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University of Zakho

Department of Petroleum Engineering

Name : Yasir Ammar Ahmed


Class 2 / 2nd stage
Date : 16 / 11 / 2014

ASTM method for Distillation of


Petroleum Products at atmospheric
pressure
Objectives
Determining the boiling range of Kerosene and the curve by using ASTM
distillation.

Introduction:
This test method covers the atmospheric distillation of petroleum
products using a laboratory batch distillation unit to determine
quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of such products as light
and middle distillates, automotive spark-ignition engine fuels with or
without oxygenates ,aviation gasolines, aviation turbine fuels, diesel
fuels, biodiesel blends up to 20%, marine fuels, special petroleum spirits,
naphthas, white spirits, kerosines, and Grades 1 and 2 burner fuels.
The test method is designed for the analysis of distillate fuels; it is
not applicable to products containing appreciable quantities of
residual material.
This test method covers both manual and automated instruments.
This test method provides an estimate of the yields of fractions of
various boiling ranges, and is therefore valuable in technical
discussion of a commercial natural. This test method corresponds
to the standard laboratory distillation efficiency referred to as 15/5
This test method can be used for any petroleum product expect
LPG , very light Napthas and fractions having initial boiling point
above 400 oC.this test method employs a fractionating column
having an efficiency of 14 to 18 theoretical plates operated at a
reflux ratio of 5:1 .

Materials and Instruments:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Distillation Flasks.
Condenser and Condenser Bath.
Heater.
Thermometer.
Graduated cylinder.
Gasoline 100 mL
Themormeter
Distillation Flask

Graduated Cylinder

Condense

Burner or Heater

Stand

Procedure:
1. A 100 mL of the Sample in our experiment is (Gasoline) add to the
distillation flask .
2. We heat this flask in a regulated rate , so that a uniform average
rate of condensation in mL/min is maintained.
3. When the first drop appears at the lower end of the condenser
tube, the thermometer reading (vapor temperature) is recorded ,
this temperature is the initial boiling point (IBP).
4. We record the temperature at several Volume% distilled up to the
final boiling point (FBP) and heating discontinued.
5. After flask cooled the volume of remaining liquids is measured and
recorded as the recovery.

Calculation
Volume Percent distilled
0
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
95
FBP

Temperature oC
54
59
65
74
83.5
94.5
104.5
114
125.5
141.5
173
178
180

The Final Boiling point of the product = 180 oC


Volume Distilled = 96 mL
Residue left = 2 mL
Evaporated = 2 mL

A plot of volume percent distilled and temperature can be plotted as


shown below:
Y-Values
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Discussion
What information does the boiling range give on the composition,
the properties and behavior of the fuel during storage and use ?
Degree API gravity decrease, with the increase of mid percent boiling
point temperature of the narrow fractions, because the value of API is
inversely related to specific gravity.

As shown at the figure above , the API gravity decrease with the increase
the temperature, this relation can explain all the change in petroleum
products composition with the change of boiling point, if the boiling
point increase the API gravity decrease resulting in heavy crude oil
contain much hydrocarbons with aromatic hydrocarbons , this crude oil
will contain less gasoline and will not be commercial , and if the boiling
point decrease it will make the inverse.
If the boiling range of petroleum products were low , the petroleum
products will be Volatile and easy to evaporate thats make the storage
and transferring of such products is dangerous , also in our life if boiling
range of some petroleum products were low it will evaporate quickly
make a toxic gases that we can breathing them causing problems.
Also when the boiling ranges are high it will effect at the Efficiency of
them and the ability to burn inside the engines.
how can distillation characteristics of hydrocarbon affect their
safety and performance ?
when the petroleum products are distillated , the different hydrocarbons
compounds inside the petroleum products will separate that cause
decreasing in boiling point of the distillated fraction making it easy to
evaporate and explosive .
what is the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon
mixture to produce potentially explosive ?
the major determinant of the tendency of a hydrocarbon mixture to
produce potentially explosive is the boiling range of the hydrocarbons
inside the mixture, if the boiling range is low the mixture is more able to
explosive .
what are factors affecting on the accuracy of the results ?
There many factors affecting on the accuracy of this experiment , first the
loses of vapor from the flask when it evaporate , if the flask hole around
the thermometer was not closed completely , some of the vapor will run
out from the flask without going through the condenser , to solve this
problem we should close the hole around the thermometer with piece of
rubber.
Another problem that affect the results is if the cylinder that we
calculate the distillated vapor in it was open from the top without any
filter paper on it , some of the vapor that have not distillated will go out
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from the cylinder by the opened top , to solve this problem we should put
a filter paper at the top of cylinder .\
Also if the condenser was not efficiency the vapor will not distillated into
liquid this is also effect on the results.

Conclusion
Boiling range points is important property of petroleum products , when
we send the products to the industries , they should have information
about the properties of the petroleum products and one of them is the
boiling range , and also its important to take careful from the volatile
liquid that are dangerous and toxic.