris and
miscellaneous stockpiles of material will be removed form the areas
Materials, other then waste materials, extracted from quarrying operations will be used exclusively
for the Construction Works.

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Water Quality Monitoring


Construction activities may impact water quality in areas downstream of the construction activity.
SJVNL will monitor water quality in the Satluj River, and some of the tributaries.
SJVNLs water quality program will start before the main civil works contract is initiated to
determine baseline conditions in Satluj River. The information obtained during this period will be
used to improve the water quality modelling and to compare water quality conditions during
construction and operation of the project. The monitoring program will assess whether SJVNL is
fulfilling its goal of beneficial use of water within the project area.
The EMD of SJVNL will be responsible for implementing the water quality monitoring program from
the pre-construction phase through construction and the operating period. The water qualitymonitoring plan will be designed to monitor the effects of surface water runoff from areas
disturbed by all construction related activities.
The SJVNL shall prepare a Water Quality Monitoring Plan. The Water Quality Monitoring Plan will be
designed to monitor the effects of surface water runoff from areas disturbed by all construction
related activities. The plan shall include the following:

Detailed plans regarding monitoring the effects of surface water runoff from all
construction areas, including cleared land, roads, construction camps, quarry areas, which
may affect water quality in natural waterways. The plans shall include the locations of the
sampling water in waterways upstream and downstream of the entry points of the
surface water runoff from the construction areas. The frequency and method of testing
will be in accordance with internationally recognized standards;

The contractor shall ensure all construction related activities shall not pollute waterways,
in accordance with Application Standards. The Water Quality Monitoring Plan shall include
the Applicable Standards for water quality parameters

The water quality monitoring program shall also monitor the quality of potable water
supplied to the construction work camps, work sites.

As and when any water quality impact is identified, SJVNL will take immediate actions to control
pollution of water, including provision of all corrective measures at site.
Management of Water Quality, Chemical Waste and Spillage
During construction there will be a potential for the pollution of adjacent habitat areas and
downstream waterways if the site activities are not carefully managed. SJVNL will strive to reduce
the potential impacts to surface water and ground water within the vicinity of the construction
areas. This includes waste water management and discharges from the construction areas.
Construction camps will be equipped with waste water treatment facilities to prevent adverse
impacts to the surrounding water bodies. To ensure that the waste water treatment facilities at
each camp are effective, the EMD will implement a water quality monitoring programme, as
described in sub-section above.
Responsibility for providing waste water treatment facilities at the construction camps will be the
construction contractors. The EMD of SJVNL will be responsible for monitoring of the wastewater
treatment facilities.
The Contractor shall prepare a Chemical Waste/Spillage Management Plan. The Plan shall include
proposed actions for the following situations, and any other situations that could involve similar
products:

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All refueling of heavy equipment and machinery will be undertaken with appropriate safeguards
and protection measures to prevent any spillage or contamination by chemical wastes or
maintenance oils, lubricants etc;
All fuel and hazardous material storage will be adequately bunded to prevent any spillage
problems;
Storm water runoff from open workshop servicing and repair areas and bunded storage areas will
be collected and treated before discharge to drains or waterways
Portable toilets will be installed at each short term work site employing 5 workers or more. At least
one toilet will be installed per 20 workers. The toilets will be clean and a special service unit will be
responsible for collection and distribution of toilet units. The sludge will be treated according to the
requirements of the Contractors waste management plan
Suitable sanitary sewage and solid waste disposal facilities or systems will be provided at all long
term work sites, workshops stores and offices; all explosives will be transported, stored and
handled in accordance with the Applicable laws and Good Design Engineering, and Construction
Practice. The Contractor shall provide details of proposed storage and security arrangements;
Emergency Measures for Hazardous Materials
During construction there will be a potential for the pollution of adjacent habitat areas and
downstream waterways if site activities are not carefully managed, and there is uncontrolled
disposal and/or leaching of hazardous chemicals. SJVNL will minimize the potential for impacts
associated with chemical waste and spills of oil, diesel, grease from the construction area.
The contractor will be responsible for the preparation of the chemical waste and spillage
management plan, which will be approved and monitored by the EMD. This plan will incorporate
measures and processes to handle situations resulting from accidental spills of hazardous materials,
including chemicals and hydrocarbons or other similar incidents.
The SJVNL will be informed immediately of any accidental spill or incident in accordance with the
plan.
Following any spill or incident the Contractor shall immediately initiate remedial action.
This plan will be coordinated with the Emergency Preparedness Plan, and will include provision of
trained personnel, specialized plant and equipment, and defined and approved treatment and
disposal methods for the known range of hazardous materials.
The Contractor shall subsequently provide a report detailing the reason for the spill or incident,
remediation action taken, consequences/ damages from the spill, and proposed corrective actions.
The Emergency Plan for Hazardous Materials will be subsequently updated and submitted to SJVNL
for no objection, every time such an accidental spill happens.
Emissions & Dust Control
Fugitive dust from the site disturbances and emissions from the vehicles and plant have the
potential to negatively affect air quality in the vicinity of the construction sites and access roads.
SJVNL will minimize emissions from vehicles and equipment used for construction activities and
minimizes fugitive dust from construction areas and from unpaved roads within the construction
areas.
Responsibility for incorporating specifications for regular maintenance of vehicles and equipment
used will be with construction contractor. The EMD of SJVNL will review the contracts to ensure
that these specifications are incorporated. The Contractor will aslo prepare an Emissions and Dust
Control Plan. The EMD will develop a monitoring program to ensure that specifications within the
construction contracts are respected.
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The Contractors Emissions and Dust Control Plan will include the following:

Proposed methods and action to control dust resulting from construction related activities,
including quarry sites, crushing and concrete batching plants, earthworks including road
construction, embankments and channel construction, haulage of materials and
construction work camps. As a minimum, dust will be controlled by water spraying or any
other similar measures. These are to be applied as necessary to reduce to a minimum the
spread of dust from unsealed construction roads and public roads when construction
equipment is active, in areas of major earth excavation, and any other areas which
produces dust;

The exhaust gases from the construction machinery and vehicles are accepted. However
the engines will be inspected and adjusted as required to minimize pollution levels;

The emission and dust control plan shall include an internationally recognized air quality
standard such as from ITA (International Tunneling Association) which will be applied to
designing, monitoring and controlling air quality/ pollution in the underground works.

For all underground works, for all activities and type of material excavated, the Contractor shall
install mechanical/ forced ventilation systems which shall provide air pollution concentration that
comply with the requirements of the internationally recognized air quality standard included in this
sub plan. When internal combustion engines are operated in the underground works only diesel
engines will be used.
The burning of waste and/or garbage will be done in designated areas at a distance of at least 2km
downwind from the nearby villages and in accordance with Applicable Law and the Contractors
Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan. Burning of any material which produces toxic
gases will not be allowed.
Noise Control
Although noise impacts on communities on plateau are unlikely, excessive noise will impact on
wildlife. In the Power Station excessive noise will impact upon communities. SJVNL will minimize
the amount of noise generated at construction sites, as well as in the power house.
The contractor will be responsible for the preparation of the noise control plan, which will be
approved by the EMD. Monitoring of noise in the construction areas will be responsibility of EMD.
The Noise Control Plan shall include a nationally recognized noise level standard which will be
applied to designing and managing noise levels in construction plant, equipment and vehicles
Mufflers and other noise control devices of construction equipment and vehicles will regularly
checked, and be repaired or replaced if defective;
Construction works may generally be carried out 24 hours a day within 1km of villages and
construction camps. Work practices may have to be modified outside the period of 6:00 and 18:00
hours.
Construction workers exposed to noise levels of 80dB or more will be provided with adequate
hearing protection, in accordance with the requirement of Health and Safety Plan. Blasting, except
for underground, only permitted between 10:00 and 18:00 hours, within 2km of any villages.
Enhancement and Conservation of Physical Cultural Properties
Objects and sites of physical cultural resources may be encountered during construction activities in
the Construction Areas. SJVNL will implement the procedures required to prevent damage to the
objects and sites of Physical and Cultural Resources and to enable appropriate action to be taken
by SJVNL.

