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CW RADAR

Presented byDr. Pushpa Kotipalli


SVECW,
Bhimavaram
Searching and Tracking RADAR

Contents
Doppler Effect
CW Radar
Multiple Frequency CW Radar

Searching and Tracking RADAR

Doppler Effect

Searching and Tracking RADAR

Doppler Shift
Based on frequency changes associated with moving objects
E-M energy scattered by objects moving toward/away from
radar cause frequency change
Frequency of return signal compared to transmitted signal
frequency radial velocity

Searching and Tracking RADAR

Resting Sound Source

f s fo
Frequency fs

source
at rest

V=340m/s

Frequency fo

observer
at rest

Searching and Tracking RADAR

Sound Source Moving Toward Observer

fo f s
Observer hears
increased pitch
(shorter wave length)

Frequency fs

source

Frequency fo

observer
at rest

Searching and Tracking RADAR

Sound Source Moving Away From Observer

fo f s
Observer hears
decreased pitch
(longer wave length)
Frequency fo

Frequency fs

observer
at rest

source

Searching and Tracking RADAR

Searching and Tracking RADAR

Doppler Effect

Searching and Tracking RADAR

Doppler Effect

Searching and Tracking RADAR

10

Doppler Effect

Searching and Tracking RADAR

11

Continuous Wave
Radar
(CW Radar)
Searching and Tracking RADAR

12

Target

CW Radar

TRANSMITTER ANTENN

RECEIVER ANTENNA

Searching and Tracking RADAR

13

CW Radar

A wave is continuously transmitted


A single antenna is not sufficient
detection possible
distance measure possible if the wave is opportunely
modulated

Searching and Tracking RADAR

14

Simple Block Diagram of CW RADAR

Searching and Tracking RADAR

15

CW RadarAmbiguity in Range
Measurement

Searching and Tracking RADAR

18

Advantages of CW Doppler Radar

Searching and Tracking RADAR

19

Disadvantages of CW Doppler Radar

Searching and Tracking RADAR

20

Applications of CW Doppler Radar

Searching and Tracking RADAR

21

Multiple Frequency
CW Radar

Searching and Tracking RADAR

22

Multiple Frequency CW Radar


Range Measurement

Searching and Tracking RADAR

23

Two Frequency CW Radar Range Measurement

Searching and Tracking RADAR

24

Two Frequency CW Radar Range


Measurement

Searching and Tracking RADAR

25

Two Frequency CW Radar Range Measurement

Searching and Tracking RADAR

26

Two Frequency CW Radar Range


Measurement

Searching and Tracking RADAR

27

Two Frequency CW Radar Range


Measurement

Searching and Tracking RADAR

28

A
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FMCW Radars
Tobias Otto / Dr. Pushpa Kotipalli

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Contents

I.

Principle of FMCW radar

II.

Range and Doppler Measurement

III.

Applications

IV.

FMCW Radar Altimeter

V.

Measurement Errors in FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Principle of FMCW radar


frequency-modulated

continuous-wave

A radar transmitting a continuous carrier modulated by a periodic


function such as a sinusoid or sawtooth wave to provide range data
(IEEE Std. 686-2008).
Modulation is the keyword, since this adds the ranging capability to
FMCW radars with respect to unmodulated CW radars.
We will concentrate in this talk on linear FMCW radar (LFMCW).
amplitude

frequency

f0

time

up-chirp
time
Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Principle of FMCW radar


frequency-modulated

continuous-wave

A radar transmitting a continuous carrier modulated by a periodic


function such as a sinusoid or sawtooth wave to provide range data
(IEEE Std. 686-2008).
Modulation is the keyword, since this adds the ranging capability to
FMCW radars with respect to unmodulated CW radars.
We will concentrate in this talk on linear FMCW radar (LFMCW).
amplitude

frequency

down-chirp
f0

time

time
Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Principle of FMCW radar


frequency-modulated

continuous-wave

A radar transmitting a continuous carrier modulated by a periodic


function such as a sinusoid or sawtooth wave to provide range data
(IEEE Std. 686-2008).
Modulation is the keyword, since this adds the ranging capability to
FMCW radars with respect to unmodulated CW radars.
We will concentrate in this talk on linear FMCW radar (LFMCW).
amplitude

frequency

triangular
f0

time

time
Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

FMCW Radar with Single Stationary target


Radar

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range R
frequency

frequency excursion,
sweep bandwidth Bsweep

sweep time Ts

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

time

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FMCW Radar with single Stationary Target

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

Single target
Radar

A
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range R
frequency

td
f
b
Ts Bsweep

frequency excursion,
sweep bandwidth Bsweep

beat frequency fb

sweep time Ts

td

cTs fb
2 Bsweep

time

2R
c

modulus of
the spectrum
Fourier

receiver
output

time

transformation

range

fb
Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

frequency

Moving single target


f fD

Radar

radial velocity vr

A moving target induces a


Doppler frequency shift

fD

2vr

with the radar wavelength .

range R

frequency
frequency excursion,
sweep bandwidth Bsweep

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beat frequency

fD
time
sweep time Ts

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

The beat frequency is not


only related to the range
of the target, but also to
its relative radial velocity
with respect to the radar.

