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The Azar Grammar Series TEST BANK for B FUNDAMENTALS ot ENGLISH GRAMMAR Second Edition M. Lynn Morgan Mark Wade Lieu Test Coordinator Contents INTRODUCTION 2.8. fii bee ce ned ieee eee eee neene CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 PRESENT TIME . Quiz 1 Simple present . Quiz. 2 Present progressive ..... “ Quiz3 Simple present vs. present progressive . Chapter Vest ........ PASTTIME ...... ara RR Quiz 1 Simple past Quiz 2 Past progressive Quiz3 Simple past vs. past progressive . Quiz 4 Time clauses Quiz5 Usedio . Chapter 2 Test FUTURE TIME........ Quiz 1 Wills. be going to .. Quiz2 Time clauses and #f-clauses . Quiz3_ Present progressive and simple present to express Amarone Quiz 4 Intend, plan, hope, be about to Chapter 3 Test NOUNS AND PRONOUNS . . Quiz 1 Identifying subjects, verbs, objects, objects of prepositions . Quiz 2 Using adjectives to describe nouns; using nouns as adjectives Quiz 3 Pronouns: subject, object, possessive, reflexive ... Quiz 4 Showing possession with pronouns . . Quiz5 Forms of other; capitalization ofnouns Chapter 4 Test 0... cece eee CHAPTER 5 MODAL AUXILIARIES . Quiz 1 Ability, possibility, permission: can, could, may, might 00.0... 060ce0e Quiz 2 Permissions and requests: may, could, will, would, can Asking for assistance: would you, could you, till you, can you . Quiz 3 Advice: should, ought to, had better... 0... ..e ees Quiz 4 Necessity: have 10, have got to, must Lack of necessity and prohibition: do nor have to, must not Quiz 5 Logical conclusions: must; imperative sentences Quiz 6 Suggestions: /er’s and why don’t ........ Quiz 7 Preferences: would rather, prefer, like. . .better : — CHSDIR EH cntssininirenrarieenimmonaiimmumnmice cise ignore CHAPTER 6 ASKING QUESTIONS .............055 Sco Quiz 1 Yes/no vs. information questions .. . Quiz 2 Who, whom, what questions . Quiz 3 General activity questions: what do . Quiz 4 What kind of, which, whore, who's. Quiz 5 Hot about and what about... Quiz 6 Tag questions . Chapter 6 Test CHAPTER 7 THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THE PAST PERFECT .......... Lae Rae ENE Quiz 1 Present perfect vs. simple past... 00.60.0005 sf Quiz 2 The present perfect and the simple past with since and for . Quiz 3 Present perfect progressive vs. present perfect ...... Quiz 4 Midsentence adverbs Quiz 5 Past perfect........ Chapter 7 Test CHAPTER 8 COUNT/NONCOUNT NOUNS AND ARTICLES ........... seater Quiz 1 Counv/aoncount nouns 255s Quiz 2 Nouns that can be count or noncount; units of measure Quiz 3 Article usage 5 3 Quiz 4 Pronouns: expressions of quantity ond nonspecitc objects . Chapter 8 Test . MIDTERM EXAM. iv m@ Contents 59 + 59 -. 60 oe OF +. 63 - 64 67 SF - 69 70 ead 92 275 CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER 12 CONNECTING IDEAS. Quiz 1 Conjunctions ss Quiz 2 And + 100, so, either, neither . Quiz 3 Because, so JSST ERIETEET ‘Chapter9 Test: axeqss ie ane eerie GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES ...... 00-20 s eee e cette eee e eee ee 87 Quiz 1 Verb + gerund, go + gerund .. Quiz2 Verb + infinitive, verb + gerund/infinitive, uncompleted infinitives Quiz3 Preposition + gerund . Quiz 4 By/with + how somethingis done << Quiz5 Gerund subjects and it + infinitive (for amido) Quiz 6 In order 10, too/enough with infinitives . ‘Chapter 10 Test PASSIVE SENTENCES . Quiz 1 Tense forms of passive verbs Quiz2 Transitive and intransitive verbs Quiz3_Use of the by-phrase Quiz4 Passive forms of progressive; passive modal auxiliaries . 102 Quiz5 Stative passive ee 103 Quiz 6 -ed vs. -ing participial adjectives . 104 Quiz7 Get, get used 10, be used to, be supposed t0 . 105 Chopter 11 Test - 107 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Quiz 1 Who and whom (subject and object) Quiz 2 Who, whom, and that Quiz3 Which and that ...... Quiz 4 Subject-verb agreement... Quiz 5 Prepositions in adjective clauses... Quiz6 Whose Chopter 12Test Contents mv CHAPTER 13 COMPARISONS .......2.. 5.55 Bere renee RR RLRTOOS 120 QUE AF AF, caren enn tis 120 Quiz2 Using comparatives . 122 Quiz3 More+ nouns ... 123 Quiz4 Repeating a comparative, double comparatives ... 124 Quiz 5 Superlatives... 126 Quiz6 The same, similar, diferent, like, alike 127 Chapter 13Test ..... 128 CHAPTER 14 NOUN CLAUSES 0.0.6.0. .0s esse ses eeee eee te enti neee ner neeee 132 Quiz 1 Noun clauses .... 132 Quiz 2 Ifiewhether noun clauses 133 Quiz 3 Thar noun clauses . . oe 134 Quiz 4 Thar-clauses after adjectives and nouns . .. 135 Chapter 14 Test eres SST Ca I aaron. TBO) CHAPTER 15 QUOTED SPEECH AND REPORTED SPEECH .......0 2000000000000 sony 1989 Quiz 1 Quoted speech vs. reported speech . . Quiz 2 Verb tense in reported speech Quiz 3 Say vs. tll Quiz 4 Reported questions . Quiz 5 Verbs + infintives to report speech . Quiz 6 Advise, suggest, recommend Chopter 15 Test CHAPTER 16 USING WISH; USING IF .......2- 000005 Quiz 1 Wishes about the presenvfuture . Quiz 2 Wishes about the past Quiz 3 Using if; true vs. contrary-to-fact in presenvifurure «. Quiz 4 Using if; contrary-to-fact in the past Ce ee 8 ANAL EXAM Ss cocsanssomasnanescree 185 ANSWER KEY... 0. 0s cscs eee 161 vi m@ Contents ‘@ Quiz1: Simple present. A L Make complete sentences with the given cues. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT. (Steve and Denise, play, sometimes) stev Denk “ . (L, understand, not) ‘t yrammar I (Joe; go, seldom) (Sandy and Marie, watch, not) (Anna, do, always) (Sam, need, not) (Mike, take, every day) ‘Make questions with the given cues. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT. . (Alice, teach, Russian) ——Does Alice teach Russian? (Carol and Ellen, walk, sometimes, to school) (you, like, Italian food) Presentime m 7 Name 4. Class Date lim, know, the student from Italy) 5. (Kay and Donna, be, sisters) 6. (the students, study, usually, at home) ™ Quiz2: Present progressive. A £. Find the errors and rewrite each sentence correctly. Is watching Susan a good movie on TV now? I nw vi right now? Ron and Tony no eat lunch now, 10 “t eating | Is Lisa and Ellen talking about a new movie at this moment? - Mark don’t study for the test now, . Do Tim play a computer game right now? . The dog barks for his food right now. - Does she take a shower at this moment? 