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SJVNL will avoid or minimize impact to physical cultural resources, including items having
archaeological, historical, religious, scared and or unique nature values that may be affected by the
project construction and operation. The SJVNL will be responsible for the appropriate management
of all items or sites of physical cultural resources located in Construction Areas in coordination and
consultation with Government Authorities.
SJVNL has already undertaken field work to evaluate the potential for cultural resources within the
construction areas. Based on this survey, a detailed update to previous findings has been compiled
along with recommended mitigation and management strategies for each item of physical cultural
resources. The result of the survey will be taken into consideration in construction of the project.
The contractor will prepare a sub-plan called the physical cultural resources management plan.
The SJVNL has completed surveys for objects and sites for physical cultural resources within the
selected construction areas. The results of the completed surveys indicate that few, if any, object
and sites will be affected by construction activities. Objects and sites of physical cultural resources
which may be encountered during construction activities include sites having archaeological,
palaentological, historical, religious, sacred and unique natural values.
Prior to commencement of work by the Contractor in any portion of the Construction Areas, the
SJVNL will have:

Completed a physical cultural resources survey for the particular portion of the
Construction Area

Informed the contractor of any known objects and sites of physical cultural resources
within the particular portion of the construction area

In accordance with conditions of the contract, required actions to be implemented by the


contractor for any such known objects and sites of physical cultural resources

The Contractor shall prepare a physical cultural resources plan for dealing with any objects and
sites of physical cultural resources notified by SJVNL or encountered by the contractor within the
Construction Area. Such physical cultural resources plan shall include proposed methodologies for:

Documentation and identification of any location of any objects or sites of physical


cultural resources notified by SJVNL or encountered by the contractor within the
construction areas;

Notification to the construction workforce of the need to be vigilant in the detection and
reporting of, and the prevention of disturbance and damage to, objects and sites of
physical cultural resources

Notifications to the SJVNL of any objects or sites of physical cultural resources


encountered by the contractor within the construction areas

Stopping work and securing the area adjacent to the objects and sites of physical cultural
resources to prevent damage to such objects and sites.

The SJVNL, in coordination and consultations with Government Authorities, will be responsible for
the appropriate overall management, protection and preservation of all objects and sites of physical
cultural resources encountered within the construction area and will, in accordance with the
conditions of contract, instruct the contractor on the actions to be taken by the contractor in
relation to avoiding or minimizing disturbance and damage to such objects and sites of physical
cultural resources, including:

Protection and preservation measures are to be taken by the Contractor;

Additional mitigation, management, notification and reporting measures are to be taken


by the Contractor to enable the construction activities to proceed;

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Changes to the Works and the construction methods, if any, required to be taken by the
contractor.

Additionally, SJVNL will retain the support of the Archaeological Survey of India, Shimla Office to
periodically inspect the site, and the physical cultural properties identified by the survey, to verify
that these properties are not damaged, and are being protected adequately. The experts from the
Archaeological Survey of India, Shimla Office would also advise on the enhancement and protection
measures that might be required from time to yime.
Archaeological Chance Find Procedure: Sites and properties that are buried or not identified
by the survey undertaken by SJVNL may be discovered during project implementation, especially in
the course of construction or excavation. Such unanticipated discoveries of remains of an
archaeological and/or historical nature are termed archaeological chance finds. Most often they are
concentrations of pottery, worked stone, and human and animal bones, without commercial value,
but of significance to archaeologists, historians, anthropologists, and paleontologists.
The following archaeological chance find procedures will be adopted in project design and
construction contracts:

The responsibility for preservation, maintenance and assessment of historical and cultural
monuments rests with the Department of Archaeology, Government of Himachal Pradesh,
and in specific cases, with the Archaeological Survey of India.

Whenever chance finds of cultural or historical artifacts (moveable and immovable) are
made the Department of Archaeology, Government of Himachal Pradesh, and the
Archaeological Survey of India will be informed. Should the continuation of work
endanger the historical and cultural artifacts, the project work will be suspended until a
solution is found for the preservation of these artifacts, or advice from the Archaeological
Survey of India is obtained.

Contractors, employees of the contractors and all project employees will be responsible
for informing the Project Director immediately after discovery of the chance find, without
any judgment on their own on the value of the chance find. The Project Director will be
responsible to inform the Department of Archaeology, Government of Himachal Pradesh,
and the Archaeological Survey of India, Shimla Office, within 48 hours of such discovery.

The Project Director will request for a representative of the Department of Archaeology,
Government of Himachal Pradesh, and/or the Archaeological Survey of India, Shimla
Office to make a site inspection.

Project Director will order cessation of work in the vicinity of the chance find until the visit
of a representative (usually required within 48-72 hours of notification); and follow the
advice by the Department of Archaeology, Government of Himachal Pradesh, and/or the
Archaeological Survey of India on possible salvage or excavation (usually required within
48-72 hours of notification).

Failure to report a chance find within the 48 hours of discovery, is a punishable offece
under the relevant Indian legislation. Similarly, (intentional) damage to a historical or
cultural artifact is a punishable offence.

SJVNL will also seek the support of the Archaeological Survey of India, Shimla Office to periodically
inspect the sites of construction, excavation and muck disposal to detect any chance finds.
Landscaping & Re-vegetation
The contractor will prepare a Landscaping and Re-Vegetation Plan that includes measures for
restoration of cleared areas, quarries which are no longer in use, spoil areas, haulage roads,
construction camp areas, borrow areas, stockpile areas, working platforms and any areas
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temporarily occupied during construction. The measures will include landscaping, provision of
adequate drainage and re-vegetation.
All areas disturbed by construction activity, including temporary access roads and tracks, will be
landscaped to reflect natural contours, restore suitable drainage paths and encourage the reestablishment of vegetation.
Spoil heaps and excavated slopes will be re-profiled to stable batters and grassed to prevent
erosion. Topsoil stripped from the areas occupied by the spoil heaps will be used for landscaping
works. Re-establishment of vegetation will be commenced at the earliest possible opportunity.
Appropriate local species of vegetation will be used.
Local depressions created by construction activities will be either backfilled or drained to prevent
ponding possible. Where the local depressions cannot be reasonably drained, the contractor shall
minimize their number and consult with the local populations as to that populations preference for
their location for reuse for fish forming or other community purposes.
All hazardous materials construction plant and waste will be removed from site and safely disposed
of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Reusable construction materials will be either
removed from site or, with the approval of the SJVNL, left in a secure manner such that they do
not constitute a risk to health and safety or a source of environmental damage.
Watercourses, if any, which have been temporarily diverted by the construction activities, will be
restored to their former flow paths.
Vegetation Clearing
During construction there will be a potential for areas to be cleared in excess of real requirements,
and insufficient consideration given to retaining vegetation. SJVNL will minimize vegetation clearing
for construction activities and control erosion and sedimentation from the disturbed areas. All such
additional clearance will be subject to the approval of the State Forest Department, if the land is
designated as forest land, or if the land supports forests.
All land and forest/vegetation clearing activities will be carried out according to a site plan, which
enforces the minimization of vegetation disturbance. Additionally, specification for control of
erosion of sediments will be detailed in the Erosion and Sediment Control Plan.
The contractor will include specifications for the removal of vegetation from the construction areas
and specifications for management of runoff from the disturbed areas during the construction
phase. These specifications are incorporated into the construction contracts. The EMD will be
responsible for ensuring the compliance of the construction contractors. The EMD will also inspect
the construction areas at the end of the construction phase to ensure that the areas are stabilized
before the construction contractor can vacate the area.
At the end of the construction period, the disturbed areas will be inspected to ensure that the areas
have been re-graded to conform to the natural topography and that appropriate grasses and
shrubs have been planted to start the re-vegetation process. The constructor contractor will be
responsible for the stabilization of construction areas before they are allowed to vacate the
construction areas.
Areas proposed for clearing will be submitted to and agreed by SJVNL, and only those proposed
areas will be cleared. SJVNL will reasonably consider the existing usage of the project land to allow
its existing usage to continue as long as is practicable, without interference with the contractors
activities.
The design of roads, including temporary and permanent access roads, shall avoid crop areas
where reasonable and practical. The application of chemicals for vegetation clearing will be

