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Chapter 07

Microbial Nutrition, Ecology, and Growth

Multiple Choice Questions


1. Microorganisms require large quantities of ______ for use in cell structure and
metabolism:
A. electrolytes
B. macronutrients
C. water
D. growth factors
E. trace elements

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

2. Microorganisms require small quantities of ______ for enzyme function and maintenance
of protein structure:
A. electrolytes
B. macronutrients
C. water
D. growth factors
E. trace elements

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section Number: 07.01

Topic: Microbial Nutrition

3. What compound has the highest concentration in a cell?


A. CO2
B. CH4
C. H2O
D. glucose
E. NH3

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.05 Compare and contrast the processes of diffusion and osmosis.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

4. Most of the dry weight of a microbial cell is from


A. inorganic compounds.
B. minerals.
C. water.
D. organic compounds.
E. salts.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

5. Which of the following is not a major element of a microbial cell?


A. copper
B. carbon
C. hydrogen
D. nitrogen
E. oxygen

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

6. An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is
called a/n
A. element.
B. macronutrient.
C. compound.
D. growth factor.
E. trace element.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

7. An important mineral ion of the cytochrome pigments of cellular respiration is


A. iron.
B. zinc.
C. calcium.
D. magnesium.
E. potassium.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

8. An important mineral ion that is a component of chlorophyll, and stabilizer of membranes


and ribosomes is
A. iron.
B. zinc.
C. calcium.
D. magnesium.
E. potassium.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

9. Calcium is required for bacteria because it


A. stabilizes the cell wall.
B. stabilizes the ribosomes.
C. stabilizes the nucleoid.
D. maintains cellular pH.
E. makes strong cell walls.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

10. Growth factors


A. are inorganic.
B. are synthesized by the organism.
C. contain elemental oxygen.
D. cannot be synthesized by the organism.
E. All of the choices are correct.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

11. An organism that uses CO2 for its carbon needs and sunlight for its energy needs would be
called a
A. heterotroph.
B. photoautotroph.
C. chemoheterotroph.
D. saprobe.
E. halotroph.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

12. The methanogens, producers of methane gas, require environments that


A. have sunlight.
B. are very acidic.
C. have abundant oxygen and CO2.
D. are extremely cold.
E. are anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

13. Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called
A. saprobes.
B. parasites.
C. autotrophs.
D. lithoautotrophs.
E. phototrophs.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 06.01 Microbes are essential for life as we know it and the processes that support life (e.g., in biogeochemical cycles and
plant and/or animal microflora).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.04 Define saprobe and parasite, and provide microbial examples of each.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Ecology
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

14. The type of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen


A. occurs in cyanobacteria.
B. does not require CO2 as a reactant.
C. occurs in purple and green sulfur bacteria.
D. does not require sunlight.
E. occurs in algae and plants.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 06.01 Microbes are essential for life as we know it and the processes that support life (e.g., in biogeochemical cycles and
plant and/or animal microflora).
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

15. Aerobic respiration is an example of


A. photosynthesis.
B. methanoheterophy.
C. photoheterotrophy.
D. chemoheterotrophy.
E. photoautotrophy.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

16. Microorganisms that live in severe habitats, such as very hot, acidic, or salty
environments, are called
A. thermophiles.
B. halophiles.
C. psychrophiles.
D. extremophiles.
E. barophiles.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Environmental Influences
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

17. Organisms called _____ live on or in the body of a host, and cause some degree of harm.
A. mesophiles
B. thermophiles
C. commensals
D. pathogens
E. halophiles

ASM Objective: 05.04 Microorganisms, cellular and viral, can interact with both human and nonhuman hosts in beneficial, neutral or
detrimental ways.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.04 Define saprobe and parasite, and provide microbial examples of each.
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

18. The term obligate refers to


A. the ability to exist in a wide range of conditions.
B. existing in a very narrow niche.
C. using chemicals for energy production.
D. using light for energy production.
E. using oxygen for metabolism.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

19. The term facultative refers to


A. the ability to exist in a wide range of conditions.
B. existing in a very narrow niche.
C. using chemicals for energy production.
D. using light for energy production.
E. using oxygen for metabolism.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

