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Aerodynamic Design and Linear Elastic Study of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT)

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encouragement, valuable time and continuous guidance given to us by Dr. Rizwan Saeed

without whose support, the work would be only a dream. We also acknowledge the

support of Dr. Chi Zang for guiding us at different stages of the research.

Contents

1

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 7

1.1 The Global Energy Scenario ................................................................................. 7

1.2 Wind Energy Outlook 2012 .................................................................................. 8

1.3 Motivation and Aims of Research ...................................................................... 11

1.4 Methodology ..................................................................................................... 12

2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 13

2.2 One-Dimensional Momentum Theory and Betz Limit [16] ................................ 13

2.2.1

2.3 Ideal Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Wake Rotation [16] ........................... 16

2.3.1

2.5 Effect of Reynolds Number on Lift and Drag forces .......................................... 23

2.6 Blade Element Theory ........................................................................................ 24

2.7 Design Methodology .......................................................................................... 27

2.7.1

2.8.1

2.8.2

2.8.3

3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 34

3.2 Adopted Methodology ....................................................................................... 34

3.2.1

3.3.1

2

3.4.1

3.4.2

3.4.3

4.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 42

4.2 Description of the Analytical Model .................................................................. 42

4.2.1

Theory....................................................................................................... 44

4.2.2

Procedure ................................................................................................. 44

4.2.3

4.2.4

5

5.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 54

5.2 Composite HAWT rotor blade model ................................................................. 55

5.3 CAD Model ......................................................................................................... 56

5.4 Composite Layup ............................................................................................... 56

5.4.1

5.4.2

5.4.3

5.4.4

5.4.5

5.4.6

5.4.7

5.6 FEA Specifications .............................................................................................. 59

5.6.1

5.6.2

Meshing .................................................................................................... 59

5.6.3

3

5.6.4

5.7.1

5.7.2

5.7.3

5.7.4

5.9 Analysis at various mesh densities..................................................................... 68

5.10

Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 69

5.11

Recommendations .......................................................................................... 70

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 71

Appendix ................................................................................................................ 73

7.1 Aerodynamic calculations in Matlab code: ........................................................ 73

Figure 2: Wind farm near the city of Masdar (Abu Dabi). ................................................ 9

Figure 3: Turbines from Chinas largest wind farm dot a windswept plain in the remote

northwest Xinjiang ......................................................................................................... 10

Figure 4: Research Methodology flow chart .................................................................. 12

Figure 5: One-dimensional Actuator-Disk Model [16] .................................................... 14

Figure 6: CP and CT vs. a [16] ....................................................................................... 16

Figure 7: 2-D analysis of the actuator disk model which considers wake rotation [16] . 17

Figure 8: CP vs. [16] ..................................................................................................... 19

Figure 9: Variation of Induction Factors along the length of the blade for a constant tip

speed ratio [16] .............................................................................................................. 20

Figure 10: Terminologies for airfoils based on their geometry. These terminologies help

in recognizing different kinds of Airfoils. [16] ................................................................ 20

Figure 11: Figure 11: Forces experienced by the Airfoil. [16] ......................................... 21

Figure 12: How directions are termed for a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) and

some more force related terminology with respect to the plane of rotation of the wind

turbine [16] .................................................................................................................... 22

Figure 13: Effect of Reynolds number on the lift coefficients. [16] ............................... 23

Figure 14: Effect of Reynolds number on the drag coefficients [16]. ............................ 23

Figure 15: Element considered in the Blade Element Theory. [16] ................................ 24

Figure 16: Section of the rotor blade and the angles relating these forces to the direction

of the incident air. A cross-section of the rotor blade is in fact an airfoil with a certain

depth dr. [16] ............................................................................................................... 25

Figure 17: Iterative procedure used to determine the values of and c ...................... 29

Figure 18: Table for detailed results of iteration process .............................................. 31

Figure 19: Pitch angle p vs. r/R ..................................................................................... 32

Figure 20: Pitch angle p vs. r/R ..................................................................................... 33

Figure 21: CAD Model of HAWT drawn on Abaqus 6.10 ................................................ 36

Figure 22: Pressure loads acting on surfaces of HAWT rotor blade ............................... 38

Figure 23: Flap-wise tip deflections in the blade ............................................................ 39

Figure 24: Von misses stresses for the blade ................................................................. 40

Figure 25: Flap-wise component of stresses .................................................................. 41

Figure 26: Airfoil Nomenclature for use in Analytical model ......................................... 43

Figure 27: Box section nomenclature for analytical model ............................................ 43

Figure 28: Linearly tapered hollow box section beam ................................................... 43

Figure 29: height of the outside box section curve fitted against length of the beam .. 46

5

Figure 30: height of the inside box section curve fitted against length of the beam ..... 46

Figure 31: width of the outside box section curve fitted against length of the beam ... 47

Figure 32: width of the inside box section curve fitted against length of the beam ...... 47

Figure 33: Moment of inertia of the box section interpolated with an exponential

function .......................................................................................................................... 49

Figure 34: Graph of IzzVs x for Case2 ........................................................................... 50

Figure 35: Airfoil cross section ( Sketch drawn on Abaqus 6.10).................................... 54

Figure 36: Loadings induced in cross section of airfoil [21]............................................ 55

Figure 37: Figure showing difference between balanced and unbalanced layup sequence

....................................................................................................................................... 57

Figure 38: Room temperature ultimate tension strength for high strength graphite epoxy

laminates ........................................................................................................................ 57

Figure 39: Room temperature ultimate shear strength for high strength graphite epoxy

laminates ........................................................................................................................ 58

Figure 40: Pressure Loads on Various Cross-Sections of the Blade ................................ 60

Figure 41: Drag Force on Various Cross-Sections of the Blade....................................... 62

Figure 42: Maximum deflections in the blade ................................................................ 63

Figure 43: Flap-wise deflections of the blade................................................................. 64

Figure 44: Span-wise deflections of the blade ............................................................... 64

Figure 45: Von misses stress distribution for the blade, viewing from the low pressure

surface ............................................................................................................................ 65

Figure 46: Maximum principal stresses in the blade ...................................................... 66

Figure 47: Cutaway section of the blade viewing from the blade root end ................... 67

Figure 48: Maximum principal strains distribution within the blade ............................. 67

Figure 49: Cut-away section viewed from the root end showing Maximum in plane

Principal stresses ............................................................................................................ 68

Figure 50: Tip Deflections and various Mesh Sizes......................................................... 69

1 Introduction

1.1 The Global Energy Scenario

Secure, reliable and abundant energy reserves are vital to the economic stability of the

world. Industrialization of countries like China, India and Brazil has increased the

consumption of energy reserves like petrol and coal. The worlds primary energy needs

are projected to grow by 56% between 2005 and 2030, by an average annual rate of 1.8%

per year [1]. Moreover, worlds energy supply and demand is subjected to many

uncertainties due to insufficient energy supplies, global politics, technological advances,

government policies, and customers behavior. Fluctuation of crude oil prices and global

warming has forced various countries to find energy solutions in terms of abundant and

non-depleting energy supplies.

Alternative or renewable energy is one of the solutions to ensure energy security in

world. Basic idea of renewable energy is to harness energy from the non-depleting

energy reserves like wind, water, solar, geo-thermal and bio-mass. Today the world is

investing in this sector to ensure a stable and prosperous economic growth. Total

investment of world in clean energy reached $211 billion in 2010, up from $160 billion

in 2009. Top countries to invest were Germany, the United States, Brazil and Italy [2].

Third world countries like India is investing $2.6 billion in wind energy sector [3]. By the

end of 2015, China will complete total offshore wind installed capacity of 5GW, and will

complete about 30 GW before the end of 2020 [4].

Being a third world country Pakistan needs to develop its clean energy sector, which has

remained quite underdeveloped in recent years due to lack of funding and poor

government policies. Pakistan is the 31st largest emitter of carbon-dioxide in the world

with annual carbon-dioxide emissions totaling up to 163,178 thousand of metric tons

(2008)[5]. Pakistan's energy requirement is increasing manifold every year. The primary

energy consumption in Pakistan grew by almost 80% in the past 15 years from 34 million

tons oil equivalent (TOE) in 1994-95 to 61 million TOE in 2009-10.[6]

The countrys energy supplies is extracted primarily from local natural gas which is 45%

of the energy mix and oil imports at 35% of the energy mix, hydel at 12%, coal at 6% and

nuclear at 2% of the mix respectively. So current investment of Pakistan is clean energy

sector is quite less which needs to be increased manifold in coming years. [7]

7

Today the world is racing to construct onshore and offshore wind farms due to

abundance of high currents of wind in hilly, coastal and desert areas of world. A quick

overview of future government policies of various countries pertaining to wind energy

development is as follow,

North America: Currently in 2012 America has an installed wind energy capacity of

48,611 MW and out of this total 1695 MW was installed in first quarter of 2012. U.S.