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

minimized to the greatest extent reasonable and practical. Chemicals, if any, will be selected on the
basis of being non-residual and with regard to human health.
Herbicides used in the Project shall have negligible adverse human health effects; be shown to be
effective against the target vegetation species; have minimal effect on the natural environment;
and be demonstrated to be safe for inhabitants and domestic animals in the treated areas, as well
as, for personnel applying them. Herbicides will be appropriately packaged, labelled, handled,
stored, disposed of and applied according to international standards to be proposed by the
Contractor for the SJVNLs non objection. Persons applying herbicides will be provided with
appropriate training, equipment, and facilities to handle, store, and apply these products properly.
All herbicides shall have labels in both English and local Languages to allow those handling the
herbicides to comprehend the labeling fully.
Clearing will be carried out in accordance with the following requirements, Logging and Removal of
Waste Forestry Products given below, which describes the Contractors responsibilities, which is
referred to in the Conditions of the Contract.
Logging and Removal of Waste Forestry Products
Prior to Commencement of Construction, SJVNL shall have the right, but not obligation, to remove
or arrange for the removal of commercial and non-commercial timber as well as other forestry
products from the designated Construction Areas. After commencement of Construction the
Contractor shall have the right to log and remove forestry products remaining as required to clear
areas to carry out the construction of the works, as necessary. However, in either case, the
ownership and any value accruing remains with the State Forest Department.
The contractor shall submit plans for removal of the remaining timber and other forestry products
in the areas permitted under this clause to SJVNL for approval at least three months in advance of
any work being executed by the Contractor. The plan will be in accordance with the Contractors
obligations of the contract Requirements, including in particular, the following items:

erosion and sedimentation control and mitigation

vegetation clearing

air quality

noise pollution

The contractors plan shall provide detailed information regarding the proposed logging and
clearing work, including the following:

Clear identification and justification of the areas to be logged and cleared;

Name of the company or organization to do the logging and clearing work;

Schedule for logging and clearing to be undertaken;

Clear identification of disposal sites for the timber and forestry products;

If the SJVNL elects to log and clear the areas nominated in the Contractors plan as areas which the
SJVNL may log and clear, it shall have the right to do so within the period specified by the
Contractor consistent with the obligation referred to in contract.
All works involving the logging and removal of timber and other forestry products after
commencement of Construction Works must be carried out in accordance with the Contractors non
objected Vegetation Clearance Plan;
Other than the contractors right to use timber obtained from the areas permitted under this clause
for construction or for the temporary works necessary for that construction and other than the sale

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rights described in contract, the contractor must not sell, use or obtain any other benefit from the
commercial timber of forestry products form the Construction Areas.
The contractor, with explicit permission from the State Forest Department, shall dispose of any
timber or forestry products resulting from the clearing not used in the construction Works and
which are not sold, in a manner selected by the contractor including leaving the timber and forestry
products at the perimeter of the cleared construction areas or areas selected by the Contractor
within the cleared construction areas for collection by SJVNL.
For timber and forestry products discarded by the contractor and left at the perimeter of the
cleared Construction Area or at areas selected by the contractor within the cleared construction
area, the SJVNL shall have the right to arrange for the removal of such discarded timber and
forestry products.
Solid Waste Management
During construction there will be potential for garbage and waste collection and disposal to be
given a low priority with resultant low efficiency and health problems. SJVNL will ensure proper
management of solid waste generated by project activities.
A solid waste management plan will be developed by the contractor and will be monitored by the
EMD, which will assure that the solid waste is disposed as described in the solid waste
management plan.
A sufficient number of garbage bins and containers will be made available at the work camps, the
areas of planned and spontaneous resettlement and at the main work sites. Garbage and other
waste will be regularly collected and be transported to a designated waste disposal site.
Suitable sanitary and solid waste collection and disposal facilities or systems will be provided at all
camps, workshops, stores, offices, long term main work sites and personnel will be provided to
operate and maintain the systems. During construction phase, labour, clerical staff and technical
personnel are likely to congregate. The increase in population is expected to be of the order of
11,850. The average per capita solid waste generated would be of the order of 425
gm/day/person. The solid waste likely to be generated from labour camps will about 5 tonne per
day. For solid waste collection, 50 number of masonry storage vats, each of 2m3 capacity will be
constructed at appropriate locations in various labour camps. These vats will be emptied at regular
intervals and the collected waste can then be transported to disposal site. Three covered trucks to
collect the solid waste from common collection point and transfer it to the disposal site will be put
to service. A total provision of Rs.11.11 million is earmarked for these purposes.
Table 4.11 Budget for Solid Waste Management
Item

Cost (Rs. million)

Three covered truck for conveyance of solid waste to landfill site @ Rs. 1.60
million/truck

4.80

Manpower cost for 12 persons @ Rs.5500/month for 6 year

6.11

Awareness programme
Total

0.20
11.11

The waste disposal site will be located at least 2km from the nearest village. Connections to the
groundwater or surface water will be avoided, either by clay or impervious membrane at the
bottom and walls of the waste disposal site. When parts of the waste disposal sites are full, they
will be covered by a depth of 1.5m of soil, and then re-vegetated according to relevant
requirements included in the Landscaping & Re-vegetation Plan. In addition, rehabilitation of those
areas used to bury waste will be done in accordance with the requirements of the HPEPPCB.

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A separate collection and storage procedure will be developed for hazardous or toxic waste, such
as batteries, unused paint thinners and hydrocarbons, disused electronic equipment, etc. These
wastes will be stockpiled in accordance with the requirement of the applicable Laws and
subsequently transported to special solid waste treatment plant capable of proper disposal of such
hazardous or toxic waste as approved by HPEPPCB.
Management of Construction Work Camps and Spontaneous Settlement Areas
During construction there will be potential for construction work camps and spontaneous
settlement areas to be developed without sufficient consideration of planning, health, and
environmental requirements. SJVNL will mitigate the following identified impacts of establishing and
operating work construction camps - erosion; runoff and sediment control from the disturbed
areas; and health issues. For spontaneous development of business not associated with the
construction activities at all sites, or for spontaneous settlement of construction workers or ther
families, SJVNL will seek to maintain the similar standards.
The contractor will be responsible for developing a plan and design for construction of the work
camps. SJVNL, through the EMD, will ensure that the work camps prevent environmental impacts
to the camp sites and to the surrounding areas. The EMD will be responsible for monitoring
activities within the camps to ensure compliance with the plan.
The contractor shall plan, design and construct construction work camps for the construction
workers, which satisfy the following general requirements:

Plans will be prepared for all camps and preliminary plans and information will be
submitted with the contractors Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan.