20. The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower
concentration is called
A. facilitated diffusion.
B. diffusion.
C. active transport.
D. osmosis.
E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

21. Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane is called


A. facilitated diffusion.
B. diffusion.
C. active transport.
D. osmosis.
E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

22. The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semipermeable
membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and cell expenditure of energy is called
A. facilitated diffusion.
B. diffusion.
C. active transport.
D. osmosis.
E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

23. The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semipermeable
membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called
A. facilitated diffusion.
B. diffusion.
C. active transport.
D. osmosis.
E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

24. The process by which a cell uses ATP to enclose a substance in its membrane, by forming
a vacuole and engulfing it, is called:
A. facilitated diffusion.
B. diffusion.
C. active transport.
D. osmosis.
E. endocytosis.

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

25. Bacteria living in a freshwater stream that are moved to salty seawater would
A. be in a hypotonic solution.
B. gain water.
C. be in an isotonic solution.
D. become dehydrated due to the loss of water.

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.06 Identify the effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions on a cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

26. Which of the following microorganisms would find hypotonic conditions most
detrimental?
A. bacteria
B. protozoa
C. fungi
D. algae
E. cyanobacteria

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.06 Identify the effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions on a cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

27. Which of the following require the cell to use ATP?


A. facilitated diffusion
B. diffusion
C. endocytosis
D. osmosis

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Blooms Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

28. Contractile vacuoles are


A. used to expel excess water from cells.
B. found in bacterial cells.
C. important to certain organisms in hypertonic environments.
D. protein carriers in cell membranes.
E. used to bring solutes into a cell.

ASM Objective: 02.04 While microscopic eukaryotes (for example, fungi, protozoa, and algae) carry out some of the same processes as
bacteria, many of the cellular properties are fundamentally different.
ASM Topic: Module 02 Structure and Function
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.05 Compare and contrast the processes of diffusion and osmosis.
Learning Outcome: 07.06 Identify the effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions on a cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

29. Nutrient absorption is mediated by the


A. cell wall.
B. peptidoglycan layer.
C. proteins in the periplasmic space.
D. cell membrane.
E. nuclear membrane.

ASM Objective: 02.03 Bacteria and Archaea have specialized structures (e.g., flagella, endospores, and pili) that often confer critical
capabilities.
ASM Objective: 02.04 While microscopic eukaryotes (for example, fungi, protozoa, and algae) carry out some of the same processes as
bacteria, many of the cellular properties are fundamentally different.
ASM Topic: Module 02 Structure and Function
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

30. Facilitated diffusion is limited by


A. substrate concentration.
B. carrier proteins in the membrane.
C. size of the pores in the membrane.
D. osmotic pressure.
E. size of the cell.

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

31. When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is
specifically termed
A. pinocytosis.
B. phagocytosis.
C. facilitated transport.
D. facilitated diffusion.
E. exocytosis.

ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological means.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

32. Mediated transport of polar molecules and ions across the plasma membrane utilizes a/n
_____ carrier that will bind to the substance, effecting a conformational change that allows
movement across the membrane.
A. protein
B. lipid
C. porin
D. enzyme

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 02 Structure and Function
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

33. In _____ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting.
A. hypertonic
B. hypotonic
C. isotonic
D. mesotonic

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.06 Identify the effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions on a cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Cellular Transport

34. Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator (5oC), out on a
lab bench top (22oC), on the shelf of a 37 C incubator, and on the shelf of a 50 C incubator.
After incubation, there was no growth at 37 C and 50 C, slight growth in the refrigerator, and
abundant growth on the lab bench top. What term could be used for this species?
A. halophile
B. mesophile
C. anaerobe
D. psychrotroph
E. capnophile

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

35. Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated in a standard incubator, in an anaerobic jar,
and in a candle jar. After incubation, there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and
anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture in the incubator. This species is a/n
A. aerobe.
B. anaerobe.
C. facultative anaerobe.
D. microaerophile.
E. capnophile.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

