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DEFINITIONS OF MATRIX:

Definition 1: An m x n or (m, n) matrix is a rectangular array of quantities arrange in m


rows and n columns.
a 11 a 12 a 13
A = [A] = a 21 a 22 a 23 where: m = 3 and n = 3
a 31 a 32 a 33
Definition 2: A matrix with only 1 row is a special kind of matrix called a row vector.
B = [50 -3 -27 35]
Definition 3: A matrix with only 1 column id a special kind of matrix called a column
vector.
10
33

C=
6

15
Definition 4: The (n x m) matrix is obtained from a given (m x n)
interchanging rows and columns is called the Transposed of D, DT.
4
5
3
7
3 1 4
1 8

3
T

; D = 4 8 8 2
D =

4 8 4

5
3
4

2 5
7

D matrix by

Note: Of particular importance is the transpose of a square matrix D(n, n).

Definition 5: A square matrix is a matrix where the dimensions m is equal to n.


5 21 3
E = 40 6 19
8 12 50
Definition 6: A symmetric matrix is one in which
and js are equal. Therefore in this case, A = AT.
1 4 5
1 4

T
F = 4 2 6 ; F = 4 2
5 6 3
5 6

every elements
5
6
3

aij = aji for all is

Note that the transpose of a


product of matrices is equal to
the product of the transposes
in reverse order; that is,
(AB)T = BT*AT
Similarly,
(ABC)T = CT BT AT

In computer programming, the following code may serve as algorithm for


matrix transpose,
Arguments: F(m, n), FT(n, m)
FOR I = 1 TO m
FOR J = 1 TO n
FT(J, I) = F(I, J)
NEXT J
NEXT I
Definition 7: A square matrix in which each elements not on the principal diagonal is
zero is called a Diagonal Matrix.
3 0 0
G = 0 8 0
0 0 14
Definition 8: A square matrix in which every elements below the principal diagonal is
zero said to be the Upper Triangular Matrix.
4
3 7

H = 0 8 6
0 0 14
Definition 9: A square matrix in which every element above the principal diagonal is
zero is said to be the Lower Triangular Matrix.
3 0 0
J = 7 8 0
4 6 14
Definition 10: A square matrix whose elements aij = 0 if i j is said to be a Null
Matrix. Null matrix is commonly denoted by O = or [O].
0 0 0 0
O = 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
Definition 11: A Scalar Matrix
diagonal are equal.
2 0
S = 0 2
0 0

is a diagonal matrix where all the elements in the


0
0
2

Definition 12: A scalar matrix whose elements in the diagonal are equal to 1 is called a
Unit Matrix / Identity Matrix.
1 0 0
I = 0 1 0
0 0 1
Definition 13: A Tridiagonal Matrix is a square matrix where elements above and below
the diagonal are not zero. This is sometimes called as Banded Matrix.
1 10 0 0 0
6 8 11 0 0

L = 0 7 3 12 0

0 0 8 4 13
0 0 0 9 5
Definition 14: From a given matrix, such that A = B, A is called the Coefficient Matrix.
a 11
a
21
:

a m1

a 12
a 22
:
a m2

...... a 1n x 1 b1
...... a 2 n x 2 b 2

: : :


...... a mn x n b n

Where;
a 11 a 12 ...... a1n
a
a 22 ...... a 2 n

A = 21
:
:
:

a m1 a m 2 ...... a mn
x1
x

x = 2
:
x n

b1
b
B = 2
:

bn

MATRIX OPERATIONS:
Equality
Two matrices A and B are equal if they are
corresponding elements are identical.
4
5
3
1 8
3

A=
and
B=
4 8 4

2 5
7

of the same order and if their


4
5
3
1 8
3

4 8 4

2 5
7

Addition and Subtraction


The addition or subtraction of two matrices A and B, which must be of the same
order, is carried out by adding or subtracting the corresponding elements of the
two matrices. Thus if A + B = C, then Cij = Aij + Bij and if A B = D, then Dij =
Aij Bij.
2 5
10 4

A = 3 0 and
B = 6 7
8 1
9 2
Then
12 9
A + B = C = 9 7
17 3
And
8 1
A B = D = 3 7
1 1
Note that matrices C and D have the same order as matrices A and B.

Multiplication by a Scalar
To obtain the product of a scalar and a matrix, each element of the matrix must be
multiplied by the scalar. Thus if
7 3
B=
and
c=3

1 4
Then
21 9
cB =

3 12

Multiplication of Matrices
The multiplication of two matrices can be carried out only if the number of
columns of the first matrix is equal to the number of rows of the second matrix.
Such matrices are referred to as being comfortable for multiplication. Consider,
for example, the matrices
1 5
2 3 6
A=
and
B=

7 3
4 8 9
Such that the size of matrix A is (m, n) and the size of matrix B is (n, s), the size
of the resulting product, C, must be (m, s). The solution to the product, C, can be
conveniently expressed as
n

C ij A ik B kj
k 1

18 43 51
And it will give the product, C =
45 69
2
In computer programming, the following may serve as algorithm for matrix
multiplication,
Arguments matrices A(m, n), B(n, s), C(m,s), m, n, s
FOR I = 1 TO m
FOR J = 1 TO s
SUM = 0
FOR K = 1 TO n
SUM = SUM + A(I, k) * B(K, J)
NEXT K
C(I, J) = SUM
NEXT J
NEXT I
PROPERTIES OF MATRIX MULTIPLICATION
Matrix multiplication is generally NOT commutative, that is, AB BA, it is
associative and distributive, provided that the sequential order in which the
matrices are to be multiplied is maintained. Thus,
ABC = (AB)C = A(BC)
And
A(B + C) = AB + AC
Multiplication of any matrix A by a conformable null matrix O yields a null
matrix; that is,
OA = O

and

AO = O

For example,
0
0

0 5 7 0 0

0 9 2 0 0

Multiplication of any matrix A by a conformable unit matrix I yields the same


matrix A, that is,
IA = A
and
AI = A
For example,
1 0 5 7 5 7
0 1 9 2 9 2

and
5 7 1 0 5 7
9 2 0 1 9 2

BASIC MATRIX INVERSION


To illustrate the procedure, let us compute the inverse of the 2 x 2matrix
1 2
A=

3 4
The augmented matrix is given by
1 2 1 0
3 4 0 1

By multiplying row 1 by A21 = 3 and subtracting it from row 2, we obtain


1 2 1 0
0 2 3 1

Next, by dividing row 2 by A22 = 2, we obtain


1
0
1 2
0 1 1. 5 0. 5

Finally, by multiplying row 2 by 2 and subtracting it from row 1, we obtain


1
1 0 2
0 1 1.5 0.5

Thus
1
2
A-1 =

1.5 0.5

ASSIGNMENT EXERCISES:
1. Determine the matrix C = A + 3B if
12 8 15
A = 8 7 10
15 10 5

2 1 1
B = 1 4 6
1
6 3

2. Determine the product C = AB and D = BA if

A = 6 4 2

2
B = 1
5

3. Show that (AB)T = BT AT by using the matrices A and B given here.


8 2 5
A = 1 4 3
2 0 6

1 5
B = 7 0
0 3

4. Determine the inverse of the matrix given below.


5 7
A=

9 2