Department of Energys targets 20% Wind Energy by year 2030 which means that wind

power will supply 20% of total U.S. electricity, that includes 4% contribution

from offshore wind power.[8]

As far as Canada is concerned, according to Wind Vision 2025: Powering Canada's

Future, Canada will build wind farms to satisfy its 20% energy needs. [9]

South America: With few wind projects prior to 2009, Latin America has now emerged

onto the global stage attracting players from Europe. Latin America as a region installed

750 MW of wind power through 2009, but due to recent surge in wind farm projects,

5.7%penetration on 46 GW will be made possible by 2025. Markets are developing at

different paces: Brazil, Mexico, and Chile are the regional leaders. These three countries

are expected to add over 3.7 GW from 2010 through 2012 [10]. Figure 1 shows Rio do

Fogo wind farm in Brazil. This is a wind farm capable of producing 80MW of electricity

from wind energy.

Europe: Wind energy will play an integral role in meeting the future energy requirements

of Europe. So wind energy in on the forefront of European Union (EU) energy policy The

modeling scenario used for the Second Strategic Energy Review suggests that wind will

represent more than one third of all electricity production from renewable energy

sources by 2020 and almost 40% by 2030, representing an accumulated investment of

at least 200-300 billion Euros (or about a quarter of all power plant investments) by 2030

[12].

Australia: Australian government is subsidizing wind energy market at large scale. It is

expected that wind energy will provide the largest share of Australias targeted 20%

renewable energy by 2020.

Middle East: Wind energy market hasnt shown robust growth in Middle East due to

abundance of oil and other fossil fuel reserves. Vestas has installed 600 megawatts (MW)

of wind farms from Morocco to the Arabian Peninsula. Abu Dhabi's clean energy

company, is considering building a US$200 million (Dh734.6m) wind farm near the Saudi

Arabian border that would be the first of its kind in the region .This plant will have a

generating capacity of 20-30MW. Figure 2 shows a landscape of this wind farm [13].

Asia: New wind energy road map of china foresees wind power capacity reaching

200 GW by 2020, 400 GW by 2030 and 1 000 GW by 2050. [14]. Figure 3 shows one of

the wind farm located in remote area of Xinxiang province. Moreover 3rd largest

economy of Asia ie. India has an installed capacity of 14158.00 MW (as on March 31,

2011). In terms of wind power installed capacity, India is ranked 5th in the World. Asias

largest wind farm of 207 MW is being built in central Thailand.

Pakistan: The wind map developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL),

USA in collaboration with USAID, has indicated a potential of 346,000 MW in Pakistan.

The Gharo-Keti Bandar wind corridor spreading 60 KM along the coastline of Sind

Province and more than 170 km deep towards the land alone has a potential of

approximately 50,000 MW. By 2030 government plans to generate 5% of the energy

from alternate resources this proves Asia is on forefront of wind energy business. [15]

Figure 3: Turbines from Chinas largest wind farm dot a windswept plain in the remote northwest

Xinjiang

10

Wind energy can play an integral role in current energy scenario of Pakistan. Installing

large scale wind turbines (1MW to 1.8MW) can reduce the energy deficit of Pakistan

and can ensure a cheap and carbon free source of energy. In this regard, Department of

Mechanical Engineering, College of EME decided to initiate an undergraduate research

on Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT).

This research is titled as Linear Elastic Response of a 1.2MW Horizontal Axis Wind

Turbine (HAWT). Main aim and focus of this research is to carry out linear elastic

structural analysis of 1.2MW wind turbine rotor blade in Finite element softwares like

Abaqus 6.10.

Following are the deliverables of this research

Designing 3D CAD model of 1.2 MW rotor blade on Abaqus 6.10.

Building sectional properties and configuration of composite lay-up of the blade.

Carrying out linear structural analysis on Abaqus 6.10

Interpretation of results of simulations

Building analytical model of rotor blade and determining its tip deflection.

Comparing results of Abaqus 6.10 and analytical model.

11

1.4 Methodology

Following is the flow chart which highlights the methodology to carry out this research:

First step to carry out aerodynamic loading calculations on each section of wind

turbine blade with the help of blade element and blade momentum theory.

Consequently drawing a CAD model of wind turbine blade on Abaqus 6.10 or

Solid Works 2012.

Then structural loadings will be estimated and structural analysis will be carried

out in Abaqus 6.10. In structural model, aerodynamic and structural loadings will

be used as input parameters.

A simplified analytical model of wind turbine blade will be formulated under

similar aerodynamic and structural loading conditions.

At the end FE structural and analytical model will be compared and validated.

12

2.1 Introduction

The aerodynamic design of the blade not only governs the aerodynamic performance of

the blade but also accounts for the aerodynamic forces experienced by the blade. The

best aerodynamic design of a rotor blade is the one that provides the best aerodynamic

performance for a loading that the blade material can withstand. There are many factors

besides aerodynamics which govern the blade design (which result is performance

reduction). Two of the main factors are: material constraints and manufacturability. For

this reason, the ideal blade design has to be modified.

For the aerodynamic design part of the study, we have based our blade profile on the

ideal blade design considerations only i.e. manufacturability and material limitations

have not been taken into account. The blade design is also limited by complexity of the

considered flows: effects of complex flows and flow separation, among other advanced

aerodynamic phenomenon, have been ignored.

This section deals with some of the aerodynamic principles which will be used in the

blade design in the later sections. The section starts with some of the basic simplified

analysis which provides the foundation for more advanced analysis. It is important to

note that the simplification of the model under analysis does not affect the validity of

the results drawn from them.

2.2 One-Dimensional Momentum Theory and Betz Limit [16]

This section deals with the most simplified aerodynamic model for the wind turbine

rotor. This model is also known as the Actuator-Disk Model. The model simplifies the

wind turbine rotor to an actuator disk. This model assumes that the rotor to be a very

thin disk which creates a pressure difference in the air flow. It is important to note that

this model does not assume that the disk is 100% efficient (absolute vacuum is created

behind the actuator disk). The model is based on the linear momentum theory. A onedimensional control volume analysis of this model provides us with some useful results.

The boundaries of this control volume are the surface of a stream tube and the two crosssections of the stream tube.

13

Where:

U1 = Far up-stream wind velocity

U2 = Wind velocity just before the rotor

U3 = Wind velocity just after the rotor

U4 = Far down-stream wind velocity

Following assumptions were made,

Below is the list of the assumptions that have been made to simplify the actual wind

turbine model to the Actuator-Disk Model.

Homogenous, Incompressible, steady state fluid flow

An infinite number of blades

Uniform thrust over the disk area

A non-rotating wake

Pressure at 1 is equal to pressure at 2 i.e. Pressure far up-stream and far downstream are equal i.e. P1 = P4

Wind Velocities at 2 and 3 are equal ( in both magnitude and direction) i.e. V2

= V3

14

By applying Conservation of Momentum and Bernoullis Principle and using the

Continuity Equation some useful expressions are obtained:

i.

ii.

[( )]

( )

Where

= Density of Air

A = Area of actuator disk

T = Thrust force on the actuator disk

P = Power produced by the actuator disk

And

iii.

( )

The axial induction factor a is a measure of how much the wind slows down at the rotor.

Equation (ii) assumes that all the thrust force experienced by the actuator disk is

converted to useful power of the rotor. Ideally for the simplifications presented in this

analysis this would be the case, however aerodynamic phenomenon prevent this from

happening and as a result the aerodynamic performance of the rotor decreases.

However, this kind of simplified analysis can tell us of the limit of efficiency of the rotor.

The assumptions help us determine the efficiency limit of an ideal rotor in ideal wind

conditions. This limit is called Betz limit.

The Coefficient of Power CP is defined as the ratio of the rotor power to the maximum

power in the wind

iv.

The Coefficient of Thrust is defined as the ratio of the thrust force on the rotor to the

dynamic force of the wind

v.

15

The maximum value of CP = 0.59occurs at = 13. This means that an ideal rotor can

only be up to 59% efficient. For a> 12 , U4 becomes negative. This indicates the

occurrence of complicated flow patterns for which the Betz theory does not hold.

2.3 Ideal Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Wake Rotation [16]

This section builds on the previous section and extends the analysis to a 2-D analysis. The

added dimension in this analysis is along the length of the blade. Wake rotation is also

considered in this analysis. Wake rotation occurs due to the torque of the blade. As the air

particles hit the blade they bounce off at an angle in a direction opposite to the rotation

of the blade due to angular momentum of the air particles. As a result the wake that

leaves the blade has a higher kinetic energy than a non-rotating wake which reduces the

performance of the blade.