36. A microorganism that has an optimum growth temperature of 37 C, but can survive short
exposure to high temperatures is called a/n
A. extremophile.
B. thermophile.
C. psychrophile.
D. facultative psychrophile.
E. thermoduric microbe.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

37. An organism that grows slowly in the cold but has an optimum growth temperature of 32
C is called a/n
A. extremophile.
B. thermophile.
C. psychrophile.
D. facultative psychrophile.
E. thermoduric.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

38. An organism with a temperature growth range of 45 C to 60 C would be called a/n


A. extremophile.
B. thermophile.
C. psychrophile.
D. facultative psychrophile.
E. thermoduric.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

39. Human pathogens fall into the group called


A. psychrophiles.
B. thermophiles.
C. halophiles.
D. mesophiles.
E. acidophiles.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

40. All of the following could find a location in or on body tissues suitable for growth except
A. psychrophiles.
B. anaerobes.
C. facultative anaerobes.
D. mesophiles.
E. capnophiles.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.

ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways


Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

41. A microorganism that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase would find it
difficult to live in an environment with
A. carbon dioxide.
B. oxygen.
C. high salt.
D. temperatures above 37 C.
E. high acidity.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

42. A microaerophile
A. grows best in an anaerobic jar.
B. grows with or without oxygen.
C. needs normal atmospheric levels of oxygen.
D. requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels of oxygen.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

43. The toxic superoxide ion is converted to harmless oxygen by two enzymes,
A. catalase and hydrogen peroxidases.
B. superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxidase.
C. superoxide dismutase and catalase.
D. catalase and oxidase.
E. superoxide dismutase and oxidase.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

44. An organism that can use gaseous oxygen in metabolism and has the enzymes to process
toxic oxygen products is a/n
A. aerobe.
B. obligate aerobe.
C. facultative anaerobe.
D. microaerophile.
E. obligate anaerobe.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

45. An organism that can exist in both oxygen and oxygen-free environments is a/n
A. aerobe.
B. obligate aerobe.
C. facultative anaerobe.
D. microaerophile.
E. obligate anaerobe.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

46. An organism that cannot tolerate an oxygen environment is a/n


A. aerobe.
B. obligate aerobe.
C. facultative anaerobe.
D. microaerophile.
E. obligate anaerobe.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

47. An organism that cannot grow without oxygen is a/n


A. aerobe.
B. obligate aerobe.
C. facultative anaerobe.
D. microaerophile.
E. obligate anaerobe.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

48. What type of media is used to demonstrate oxygen requirements of microbes?


A. blood agar
B. thioglycollate
C. sulfite polymyxin sulfadiazine
D. sodium chloride

ASM Objective: 08.02 Use pure culture and selective techniques to enrich for and isolate microorganisms.
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Growth

49. A halophile would grow best in


A. acid pools.
B. fresh water ponds.
C. hot geyser springs.
D. arid, desert soil.
E. salt lakes.

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

50. A barophile would grow best in


A. acid pools.
B. deep oceans.
C. hot geyser springs.
D. arid, desert soil.
E. salt lakes.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways

Blooms Level: 1. Remember


Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

51. E. coli bacteria that normally live in the human large intestines and produce vitamin K
that the body uses would be best termed a _____ relationship.
A. parasitic
B. saprobic
C. antagonistic
D. mutualistic

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

52. The production of antibiotics is a form of antagonism called


A. symbiosis.
B. satellitism.
C. antibiosis.
D. mutualism.
E. synergism.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

53. When microbes live independently but cooperate and share nutrients, it is called
A. symbiosis.
B. satellitism.
C. antibiosis.
D. mutualism.
E. synergism.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

54. When microbes are in a close nutritional relationship, and one benefits but the other is not
harmed, it is called
A. symbiosis.
B. satellitism.
C. commensalism.
D. mutualism.
E. synergism.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

55. A change in one partner, in a close relationship, that leads to a change in the other partner
is
A. symbiosis.
B. coevolution.
C. antibiosis.
D. mutualism.
E. synergism.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

56. The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called
A. binary fission.
B. growth curve.
C. generation time.
D. death phase.
E. culture time.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.14 Define doubling time, and describe how it leads to exponential growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