2 CHAPTER I—Azar FEG, 2 ed. Class Date B, Complete the sentences, using the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. Supply short answers to the questions as necessary. 1. Mom: Jen: Mom: Jen: Mom: Jen: Tim: (he, be) hungry? No, « (he, eat, not) (he, jump) on me. (he, want) to play! Goour sister, wash) her car now? No, + (Ghe,clean) the inside of the car. Gouy help) No, TE (drink) asoda pop, and (J, lisien) to the radio. Gour sister, need) Okay. Okay. your help! PresentTime m@ 3 Name Class Date ™@ Quiz 3: Simple present vs. present progressive. A. . Ar Kathy (work) Complete the dialogues, using the words in parentheses and the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. Give short answers to the questions as necessary. A: Why (Mark and Sue, carry) _are Mark and Sue carrying their suitcases? Br Because (hey; leave) for the airport now. At (they, need) a ride? (Paula, take) Sree gee A: What (Greg, do) right now? B: (he, wash) ____ the windows. At (he,twam) _____ some help? B: I (think, not) so. He is almost finished. A: (Gina, be) —_______ ar school today? B: No, + (she, be) at home. A: (he, be) sick? B: Yes, (he, have) a bad cold. A: Why (Bob, shake) his head? B: Because he (understand, not) the homework assignment. at the new bank in the mall now, Bz Ghe,like) —____ her job? A: Yes, + (he, love) it! 4M CHAPTER 1—Arar FEG 2 edt, Class Date B. Match the columns. The first item is done for you. ‘Column A Column B _H_ 1, AmI old enough to drive? A. No, they aren’t. 2. Is it cloudy today? B. Yes, she is. 3. Do the teachers speak Chinese? C. Yes, she does. _—— 4. Are you living in San Francisco now? —-D.__Yes, it does. 5. Does she exercise every day? E. No, you don’t. — 6. Ishe learning how to play golf? F Yes,Iam. 7. Are your neighbors friendly? G. Yes,he is. —— 8. Is she feeling better now? H. No, you aren’t. —— 9. DoI need a jacket? I. No, they don’t. 10. Does he speak Japanese? J. Yes,I do. 11. Do you have a sister? K. Yes, he does. ths No, it isn’t. PresentTime m 5 Name Class Date m CHAPTER 1 Test A. Complete the sentences, using the words in parentheses. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT ot the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. Bob (be) __is __ at a restaurant at this moment, He (sit) T Zz ata table with his family. His son, Kirk, (talk) to his dad. Kirk 3 (wan) to drive the family car to the beach, but Bob (want, not) Kirk to drive the car to the beach. Kirk (learn) how to drive, and Bob thinks Kirk (need) more practice. Kirie (look) disappointed Bob's wife (talk) ____________to their daughter, Molly, about school now. 9 Molly (be) ___a good student. She (study) every day. At 70 7 the moment Molly (take) _______ extra classes because she (want) 7 to graduate early. Her mother and father (be) very iF Tf proud of her. Now Bob and his family (plan) their summer family vacation. 7S At the moment, Molly and Kirk (listen) to their parents discuss 7 possible vacation dates. Now Bob (ask) his family where they 7 want to go for their vacation. Molly and Kirk (ean) ________ to take a trip to @ Hawaii, but Bob and his wife (prefer) to go to Alaska, Finally, ro they (decide) ________ to go toYellowstone National Park. Everyone (be) excited about their vacation. 2 6 Mm CHAPTER 1—Azar FEG, 2 ec, Name Class Date Complete the questions and give short answers to each. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. (ou, remember) _Do you remember _ our high school math teacher, Mr. Lin? B: Yes, | A: (Kim and Tom, need) new clothes for their trip to Hawaii? B: No, A: (Mary and Lucy, exercise) at the health club right now? No, ___. (they, drink) carrot juice at the juice bar. A: (jour som, believe) ___________ in Santa Claus? B: Yes, Ai (Nancy, make) _____________ curtains for her kitchen now? B: Yes,____ (she, work) on the curtains every night. Find the errors and rewrite each sentence correctly. . He no like hot weather. He doesn't like hot weather, John is needing a book for English class. |. She doesn’t wears a suit to work. . [not learn English now. . The students are drinking coffee at break time every day. Louise and Matt do not do the dishes at this moment. PresentTime m 7 Name Class Date D. Match the columns. The first item is done for you. Column A Column B 1. Is it warm and sunny today? A. Noyhe isn’t. 2. Do your friends smoke cigars? B. Yes, she is. 3. Do you know how to type on a computer? C. No, it isn’t. 4. Are you working the late shift today? D. No, it doesn’t. 5. Am1 the first person in line? E. No, you don’t. 6. Are Pat and Bill watching a horror movie? No, they aren't. 7. Is she riding her bicycle? G. No, he doesn't. 8. Is he reading the newspaper article about H. No, they don’t. the earthquake in Japan? 1. Yes,lam. 9. Does your car use a lot of gas? J. Yes, Ido. 10. Does he come to English class every day? K. Yes, she does. —— 11. Does she work at the bank? L. Yes, you are. E, Write complete sentences, using the given cues. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. 1. (Kate, play, every Saturday) ‘ate plays tennis with her friend every Saturday. 2. (Nick and Fred, do, right now) 3. (Carlos, take, never) 4. (John, make, now) 5. (Lisa and Liz, go, usually) 6. (Tim, forget, sometimes) 8 =m CHAPTER |—Azar FEG, 2 ed. Name @ Quiz 1: Class Date CHAPTER 2 Past Time Simple post. ‘A. Complete the sentences, using the words in parentheses. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the SIMPLE PAST. ‘Ted and Amy (live) live and (cork) ——_ in Los Angeles. 7 Once a year, they (take) ________ a trip to their favorite city, San Francisco, = Last Saturday Ted and Amy (arrive) —__ ___ in San Francisco at 9:00 in the morning. Ted and Amy always (begin) _______ their visit with a walk across the Golden Gate Bridge. It usually (tae) ___________ an hour to wall across the bridge, but it (take) ________ an hour and a half this time because the wind (be) ___ very strong. a bus After they (finish) __finished _ their walk, they (catch) 7 9 7 to Chinatown. When they (get) ________ to Chinatown, they (b4) @ very hungry. Ted (find) ______ small Chinese restaurant. They (go) in and (order) won ton soup and egg rolls. After 7 lunch, Ted and Amy (look) at beautiful jade and ivory jewelry in some of the shops, but they (bu 10!) anything. 