16

Figure 7: 2-D analysis of the actuator disk model which considers wake rotation [16]

r is the distance of the annulus under consideration from the center of the rotor

dr is the thickness of the annulus under consideration.

U is the free stream velocity

a is the axial induction factor.

The control volume remains the same but analysis in this section will be done on an

annulus which is at a distance r from the center of the rotor and has a thickness dr

Following assumptions were made,

Following is a list of simplifying assumptions which will be used for the analysis:

Two-Dimensional flow analysis

Homogenous, Incompressible, steady state fluid flow

An infinite number of blades

Uniform thrust over the disk area

A rotating wake is considered

Pressure at 1 is equal to pressure at 2 i.e. Pressure far up-stream and far down-stream

are equal

Wind Velocities at 2 and 3 are equal (in both, magnitude and direction)

17

The differential thrust force dT on an annulus can be obtained with the product of

pressure difference across the disk and the area of the annulus. Written in terms of the

axial induction factor a

vi.

= ( + )

Where the axial induction factor a, which is the measure of how much the wake rotates

behind the rotor, is defined as

vii.

^ = /

Where

is the rotational speed of the wake relative to the rotor

is the rotational speed of the rotor

The Tip Speed Ratio is defined as the tangential speed of the tip of the blade to the

speed of the free stream of air.

viii.

= /

The local speed ratio r is defined as the ratio of the tangential speed of any point on the

blade to the speed of the free stream of air

ix.

_( =) /

The equation for the differential torque on the annulus can be determined by applying

the equation for the conservation of angular momentum i.e. the moment of the blade is

equal to the change in angular momentum of the wake (written in terms of induction

factors).

x.

= ( )

The expression for CP in terms of the induction factors, local speed ratio and the tip speed

ratio comes out to be

xi.

= ( )

18

with respect to a to obtain the expression for CP max.

xii.

()()()

]

With the corresponding values of a substituted in the above equation for the start and

end of the blade (.i.e. r = 0 and r = , a = 0.25 and 1 = 0.33 respectively) and performing

the integration the expression is ready for some parametric studies.

Note: The values of CP that lie on the dotted or the solid line represent the maximum

value of CP which can be obtained for that particular tip speed ratio i.e. CP max values.

As expected, the faster the wind turbine rotates for a particular speed of the wind, the

more efficient it will be. This is because for a particular power of the wind turbine rotor,

a higher rotational speed obtained for a particular wind speed means a lower torque of

the blade and hence lower wake rotation.

19

Figure 9: Variation of Induction Factors along the length of the blade for a constant tip speed ratio [16]

As we move along the length of the blade, the angular induction factor decreases

because the force required in turning the blade decreases due to a longer moment

arm. This means that less torque has to be applied by the wind to rotate the blade and

hence less wake rotation.

Figure 10: Terminologies for airfoils based on their geometry. These terminologies help in recognizing

different kinds of Airfoils. [16]

20

The Lift and the Drag forces are shown on the geometrical center of the Airfoil in

Figure.11. However, in reality these forces act at the center of pressure of the airfoil.

When the point of application of these forces is changed from the center of pressure to

the center of gravity, a balancing moment needs to be applied so the static equilibrium

of the Airfoil is not disturbed. This balancing moment is called Pitching Moment and is

responsible for the chord-wise bending of the blade.

21

Figure 12: How directions are termed for a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) and some more force

related terminology with respect to the plane of rotation of the wind turbine [16]

The Coefficient of Lift, Drag and Pitching Moment are defined as follows:

xiii.

xiv.

xv.

Where

L, D, M = Lift force, Drag force and Pitching moment respectively

U = Free stream velocity of air

c = chord length

22

It can be seen in Figure.14 that value of lift coefficient increases with an increase in the

value of the Reynolds number. This is due to formation of the turbulent boundary layer

which sticks better to the surface; less flow separation is experienced. A decrease in the

magnitude of the Drag force is seen because of the same reason.

23

In Section 2.1 and 2.2, principles of conservation of linear and angular momentum were

used to derive the equations for the forces and moments acting on the rotor. These

include the thrust force (Equation VI) and the useful torque (Equation x) developed by

an annular element of a rotor with an infinite number of blades. Blade Momentum

Theory deals with this type of study.

This section considers the behavior of an airfoil when it interacts with the incident air. It

is useful to see what forces are acting on the airfoil due its interaction with the wind. The

Blade Element Theory deals with this type of study. The results from the Blade Element

Theory and the Blade Momentum Theory can be combined to devise a designing

procedure for the actual rotor blade.

Where

R = Length of the blade

r = Distance of the element from the center of the rotor

dr = Thickness of the element

24

Figure 16: Section of the rotor blade and the angles relating these forces to the direction of the

incident air. A cross-section of the rotor blade is in fact an airfoil with a certain depth dr. [16]

Firstly, it is important to get a sense of direction of the rotor element considered in

Figure.16. The rotor can be imagined as a ceiling fan (hanging upside down from the

ceiling) at the same level of the line of sight of the viewer. If the fan is rotating counterclockwise the blade will enter the viewers sight from the left and move towards their

right. The Plane of blade rotation shows the path which the fan blade follows with an

arrow showing its direction from left to right.

dFN (Normal Force) is what was previously defined as the thrust force on an

element, but since the shape of the element now considered is different from the

one considered in the previous sections, it cannot be referred to as dT. The thrust

force is the useless force in the blade as it is perpendicular to the plane of rotation

and causes flap-wise bending. It is the sum of the components of the Lift and Drag

forces in a direction normal to the plane of rotation.

25

dFT (Tangential Force) is the useful force as it is responsible for the blade torque.

It too is a sum of the components of the Lift and Drag forces but in the direction

of the plane of rotation.

Urel (Relative Velocity of the Wind on the rotor) is the vector sum of the incident

velocity of air on the blade [U (1-a)] and the tangential velocity of the blade section

[r (1+a)]. Since the magnitude of the tangential velocity is different for every

section of the blade (different r) the magnitude and the direction of Urel will be

different for every section of the blade. It is the reason why a twist is required in

the blade i.e. subsequent blade elements are at a slight angle to each other so that

an optimum angle of attack can be maintained to get the maximum Lift force.

Urel is, in effect, the wind that appears to interact with blade as the rotor is

rotating. If the blade were stationary, the direction and magnitude of the Urel

would be the same as the incident velocity of the air.

p (Section Pitch Angle) is the angle between the chord line of the section under

consideration and the plane of rotation. p, o is the angle between the chord line

of the section of the blade at the blade tip (r = R) and the plane of rotation. The

difference in these two angles is because of the twist in the blade as mentioned

earlier. t is then a measure of the twist in the section under consideration.

Equations Derived from Figure.16 are as follow:

By using geometrical relationships and vector algebra the following equations can be

derived from Figure.16

xvi.

xvii.

xviii.

=

= +

= ( )

xix.

()

(+ )

(+ )

Re-writing the equations for the Lift and Drag forces for the element under

consideration:

xx.

26

xxi.

Substituting (xx) and (xxi) into (xvii) and calculating dFN for the same blade section for all

the blades by multiplying it with the number of blades B we get:

=

( + )

xxii.

=

Then,

xxiii.

=

( ) )

Following are the features of the employed design methodology,

Three dimensional analysis

Wake rotations is considered in the design

Aerodynamic tip loses are considered in the design

Before starting the design procedure it is important to outline the requirements of the

design. Following are the requirements of the design in their respective order.

The blade chord length and twist angle is needed to construct the profile of the

blade

The blade chord length and twist angle are a function of the axial and angular

induction factor so their variation along the length of the blade needs to be

calculated

The axial and the angular induction factors are implicitly related so an iterative

procedure will have to be used to study their variation along the blade length.

The design starts with determining the approximate length of the blade which would be

needed to produce the required power from (iv) which can be rewritten as:

27

=

The value of Cp can be approximated as a little less than 0.59 and is the efficiency

combined efficiency of the gearbox and the generator.

Once the approximate length of the blade has been determined, a reasonable tip speed

ratio should be selected based on the application. For example; for power generation a

tip speed ratio of 4 to 10 should be selected [16]. After selecting the tip speed ratio the

desired number of blades for the turbine should be selected based on the tip speed ratio.

For example; if the tip speed ratio is greater than 4, three or less blades should be used

on the rotor.

The next step is to define the shape of the blade which requires the values of and the

chord length.

As explained in the beginning of this section an iterative approach needs to be used for

this part of the design.

Since the iterative procedure does not apply to a continuous domain of length of the

blade, the blade needs to be divided into different sections. The procedure need to be

repeated on each section of the blade to determine the values on those air-foil sections.