57. The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which the rate of multiplication equals the rate
of cell death is the
A. lag phase.
B. log phase.
C. stationary phase.
D. death phase.
E. telophase.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

58. The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to
their new environment, metabolizing but not growing at an exponential rate, is the
A. lag phase.
B. log phase.
C. stationary phase.
D. death phase.
E. prophase.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

59. The phase of the bacterial growth curve that shows the maximum rate of cell division is
the
A. lag phase.
B. log phase.
C. stationary phase.
D. death phase.
E. prophase.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

60. In the viable plate count method, a measured sample of a culture is evenly spread across
an agar surface and incubated. Each _____ represents one _____ from the sample.
A. cell; cell
B. cell; colony
C. colony; cell
D. species; colony
E. generation; cell

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count, and
spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.16 Identify one quantitative and one qualitative method used for analyzing bacterial growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

61. When it is important to count the number of cells, determine cell size, and differentiate
between dead and live cells, a/n ___ is used.
A. coulter counter
B. flow cytometer
C. SEM
D. methylene dye indicator
E. turbidity counter

ASM Objective: 08.04 Estimate the number of microorganisms in a sample (using, for example, direct count, viable plate count, and
spectrophotometric methods).
ASM Topic: Module 08 Microbiology Skills
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.16 Identify one quantitative and one qualitative method used for analyzing bacterial growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

True / False Questions


62. Phosphorus is one of the major elements needed in larger quantities by microorganisms.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.02 Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

63. Most microorganisms on earth can only live and survive in habitats that are similar to
human body conditions.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.

Section Number: 07.01


Topic: Microbial Nutrition

64. Inorganic nitrogen must be converted to ammonia to be used by a cell.


TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.01 List the essential nutrients of a bacterial cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

65. Whether an organism is an autotroph or heterotroph depends on its source of nitrogen.


FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

66. Whether an organism is a phototroph or a chemotroph depends on its source of energy.


TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

67. Obligate saprobes can adapt to a living host.


FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.04 Define saprobe and parasite, and provide microbial examples of each.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

68. A saprobe with a cell wall will utilize extracellular digestion.


TRUE

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.04 Define saprobe and parasite, and provide microbial examples of each.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

69. Saprobes do not need a carbon source for growth and metabolism.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.04 Define saprobe and parasite, and provide microbial examples of each.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

70. Lithoautotrophs use inorganic nutrients for carbon and energy sources.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

71. Facilitated diffusion and active transport require a carrier protein to mediate the
movement across the plasma membrane.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.07 Name two types of passive transport and three types of active transport.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

72. In a commensal relationship, the commensal benefits but the cohabitant is neither harmed
nor benefited.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

73. Anaerobes can be cultured in a CO2 environment.


TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

74. The majority of microbes live and grow in habitats between pH 7 and 9.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

75. Bacteria have an average generation time of 24 hours.


FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.14 Define doubling time, and describe how it leads to exponential growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

76. The time it takes for a freshly inoculated agar culture to develop visible colonies is
primarily governed by the generation time of that species.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.14 Define doubling time, and describe how it leads to exponential growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

77. After binary fission, daughter cells will differ genetically.


FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.13 Summarize the steps of cell division used by most bacteria; describe another method used by fewer bacterial
species.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

78. A closed culture system is used to determine a population growth curve.


TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

79. The degree of turbidity in a broth culture correlates to the amount of cell growth.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.16 Identify one quantitative and one qualitative method used for analyzing bacterial growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

80. The direct cell count, using a cytometer, can calculate viable cell numbers from a sample
without the use of dyes.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 07.16 Identify one quantitative and one qualitative method used for analyzing bacterial growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

81. A Coulter counter can count viable cells as well as determine the size.
FALSE

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways

Blooms Level: 1. Remember


Learning Outcome: 07.16 Identify one quantitative and one qualitative method used for analyzing bacterial growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

82. Bacterial biofilms stimulate the immune system differently than planktonic bacteria.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.12 Discuss characteristics of biofilms that differentiate them from planktonic bacteria and their infections.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