Approvals and permits will be obtained in accordance with the Applicable Laws, Applicable
Standards and Environmental Requirements, if any, for the building and infrastructure
work for each camp area.

Camp site selection and access roads will be located so as to avoid clearing as many trees
and vegetation as possible form the areas and to avoid aquatic habitats.

Camp areas will be sited to allow effective natural drainage.

Effective sediment control measures during construction and operation of the


construction work camps in accordance with the Environmental Requirements, especially
near rivers.

Adequate drainage structures will be located and constructed to prevent formation of


stagnant pools.

Suitable sanitary, sewage and solid waste collection and disposal facilities will be provided
to serve the construction camps. Sewage effluent shall meet water quality criteria
required by Applicable Laws, Standards and Environmental requirements before
discharge.

Adequate provision for medical facility; signage for awareness on health and hygiene;
and condom vending machines and other awareness materials to combat HIV/AIDS.

The contractor shall plan, design and construct construction work camps for the construction
workers and the officials of the contractors organization, which satisfy the following specific
requirements:

Paved internal roads, storm water drainage systems to prevent stagnant water, adequate
day time, night time and security lighting will be provided

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Camps shall consist of living facilities with housing mess, shopping, recreational and
sanitary facilities for all workers accommodated within the camps.

Fire fighting equipment and services and portable fire extinguishers will be provided for
all building

Medical and first aid facilities will be provided at each camp area

The camp areas shall have an adequate supply of potable water compliant with WHO
criteria and Applicable Laws

Ventilation of buildings within the camp areas will be in accordance with Applicable Laws
and Standards

Mess halls and residential accommodation will be mosquito and fly proofed.

Adequate provision for medical facility; signage for awareness on health and hygiene;
and condom vending machines and other awareness materials to combat HIV/AIDS.

Water quality will be maintained, and sanitation facilities provided as described in Section 4.5.1.
Mitigation for Impacts from Construction of Roads
SJVNL will strive to inimize impacts during the construction and upgrading of roads. The major
mitigation measures is the minimization of new road alignments in favour of upgrading existing
roads and for new roads, seeking an alignment that minimizes damage to vegetation.
The contractor will be responsible for constructing and/or strengthening the access roads, the
haulage roads, or any other roads within the project area in accordance with the EMP. The EMD
will be responsible for ensuring that contractors environment management plan adequately covers
the environmental impact mitigation measures for the road construction activities. It will also be
responsible for monitoring compliance.
The approach roads will have to be constructed as a part of the access to the construction site. In
a hilly environment, construction of roads sometime disturbs the scenic beauty of the area. In
addition, landslides are often triggered due to road construction because of the loosening of rocks
by water trickling from various streams.
Road construction is expected generates significant quantity of wastes (muck) due to the stripping
of the rocks. The stripped muck is generally cleared by dumping the material along the slopes.
These dumped materials finally flow down to the valleys and ultimately finds its way in to the river.
In the Rampur HEP, this will be prohibited. The stripped material will be collected and dumped in
the designated muck disposal areas, which will be managed and protected as described in a subsection above.
After disposal operation is complete at the dump site, dump site will be reinstated, contoured and
vegetated. Various other aspects to be integrated while constructing the project roads are
described below.

Where erosion is likely to be a problem, clearing and grubbing operations will be so


scheduled and performed that grading operations and permanent erosion control of
features can follow immediately thereafter, if the project conditions permit; otherwise
temporary erosion control measures will be provided between successive construction
stages. Under no circumstances, however, should very large surface area of erodible
earth material be exposed at any one time by clearing and grubbing.

The method of balanced cut and fill formation will be adopted to avoid large difference in
cut and fill quantities.

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Where rock blasting is involved, controlled blasting techniques adopted to avoid overshattering of hill faces.

Excavated material should not be thrown haphazardly but dumped duly dressed up in a
suitable form at appropriate places where it cannot get easily washed away by rain, and
such spoil deposits may be duly turfed or provided with some vegetative cover.

Drainage of the water from hill slopes and road surface is very important. All artificial
drains will be linked with the existing natural drainage system.

Surface drains shall have gentle slopes. Where falls in levels are to be negotiated, check
dams with silting basins will be constructed and that soil is not eroded and carried away
by high velocity flows.

Location and alignment of culverts should also be so chosen as to avoid severe erosion at
outlets and siltation at inlets.

Tree felling for road construction/works will be kept bare minimum and strict control must
be exercised in consultation with the Forest Department. Equivalent amount of new trees
will be planted as integral part of the project within the available land and if necessary,
separate additional land may be acquired for this purpose.

Depending on the availability of land and other resources, afforestation of roadside land
will be carried out to a sufficient distance on either side of the road.

An amount of Rs.8 million is earmarked for the purpose of implementing these EMP measures
described above. These costs have already been included in the estimates of the contract cost, and
the bill of quantities. Therefore, these are not included in the EMP budget.
Table 4.12 - Budget for Implementation of EMP Measures for Road Construction
S. No.

Item

Cost (Rs. million)

1.

Clearing and grubbing

3.0

2.

Provision of breast walls, construction of catch water and interceptor drains

1.5

3.

Provision of drainage system along roads

2.0

4.

Planting and grassing works, roadside plantation, etc.

1.0

5.

Sprinkling of water through tankers on roads

Total

0.5
8.0

Mitigation for Impacts from Construction of Power Evacuation System


Although the transmission line that would be constructed for the project will be a short loop-in
loop-out line, and the impacts are not expected to be significant, there would be some potential
impacts. The system will be constructed by the Powergrid Corporation of India.
The Powergrid Corporation of India has already adopted and implemented in its projects, a set of
Corporate Environmental Policies. These policies are equivalent to the environmental safeguard
policies of the World Bank. Using guidance and methods defined by these policies, the Powergrid
Corporation of India will mitigate the impacts of vegetation and habitat loss, disturbance from
construction, possible soil toxicity from the application of chemicals used in vegetation clearance,
and possible health risks associated with electric and magnetic fields generated by transmission
lines. Additional measures to mitigate against impacts includes avoidance of felling of trees as
much as possible, implementation of proper logging techniques where vegetation clearing is

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

unavoidable, avoidance of application of chemicals, and prohibition of dwellings, and businesses in


the easements along the transmission lines.
The Powergrid Corporation of India will be responsible for these activities. The EMD of SJVNL will
report on the adequacy of the environment management by the Powergrid Corporation of India.
Environmental Training for Construction Workers
During construction there will be a potential for workers to damage the forests and waterways
adjacent to camps and work areas. The contractor shall prepare a training plan for all construction
workers. The training will need to ensure that all employees of the contractor are aware about their
duties, responsibilities, liabilities and consequences of non-compliance.
All employees of the contractor will be required to comply with environmental protection
procedures and they will be able to provide evidence that they have attended the training sessions
detailed in the plan.
The goal of the Environmental Training for Construction Workers program will be to educate all
construction workers on the following issue: traffic regulations, illegal logging and collection of nontimber forestry products (particularly in the resettlement areas), hunting nad fishing restrictions,
sanitation practices, waste management, erosion control, general health issues including the
information and education, specific health issues related to HIV/AIDS, safety issues and general
information on the environment in which they will be working and living.
Training will also include awareness generation that (personal, not related to work) use of
explosives and chemicals is not permitted; or hunting and fishing is not permitted. Contractors will
establish rules and penalties for violation.
These training sessions will be organized by the contractor, and woulod include formal training
sessions, posters, signage in construction and camp areas, and tool box meeting. These would be
in addition to the training program organized by EMD, SJVNL. However, both training program
could be coordinated.
On-Site Traffic & Access Management
During construction there will be a potential for use of large numbers of vehicles of variable size,
leading to hazardous conditions on public roads, camps, project roads and work areas. To address
the potential hazardous conditions, the contractor will prepare and implement an On Site Traffic
and Access Management Plan. The plan shall address the following:

Details regarding expected road quality, maximum permissible vehicular speed on each section
of road, establishment of safe sight distance including within the construction areas and
construction camp site.