Generally around 12 to 20 sections are needed for an accurate design [16]. It is a good

idea to make smaller sections along the length of the blade closer to the root as these

are the sections that experience the most dramatic change of twist and chord length.

Once the sections of the blade have been decided the iterative procedure can be used.

Following flow chart explicitly shows the procedure:

28

Note:

Subscript i refers to the guess values of the parameters and j refers to the

iteration number.

Subscript 1 points out that the procedure is being carried out for the first

section of the blade.

To begin this procedure guess values of a and a are needed. For section other than the

first section, the values of the previous sections can be used. However, in the above flow

chart, since the first section is under consideration, a guess value of a=1/3 and a=0 is

used to initiate the procedure in using (equation xix). A value of is obtained from this

step.

The next equation evolves from realizing that the lift force is actually a component of the

Normal and Tangential forces. Evaluating equations (xvi) (xvii) and (xx) can yield an

expression for a in terms of , and Cl ( is defined as the local solidity factor and can

29

be determined by = 2). The drag force in this case is taken to be zero which is a

reasonable estimate since most airfoils are made to have very low values of Cd. This

procedure is done to refine the value of a by evaluating it for the known design

parameters Cl,design and l,design.

The consequent value of a for a given value of a can be found by equation mentioned

in the third step of the flow chart. This equation is obtained for maximum value of Cp by

solving (Equation xi) and replacing with its definition in terms of the induction factors.

This value of a insures that maximum aerodynamic efficiency is obtained from the rotor.

This completes the process for obtaining the guess values for a and a.

The next procedure (starting from 4th box) is to refine the values of a and a. Firstly a

value for is obtained from the new values of a a and r for the section.

The new value of is used to calculate the tip loss factor and the coefficient of Thrust

force CT. This expression for CT is derived from the fact that the normal force and the

thrust force are the same for a HAWT so (Equation xvii) can be used in (Equation v) by

substituting an expression for the area of the rotor and expression for the lift and drag

forces. The drag force in this case is again taken to be zero.

The new values of a can then be found using Glauert empirical relation [16] for both

windmill state (CT<0.96) and turbulent wake state (CT>0.96). The discussion of how these

equations are derived is beyond the scope of this work.

When the values of pitch angular, angular induction factor and linear induction factor

are converged to a satisfactory level then the value of chord length is evaluated from the

following equation

=

= +

= (

(

)

)[

)

(

) ]

Repeat the procedure if the power output turns out to be less than the expected.

30

Following are the input parameters for the case study,

Blade was divided in 18 segments

Air foil employed was NACA 64-618_900 [17]

The value of lift coefficient Cl is 1.4 at an angle of attack 10o[18]

Mean wind velocity of 10m/s [19]

Effect of Reynolds Number on Cl and optimum value of has been ignored due

to lack of data. We predict an error of 0.1 in values of Cl.

=7

Following is a table for detailed results of iteration process:

Radius

(m)

Chord

Length

(m)

0.50

1.50

2.50

3.50

4.50

5.50

6.50

7.75

9.25

11.00

13.00

15.50

18.50

21.50

24.50

27.50

30.50

33.50

2.0000

3.4000

3.8933

4.1455

4.0939

3.9020

3.6574

3.3923

2.9933

2.6445

2.3190

1.9997

1.7097

1.4898

1.3184

1.1815

1.0313

0.5723

Pitch

Angle

(degree)

Force(N) N)

Tip

Speed

Ratio

Relative

Drag Force Fd

velocity(m/x) (N)

52.4602

418.9

255.2412

0.1000

10.0499

45.4658

1320.0

923.6587

0.3000

10.4403

42.2900

2260.0

1671.8327 0.5000

11.1803

36.6720

3220.0

2583.7816 0.7000

12.2066

32.0000

4200.0

3561.8031 0.9000

13.4536

28.1825

5160.0

4548.2714 1.1000

14.8661

25.0457

6130.0

5553.5996 1.3000

16.4012

21.8852

7340.0

6811.0259 1.5500

18.4459

18.9300

8800.0

8324.0583 1.8500

21.0297

16.3000

10500.0 10077.9563 2.2000

24.1661

14.0300

12400.0 12030.0953 2.6000

27.8568

11.9200

14800.0 14480.8674 3.1000

32.5730

10.1000

17700.0 17425.7068 3.7000

38.3275

8.7279

20600.0 20361.4547 4.3000

44.1475

7.6898

23400.0 23189.5650 4.9000

50.0100

6.8699

26100.0 25912.6106 5.5000

55.9017

6.0938

27500.0 27379.7501 6.1000

61.8142

4.3305

18000.0 17948.6115 6.7000

67.7422

Figure 18: Table for detailed results of iteration process

31

4.6278

8.4904

11.1494

14.1510

16.9762

19.7563

22.5398

26.4434

30.3280

35.3819

41.2276

48.6077

57.5396

66.5219

75.5416

84.5880

90.2791

60.1682

Following are the graphical demonstration of results

32

Following figure shows the trend of chord length along the span of the blade. Initially the

chord length increase till r/R reached to 0.18 then falls with increasing radius of the

blade.

33

3.1 Introduction

Designing a structurally feasible HAWT rotor blade is an integral part to ensure longevity

and safety of blade. Structural analysis has many design challenges. Few of them are as

follow,

Sufficient strength to ensure high wind loadings up to a period of at least 25 years

Sufficient flap wise and chord wise stiffness in order to minimize blade tip

deflection and stresses

Minimizing the weight of HAWT rotor blade

Ensure the prevention of buckling which can cause catastrophic failure

20 years fatigue life ( corresponding to 10^8 cycles) in presence of fluctuating wind

loadings

Note: This work does not deal with the wind speed fluctuation. So fatigue analysis

hasnt been carried out due to the limitations of research scope.

The primary purpose of making isotropic blade was to validate the loadings and the

boundary conditions by comparing the results of FE model with analytical model. In

addition the secondary purpose of conducting the analysis using an isotropic material

before moving to a more complex composite design is to outline the critical areas for the

composite design. These include stress concentrations and unwanted deflections. The

aim is to highlight the areas which require certain material properties for the best

structural performance and differentiating them from areas which do not require those

properties. This enables us to tailor the composite material for the given loading

conditions which acts as a weight saving tool.

In first iteration, HAWT rotor blade model has the following assumptions,

Rotor blade is made up of an isotropic material i.e. steel ( with elasticity modulus

of 200E9 and poison ratio of 0.3)

34

Thickness of upper skin , lower skin , spar caps , and the shear web is assumed to

be 7mm throughout the span of the blade

Wind loadings and other aerodynamic parameters have been determined from

the aerodynamic model ( as described in last chapter)

Solid Works is used for building the Cad profile of the wind turbine blade. The

appropriate airfoil profile for a 1.2 MW Wind turbine blade would be NACA 64-618.

Hence NACA 64-618 is used to build the blade. The coordinate file of the NACA 64-618

is taken from online source as mentioned in previous chapter .Arbitrarily the profile is

built in a total of 19 planes along the axis the blade with planes placed closer to each

other near the root as the twist is maximum in that area. This particular placing of planes

ensured a more accurate trajectory of the blade. The airfoil sections are built in such a

way that the chord length of each section is different and each section is rotated around

its centroid by the angles calculated from the wind load calculations. After that the

Surface Loft command is used to join the sections. Hence the basic profile of the blade

is generated.

After the basic profile is complete the blade is built in more detail spar caps are built

inside the hollow blade. Spar caps are the supporting structure for the hollow blade. Two

spars are built at approximately 15 percent and 50 percent of the chord length starting

from the zero of the x axis and then these caps are lofted throughout the axis of the

blade. Thus the whole profile of the blade is now complete. The file is saved as an IGES

file and then exported to the ABAQUS.

CAD model drawn on Solid works 2012 had the following limitations,

A lot of imperfection occurred in CAD model geometry by importing it in Abaqus

6.10. These imperfections caused a lot of errors in meshing.

Contact problems started to occur in spar caps and outer skin of the blade

Unlike Abaqus 6.10 and other FEA softwares, the design procedure in Solid

Works cannot be automated by a computer program

Due to the above mentioned reasons, CAD model was also made on Abaqus 6.10.

35

In Abaqus 6.10, HAWT wind turbine rotor blade was designed by developing a Python

script code. This code automates the designing of blade. This code was developed by Dr.

Chi Zang (The University of Manchester) and was provided to us for research work.

Following are the steps that describes the procedure of designing rotor blade,

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

Initially, 18 XY planes were created at different locations along the span of the

blade. Following table shows the name of blade (as specified in Abaqus model)

and its distance from origin.

18 airfoils of varying chord length were created on their respective planes (values

of chord lengths were taken from the aerodynamic module). Each airfoil was

drawn by plotting 100 points. Afterwards they were connecting by a spline

command.