Moving single target


f fD

Radar

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Beat frequency components


due to range and Doppler
frequency shift:

radial velocity vr

Bsweep 2 R
fb

Ts
c
fD

range R

2vr

frequency

that are superimposed as

fbu fb f d
fbd fb f d

time

so range and radial velocity


can be obtained as

beat frequency

fbu

fbd

fbu

vr

fbd
time

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

cTs
fbd fbu
4 Bsweep

fbd fbu

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FMCW Radar with single MovingTarget

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

Atmospheric FMCW radar


Radar

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range R

When the expected Doppler frequency shift of the target has a negligible effect on the range
extraction from the beat frequency, it can be estimated by comparing the phase of the
echoes of successive sweeps, e.g. for meteorological applications.

r t 2R

the phase of the received signal is

the change of the phase of the received signal with time is given by

d r 4 dR 4
v

dt
r
dt
and the change of the phase of the received signal from sweep to sweep is given as

r 4

v
Ts
r
Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

vr

Ts 4

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Block Diagram of FMCW Radar

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Block Diagram of FMCW Radar

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Advantages of FMCW radar

Inexpensive and easy to operate


Field portable and robust
Wide bandwidth capability

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

Snow Depth Measurements

0.8

Snow Depth (cm)

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0.6
0.4
0.2
Manual Probe
X-Band FMCW Radar

0.0
0

20

40

60

80

Distance (m)

Ka- and X-band FMCW Radar

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

Experimental Results

100

Polar Firn Stratigraphy


Snow Pit Data
(Hoar Location)
0.0
Summer 1998
Summer 1997

0.5
Depth (m)

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Summer 1996
1.0

Summer 1995
Summer 1994
Summer 1993

1.5

FMCW Radar in Greenland

0
2.0

20

40

60

80

100

Distance (m)

Hoar Stratigraphy
2.5
Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Ice Channel Detection


2- 6 GHz FMCW Radar
Excavated
Ice Channel

Snow Surface

Experiment Setup and Results


Ice Channels
Corner Reflectors

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Radar Detection of Landmines

Snow Covered Test Site

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

Anti-tank Mines in Frozen Ground

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Radar Altimeter
Radar altimeter (radio altimeter) gives the pilot an indication of the aircrafts
absolute altitude above the surface.
Determines height by measuring the time delay between transmission and
reflection of downward directed radio waves.
Usually generates readings below 2000ft AGL.
A desired altitude is pre-selected (DH, MDA) and the unit will provide visual
and/or audio warning to the pilot.
Altitude is displayed in analog or digital form.

Inaccuracies may occur over mediums with less than perfect reflectivity
qualities (deep snow, ice) or over rapidly changing terrain.

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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How An Altimeter Works

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Radar Altimeter
Radar transmissions to reflect off the surface immediately
below the aircraft
Provides absolute reading of altitude
Differs from barometric or air data altimeter, which commonly
reference sea level altitude
Operates over a max range of 0 5000 ft
Display shown has a max reading of 2500 ft

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

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FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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FMCW Radar Altimeter


The output of the detector contains the beat frequency which
contains doppler frequency and the range frequency.

It is amplified to a level enough to actuate the frequency


measuring circuits.
The average frequency counter determines the range

The switched frequency counter determines the Doppler velocity

Averaging frequency counter is necessary in an altimeter, since the


rate of change of altitude is usually small

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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FMCW Radar Altimeter


In an altimeter, the echo signal from an extended target varies
inversely as the square (rather than the 4th power)of the range,
because greater the range greater the echo area illuminated by the
beam.
Low frequency amplifier is a narrow band filter which is wide
enough to pass the received signal energy, thus reducing the
amount of noise with which the signal must compete.
The average frequency counter is a cycle counter. It counts only
absolute numbers. So there may be step errors or quantization
errors

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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M
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Applications of FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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M
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Measurement Errors in FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Measurement Errors in FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Measurement Errors in FMCW Radar Altimeter

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Measurement Errors in FMCW Radar Altimeter


Unwanted signals:

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment

A
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Measurement Errors in FMCW Radar Altimeter


Unwanted signals:

Delft
University of
Technology

Remote Sensing of the Environment