Detailed plans for signage around the construction area to facilitate traffic movement.

Estimated maximum concentrations of traffic and effects on existing traffic patterns for
different times of day, and at individual locations within the construction area.

Provisions to be made by the contractor for adequate off-road parking of all construction
related vehicles.

Plans to be followed while moving special loads, such as hazardous material, or heavy loads.
Plans for controlling site access, including both construction areas and construction camp
areas.

Monitoring and methods of enforcing the requirements of the traffic management plan.

Construction traffic, including heavy loads, must not damage public roads. Personnel authorized to
the construction areas will be briefed on traffic regulations applicable to the construction area.
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Parking will be provided for all classes of vehicles travelling to the site. At no time shall construction
vehicles be parked in a manner which may restrict movement of traffic on public roads. Signage
should provide directions to various components of the works, provide safety advice and warning.
All signs will be in both English and Local Language and be constructed to Indian Standards.
4.5.5

Contractor Staff Health Program


During construction there will be potential for workers to be affected by diseases associated with
the local conditions and camp/ temporary living conditions. There would be potential to infect the
local communities with infectious diseases, or communicable diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS. SJVNL
will strive to ensure that the health of the construction workforce is maintained, and that the local
communities are not exposed to increased health risks, or increased HIV/AIDs risks due to the
presence of the large number of migrant workforce.
SJVNL will ensure that disease control measures are affected by the contractor at the time the
construction camps are built and during the construction period while the camps are inhabited.
Construction camp siting decisions will be made considering good drainage, water supply, sewage
disposal and disease transmission potential, especially malaria. An adequately staffed clinic will be
sited at the base camp. The contractors will establish all required linkages with the State AIDS
Control Society (SACS), and will implement all measures including referral system advised by the
SACS. The contractor will responsible for these activities. SJVNL, through EMD will be responsible
for monitoring the contractors activities and compliance.
As part of the contractors Health and Safety Plan, the Contractor shall prepare and enforce the
Staff Health Program in respect to matters regarding the health and safety of the construction
workforce. The contractors project Staff Health Program shall also provide some assistance to
nearby communities for emergency matters if space resources become intermittently available.
Similarly, the contractors can coordinate, as an additional facility but not replacing its own
obligations under this EMP, with all other functioning medical facilities in the locality.
Construction Camps

In general, anti-malaria measures following current accepted practice will be instituted at


campsites and facilities established for early diagnosis and treatment of patients with the
diseases.

Disease control measures are to be implemented by the construction contractors at the


time the construction camps are built.

Decisions regarding siting of camps will be made with regard to good drainage, water
supply, sewage disposal and disease transmission potential, especially malaria.

Mosquito nets will be provided.

For Overall Workforce


With regard to providing high quality health services to the Contractors employees, the program
shall include:

Appropriate measures to address mosquito control, including dengue fever control.

A medical centre sited at the main construction camps, for the diagnosis and treatment of
communicable diseases, simple medical complaints and handling of medical emergencies
and accidents. It will be staffed adequately. Subsidiary treatment or first aid posts at each
smaller construction camps will be staffed by either a trained nurse or locally trained
personnel.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Suitable workers will be selected from the workforce and receive additional training in
occupational health and first aid shall form teams of two or three personnel at each work
site. They shall do this as part of their normal work and will be under the supervision of
the person responsible for occupation health and of the medical officer.

For the control of communicable diseases and other public health issues, contractors will
employ services of a sanitation officer and a disease control officer.

Provision will be made for health checks of employees, including checks, where required,
for drug abuse and sexually transmittable diseases in accordance with ILO and WHO
resolutions, recommendations, guidelines for construction workers.

The contractor shall employ a sanitation management and control office who will be fully
devoted to (i) control vector borne and other diseases, (ii) ensure the continued safe
disposal of all solid waste and sewage, (iii) implement fly and other insect control at
construction camp sites and in the project area, (iv) implement and monitor the sanitation
management measures throughout the project area including construction camps and
spontaneous resettlement areas, (v) provide appropriate information and education to the
workforce on prevention of diseases, including malaria, diarrhea, STD and HIV/AIDS, and
(vi) investigate and document diseases outbreaks within the contractors workforce.

Additional Malaria Control Measures


To reduce the risks of workers contracting malaria, the following measures will be followed for
mosquito control at construction site:

Education of workers about problems and preventive measures

Require protective clothing

Repellents protective clothing

Minimize presence of containers full of water

Remove discarded items that could contain water

Keep storm water drains and borrow pits free of vegetation

Insecticide control as a last resort method and only after studies indicate primary
locations of mosquitoes

HIV/AIDS Prevention Measures


To effectively address the HIV/AIDS issues and the associated risks, the contractors will associate
with the SACS fully and without any failure or excuse. SJVNL will insist that the contractors
implement all advice from the SACS. In addition, the contractors will be obliged to implement
regular and periodical awareness campaign on HIV/AIDS, provide for all awareness materials and
their dissemination, including erecting large signage in prominent areas; and to provide for and
maintain condom vending machines in all work areas including construction camps, pubic toilet
booths, and work sites.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 4.13 Summary Environmental Management Plan


Activitiy/Imp Direct and Indirect Impacts of the project Boundary 1
act Receptor
Space

Proposed Mitigation Measures

Responsibility

Provision for alternate land for Compensatory


Afforestation Plan

State Forest Department/SJVNL

Compensatory Afforestation with large scale tree


plantation

State Forest Department/SJVNL

Clear marking of required areas so that excess


vegetation clearance does not happen

Contractor will prepare and


implement the vegetation
clearance plan and SJVNL will
monitor the implementation

Time

Project Preparation Stage


Acquisition of
Forests Land

Loss of 48.9 ha of forest land and associated


biodiversity

Project affected Until Compensatory


afforestation is
area
complete

Felling of Trees Loss of one thousand seventy five(1075) trees Project affected Until Compensatory
for project
afforestation is
area
construction
complete
Vegetation
Clearing for
construction
activity

Loss of shrubs and grasses leading to loss of


biodiversity

Project affected Construction Period


area

Logging and removal of waste forestry products


immediately

Erosion of soil

Project Construction Stage


Construction
activities and
vehicle
movement

Emissions from vehicles and equipment


operating at construction sites
Dust generated by construction activities at
quarry sites,concrete batch plans,construction
siates,dust on roads and passing traffics

Localized in PAA The impact will be


temporary but will
and PIAA
continue till
construction stage

All equipment and engines will be maintained in good


condition

PAA,PIAA

Impact will be
temporary but will
continue during the
construction period

Mufflers and noise control devices will be used in


construction equipment
Defective vehicles generating gih noise will be replaced
Construction activities will be limited to day time only
Hearing protection aids will be used where high noise
level exposure to the workers is needed to be curtailed

Contractor will prepare and


implement dust and emission
control plan and SJVNL will
monitor the implementation

Proper collection and disposal of waste will be practiced


and burning of waste in and around the project area will
be prohibited.