Two shear webs were drawn at each cross section at 15% and 50 % of chord length

respectively.

Each cross section was rotated by Rotate sketch up tool in Abaqus 6.10. Rotations

are given according to blade pitch angle calculated previously in aerodynamic

model.

After wards each section is joined by Shell lofting feature in Abaqus 6.10

36

All of these tasks have been automated out by a Python script code. In python code user

needs to input the parameters and then CAD model is drawn automatically in Abaqus

6.10.

Following parameters are needed to be inserted in the python code:

Defining Chord values: Chord values are needed to be given at every segment of the

blade.

Defining extra planes: Distance of planes from the origin is given in input parameters.

Defining Twist : Twist angle is defined in degrees and radians for every cross section of

the blade

Defining Pitch Axis: Location of centroid of airfoil in percentage of chord length

Defining Twist Axis: It is defined as the ratio of horizontal projection of centroid position

of twisted airfoil on horizontal axis to length of chord.

Define BTHICK: For any given airfoil, BTHICK is the ratio of Major axis and minor axis.

Following are some features of the Structural analysis

Material Assignment: As explained earlier material assigned to CAD model of HAWT is

steel with elasticity modulus of 200E9 and poison ratio of 0.3

Section Assignment Section is assumed to be homogenous shell with a thickness of 7

mm

Surfaces 18 surfaces are created along the span of the blade in order to apply

aerodynamic loadings (Names of these surfaces are mentioned in Table 2)

Analysis Type (Step): Linear static analysis has been carried out.

Boundary Conditions: Fixed. All rotational and translational degree of freedom are 0

37

Load: Since Lift force is varying along the span of the blade so different Pressure loads

are applied on 18 different segments of the blade. Values of these loads are given in the

following table:

Surface

Name

Surf 1

0.151

Surf 2

0.36

Surf 3

0.528

Surf 4

0.737

Surf 5

0.99

Surf 6

1.29

Surf 7

1.3

Surf 8

1.4

Surf 9

1.69

Surf 10

2

Surf 11

2.19

Surf 12

2.5

Surf 13

3.9

Surf 14

4.65

Surf15

5.94

Surf 16

7.47

Surf17

9.016

Surf18

8.03

Figure 22: Pressure loads acting on surfaces of HAWT rotor blade

=

Where,

= Pressure acting on ith surface

= Lift force acting on ith surface

= Area of the ith surface

Element assignment:

38

Elements used in meshing are S8R: An 8-node doubly curved thick shell, reduced

integration. These elements account for shear flexibility in laminated composites and

are suitable for thick shells.

Meshing:

Meshing has been carried out on seed size of 500 mm, assigned along the span of the

blade.

As a result of simulation on this model of HAWT Rotor blade, tip deflection was found

out to be 4.138 meters as shown in following figure:

Note that the negative sign in this case shows the blade deflects downwards as the

pressure force is applied on the upper surface of the blade.

The next part of the post processing is highly important. The figure above shows only the

contours along the length of the blade. This is because the differences in the chord-wise

39

deflections are small compared to the flap-wise deflections. This deflection information

cannot be directly obtained from the diagram so another approach will have to be taken.

For an isotropic material model with uniform material thickness the stresses in the blade

can serve as a tool for predicting the critical areas of deflection. Since the material is

assumed to be show a linear relationship between the stress and strain, we can imply

that the areas with the highest stresses will directly cause the greatest deflections. The

following figure shows the Von misses stresses for the blade:

The first observation that can be made from the diagram is the stress concentrations

around the areas where the skin contacts the shear webs make contact with the skin.

The shear webs being the main load bearing members keep the skin from deforming.

The aerodynamic lift force which is the main load acting on the blade tends to compress

the shear webs. The shear webs also bear the loading which causes the flap-wise tip

deflections. This defines the goal for the composite design. The shear webs being the

main load bearing components of the blade should have the greatest strength and it will

experience compressive and shear loading.

The area near the root of the blade has higher stresses as compared to the areas away

from the root. Hence, the areas closer to the root should have higher strength.

The spar caps transmit the loads to the shear webs hence they need to be stronger than

the remaining skin of the blade.

40

The skin is the part which bears the least stresses and so it requires the least structural

performance. However, the skin should be strong enough to maintain an aerodynamic

shape and should not flutter due the turbulence of the wind.

A better idea of the stresses which are directly related to the flap-wise tip deflections

can be had from the S-22 stresses. The figure below shows the variation of the stresses.

The figure above shows almost the same trend as Figure.24. The stress concentrations

are again in the root sections and along the regions where the shear webs are connected.

One anomaly in the trend which is quite visible in Figure.25 occurs at z=6500mm where

the stresses are reasonably low at the point where the spar at 15% of the chord length

meets the skin. This is due to a geometric anomaly which occurs while creating the CAD

model of the blade. The spar at 15% chord length in the 7th section occurs at the 14 point

used to create the airfoil and in the 8th section the spar created joins the skin at the 15th

point and continues for the subsequent sections. This could very well be the reason for

the anomaly.

With the goals defined for the composite layup and the critical areas identified, the next

step in FEA would be to design the composite layup.

41

4 Analytical Modeling

4.1 Introduction

The objective of this section is to analytically model the behavior of the blade under the

lift force experienced by it. The limiting parameter for this study is the tip deflection of

the blade. The agreement of the results of this model with those of the FE model is of

significant importance as well.

Analytical formulation requires the actual solution of the governing equations in a

continuous domain; however, some discrete mathematics may be required to

approximate certain parameters for which the actual information is not available.

The purpose of this analytical model is not to serve as a substantial design aid for the

blade but to confirm, with a reasonable level of certainty, the accuracy of the FE model.

The analytical model can also be used as a first guess to study the behavior of the blade

to narrow down the design parameters in an acceptable range for FE modeling in the

case where parametric study is not an objective.

The results obtained from the analytical model may be inaccurate, to some extent, due

to the lack of complexity that can be incorporated in the model. The complexity,

however, is a subject to the requirement of the designer and the object of designing.

The geometrical profile used to build the model is a simplification of the actual designed

blade with the following characteristics:

A hollow rectangular cross-section

The width and the height of the cross-section were made to replicate the variation

of the maximum height of the airfoil and the distance between the shear webs

respectively for the first attempt. In the 2nd attempt the height and the width of

the box were tapered linearly, with the dimensions of the bigger section being the

average of the largest airfoil section and its preceding airfoil sections and the

smaller section having the dimensions of the last airfoil section from the root.

The length of the blade model is 36m.

The thickness of the box section is 0.007m.

42

A distributed line load is applied on the beam which varies along the length of the

beam.

The nomenclature for the modeling is show in the following figures:

43

4.2.1 Theory

The basic equation for finding the tip deflection is derived from the expression for the

curvature of a cantilever beam:

2

= 2

Where

= Internal moment experienced by the beam as a force is applied on the beam

= Youngs Modulus

= Moment of Inertia about an axis transverse to length of the beam

In this case the internal moment and moment of inertia are both functions of x so the

equation can be written as:

2

() = () 2

Integrating the expression twice will yield the expression for the transverse deflection of

the beam at any point along the length of the beam.

This happens to be an initial value problem with the two conditions observed at the fixed

end of the beam such that:

(0 ) = 0

(0 ) = 0

4.2.2 Procedure

The construction of the analytical model consists of the following steps:

Construction of expression for the variation of internal moment along the length of the

beam

As only the aerodynamic loading is considered for this section, the significant internal

moment will be only be caused by the lift force on the blade. To obtain the equation for

the internal moment, the lift force experiences was plotted on 19 airfoil sections and

44

then curve fitted. The moment equation is obtained by integrating the force equation

and calculating the constant of integration on any of the 19 known points of the curve.

The equation obtained is:

= 31.036767 3 1337.985 2 + 214095 7.9 107

Construction of expression for the width and height of the section

The data for the width and height of the box section is taken from the existing CAD model

in ABAQUS for 19 airfoil sections which were interpolated using EES.

A box section will consist of two sets of equation for the distribution of height and two

sets of equations for the width owing to the thickness of the box section i.e.0 .007m. The

reason for doing so is that these equations will later be used to calculate the moment of

inertia which will be obtained from subtracting the moment of inertia of the inside box (

consisting of hollow space) from the outside box.

As mentioned previously, two cases for the distribution of the height and width have

been considered which are as follows

4.2.2.1

In this case the data from the 19 airfoil sections was interpolated using a 5th degree

polynomial.