7 Later, they (take) tok __a bus to Fisherman’s Wharf. When Ted and Amy (ger) off the bus, they (walk) ______ along the bay. They looked for boats on the bay, but they (see, nor) _____ any boats. ‘Ted and Amy (end) ___ their wonderful day in San Francisco with a vist to @ chocolate factory at Ghiradelli Square. Ted and Amy (be) ____ always sad to leave their favorite city! PastTime 9 Name Class Date B. Use the words in parentheses to make yes/no questions about ‘Ted and Amy. Also give short answers to the questions. Use the SIMPLE PasT. 1. (Ted and Amy, go, to New York) Did Ted and Amy go to New Yor No, they didn’t. 2. (Ted and Amy, eat, Mexican food) No, 3. (Ted and Amy, catch, a bus, to Chinatown) Yes 4. (Ted, find, a Japanese restaurant) No, 5. (Ted and Amy, see, boats) No, 6. (Ted and Amy, visit, a chocolate factory) Yes 10 m CHAPTER 2—Azor FES, 2 ed. Nome Class Date @ Quiz 2: Past progressive. A 6. aye ep Answer the questions with complete sentences. Use a different verb in the PAsT PROGRESSIVE for each sentence. What were you doing at 6:00 yesterday morning? ‘What were you and your friends doing at 4:00 yesterday afternoon? What were you doing at 10:30 last night? What were you doing last Saturday night at midnight? 5. What was your friend doing at this time yesterday? ‘What were your neighbors doing last weekend? Write the ~ing forms of these verbs. get getting 7. tie win 8. hide worry —___________ 9. drop hope 10. give Jeave run begin = Posttime mT Name m Quiz3: Class Date Simple past vs. past progressive, A. Complete the sentences with the SIMPLE PAST or PAST PROGRESSIVE of the verbs in parentheses. Last Friday night, Jim and Janet (go) ___went to a concert in the park. They 1 ind) a place to sit near the stage. Many of Jim and Janet’s friends were sitting nearby. Jim and Janet (be) __ happy to see their friends. They waved 7 and (talk) to some of them. 7 When the concert started, Janet was standing and (talk) ‘ to one of her friends. She quickly ended the conversation and (sit) 3 down, Jim () = hungry, so he (eat) * all the picnic dinner they had brought with them; Janet drank a soda pop, but she (eat, nor) anything, While Jim (eat) , Janet was people watching. She (look) 70 at all of the people in the audience. Some people (relax) and (listen) ____ to the concert. Other T B people (sing) and (rock) to the a B music. After a few minutes, Janet (get) tired of looking at the other %6 people. She (sit) back in her chair, (relax) sand 7 (enjoy) the music. She (be) happy to be at the concert 3B 20 with Jim. She (have) a good time. a 12 m@ CHAPTER 2—Azar FEG, 2 ed. Name Class Date Give short answers to the questions about the story. Use the SIMPLE PAST or the PAST PROGRESSIVE. 1, Did Jim and Janet go to a concert at the park? Yes,_they did, 2. Did Jim and Janet find a place to sit near the bathroom? Ne 3. Was Janet talking to one of her friends when the concert started? Yes 4. Did Jim eat dinner at the concert? Yes, 5. Was Janet looking at the stars in the sky? No, 6. Did Janet relax and enjoy the concert? Yes ‘Write the -ing and -ed forms of these verbs. ing -ed 1. hurry ___hurrying _ _hurried _ 2. stop 3. refer 4, study 5. move 6. plan Pastime m@ 13 Name ™ Quiz 4: Time clauses. A. Marta was wearing her red dress when she (meet) ___met her boyfriend for Class Date Complete the sentences. Use the SIMPLE PAST or the PAST PROGRESSIVE. lunch yesterday. After Bill got home, he (make) When the doorbell rang, I (take) While Jane was fixing lunch for her children, she (talk) ‘As soon as she heard the bad news, she (call) Karen listened to music after she (finish) Combine the two sentences into one sentence. Make a time clause using the given word or words, after Marie excused herself from the table. Marie finished her dinner. After Marie finished her dinner, she excused herself from the table. oR Marie excused herself from the table after she finished her dinner. sahen Elizabeth saw her new baby son for the first time. Elizabeth cried tears of joy. . hile The children started a fire. ‘The children were playing with matches. after ‘The students took the test. ‘The students relaxed. as soon as Lisa screamed. Lisa saw the burglar in her living room. before Jack took a shower. Jack went to work. 14M CHAPIER 2—Azar FEG, 2 ed. Nome Class — Date ® Quiz5: Used to. A. Make sentences with a similar meaning by using used to. 1, When Martha was in college, she made her own clothes. Now she buys all of her clothes. What did Martha use to do? Martha used to make her own clothes, 2. Jenny and Kelly rode their tricycles in the neighborhood when they were little girls. Now they ride their bicycles. What did Jenny and Kelly use to do? 3. After Roberto graduated from college, he got contact lenses. In the past, he always wore glasses. What did Roberto use to wear? 4. Mike is a computer programmer now, but for many years he was a bus driver. What did Mike use to be? 5. Rosie and Rita worked at the telephone company for twenty-five years. Now they are retired. Where did Rosie and Rita use to work? 6. Before Paul got married, he ate cereal for breakfast. Now he eats eggs and toast. ‘What did Paul use to eat for breakfast? B. Complete the sentences with a form of used to and a verb. Some of the sentences are negatives, and some of them are questions. 1, A: () _____Lused to smoke _cigareites, but I never smoked cigars. B: Why (you) A: Because (I) cigarettes? about the health risks of smoking. 2. A: What kind of music (you) J _______ when you lived in your country? B: @ rock ’n roll music when I lived in my country. 