Burning of waste
Generation of Increase in noise level, causing disturbance to
the fauna and human settlements around the
Noise from
constructionare site.
as

Dust suppression measures will be utilized at all dust


generation locations

Construction contractor will be


responsible for preparing and
implementing the noise control
plan
SJVNL will be responsible for
monitoring the implementation of
noise control plan

Project Impact boundary is categorized as Project Affected Area(PAA),Project Immediate Influence Area(PIIA) and Project Influence Area(PIA)

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Activitiy/Imp Direct and Indirect Impacts of the project Boundary 1


act Receptor
Space
Construction
Work camps

Proposed Mitigation Measures

Responsibility

Time
Wildlife hunting will be banned by order of law
Construction contract will be
responsible for preparing and
Alternate source of energy such as Kerosene or LPG will
implementing a construction work
be provided
camp management plan
Punitive measures will be enforced tree cutiing and
SJVNL will be responsible for
damage to natural resources
monitoring the implementation of
Proper soild waste collecetion and treatment measures the plan
will be implemented

Destructions of flora and Wildlife hunting


Tree felling for timebr exploitation as fuel
Waste water/Solid waste generation

Waste water will be treated and safely disposed of.


Environmental awareness training will be provided to the
Contractor and workers.
Quarry
activities

Muck Disposal

Loss of biodiversity

PAA,PIAA

Sediment traps will be installed


Dust suppression measures will be implemented

Runoff from the area may affect surface water


quality and eventually pollution of river
Loss of aesthetic value of the area

Abandoned borrow pit and quarry will be rehabilitated


with vegetation,etc

Dust generation

Good landscaping measures will be adopted

Damage to top soil and flora at the sites of


construction.

PAA,PIAA

Until construction
activities are over

Heavy siltation of surface water and river


especially during rainy season due to muck
falling in surface water source/river
Loss of aesthetic value of the area

Top soil will be reused for landscaping activities


Silt trap fences will be installed and before dumping
action the muck disposal area will be covered by
retaining walls on the sides bordering the surface water
source/river
Muck disposal area will be vegetated and good
landscaping will be done

Construction contract will be


responsible for preparing and
implementing the quarry
management plan
SJVNL will be responsible for
monitoring the implementation of
the quarry management plan
Construction contractor will be
responsible for preparing and
implementing a muck disposal
management plan
SJVNL will be responsible for
monitoring the implementation of
noise control plan

Excess Timber
logging

Loss of flora due to logging of timber trees

PIAA,PIA

During construction
as well as operation
stage

Effective catchment area treatment plan will be


implemented

State forest department will


develop and implement CAT plan

Blasting

Drying of water supply sources like natural


springs,khulls,etc

PAA,PIAA,PIA

Temporary during
blasting time

Water resource survey will be undertaken before


construction activity and any loss will be compensated

SJVNL will undertake survey and


compensate the asset loss

During tower
errection

Adequate compensation will be provided for loss of asset Environment management Plan for
transmission line projects will be
Towers will be aligned away from habitation
developed and implemented by
Transmission towers will aligned to reduce tree cutting
SJVNL

High noise generation


Locations of
Construction of Loss of crop land
transmission
transmission
Loss of vegetation; Tree cutting
towers
towers
Creation of electromagnetic field around towers

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Activitiy/Imp Direct and Indirect Impacts of the project Boundary 1


act Receptor
Space

Proposed Mitigation Measures

Responsibility

Time

Construction/
Loss of biodiversity
upgradation of
Silt runoff to surface water body/river
roads
Construction related pollution

PIAA,PIA

One year from


construction till road
construction and/or
upgradation is over

Environment Management Plan for road construction


work will be prepared and implemented

Constructor contractor will be


responsible to implement the plan
and SJVNL eill br responsible for
monitoring the implementation

River Satluj
Between Jhakri
and Bayal

Life span of the


project

Project will release minimum 7 cumec of flow into


downstream of NJHEP to help sustain the riparian
environment.Additionally about 14 cumec water will also
flow in from various tributaries between Jhakri to Bayal.

SJVNL will be responsible for


release of minimum flow and HP
Environment Protection and
Pollution Control Board will monitor
the same.

River Satluj
Between Jhakri
and Bayal

Life span of the


project

Solid waste and waste water management in the villages SJVNL will be responsible for water
quality monitoring and
and rampur town
implementation of suitable
Effective Catchment Management Plan
measures. Environment Protection
Water quality Monitoring and implementation of effective and Pollution Control Board will
measures in case of water pollution
monitor the same at regular
interval as external check

Project Operation Stage-Impact on Physical Environment


Hydrology

Diversion of 388.83 cumec from Satluj River at


Jhakri
Significant reduction in flow in satluj River
between Jhakri and Bayal Stretch

Water Quality

Periodic episodes of low dissolved oxygen


concentration in downstream rivers
River pollution from discharge from power
house through tail race discharge

State forest department will


implement CAT plan
Erosion and
sedimentation

Increase in silt load of the river stretch between


Jhakri and Bayal

Monitoring of minimum release in the river downstream


and silt flushing capacity of the river

Increase in river bank erosion from the tail race


discharge below confluence with the
downstream channel

Inclusion of regulating channel in design facilitating


more constant and controlled release of water at
downstream

SJVNL will implement adaptive


management plan for managed
river flow

River bank protection/stabilization downstream of


tailrace discharge
Lining of exposed sections of the downstream channel
Asset compensation for any land/asset lost
Operation Phase-Impact on Biological Environment
Aquatic
habitats and
fish diversity

Life span of the


Transformation of 25 km stretch of satluj River Satluj River
between Jhakri and bayal will alter habitats and Stretch between project
disfavour species adapted to fast flowing
Jhakri and Bayal
conditions.
The diversion weir will present a barrier to
migration of fish

A detailed fishery study will be undertaken and fish


management plan will be developed
Continuous water quality monitoring and implement
adaptive management practice for maintaining water
quality
Stabilization of road sides and other areas to reduce

Fisheries department will


undertake fishery study with
project related support from SJVNL
SJVNL will undertake monitoring
and river bank stabilization
programme in association with
state forest department wherever

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Activitiy/Imp Direct and Indirect Impacts of the project Boundary 1


act Receptor
Space

Proposed Mitigation Measures

Responsibility

erosion

required as rule of the law

Time

Changes in water flow,quality and temperature


might alter the species composition and
productivity of the river

River bank stabilization

Work in or along river might increase the


sediment load causing damage to
fish(gills),destroy pawning areas and reduce
productivity of the river
Terrestrial
Biodiversity

80 ha of land and associated vegetation


affected by project permanently(construction
phase)
Improved accessibility of the area and
increased human population on plateau will
stimulate increased pressure on natural
resources and wildlife due to encroachment and
poaching activities