The equations obtained are:

= 0.460302 + 0.27071 0.0455494 2 + 0.002785 3 0.000074 4

+ 7.2 107 5

= 0.449974 + 0.26965 0.0454459 2 + 0.002781 3 0.000074 4

+ 7.2 107 5

= 0.7005 + 0.4289 0.07410 2 + 4.6 103 3 1.24 104 4

+ 1.22 106 5

= 0.68555 + 0.4293 0.07416 + 4.6 103 3 1.24 104 4

+ 1.22 106 5

45

Following figures show the curve fit for the dimensions of the box:

Figure 29: height of the outside box section curve fitted against length of the beam

Figure 30: height of the inside box section curve fitted against length of the beam

46

Figure 31: width of the outside box section curve fitted against length of the beam

Figure 32: width of the inside box section curve fitted against length of the beam

47

4.2.2.2

While making the equations for the analytical model, it is important to realize the effects

and sensitivity of different parameters on the desired parameter.

The object of making equations of height and width of the box is to use them in the

expression for calculating the variation of the moment of inertia (Izz) of the box section

along the length of the beam, about a transverse axis z. While making the equations for

the width and height of the box section in terms of x, the following should be noted:

The height of the box section h is much more sensitive than the width w of the

box section in the expression for Izz.

An overestimation of Izz will result in less tip deflections of the beam and the

opposite is true as well.

An underestimation of Izz closer to the root will result in more deflections as

compared to the same level of underestimation closer to the tip region.

Underestimation in regions of high forces will result in more deflections.

The expression for Izz is :

= 112 3

The equations from both the cases can be substituted in the expression to form an

equation in terms of x

4.2.3.1

The expression formed from the 5th degree polynomial interpolation of the parameters

gives a significant 20-degree polynomial expression for the moment of inertia which is

not mentioned here because it is not directly related to any actual calculations.

Since this expressions is a result of an interpolation it is not necessary that it will the

required number of real roots needed to make the expression. It is indeed the case the

expression does not have a root in the range that we are interested in i.e. 0-36 m. To

avoid imaginary roots the expression for Izz was interpolated using an exponential

function.

48

Figure below shows the graph for the actual expression obtained and the graph for the

interpolated exponential function overlapped.

Figure 33: Moment of inertia of the box section interpolated with an exponential function

It can be seen from the graph that there is an overestimation of results from 0 - 3m and

an underestimation from 3 - 12.5 m. The large moment of inertia at the root will result

in under estimation of tip deflections and over prediction of beam strength.

The equation of the exponential interpolation is shown below:

= 6.84261 103 .144501

4.2.3.2

As discussed above the equations for the width w and the height h of the box section

were determined by taking the average of the first four airfoil section dimensions and

using it for the initial section for the beam in the analytical model. The last section of the

beam corresponds to the dimensions of the last airfoil section.

49

The width and the height of the section were interpolated linearly which has its

advantages; Using a higher order might increase an R2 percentage for the particular

curve fit but it does not account for the sensitivity of the curve sections to errors. As

discussed earlier, errors in the values of parameters closer to the root section will

account for a larger error in obtaining the tip deflection of the beam. One should choose

the more conservative approach when such errors are plausible.

The second advantage for choosing a linear function to interpolate the parameters is

that a function close to a negative exponential function is obtained for the moment of

inertia which is favorable for interpolation.

The figure below shows the graph of Izz and its interpolation with exponential function.

Again, the choice of exponential function is obvious in this case as the function for Izz

does not have a root in the required range of values of x

50

The graph highlights one of the shortcomings of EES as a tool for interpolation. EES does

not provide the user with the option of specifying the starting point of interpolation. The

region closer to the root is in this case an over estimation but since the height and the

width were underestimated to begin with, this model would produce reasonable results.

The original equation for Izz is as follows:

=

+

1.02844 1077

2.70432 1063

5.0706 1045

1.41771 1026

2.11405 1012

+

6.7554 1029

6.4 1014

= 4.6896 103 .114802

The factor multiplied with the exponential term corresponds to the maximum value of

the function. For Case1 it is much higher than the one obtained for case2 i.e. 6.84261

103 compared to 4.6896 103 respectively. Unfortunately there is no way to

account for the validity of these values at this stage.

As mentioned in the start of this section, the governing equation for the tip deflection

for a cantilevered beam is

2

= 2

(0) = 0

(0 ) = 0

Izz and Mz are functions and E is a constant. The equation can be integrated twice to

obtain an expression an equation for y in terms of x, where y is a measure of tip

deflection of the beam.

The values of the constants of integration can be obtained by employing the boundary

conditions.

51

The final tedious equations for the tip deflection are not mentioned for both cases in this

report but they can be obtained from following the procedure and using an equation

solver. MATLAB was used for this purpose.

Material used in this case is steel (E=200x109)

The values of the tip deflection can be found out by using a value of 36 for x for both

the cases

The value of the tip deflection obtained for Case1 is 85.626cm

The value of tip deflection obtained for Case2 is 1.45m

The value of tip deflection obtained from the CAE model is 4.138m

4.3 Discussion

As it can be seen, the tip deflections from the analytical model are in agreement with

the CAE model. However the analytical model under predicts the tip deflections for the

blade. There are a number of reasons for this;

Firstly, analytical calculations which involve curve fitting and involvement of higher

power of those equations will have an amplifying effect on the errors. The calculation of

the moment of inertia is one of those quantities which are very sensitive to this kind of

error.

The over prediction of the moment of inertia in the root region is a source of the under

prediction of tip deflections as the area closer to the root decreases deflections a lot

more than the area near the tip of the blade with the same level of increase in stiffness.

The difference in the loadings for the analytical model and the CAE model also has an

effect on the tip deflections obtained. For the CAE model the aerodynamic forces are

applied as pressure forces while in the analytical model the aerodynamic forces are

assumed to be line forces. Abaqus takes different boundary conditions for the two

loadings applied. A more fair comparison with the analytical model would be to apply

the line force on the CAE model in Abaqus with the equation of the force defined but

since in Abaqus the mesh is made on an area for shells, concentrated forces produce

stress concentrations and produce results far from the actual when the area are big and

the mesh is fine.

52

The equation used to predict the deflections of the blade is actually an approximated

equation which originated from a Taylor series expansion. The differential terms have

been truncated so the equation can be integrated.

53

5.1 Introduction

Designing a light weight and high strength HAWT rotor blade is a major challenge which

requires use of light weight and high stiffness composite materials. Due to high modulus

and low density, E Glass, S glass epoxy composites and woven fabric composites are good

options for HAWT rotor blade. Moreover Glass fiber is preferred over carbon fiber

composites because of their economic feasibility, wide availability, good handleablity

and ease of processing.

A structurally sound HAWT wind rotor blade should have good flap wise and edge wise

stiffness, an appropriate composite layup and large spar cap width. Main purpose of

composite structural analysis is to minimize stresses up to a linear range and tip

deflections so that tip of the wind turbine blade may not collide with the tower of HAWT.

A typical section of the airfoil is as follow:

In above figure, spar caps and the shear webs is the main load bearing components. So

spar caps and the shear webs are always the regions with greater thickness as compared

to upper and lower skin. Spar caps are placed at 15% and 50% of the chord length from

the leading edge to give an appropriate stiffness values [20].

On a typical HAWT rotor blade, following are some forces acting on it,

Lift force

Drag Force

Gravity loadings

Centrifugal Forces

54

Following is the figure showing loadings induced in a typical cross sectional blade as a

result of above mentioned forces:

A HAWT rotor blade model with composite layup sequence is built in Abaqus. Main

assumptions of this model is as follow,

Blade has been made by orthotropic composite materials with varying cross

section in different sections of an airfoil

Aerodynamic forces have been applied as calculated in aerodynamic model ( given

in chapter 2)

Lift force has been applied uniformly on the upper cross section of the blade

Appropriate assumptions of the drag force have been explained section 5.5.

Value of gravity has been assumed 9800mm/s^2.

Centrifugal forces has been calculate at an angular speed of 2 rad/s

Boundary conditions of Encastre (all translational and rotational degree of

freedoms are 0 ) at the root of the blade

55

A CAD model has been developed in Abaqus 6.10 by the same procedure as explained in

previous chapter. Moreover this model has few added features, explained as follow,

19 rectangular cross sections have been created at every cross section of the

blade. These rectangular cross sections have been created by 3 point datum CSYS

tools in part module of Abaqus 6.10.

Various sets have been created in order to assign composite layup and to apply

drag force to rotor blade.

A composite layup has been built by following design guidelines for unidirectional tape,

laminated composite panels. Purpose of following these guide lines is to build a

composite lay-up that gives acceptable range of maximum stress and deflections

(particularly tip deflection). Few of the guidelines are as follow [23]

In symmetric composite layup, laminates are symmetric about a mid-surface. For

example composite layup [90/0/45/-45/0/-45/45/0/90] is symmetric about mid

laminate which is [0].