3D sharks and jellyfish, but now I am no longer afraid of them. in the ocean because I was afraid of PostTime m 15 Name Class Date m CHAPTER 2 TEST A. Complete the sentences, using the words in parentheses. Use the SIMPLE PAST or the PAST PROGRESSIVE. Last night Carol (have)_was having . dinner with her co-worker, Brad, when her boyfriend, Rick, (come) _came into the restaurant, Carol (nish) her dessert when she (see)____ Rick. Suddenly her fork (ial) _ out of her hand and onto her plate. Rick (hear) . the fork fall. He (turn) quickly and (6ee) ___ Carol. He (be) > surprised z to see her at the restaurant with another man! Fora moment he (do, not) anything. Then he (start) to walk to Carol’s table. While Rick (walk) Ti 77 te her table, Carol fee!) _____ her heart pounding. She 7B (6) very nervous. When Rick got to her table, Carol (wear) 7 her coat and (Hold) —____-_her purse. Brad (look) ___-_ at Rick and then at Carol. Then Rick (extend) _____ his hand to Brad. While Brad and Rick (shake) = hands, Carol (walk) ______-_ out ofthe restaurant. Brad and Rick (call) _____-_her name, but she (Hear, not) them. ‘Complete the conversation about the story; using the words in parentheses. Give short answers to the questions when appropriate. Use the SIMPLE PAST. Linda: (you, go) —____Did you go ___ out to dinner with Brad last night? Carol: Yes, —_____Idid __ Linda: (ou, have) a good time? Carol: No, Linda: What happened? Carol: (Rick, come) into the restaurant and (see) us together! Linda: Oh, no! (he, be) angry? 16m CHAPIER 2—Azar FEG, 2 ed, Name Class Date Carol: (J, stay, no) to find out. Linda: Where did you go? Carol: (I, go) home. Linda: (Rick, call) __________ you later? Carol: No, ———_________. (I, want, not) to talk to him last night anyway! €. Combine the two sentences into one sentence. Make a time clause using the given word or words. 1. after Ken washed the dishes. Ken made cookies. 3 i ‘ we ishe rr he m« okie 2. when Jennifer was dreaming about a faraway place. ‘The alarm clock rang. 3. while Jerry burned his finger on the hot engine. Jerry was changing the oil in his car. 4. before ‘Tanya lived in England, Tanya moved to India. 5. as soon as The mother gave the baby her bottle. ‘The baby stopped crying. 6. before Mary went to bed. Mary closed the windows in the house. Pastime m 17 Name _ Class Dete D. Complete the sentences with a form of used fo and a verb. Some of the sentences are negatives, and some of them are questions. 1. A: What kind of car (you) __did you use to have _ when you lived in your country? B: () ___lused to have __ an American car. 2. A: What (ou) when you were eight years old thet you don’t do now? B: cookies with my mother and sister. 3. A: Where (you) English? B: ata school in NewYork. 4 Gou) the bus to school when you were younger? B: No. (my neighbor) me to school. 5. @D Mexican food, but now it is my favorite kind of food. 6. (my friend) to take airplane trips because she was afraid to fly. 7. A: (the children) in the river in the summer? B: No, (they) in the lake. ‘Match the columns, The first item is done for you: Column A Column B . Was Sue making macaroni salad this afternoon? A._Yes, they were Were you working at home Saturday night? B. No,he didn’t. Was the post office open yesterday? C. No, we weren't. Did you pick up your shirts at the dry cleaners? D. Yes, you were. Did Mrs Porter tell her students about the test? E, No, I didn't. ‘Were you and Bill studying late last night? F._ Yes, he was. Did the weather change yesterday? G. No, she didn’t. Was your neighbor yelling at his kids yesterday? H. No, I wasn’. Did Sue and Anna get @ raise last month? 1. Yes, they did. |. Were the cars parked illegally? J. Yes, she was. . Did Mark take the English test yesterday? K. No, it wasn’t. L. No, it didn’t. 18 m CHAPTER 2—Azar FEG, 2 ed. Name @ Quiz 1: Class Date CHAPTER 3 Future Time Will vs. be going to. A. ie Complete the dialogues with be going to or will. A: Ineed someone to help move the sofa. Could you help? Br Sure, ll help. A: Why did you get your car serviced today? B: My wife and J —___________________ drive to Canada tomorrow. A: Dowe need anything at the store? B: Yes, We need something for dinner tonight. A: Okay, | ______get.a frozen pizza at the store. B: Thanks. A: Do you and Mike have wedding plans? B: Yes, We get married this summer. A: What time do you want to meet for lunch today? B: How about 1:00? A: Okay, I ________ meet you at Tony's Restaurant at 1:00. B: Great. I see you then. Use the words in parentheses to make an appropriate question for the given answer. ‘Use will or a form of be going to. (Dad, need, the car, tomorrow) ill the car tomorrow? No, he won't. (Mary, be, home, tonight) es No, she won't. (it, rain, tonight) ‘Yes, itis. Fulurelime m 19 Name Class Date 4, (you, study, tonight) Yes, Iam. 5. (you, wash, the car, after school) Yes, I will. 6. (they, move, to Canada, next month) No, they aren't. C. Complete the sentences, using a pronoun + williwon’t. Use probably. 1, I celebrated my birthday with my family this year, and __ I'll probably celebrate it with them next year too. 2. Susan didn’t exer today, and tomorrow either. 3. Chris and Andy didn’t watch the news last night, and —_______ it tonight either. 4, Stan had cereal for breakfast this morning, and cereal tomorrow morning too. 5. Mary didn’t play golf this week, and golf next week either. 6. John called his girlfriend last night, and her tonight too. ™@ Quiz 2: Time clauses and ifclauses. A. Combine the two sentences into one sentence. Include a time clause introduced by the given word or words. Punctuate carefully. 1. when He’s going to go to his English class tomorrow. He'll ask the teacher for the homework assignment. li “iLask the rr for homework assignment. He'll the homework assignment when he goes to his English class tomorrow. 2. before ‘The boys are going to wash the windows. ‘They'll relax. 20 m CHAPTER 3—Azar FEG, 2 ed. Name Class Date . when ‘We'll pick up your suit. ‘We're going to go to the shopping mall tonight. after Till watch a video. T’'m going to do the dishes. |. assoonas She is going to change her last name. She will get married. . before He is going to go jogging. He will take a shower. . Use the given verbs to complete the sentences. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT and will/won’t as appropriate « If George and Nancy (come) come home early, they (work) will work __ in the garden. . Ron (be) ______ a millionaire if he (ein) __________ the lottery. . If James (call) _____________, I (take) _______a message for you. |. Liz (meet, not) ______ her friends for breakfast tomorrow if her husband (have) __________ the day off from work. . If the weather (be, nor) _________ cold and foggy, we (go) to the beach this afternoon. . IF Mike (see) ___ Tina at school, he (ineite) her to his party. Futureime m@ 27 Name Class Date ™ Quiz 3: Present progressive and simple present to express future time. A. Complete the dialogues with the correct form of the given verbs. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE to express future time. 1. (get) —-As_ I ‘m getting tickets this afternoon for the Rolling Stones concert next month. (buy) Great. Where are you buying the tickets? A: At Concert Hall. Do you want me to get you a ticket? B: Sure. Thanks. 2. (go) A: Jack and I ____________ to the movies tonight, but we won't be home late. B: How long is the movie? (tart) At About two hours. It _____ at 7:00 and (end) eS aU (go) B: Are you ________ ou for coffee after the movie? (come) Ai No. I___ home after the movie, and I (eo) —__ toed early. I’m tired. 3. (leave) A: My plane ___ for Tokyo at 7:00 p.M. tonight, (arrive) B: What time ___ you ______ in Tokyo tomorrow? (arrive) A: Tat 3:00 tomorrow afternoon. B: Are you going to Tokyo for business or pleasure? (give) A: Both. The first week I _________________ a presentation ata (meet) business seminar. Then my wife ________________ me, and (spend) we _____ the next two weeks visiting friends and sightseeing. 4. (finish) I RE a ne HS (end) B: The school year —____ next month. (do) A: What you ___ this summer? I my aunt and uncle in Singapore. A: How nice! 5. A: Do you know what hours the shopping mall is open tomorrow? (open) Bi Yes, Ie ___ at 10:00 in the morning and (close) 0 9:00 at night. 22 M@ CHAPIER 3—Azar FEG, 260, Name 6. A. i Class Date (take) A: What you _ to Mike and ‘Linda’s dinner party this weekend? (make) Bz My husband take. ‘That sounds delicious! I B: That sounds good too! a chicken pasta salad for us to (bake) an apple pie. § Quiz 4: Intend, plan, hope, be about fo. What are these people or animals probably about to do? The two cats are hissing and snarling angrily at each other. They_are about to fight. Anita is in the kitchen, and she is putting on her rubber gloves. She is looking at a pile of dirty dishes. Carol is wearing her bathing suit. She is carrying a large towel and walking to the swimming pool. Jerry is sitting on the sofa, and he is wearing his reading glasses. He is opening the newspaper. Tony misses his family in Spain. He is sitting at his desk with a pen in his hand. He is taking out a piece of paper and an envelope. What are YOU about to do? FutureTime m 23 Name Class Date B. Make sentences using intend, plan, and hope to express present ideas about future activities. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. 1. (Mary, hope, visit) ——Mary hopes to visit her mother next week, 2. (Ron, intend, sell) 3. (L, plan, start) 4, (We, hope, paint) 5. (Ann and ‘Tom, plan, take) 6. (Tom, intend, finish) 24m CHAPTER 3—Azar FEG, 2 ed. Name Class Date ma CHAPTER 3 TEST ‘A. Complete the sentences with be going to or will. 1. ‘What are your plans for next year? B: I ‘/mgoing to study English in the United States. 2. A: Could you answer the phone? My hands are dirty. B: Ofcourse. |____ answer it for you. A: Thanks. 3. At Why did you take your new suit to the cleaners? B: Itneeds to be ironed. | ____ wear it to Mike's graduation next Saturday. 4. A: What are your plans for tomorrow? T____ go to Washington, D.C. Could you give me a ride to the airport? Sure, I________________ give you a ride. What time should I pick you up? How about 10:00 tomorrow morning? A: That would be fine. | ___ be at your house a little before 10:00 tomorrow. B: Great, [____ see you tomorrow. 5. A: Why do you need the checkbook? B: 1____ pay bills. Thear the baby crying. Could you go in her bedroom and get her? Of course. I ___ get her, and I give her a bottle too. ‘That will make her happy. ‘Why did you bring your suitcase to work today? B: [_____ stay at my friend’s house tonight. B. Complete the sentences, using a pronoun and will/won't. Use probably. 1. Ana drove to school today, and _she'll probably drive _ to school tomorrow too. 2. Jack didn’t study today, and —______cc____________ tomorrow either. 3. Bob went to his girlfriend's house Saturday night, and there tonight too. Futuretime ml 25 Name |. A: Martha’s parents (be, not) Class Date ‘The dogs barked all day, and all night too. I didn’t start my low fat diet today, and it tomorrow either. We didn’t paint our kitchen this weekend, and itnext weekend cither. Complete the dialogues with the words in parentheses, Use the SIMPLE PRESENT and ‘will/won’t. . A: Weneed to talk about our weekend plans before Friday. B: Yes, we do. If (I, have) _[have_ time, (1, call) I'll call_ you tonight. A: Okay. I know you're busy. happy when (they, meet) her new boyfriend next Saturday. B: Why not? A: He has long dirty hair and wears a nose ring. B: Ob, no! As soomas (er parents, see) __ him, (they, tell) Martha to stop going out with him. A: [know But (Martha, listen, not) to her him. She has.a mind of her own. parents if (she, like) A: After (1, get) home from work tonight, (1, make) the cookies for the school party. B: Oh, good. (1, put) all of the ingredients out before Grew, get) home. Combine the two sentences into one sentence. Use the given word or words to introduce a time clause. Punctuate carefully. after He's going to read the newspaper. He's going to play computer games. After he reads the newspaper, he’s going to play computer games. oR _ He's going to omputer gam rh he ni 26m CHAPTER 3—Azar FEG, 2ed. Class Date 2. when She’s going to get a pay raise. She's going to buy a gold necklace. 3. after ‘They're going to study French. ‘They'll visit France. assoonas She's going to stop smoking. She’s going to feel better. 5. before Til make a grocery list. I'll go to the store. 6. when He’s going to call his girlfriend. He's going to finish his science project. E. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the PRESENT PROGRESSIVE of the verb to express future time. ‘Tim had a mechanic service his car today because (he, drive) ___he’s driving _ to t Las Vegas tomorrow. His sister (get) ________ married there in a few days. ‘Tim (drive) his car because he (take) ______a 7 3 large wedding gift for his sister and her new husband. ‘Tim’s childhood friend Gina (come) + for the wedding also. She a) to Las Vegas tomorrow night, and Tim (imeer) her at the airport. Her plane (arrive) —_____ at 5 7:00 P.M. Gina and Tim (go) ______ to Las Vegas a few days before the wedding because they (help) _______ T's sister with the wedding preparations. The wedding (start) ____ at 3:00 ram on Saturday. ‘Then the reception (begin) —___-_ at 5:00 rat. ‘Tim, Gina, and Tim's sister have many things to do before Saturday. Futuretime m@ 27 Name Class Date CHAPTER 4 Nouns and Pronouns ™ Quiz 1: Identifying subjects, verbs, objects, objects of prepositions. A. Write the plural forms of the nouns. 1. one butterfly, many butterflies 7. a bird, many — 2. a dish, alot of 8. one foot, two 3. one knife, two Bas atee aes 9, acat, several 4. one child, two 10. one baby, two 5. one fish, a lot of fish 11. one class, many 6. aman, a few B. Identify the subjects (8), verbs (v), objects (0), prepositions (P), and objects of prepositions (oP). s vy oP P 1, Linda saw @ woman in the car with her mother. 2 Eddie and Bobble sineed ar che park with Socbiwn laeaoe eve bois 3. The phone rang in the bedroom at 5:00 A.M. on Wednesday. 4. Michelle and Dennis moved the sofa across the room between the piano and the table. 5. Margaret made sandwiches for the luncheon at the club on Thursday. 6. Jackie and Anna watched a movie about sealife at the library. 7. Carol never makes her bed before school in the morning. 8. The students smelled smoke in the hallway during English class. 9. Ben put his desk under the window near the door. 10. Nancy went to the grocery store by her house. 11. The student from Russia with the blond hair always helps her friends with their homework. 28 mM CHAPIER 4—Azal FEG, Zed. Name Class Date ™ Quiz 2: Using adjectives to describe nouns; using nouns as adjectives. A. Underline the adjectives in the sentences. 1. Many beautiful roses are blooming in our flower garden. 2. The short woman in the dark suit is a weather forecaster. 3. A mountain climber is an adventurous person. 4. The shoe store in the tall brick building will open soon. 5. The travel agent made our reservation at a small hotel on the beach. 6. Will you please put your name and phone number in my new address book? B. Correct the mistakes in the nouns. Do not change any other words. friend Let me tell you about my best friends, Richard. He is a wonderful human beings. He has black hair, brown eye, and a lot of freckles. Richard is an intelligent boys with a great sense of humor, He loves to tell funny joke. When I'm with Richard, [ laugh a lot. Unfortunately, Richard goes to a private schools, about 800 mile from me, so I don't see him very often. Richard comes from a large family of seven peoples, two dog and three rabbit. He is one of five childrens. He has one sister and three brother. When Richard’s parent go out, he often takes care of his two little brother. They always want Richard to tell funny story and play card game. Baseballs is Richard's favorite sports. When Richard visits me, we always go to a baseball games, and he always wears his baseball cap. He likes to sit close to the field so he can see the face of the baseball player. Richard and I always have a great time together. I miss him. C. Underline the adjective in each sentence. Then, write an adjective that has the opposite meaning. 1. My sister drives a big car. | ‘The Smith family lives in a quiet neighborhood, ‘The park is a safe place for children to play. | Olga works for a large company in South America. Rob and Gina took a long vacation in August. a4 ep ‘The teacher gives easy quizzes. Nouns andPronouns m@ 29 Name @ Quiz 3: Class Date Pronouns: subject, object, possessive, reflexive. A. Complete the sentences. Add a subject, object, or reflexive pronoun or possessive adjective. ‘Two weeks ago, Mary invited Tom to the Backwards Dance (girls ask boys). Tom was very happy because Mary asked __him _ to go with _____. When a git invites a 7 boy to the Backwards Dance, ____ pays for the dance tickets and dinner and provides the transportation, _____ also buys matching shirts for __ date and 7 herself to wear to the dance. ‘The dance is on Saturday night. Mary is getting a little nervous because can’t find two shirts the same color, and she needs ____ by Saturday. On Saturday 7 night Mary is planning to drive ___ father’s new car. ______ plans to be extra careful with _____ because ______ isnew. Mary will pick up Tom at 6:30 on 7 B Saturday night. Mary knows Tom’s mother, but ____ doesn’t know his father. Mary hopes to meet ______0n Saturday night. After Mary picks up"Tom, __,__ are going to 7 Mary's house because ____ parents want ro take pictures of __-__. Then Tom and Mary are going to meet friends at a restaurant for dinner. After ____ eat dinner, they'll go to the dance, Mary and Tom will probably drive tw the dance by 8 because _____ friends will have ____~___ own cars. They all plan to enjoy i at the dance. 2 B. Complete the sentences with reflexive pronouns. 1. John doesn’t have a boss. He works for himself 2. Marie is only three years old, but she can dress 3. Joe and Karen are not taking the kids to Hawaii with them next month. They are going by 4, My girlfriends and I enjoyed ___ at the Comedy Club last night. 5. Anna, please introduce ________________ to our new student from Thailand. 6. Iblame _____ for the car accident. 30m CHAPTER 4—Azar FEG, 2 ed. “Name Class Date C. Circle the correct words. Maria and (@)me) are taking a cruise to the Panama Canal. (We, Our) husbands aren’t going with (we, us) because we didn’t invite (they, them). Between you and (I, me), I think Maria needs a vacation without her husband. (She, Her) husband always wants to go everywhere with (she, her). ‘Maria loves (he, him), but she needs some time away from (he, him). Our husbands will miss (we, us), and we'll miss (they, them) too. Be i eB I 8 Qui 4: Showing possession with pronouns. A. Circle the correct words. 1, Roger and JoAnn are (((ns3) mine) roommates. 