83. Planktonic bacteria are more susceptible to antibiotics as compared to biofilm


microorganisms.
TRUE

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.12 Discuss characteristics of biofilms that differentiate them from planktonic bacteria and their infections.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

Multiple Choice Questions


84. This bacterium is photosynthetic, but without light it can use organic compounds to make
energy. Its carbon source is a organic compound. The appropriate classification for this
organisms would be:
A. photoheterotroph
B. photoautotroph
C. chemoautotroph
D. lithotroph

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.03 List and define four different terms that describe an organism's sources of carbon and energy.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Nutrition

85. Which of the following environmental conditions would be inappropriate for isolation of
extremophilic microorganisms?
A. mud, with 0% oxygen content
B. a yogurt container, pH 4.7
C. a compost pile with decaying vegatables and grass, temperature of 55 degree celsius
D. seawater, NaCl content of 3.5%

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Microbial Growth

86. You want to experiment with microbial growth in various nutrients, so you inoculate a
loopful of E. coli into a tube of honey. Which statement best describes what you expect to
happen and why?
A. The bacterium grows incredibly well in the honey because fructose is such a great nutrient
for bacteria.
B. The bacteria do not grow because they have been dehydrated by the honey.
C. The bacteria will not growth because the excessive sugar is directly toxic to the bacteria.
D. The bacteria do not growth because there is only sugar in the honey, without other
nutrients present they cannot survive.

ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological means.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 07.06 Identify the effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions on a cell.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Growth

87. Which organism below has a problem in maintaining cellular electrolyte and fluid balance
in its environment?
A. a protozoan in a fresh-water lake
B. a bacterium in a fresh-water lake
C. a bacterium in Great Salt Lake
D. all of the above have problems in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance within the cell

ASM Objective: 05.01 Microorganisms are ubiquitous and live in diverse and dynamic ecosystems.
ASM Objective: 06.02 Microorganisms provide essential models that give us fundamental knowledge about life processes.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
ASM Topic: Module 06 Impact of Microorganisms
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.06 Identify the effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions on a cell.
Section Number: 07.01
Topic: Environmental Influences
Topic: Microbial Ecology

88. What statement can one make about microbial growth within food in the refrigerator?
A. There is no growth of microorganisms in food in the refrigerator: the cold temperature
kills or inactivates microbial cells.
B. The absence of light in this storage condition greatly reduces the growth of most microbial
pathogens.
C. Most food does not have enough oxygen content for most microorganisms to thrive.
D. The growth of the microorganisms in the food depends on their optimal growth
temperatures: some grow slow and others grow faster.

ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological means.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

89. The milk that you bought from a grocery store a month ago got pushed to the back of the
refrigerator hidden by other objects. Finding it a month later, unopened, you would like to
now use it. Which statement is true?
A. The milk will still be fresh since it is a sterilized product.
B. Only thermoduric bacteria will be thriving in the milk.
C. The milk will still be fresh since the lactose sugar prevents the growth of any
microorganisms.
D. The milk will be spoiled, making you realize you should be purchased raw milk for it
would still be fresh since it contains no microorganisms.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Objective: 03.04 The growth of microorganisms can be controlled by physical, chemical, mechanical, or biological means.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

90. A bacterium is inoculated into a tube of nutrient broth and incubated. After incubation, it
appears turbid throughout, top to bottom, with the most amount of turbidty at the very top.
This bacterium would be called a:
A. aerotolerant
B. microaerophile
C. obligate aerobe
D. facultative anaerobe
E. psychrotroph

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

91. You inoculate the bacterium into 3 tubes of nutrient broth medium containing salt--0.5%
NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 15% NaCl. After incubation, you notice that the organism is growing
very well in the 15%, and somewhat in the 5%. There is no growth in the third tube. This
organism would be called:
A. haloduric
B. osmophobic
C. halophilic
D. barophilic

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

92. You have inoculated your Clostridium species into a tube of media. After incubation, you
find that it is not growing and you then realize that this organism is an obligate anaerobe.
What is the best explanation for this lack of growth?
A. Clostridium does not have enzymes to break down hydrogen peroxide.
B. There is not enough oxygen for use when hydrogen peroxide is present.
C. There is not enough water in the environment for Clostridium to grow.
D. Oxygen in the medium destroys the enzymes needed by Clostridium to undergo aerobic
respiration.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.09 Summarize three ways in which microorganisms function in the presence of oxygen.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