PAA,PIA

Life Span of the


project

Compensatory afforestation plan towards loss of forest


Effective Catchment treatment plan
Control measures for grazing

State forest department will


prepare and implement
compensatory afforestation plan
and CAT plan

Control measures for forest fire

Increased land erosion activities in catchment


area

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

4.5.6

Safety Assurance in the Project


It is the policy of SJVNL to provide a safe place to work for its employees. It is acknowledged that
SJVNL has the ultimate responsibility for compliance with all the requirements of applicable safety
rules and orders on the Rampur Hydropower Project.
Each employee has the responsibility to plan, organize and perform work in the safest manner
possible, consistent with sound construction practices. All employees will be constantly on the alert
for unsafe acts and conditions and to correct them immediately. SJVNL management will ensure
that all employees including contractors and subcontractors, are aware of their personal
responsibility in maintaining an accident-free and healthy work environment.
Goal of Working Accident-Free
THE GOAL OF SJVNL IS TO WORK ACCIDENT FREE.
When an accident occurs, the degree of loss is determined by chance; therefore, preventing all
accidents must be the objective of the safety goal, rather than only those where potential for
serious consequences is most apparent. Accidents are preventable and result from unsafe and
inefficient procedures or methods, unsafe physical conditions, unsafe equipment, and unsafe
personal acts.
The challenge is to work every day on the job INJURY FREE. The Safety Manual lays out the
written program that will assist in preventing accidents. Safety is a full time commitment on
everyones part, not just the Safety management team. SJVNL has prepared a directive that lays
down the necessary SJVNL policy and requirements governing SJVNLs Health, Security, Safety
and Environment (HSE) efforts to achieve this ambition.
Safety Assurance Plan & Safety Manual
A project-specific Safety Manual and a Site Safety Assurance Plan have been prepared.
However, all employees will ensure that the Safety Manual and the Site Safety Plan must be
complemented with continuous day-to-day, personal involvement in preventing accidents.
It is recognized, however, that Occupational Health and Safety Legislation and Regulation in
Himachal Pradesh and India are also driving forces behind safety management. Legislation and
regulations will take precedence over any provisions of SJVNLs safety policies or procedures.
Nothing contained in SJVNLs documentation will be construed as somehow lessening the
requirements of duly enacted Legislation or Regulation.
The Occupational Health & Safety Management System and its associated definitions of roles and
responsibilities has been constructed as a guide to meet the intent of the SJVNL Health, Security,
Safety & Environment Directive as well as to meet the expectations of legislators and regulators. If
a legislator or regulator ever questions whether SJVNL or any of its personnel has met the
expectations of safety and health legislation, a key defense of our actions will be one of due
diligencewhether we have taken reasonable care to comply with occupational health and safety
law and its intended purpose of protecting the health and safety of workers whilst they are
employed by SJVNL or by our Contractors.
Safety Management Arrangement
Safety on this Project will be the responsibility of everyone on the job it will be the ultimate team
effort involving management, supervision, craft, owners representatives, and subcontractors.
Everyone is encouraged to think and act as a safety supervisor and is empowered to stop work and
immediately correct unsafe acts or conditions.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

The Site Safety Assurance Plan will be continually monitored by the HOD (Safety), who will
ensure that all elements of the Plan and the Safety Manual are effectively working. The HOD
(Safety) will report directly to the the Project Director, and be the point of contact for all issues
regarding safety and health on the project. Along with project management, the HOD Safety will
establish and enforce the Projects attitude and commitment towards site safety. Other primary
duties of the HOD Safety will include:

Spending the majority of time in the field actively observing operations.

Conducting and monitoring orientations, training, and reporting.

Monitoring management, distribution and proper use of all safety equipment by the
contractor.

Monitor all on and off-site medical including physicians and facilities to be established
by the contractor.

Interfacing continually with the General Manager (Projects) on all matters of safety.

Maintain records and documentation.

Conduct accident investigations.

Safety Supervisor(s): The HOD Safety will manage a staff of Safety Supervisors. Each work site
will have a full-time Safety Supervisor who will have no other duties other than safety. The Safety
Supervisors will be trained and qualified. These supervisors will be deployed by the Contractor.
Competent Person(s): Each area of work will have a Competent Person deployed by the
contractor who will be assigned and readily available to address any safety issue at that location.
Competent Persons shall have the knowledge and training to meet all requirements for the work
being performed. The Competent Person shall perform routine inspections of the work area,
address any instant worker concerns, and understand all emergency and crisis response activities.
Due Diligence: Societal expectations are increasing the pressure on organizations, such as SJVNL,
to reduce the risk of illness accidents and incidents in the workplace. In addition to meeting our
legal responsibilities, SJVNL will strive to continually improve safety performance and management
systems to reduce occupational injury and disease to the lowest practicable level amongst its own
employees, and those of Contractors, through the application of following stated principles:

management accepts that all accidents are preventable

management accepts responsibility for providing a safe workplace

employee training is essential

training to work safely is essential

all employees are accountable for health and safety

Accountability
All employees will be held accountable for their own and their staff or crews actions. Accountability
is not limited to disciplinary action that happens after an incident or accident. Accountability will
include dedication and commitment to all of the process goals that will make the Project work
Accident-Free. This Pro-Active Accountability will include:

Effective Training - Monthly Mass Safety meetings (i) well planned using
demonstrations and training tools; (ii) 100% mandatory attendance; (iii) front-line
foremen who conduct training.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Hazard Identification (i) safety engineering (risk mitigation) part of each Work Plan; (ii)
detailed, operation-specific Job Hazard Analysis; (iii) all documents used in field and
constantly updated.

Proper Indoctrination - (i) first impression to emphasize importance of safety and


accountability; (ii) provide all necessary training, personal protective equipment; (iii)
multiple-step orientation process that lasts longer than the first day of work.

Promote Awareness (i) inspection and audit feedback provided directly to foreman and
crew; (ii) visible incentive programs tied to safety performance and personal performance

Zero Tolerance Program


SJVNLs ZERO TOLERANCE directive for the Rampur HEP holds all employees including
management, all staff, consultants, contractors and all subcontractors - accountable to prevent
injuries and prevent property damage.
SJVNL will direct all its staff, contractors, consultants, and subcontractors to be aware of the
following principles.

ZERO TOLERANCE for anyone knowingly creating a hazardous condition, or allowing a


hazardous condition to exist without taking appropriate action.

ZERO TOLERANCE for anyone performing their work or knowingly allowing the work of
others to be performed in a hazardous manner.

ZERO TOLERANCE for anyone purposely causing an injury to another person.

ZERO TOLERANCE for anyone damaging company vehicles, equipment, and tools, or
causing damage to another persons property when taking proper action could have
prevented damage.

Violations of our safety policies, whether an injury occurs or not, will subject violators to
discipline.

Disciplinary actions could include (i) re-orientation, (ii) verbal reprimand, (iii) written
reprimands, (iv) suspension from project site or termination; or that (v) a willful violation
will be grounds for immediate termination.

Implementation and Responsibilities


Every employee is responsible for full compliance with the Projects Site Safety and Health Plan and
be committed to building work Accident-Free. Each SJVNLs/Contractors Managers and Supervisor
are responsible for daily conformance with all Site Safety Programs including training,
documentation, communication, and reporting requirements to ensure full conformance and
commitment to providing a safe workplace for each employee, subcontractor, vendor and visitor.
All supervision and employees are responsible for conforming to all safety requirements, correcting
and reporting unsafe acts and conditions, reporting all accidents, maintaining their work areas in a
safe manner, and providing a Safety First attitude in their work areas at all times. Each person
will be held accountable for his or her actions and for the actions of their crew.
Each person on the job has specific duties within the Safety Program, including that the employees
would:

Come to work prepared to work safely.

Maintain a positive attitude toward safety at all times.

Follow all safety rules at all times.

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Keep your work areas neat, organized, and professional.

Report and correct any unsafe working conditions immediately.

Report all accidents immediately to your supervisor.

The Safety Supervisors will:

Set an example for safety.

Maintain a positive attitude toward safety at all times.

Enforce the Zero Tolerance Policy at all times.

Train your employees to SJVNL standards and rules.

Develop Work Plans that take safety into account.

Demand that work areas be maintained in a neat, organized and professional manner

Ensure that all required safety equipment is available and in good condition.

Correct all safety deficiencies immediately.

Report and investigate all accidents immediately.

The SJVNL Management will:

4.5.7

Support a Safety First attitude, and hold individuals accountable for safety.

Maintain a safety focus at all times lead by example.