2. You have (yours, your) friends, and Ihave (my, mine). 3. (Our, Ours) apartment has three bedrooms, but (‘heirs, their) has two. 4. This book is (your, yours). (Her, Hers) is in (her, hers) backpack. 5, Joseph finished (his, your) grammar exercise, but the other students are still working on (his, theirs). 6. (Him, His) car is parked next to (our, ours). (Our, Ours) car is a Honda, and (him, his) is a Toyota. 7. Pat and I spend a lot of time together. She is a good friend of (my, mine). 8. Our neighbors want to move to Seattle. (Their, Theirs) house is for sale. B. Complete the sentences with the correct possessive form of the given nouns. 1. sisters My —_sisters’ husbands are all friendly people 2. men Bob sells _____ shoes at the shopping mall. +3. teachers The _______________ mailboxes are in the school office. 4. children Where are the ____ beac toys? 5. patient ‘The temperature is normal. 6. students All ofthe ___ test scores are excellent. Nounsand Pronouns m 37 Name Class Date Find the errors and rewrite each sentence correctly. 1, My aunts daughter is my brothers niece. ints da ni 2. We gave the legal documents to our attorneys secretary, 3. The babys juice is in the refrigerator next to Chris lunch. 4. The principals office is upstairs near the teachers restrooms. 5. The teacher finally learned all of the new students names. 6. The wind blew leaves into the neighbors yards. ™ Quiz 5: Forms of ofher; capitalization of nouns. ‘A. Complete the sentences with another, other, others, the other, the others. 1. Jenny just ate two hamburgers, and she wants ____gnother _ one. 2. Some cats have long hair, _____ have short hair. 3. Ann owns two homes. One of them is in NewYork. _____ one is in London. 4, Some students will take the test tomorrow, but _____ students will take it on Thursday. 5. Some people like to spend their vacation in the mountains, —___ people like to spend their vacation at the beach. 6. Some people learn to use a computer quickly, but learn slowly, 7. Matt bought hiking shoes for his trip to the mountains. He also bought pair of shoes to wear to the office. 32m CHAPTER 4—Azar FEG, 2 ec. Nome Class Date 8. Two of the bananas are ripe, but _____ are green. 9, Kate saw two men breaking into her neighbor's house yesterday. One of the men was tall and thin, and ______ one was short and thin. 10. Jack doesn’t like his job. He wants 10 get job. 11. Half of the pears are in a bowl on the table. are in the refrigerator. B. Add capital letters where necessary. I T M 1./was born in texas near the sfexican border. 2. the boys and girls club is on second and maple streets in san diego, california. 3, the american doctor can speak german to his german patients. 4, the president of the united states of america lives in the white house in washington, d.c, 5. valentine’s day is on february 14. 6, mark saw his history professor at the los angeles zoo last weekend. Nouns ond Pronouns m 33 Name Class Date m CHAPTER 4 TEST Identify the subjects (6), verbs (v), objects (0), prepositions (P), and objects of prepositions (or). sv oo P 1, Jim called his sister from the airport in Saigon. oP oP 2, Jean went to a new restaurant with two friends from her English class. 3. The largest store in our small town is in the center of town on Main Street. 4, Kirk cooked dinner for the hungry soccer players after the soccer game. 5. Gary opened a can of tomato soup for his lunch. 6. We lost our keys in the parking lot at the shopping mall. B. Circle the correct pronoun, 1. A: Between you and d.@e), 1 don’t think Linda should smoke at school. Secondhand smoke bothers (1, me) alot. Does (it, its) bother you too? B: Yes, it does. It is (our, ours) right to be able to breathe clean air. A: Have you seen Linda’s fingers? (They, Them) ate yellow from smoking cigarettes. (Her, She) hair and clothing smell too. B: I’m glad (J, me) don’t smoke. 2. Jack and I are going to Europe next week. (My, Mine) suitcase has a broken zipper, so Marti let (we, us) borrow (her, hers) 3, Joe called in sick yesterday because (he, him) had the flu. (He, Him) stayed home and rested all day. When (his, him) wife came home in the evening, (she, her) fixed (him, his) some chicken soup. 4. A: Igot my grades yesterday. Did you get (yours yours)? B: Yes. I got (my, mine) yesterday too. 5, Aland I went fishing and caught two huge fish. (Wé, Us) ate (they, them) for dinner. (They, Them) were delicious! 6. Rob and Jill know the Johnsons very well. The Johnsons are good friends of | (their, theirs). 7, Ihave my ideas about politics, and you have (you, yours). 8. The dog has fleas. It’s chewing (it, its) fur. 34m CHAPTER 4—Azar FEG 2 ed. 2s . The dishwasher will turn off by . Mike, please help Class Date A: May [ borrow (vow, your) eraser? B: Just a minute. I’m using (it, them). . Marge, is this beach towel (your, yours)? ‘Complete the sentences with reflexive pronouns. . Did you hear Mrs. Moore? She was talking to ____herself_ again. anew TV for Christmas this year. We are going to give . He promised to keep the confidential information to |. Our children are teenagers. They can take care of —____ when ‘we go to Boston. to more food. Find the errors and rewrite each sentence correctly. ‘My friends husband works in his vegetables’ garden every day. My friend's husband works in his vegetable garden every day. Al of my son’s wifes are very nice woman. . Several volcano erupted in various parts of the world last year. |. We have a dog cute with ears bigs and a tail long. ‘What are those womens names? Every week the neighbors dog black turns over our garbage’s cans. Lucy is a good friend of Susan. ‘Two of the thiefs were caught in the park next to the childrens play area. Nouns and Pronouns mi 35 Name 10. ll. 6 Class Date . My sisters cat is friendly and playful. Several peoples homes were burglarized last week. Many fishes eat other fishes and sealife in the ocean. Complete the sentences with another, other, others, the others, or the other. Tim played one soccer game today, and he is going to play ____another __ one in a few minutes. Kim isn’t going to wear her good clothes to paint the bedroom. She has clothes for painting. A: Do you have ____ print cartridge for the computer? B: Yes. I have several T have two black cartridges and one color cartridge. Which one do you want? A: Who are the two women with Judy? B: The woman in the red jacket is her aunt, and —________________ woman. is her new roommate. A: Where are all the cookies? B: I put some cookies in the freezer, and are in the cookie jar, Add capital letters where necessary. Ww Zz, L ee eer eee . the vietnamese boy and the japanese girl speak english fluently. |. she works with professor jones and dr. martin at new york university. ._ independence day is a national holiday in the united states. it is celebrated on july 4th. . eric is taking science, psychology, health education, and spanish this semester. mary is taking philosophy 102, french 101, and economics 101. 