93. After using the jelly on a sandwich, you close the jar and inadvertently place it on a room
temperature shelf instead of in the refrigerator. When looking for the jelly a couple of weeks
later and finding it on the shelf, you notice growth of a microorganism on the top of the jelly.
What type of organism is likely to grow in this environment?
A. a bacterium
B. a protozoan
C. a fungus
D. a virus

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Environmental Influences

94. What is the difference between mutualism and synergism?


A. In a synergistic relationship the organisms cannot survive without each other.
B. In a mutualistic relationship the organisms are dependant upon each other.
C. In a mututalistic relationship both organisms benefit, but in a synergistic relationship both
organisms are harmed.
D. In a synergistic relationship both organisms benefit, but in a mutualistic relationship both
organisms are harmed.

ASM Objective: 05.04 Microorganisms, cellular and viral, can interact with both human and nonhuman hosts in beneficial, neutral or
detrimental ways.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

95. Which of the following statements is the best explanation of why communities of
microorganisms in biofilms are synergistic.
A. The various microbial species in the biofilm interact with each other.
B. One microbial species may produce a metabolic end product that can be used as a
substrate by another species.
C. The different microbial species can all grow together.
D. The various microbial species can change the environment to their growth advantage,
allowing all to grow better.

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 07.12 Discuss characteristics of biofilms that differentiate them from planktonic bacteria and their infections.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

96. The termite requires the protozoan Trichonympha in its gut to provide the enzyme
cellulase for the termite's use of cellulose in wood products. The protozoan uses the end
products of the cellulose breakdown. This would be a _____ relationship.
A. commensualistic
B. mutualistic
C. parasitic
D. antagonistic

ASM Objective: 05.03 Microorganisms and their environment interact with and modify each other.
ASM Topic: Module 05 Systems
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.11 List and describe the five major types of microbial association.
Section Number: 07.02
Topic: Microbial Ecology

97. A loopful of bacteria containing 1000 bacterial cells is inoculated into a nutrient broth and
incubated. The culture was in lag phase for 10 minutes and then went into exponential log
phase growth for 5 hours. The generation time for the bacterium is 15 minutes. Which
equation set up is the correct one to determine how many cells at the end of the 5 hours of log
phase growth.
A. 1000 X 220
B. 1000 X 40
C. 1000 X 24
D. 1000 X 5 X 2 X 15

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 07.14 Define doubling time, and describe how it leads to exponential growth.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Microbial Growth

98. You have a tube of E. coli in nutrient broth that has been growing in a 37 degree C
incubator. This culture is then inoculated into 3 tubes of media:
Tube B is lactose broth, warmed to room temperature, inoculated, and then placed at
37oC.
Tube C is nutrient broth taken right out of the refrigerator, inoculated, and then placed at
37oC.
Tube D is nutrient broth, warmed to room temperature, inoculated, and then placed at
37oC.
The original tube of E. coli (called tube A) is placed back into the 37oC for incubation. In the
next one-half hour, which culture will grow the fastest and why?
A. Tube A will grow fastest because it is the original culture and has already been growing.
B. Tube B will grow fastest because lactose is a good nutrient for all bacterial species.
C. Tube C will grow fastest because the medium has been stored cold, and is fresher than the
other media used.
D. Tube D will grow fastest because the nutrients and the temperature are optimal for a fast
lag phase.

ASM Objective: 03.03 The survival and growth of any microorganism in a given environment depends on its metabolic characteristics.
ASM Topic: Module 03 Metabolic Pathways
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 07.08 List and define five terms used to express a microbe's optimal growth temperature.
Learning Outcome: 07.10 Identify three other physical factors that microbes must contend with in the environment.
Learning Outcome: 07.15 Compare and contrast the four phases of growth in a bacterial growth curve.
Section Number: 07.03
Topic: Environmental Influences
Topic: Microbial Growth