Establish clear and consistent expectations for safety performance.

Assist in providing meaningful safety training in time to deal with potential risks before
they occur.

Make sure employees get the training they need.

Emergency Preparedness Plan


SJVNL has prepared an Emergency Preparedness Plan for the Rampur HEP. This plan however,
applies also to the Nathpa-Jhakri Project also, as the two projects operate in tendem, and as the
diversion dam and the diurnal storage of the Nathpa-Jhakri project is used by the Rampur HEP.
Following below is a summary of the Emergency Preparedness Plan.
Emergency Identification and Evaluation
The Emergency Preparedness Plan includes an Emergency identification and evaluation matrix
containing following items:

Listing of the conditions or events which could lead to or indicate an existing or potential
emergency.

Brief description of the means by which potential emergencies identified, including the
data and information collection system, monitoring arrangements.

Designation of persons responsible for identifying and evaluating the emergency.

Accordingly emergency identification Response Level Matrix has been prepared and is described
below (Table 4.14).

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Table 4.14 Response Level Matrix for Each Type of Emergency Events
Response
Level

Hydrological Event/Flooding

Emergency releases at upstream


reservoirs

Earthquake

Abnormal
Instrument
Readings

In case instruments
placed in the main civil
structures of the
upto the magnitude of 3000 cumec can be
Upstream dam warns of imminent spill - In
been designed for DBE value project show abnormal
passed through dam sluices by opening the dam our case, upstream dam is at Karcham. In
of 0.29g for Max. sluice
readings, the same
Internal Alert
sluices. This is possible if advance warning of
case the dam authorities warn of imminent
section. After the earthquake, would be critically
Situation can be
the flood about the magnitude of the flood is
spill due to sudden tripping of units, water
examined by the
the visual inspection of dam
managed
available about 3 hours in advance so that all
would take about 90 minutes to reach dam
body & galleries etc. will be
design department.
internally Outside
the sluice gates can be opened and reservoir
site. If the amount of discharge to be
carried out and
After the analysis of
notification NOT
level is brought down to free flow level .
released is upto 700 cumec , it can be passed
instrumentation readings will the abnormal readings,
required.
However, before bringing down the water level safely by opening the dam sluices in advance
also be taken and the same
remedial measures for
below MDDL, generation in the power house will within the above time period .
will be intimated to the design if any would be
be stopped and intake & SFT gates closed in
suggested by the
department .
phased manner.
design department.

Reservoir level approaching design flood level,


outflows approaching channel capacity- A flood

Reservoir level above design flood level, but


below crest level - A flood of the magnitude of

4500 cumec can be passed through dam sluices


by resorting to flood routing . This is possible if
advance warning of the flood is available about
Response Level - 3 hours in advance so that al the sluice gates
can be opened and reservoir level brought down
I. Conditions
to free flow level. However, before bringing
might lead to
down the water level below MDDL, generation in
downstream
flooding. Outside Power House will be stopped and intake & SFT
gates closed in a phased manner. mediate
notification
information will be passed on to Civil
required.
Authorities/Warning Stations etc. asking people
not to venture into river banks below HFL mark.
the information will be immediately passed to
Power House, Civil Authorities & Defence
Department.

Reservoir level above design flood level, but


below
crest level - A flood of the magnitude of
Response Level II Prepare for
evacuation

6500 cumec can be passed through dam sluices


by resorting to flood routing . This is possible if
advance warning of the flood is available about
3 hours in advance so that al the sluice gates

Earthquake less than DBE


recorded - Nathpa dam has

Release in excess of channel capacity - In

Earthquake greater than DBE-

After the earth quake ,the


case a discharge of the order of 4500 cumec visual inspection of dam body
& galleries etc. will be carried
is released by upstream dams due to falsh
out and instrumentation
flood etc. in their tributaries, the same can
be passed through dam sluices by resorting readings will also be taken
to flood routing . This is possible if advance and the same will be
intimated to the design
warning of the flood is available about 3
hours in advance. Immediate information will department . If
instrumentation readings
be passed on to Civil Authorities/Warning
indicate earthquake of
Stations etc. asking people not to venture
magnitude more than DBE,
into river banks below HFL mark. the
the information will be
information will be immediately passed to
immediately passed to Power
Power House, Civil Authorities & Defence
House, Civil Authorities &
Department.
Defence Department.

In case instruments
placed in the main civil
structures of the
project show abnormal
readings, the same
would be critically
examined by the
design department.
After the analysis of
the abnormal readings,
remedial measures for
if any would be
suggested by the
design department.

Controlled releases likely to flood inhabited


areas - In case a discharge of the order of

In case instruments
placed in the main civil
structures of the
project show abnormal
readings, the same
would be critically

6500 cumec is released by upstream dams


due to flash flood etc. in their tributaries, the
same can be passed through dam sluices by
resorting to flood routing .. Generation will

Instability of dam resulting


from earthquake- If there

appears to be any possibility


of any substantial damage or
failure of dam due to
earthquake, Immediate

Gate Failure/Power
loss/Equipment failure/fire

Failure of Spillway gates - For


normal conditions , one sluice
gate has ben taken to be
inoperative and floods upto 3000
cumec can be safely passed
through dam sluices even when
the reservoir level is at El.
1474.0m. However, if more than
one gate is in-operative, matter
will be immediately taken up
between field & design
departments.

Failure of Spillway gates - For

normal conditions , one sluice


gate has ben taken to be
inoperative and floods upto 4500
cumec can be safely passed
through dam sluices when the
reservoir level is at El. 1485.0m.
However, if more than one gate
is in-operative, matter will be
immediately taken up between
field & design departments.

Failure of Spillway gates - For


normal conditions , one sluice
gate has ben taken to be
inoperative. But in case of
exceptional conditions when
there is flood of the order of

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Rampur Hydropower Project: Consolidated EA and EMP Report

Response
Level

Hydrological Event/Flooding

Emergency releases at upstream


reservoirs

Earthquake

can be opened and reservoir level brought down


to free flow level. However, before bringing
down the water level below MDDL, generation in
Power House will be stopped and intake & SFT
gates closed in a phased manner. Staff working
in the dam complex area would be asked to be
ready for evacuation. Immediate information will
be passed on to Civil Authorities/Warning
Stations etc. and people living near HFL mark
asked to be ready for evacuation . the
information will be immediately passed to Power
House, Civil Authorities & Defence Department.

be stopped and Intake Gates & SFT gates will


be closed in phased manner. Staff working in
the dam complex area would be asked to be
ready for evacuation Immediate information
will be passed on to Civil Authorities/Warning
Stations etc. and people living near HFL mark
asked to be ready for evacuation . the
information will be immediately passed to
Power House, Civil Authorities & Defence
Department.

information will be passed on


to Civil Authorities/Warning
Stations etc. and people living
near HFL mark asked to be
ready for evacuation
Necessary action to shift the
SJVNL staff to safer places
will be taken by the project
authorities. the information
will be immediately passed to
Power House, Civil Authorities
& Defence Department.

Overtopping imminent - In case information


regarding flood of the magnitude more than
6500 cumec is received from Khab , flood upto
6500 cumec can be passed through dam sluices
by resorting to flood routing. Instructions can be
given to the manpower working at Nathpa dam
complex that after opening radial gates of dam
& closing the intake gates, SFT gates the
Response Level complex will be evacuated and all the staff
III Evacuation is
should move to safer place. It is expected that
necessary
power house has stopped generation .
Immediate information will be passed on to Civil
Authorities/Warning Stations etc. asking people
living downstream near the river banks upto
10m above HFL mark to evacuate and move to
safe places. the information