36M CHAPTER 4—Azar FEG 2 ed. Nome Class Date cHapreR §& Modal Auxiliaries § Quiz 1: Ability, possibility, permission: can, could, may, might. A. 1 Answer the questions with complete sentences. Use can or could. Tris a warm and sunny day. What can we do today? We can go to the beach or play tennis today. .. What could you do when you were younger that you can't do now? . Pablo is not at work today. Where could he be? |. You have a bad cold. What can you do to get better? ‘What could you study in your own country that you can’t study now? . The little girl has some matches in her hand. What could happen? Answer the questions with complete sentences. Use may or might. ‘You are going to go to a 25th wedding anniversary party on Saturday night. What are you going to wear? 1 me lone J might we ‘You are going to take a vacation. Where are you going to go? ‘Your baby boy is crying. What are you going to do? What class or classes are you going to take next year? Modal Auxilianes m 37 Name Class Date 5. Iris late at night, and an animal is making a noise outside your house. What kind of animal is it? 6. What are you going to do on Saturday night? ™ Quiz2: Permissions and requests: may, could, will, would, can. Asking for assistance: would you, could you, will you, can you. A. Complete the phone conversations, Use may, could, will, would, can, and a pronoun. 1, A: Hello? B: Hello. This is Ben. __May |. Can | talk to Jack? A: Sure. ____________ hold on? B: Yes, 2. A: Good morning. Dr. Brown’s office, _______ help you? B: Yes. like to make an appointment with Dr. Brown. make the appointment for Friday? A; Certainly. —_____________ come in at 3:00? B: Yes, That would be a good time for me. 3. A: Good afternoon. __________________ speak to Mr. Moore? B: I’m sorry. Mr. Moore is not in today. take a message? ‘A: Yes. This is Bob Johnson calling. My number is 534-7789. 4, A: Hello? B: Hello. This is Mary, Is Sue home? A: No, she isn’t. call back in about an hour? B: Okay. 38m CHAPTER 5—Arar FEG,2 ed, 6. Class Date A: Hello? B: Hello. speak to Mrs, Hill? A: I’m sorry, She’s in a meeting. B: leave a message for her? A: Ofcourse. Your name and phone number? B: My name is Linda Smith, and my number is 566-7786. Use would you, could you, will you, and can you at least one time each to make a polite question for each situation. ‘The door is locked, and I can’t find my keys. lc I wr? ‘The windows are open, and I'm cold. . My pencil fell under the table, and I can’t reach it. |. My car is not running today, and I have a doctor’s appointment this afternoon. . I need to mail an important package, but I can’t go to the post office today. I cut my finger, and I need a bandage. Modal Auxiliarios ml 39 Name Class Date ™ Quiz3: Advice: should, ought fo, had better. A. 1 3. 4. 6. . An athlete . A good mother ‘These people need advice. Make a sentence to advise them, using the given words. Mark has a terrible earache. What should he do? (should) Mark should see a doctor. —__$_____—4 . Jack’s shoes have big holes in the toes. What should he do? ought t0) Someone stole Ellen’s purse with her money and valuables inside. What should she do? (had better) - Donna found a diamond ring at school. What should she do? (ought t0) . Willy sees smoke and flames coming out of his neighbor's house. What should he do? (had better) . Mary is going to take a history test tomorrow. What should she do? (should) Complete the sentences in your own words. Use shouldn't. . pregnant woman shouldn't drink alcohol. . A young child A bus driver A good father neem 40m CHAPTER 5—Azar FES, 2d. Name m Quiz 4: Class Date Necessity: have fo, have got to, must. Lack of necessity and prohibition: do not have fo, must not. A. Make complete sentences with the given cues. 1; 2 ohn and Scott, must, finish) fir rt today (You, not, must, feed) (Susan and Judy, have to, go) (Carol, not, have to, study) (Linda, must, find) (Bob, have to, fix) Complete the sentences with a form of doesn’t/don’t have to or must not. - If Lisa wants to keep her job, she _____mmust not ___come to work late. Nina is happy because her husband is taking her out to dinner tonight. She fix dinner. Adriver __________ drive without a legal driver’s license. Children ___talk to strangers! ‘The employees at many companies work on weekends. Tom work this weekend. Modal Auxiliaries =m 47 Name ®@ Quiz 5: Logical conclusions: must; imperative sentences. Class A. Make logical conclusions. Use must or must not. 1, The little boy likes to look in all of the drawers and cupboards in his house. (curious) The lit mt 2. Carmen’s mother always gets ¢ terrible headache when Carmen plays rock’n roll music, (like) Carmen’s mother 3. Molly fell off of her chair in the classroom. Her face is red. (embarrassed) Molly 4, Jack was upset afier he saw his girlfriend eating lunch with another man today. (jealous) Jack 5. Pat usually takes a nap every afternoon, but this afternoon she wants to go to the beach. (tired) Pat 6. Martha is home alone. She hears a strange noise, and she doesn’t know what to do. (scared) Martha B. Us iperative sentences. 1. Give advice to people who want to worry less. a, ____Don’t think about your problems, em v Think happy thoughts, 2. Give advice to people who want to lose weight. a b 3. Give advice to people who want to learn English. a b. 4. Give advice to people who want to find a new boyftiend or girlfriend. a b 42 M CHAPTER S—AzarFEG 2 ed,