Composite layup is used in order to uncouple axial and bending stresses and to prevent

warping in case of thermal stresses.

A balanced laminated composite layup refers that orientation of the angles plies (plies

other than 90 and 0) should occur in pairs. i.e. For any +45 there should exist -45 layer.

For instance 90/+45/-45/0 is a balanced laminate composite layup

56

Figure 37: Figure showing difference between balanced and unbalanced layup sequence

Due to such layup coupling between in plane normal and shear behavior is removed.

Carpet plots are used in order to determine the effect of layup on laminate strength and

stiffness. Carpet plots shows that with increase in +45/-45 plies, axial strength decreases

significantly and shear strength increases. This trend has been shown in following graphs:

Figure 38: Room temperature ultimate tension strength for high strength graphite epoxy laminates

57

Figure 39: Room temperature ultimate shear strength for high strength graphite epoxy laminates

10 percent rule states that laminates will be fiber dominated if 10 % of the laminates will

be in 0, 90, 45 and -45 direction. Fiber domination gives durability to composite layup.

Interlaminate stresses are reasons why the laminates fail at lower stresses. Experiments

have shown that limiting layer thickness to a value of 0.02 inches reduces that interlaminar stresses and hence increases the ultimate strength of the laminate.

Interlaminate stresses are reasons why the laminates fail at lower stresses. Experiments

have shown that limiting layer thickness to a value of 0.02 inches reduces that interlaminar stresses and hence increases the ultimate strength of the laminate.

58

+45 and -45 degree plies should be increased in components where shear forces are

more dominant. In first iteration (in earlier chapter) we concluded that shear stresses

are more dominated in region of shear webs. So in the layup, +45 and -45 plies were

dominated in shear web regions.

Note that upper and lower skin is in experiencing flap wise and edge wise bending, so in

those regions 0 and 90 degree plies were more dominant.

Material used in composite HAWT blade is S-Glass composite with following properties,

E1 = 59E9 Pa (Elasticity modulus in longitudinal direction)

E2 = 20E9 Pa (Elasticity modulus in transverse direction)

V12 = 0.28

G12= 20E9 Pa

5.6.1 Analysis Type

A static linear analysis is carried out on Abaqus 6.10

5.6.2 Meshing

Meshing has been carried out on seed size of 500, 700 and 830 mm mesh sizes.

Elements used in meshing are S8R: An 8-node doubly curved thick shell, reduced

integration. These elements account for shear flexibility in laminated composites and

are suitable for thick shells

59

All rotational and translational degree of freedom equal to 0) are applied on the first

cross section of the blade.

5.7 Loadings

5.7.1 Lift force

Lift force has been applied by the same procedure as described in previous chapter.

Following are the values of normal pressure forces:

Surface

Name

0.09706

0.253

0.391

0.59112

0.84

1.14

1.18

1.27

1.57

1.902

2.105

2.43

3.43

4.58

5.87

7.41

8.965

8.03

Surf 1

Surf 2

Surf 3

Surf 4

Surf 5

Surf 6

Surf 7

Surf 8

Surf 9

Surf 10

Surf 11

Surf 12

Surf 13

Surf 14

Surf15

Surf 16

Surf17

Surf18

Figure 40: Pressure Loads on Various Cross-Sections of the Blade

60

Rotational body force load has been applied in order to account for centrifugal forces.

Centrifugal force are applied about X axis. Rotational rpm has been assumed to be 2

rad/s.

Gravity force has been applied along y axis to account for weight of the blade. Value of

g is assumed to be 9800mm/s

Drag equation is calculated by following equation,

/ = 0.5 2

Where,

Cd = Coefficient of Drag

P = density of air assumed to be 1.1433 kg/m^3

U = Relative velocity of air

C = Chord length

Fd/l = Drag force per unit length

For chosen airfoil ie. NACA 64-618 coefficient of drag is 0.03 [24]. Values of relative

velocity are calculated in aerodynamic modal for every cross section of blade. On

average drag force has been applied after every 2 meters so value of length has assumed

to be 2000mm.

After calculating drag force, it has been decomposed in vertical component and

horizontal component. Following are the equation used,

=

=

Where is the angle of relative velocity.

Drag force has been applied in terms of concentrated force in Abaqus 6.10

61

Drag Force (as

named in

Abaqus 6.10)

Horizontal

Component

F dx

Vertical

Component

F dy

Drag1

4200

-5400

Drag2

8920

-9000

Drag3

12200

-11200

Drag4

17000

-12660

Drag5

21600

-13400

Drag6

26120

-13980

Drag7

30620

-14300

Drag8

36800

-14780

Drag9

43020

-14740

Drag10

50920

-14880

Drag11

59980

-14980

Drag12

71330.9

-15060

Drag13

84960

-15120

Drag14

98620

-15140

Drag15

125960

-15160

Drag16

134640

-14360

Drag17

90000

-6800

Drag18

78560

-5400

Note: The approximate mesh size used for this section is 500 mm

The first result to be discussed is the tip deflection. The tip deflections for a 1.2MW

HAWT is around 6m [25]. The maximum deflection for the blade turns out to be 4.485m.

The figure that follows shows the comparison of the deflected blade with the undeflected blade and a contour plot of the maximum deflections encountered in the blade

62

At this point it is important to note that the sections closer to the root have almost no

deflections while the sections closer to the root have larger deflections. However, this

result should not be misinterpreted, as the less deflections near the root are section a

result of the boundary condition applied. A better macroscopic observation at this point

would be the curvature of the blade. A uniform curvature shows that the different

sections of the blade have deflected uniformly if the deflections of the previous sections

are ignored.

The next result to be displayed is the flap-wise deflections of the blade. This is the limiting

factor in the elastic response of the blade. The flap-wise deflections should be less than

the length of the nacelle for the blade to avoid making contact with the supporting

tower. The figure below shows the distribution of the flap-wise deflections of the blade.

63

The maximum flap-wise deflections for the blade are 4.165m. This is well within the safe

range for the blade of a 1.2MW HAWT which is [25]. A negative sign shows the downward

deflection of the blade in the global y-axis as the aerodynamic lift force (which is

responsible for the deflection) has been applied on the low pressure-top surface of the

blade. This is a conservative approach as the area of the low pressure surface is less than

the high-pressure bottom surface of the blade.

Another important result to consider is the span-wise deflections of the blade to ensure

that the shape of the airfoil has not distorted due to the application of drag force on the

airfoil. The following figure shows the span-wise deflections of Blade in the edge-wise

direction.

64

It can be seen from the figure that the maximum deflections are of the order of 6.9cm

on the leading edge of the blade in the sections closer to the root which is reasonable

for a section with a minimum chord length of about 800cm. There are two trends that

can be seen in the above figure. The first trend is the increase in the span-wise

deflections from root to tip. This is because of the centrifugal forces applied to the blade.

As we move away from the root of the blade the magnitude of the centrifugal force

increases. Since the direction of the centrifugal forces is along the global-z direction

(along the length of the blade) the sections closer to the root region tend to be the most

affected by these forces. The 2nd trend to observe is the variation of the edge-wise

deflections. The trend is governed by the application of drag force which causes a

bending about the global x-axis (along the chord). Since the drag force is applied in the

x-direction, it generates a bending moment about the x-axis so the leading edge is under

tension and the trailing edge is under compression.

With all the deflections in reasonable range, the next step would be to study the stress

distribution within the blade.

The figure below shows the contour plot for the Von misses stresses in the blade:

Figure 45: Von misses stress distribution for the blade, viewing from the low pressure surface

The first verification from the plot is the range of stresses experienced in the blade to

validate the assumption of the linear elastic response. The maximum stresses

experienced are of the order of 0.3162GPa which is within the linear range [26]

65

The maximum stress occurs in the shear webs which act as the main load bearing

components in the blade.

Another important observation is the distribution of stresses within the skin. Note that

there is an improvement in this regard compared to the case where the isotropic

material is used. This is due the greater thickness of the spar caps and an excess of plies

which 0-degree fibers.

The principal stresses are in the linear behavior range as well. Figure.5 shows the

maximum principal stresses in the blade.

The trend is quite close to that of the Von misses stress distribution with the maximum

stresses acting on the shear webs. A cutaway section will reveal the stresses in the shear

webs.

66

Figure 47: Cutaway section of the blade viewing from the blade root end

As can be seen from the Figure.6 the maximum stresses occur in the shear webs at the

root section. This is the result of the applied boundary condition.

The next step would be analyzing the strains in the blade. Determination of strains serves

as a good tool for the initial prediction of fatigue based failure for the wind turbine blade

[27].

In the above figure, the maximum stresses are of the order of 6.092E-3. If we refer to

[27] this gives us a life cycle of above 10,000,000 cycles.

67

A cutaway section when viewed from the root end reveals that maximum strains occur

at the root section of the blade. The maximum strains are shared equally by the spar

caps and the shear webs alike.

The compressive strains are much lower than the tensile strains which are a good result

as composites are weaker in compression as compared to when they are loaded in

tension.

Figure 49: Cut-away section viewed from the root end showing Maximum in plane Principal stresses

Analysis of this composite HAWT model has been carried out at seed sizes of 500, 700

and 830. Following results were obtained as a result of carrying analysis at various mesh

densities.

68

4.15

4.1

4.05

500

700

830

3.95

3.9

3.85

5.10 Conclusions

The linear elastic response gives an idea about the stress, strain and deflections

distributions of the model. It is a very useful analysis in determining the critical areas of

a structure and the load bearing members of a part or an assembly.

Designing a composite layup is a not trivial task. An in-depth understanding of the forces

is required for weight saving. Some guidelines are necessary to make a long-lasting and

durable composite in addition to one that satisfies the loading conditions. These

guidelines can only be developed with experience and real world thinking. A poorly

designed composite material for the job would not be of much help in reducing the

weight of the component.

The aim of designing a composite layup is to analyze the elastic response of the blade

and to satisfy the loading conditions with the material properties in the most material

saving manner.

In case of a wind turbine blade it is important to take into account the various types of

loadings and the result of these forces. It is also important to realize the purpose of the

different components in the blade: The skin should be stiff enough to maintain the

69

aerodynamic profile; the spar caps channel the forces to the shear webs, the shear webs

provide the bending stiffness to the structure and hence are the main load bearing

component of the blade. Evidently, the shear webs are the most effected component

from the in plane shear stresses so they need to be strong in shear as well.

As far as the direction along the length of the blade is concerned the root is the most

critical area as it bears the most loading as well as it is the most sensitive area in terms

of deflections. Varying the composite thickness along the length of the blade can also act

as a weight saving tool.

For the edge-wise deflections of the blade, the leading edge is the most critical area as

it bears the most drag forces and its frontal deformation can greatly affect the shape of

the airfoil.

5.11 Recommendations

Following are the recommendations for future work:

Incorporation of turbulent flows while calculating the performance parameters for

the blade with the help from CFD analysis

Calculation of wind loads distribution along the chord of the airfoil. This will help

in determining the effects of the chord-wise bending

Wind load calculations should be done with the help of computational software

as it is less time taking and a more accurate approach.

Analytical model should be developed for the composite material.

Analysis for prevention of buckling and fatigue should be done.

On the basis of developed model a parametric model of the blade may be

prepared to

Investigate the effect of changing Spar configurations, Lamina configuration and

Airfoil shape

70

6 REFERENCES

[1] Presentation to the press London (2011), International Energy agency World Energy

outlook 2011

[2]Parker, J.G. (2011).Renewables 2011: Global Status Report, pp. 35

[3]Guhptha, R.G.(2009). Indias solar mission, how it is harnessing unlimited energy.

[4] Information retrieved from http://www.owdcc.org/

[5] United Nations Statistics Division, Millennium Development Goals indicators,

collected

by

CDIAC.

Information

retrieved

from

http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/SeriesDetail.aspx?srid=749&crid=,

[6], [7] Government and private sector role in energy crisis .Information retrieved from:

http://www.pakistanenergyconference.com/

[8]Strengthening Americas Energy Security with Offshore Wind. U.S. Department of Energy.

February 2011.

[9] Wind Vision 2025: Powering Canada's

fromhttp://www.canwea.ca/windvision_e.php

Future

(2008).Information

retrieved

[10] Latin America wind power market and strategies: 20102025 (2011). Information

Retrieved

fromhttp://www.emergingnergy.com/uploadDocs/LatinAmericaWindPowerMarketsandStrategies.pdf

[11] Massive interest shown in Brazil wind energy tender (2009). Retrieved from:

http://www.rechargenews.com/business_area/politics/article183932.ece

[12] Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the

European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Offshore

Wind Energy: Action needed to deliver on the Energy Policy Objectives for 2020 and

beyond.

Information

retrieved

from:

http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52008DC0768:EN:NOT

[13] Masdar plan for $200m pioneering wind farm. Information retrieved from:

http://www.thenational.ae/business/energy/masdar-plan-for-200m-pioneering-windfarm

71

International

Energy

Agency

(IEA).

Retrieved

from:

http://www.iea.org/papers/roadmaps/china_wind.pdf

http://www.aedb.org/wind.htm

[16] Manwell J.F. McGowan J.G. Rojers A.L.(2002). Wind Energy Explained: Theory Design

and Application

[17] Liu Wenzhi, Wu Jianxin, ZHangFuhai and Liu Changzeng (2009) 3D Modeling

Methods of Aerodynamic Shape for Large-Scale Wind Turbine Blades in 200. In

precedence of International Conference on Information Technology and Computer

Science 2009

[18] Peter Fuglsang, Stefano Bove and LM Glasfiber(2000). WindTunnel Testing Of

Airfoils Involves More Than Just Wall Corrections.

[19] NaeemMemon ( 2002). Analysis of Data of AEDB-UNDP (WEP) Wind Masts Installed

in Gharo-Keti Bandar Wind Corridor

[20] Parametric Study for Large Wind Turbine Blades Sand2002-2519 TPI Composites. Inc

[21] M. Grujicic, G. Arakere, E. Subramanian, V. Sellappan, A. Vallejo, and M. Ozen [2009].

Structural-Response Analysis, Fatigue-Life Prediction,and Material Selection for 1 MW

Horizontal-AxisWind-Turbine Blades , Journal ASM International.

[22] Hogg P. ( 2010) Manufacturing challenges for wind turbines, pp. 23

[23] J. A. Bailie,A. Pasricha, A. Pasricha ( 1997) A summary and review of composite

laminate design guidelines

[24] Peter Fuglsang, Stefano Bove and LM Glasfiber(2000). WindTunnel Testing Of

Airfoils Involves More Than Just Wall Corrections

[25] Parametric Study for Large Wind Turbine Blades Sand2002-2519 TPI Composites. Inc

[26] Ilan Juran and Uri Komornik (2006). Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP)

Composite Piles under Vertical Loads Geotechnical Engineering U.S Department of

transportation

[27] Teresa Wagner (2008). High Performance Reinforcements for the Wind Energy

Market.

72

7 Appendix

7.1 Aerodynamic calculations in Matlab code:

clear

omega=2; % Angular Velocity in rad/s

r= 0.5;

U=10; % Wind velocity

B=3; % Number of blades in wind turbine

i=1;

R=36; % Radius of Blade

N=18; % Number of Sections of Blade

lambda=(omega)*(R)/U; % Tip speed Velocity

lambda_r=(omega)*r/U % local tip speed ratio

phi=(2/3)*atand(1/lambda_r); % Angle of relative wind

C_l=1.4;

% Lift Coefficient

phi_1=phi*3.14159/180;

% Angle of relative wind in radians

c=(8*3.14159*r/(B*C_l))*(1-cos(phi_1)); % Chord length

solidity=(B*c)/(2*3.14159*r);

% solidity of wind turbine

a(i)=1/(1+((4*(sin(phi_1))^2)/(solidity*C_l*cos(phi_1)))); % axial induction factor

a_o(i)=(1-3*a(i))/((4*a(i))-1); % Angular induction factor

i=2;

j=1;

density=1.1455; % Density of air

while(j<100)

phi=atand((1-a(i-1))/((1+a_o(i-1))*lambda_r));

phi=phi*(3.14159/180);

F=(2/3.14159)*(3.14159 /180)*acosd(exp((-1.5*(1-r/36))/((r/36)*sin(phi))));

a_o(i)=1/((4*F*cos(phi)/(solidity*C_l))-1);

a(i)=1/((4*F*(sin(phi))^2/(solidity*C_l*cos(phi)))+1);

if (a(i)-a(i-1)<.01)

j=1000;

end

i=i+1;

j=j+1;

end

U_relative=(U*(1-a(i-1))/(sin(phi))) % Relative wind magnitude

c=(8*3.14159*r/(B*C_l))*(1-cos(phi))

73

a_o(i-1) %angular induction factor

Phi =phi*(180/3.14159) % Relative velocity angle

F %tip loss factor

Cp=(8/(lambda*N))*(F*(sin(phi))^2*(cos(phi)lambda_r*sin(phi))*(sin(phi)+lambda_r*cos(phi))*(lambda_r)^2)

C_t= (solidity*(1-a(i-1))^2*(C_l*cos(phi)))/(sin(phi))^2

Coefficient

F_N=(B/2)*density*(U_relative)^2*C_l*cos(phi)*c*3

Normal Force

74

%power coefficient

%Thrust

%

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