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Urban Flood Management and

Disaster Risk Management

Assignment: The Case Study of Dhaka City

Michael Getachew Tadesse - 44530

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
1.

Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 2

2.

Study Area ....................................................................................................................................... 2

3.

Objective of the Study .................................................................................................................... 2

4.

Methodology................................................................................................................................... 2

5.

Analysis and Results ........................................................................................................................ 2


5.1.

Running 1D/2D Model Simulations......................................................................................... 2

5.2. Hazard, vulnerabilities and risk maps based on models results and individual set of
parameters .......................................................................................................................................... 3
6.

Recommendations .......................................................................................................................... 8
6.1. Would you need any other information to complete the overall risk assessment work? If
yes, please discuss what additional information would you need. .................................................... 8
6.2. Describe at least three additional scenarios that you will need to complete the overall risk
assessment work................................................................................................................................. 8
6.3. What are the risk mitigation measures that you would recommend to the flood mitigation
authority in Dhaka?............................................................................................................................. 9
6.4.

7.

How should they approach the decision making process?..................................................... 9

References ...................................................................................................................................... 9

Table of Figures
Figure 1: Max Node Water level and Max Node Flood obtained from MOUSE simulation ................... 3
Figure 2: Water Depth and Flow Velocity (X Direction) .......................................................................... 4
Figure 3: Flow Velocity (Y Direction) ....................................................................................................... 4
Figure 4: Hazard Map .............................................................................................................................. 5
Figure 5:Social and Building Vulnerability Map ...................................................................................... 5
Figure 6: Economic Vulnerability and Vulnerability Map ....................................................................... 6
Figure 7: Risk Map ................................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 8: Depth-Damage curve and Direct Damage Cost ....................................................................... 7
Figure 9:Illustration of Total damage...................................................................................................... 8

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka

Introduction

1. Introduction
Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, which is characterised by a tropical wet and dry climate,
experiences a prolonged average annual rainfall of 1,854 mm. The city is densely populated and as
most urban cities are comprises paved surfaces which facilitate surface runoff. Dhaka has serious
problems related to urban flooding. The situation was highlighted in September 1996 when residences
experienced ankle to knee-deep water on the streets. The situation was highlighted in September
1996 when residences experienced ankle to knee-deep water on the streets.

2. Study Area
The study area, which is the south eastern part of the city consists of commercial, residential, public
buildings, natural parks and stadiums. Water drains through conduits and box culverts to the sluice
gate with a pumping station located at the south eastern part of the study area finally to a canal named
Manda Khal which joins the Balu River. The extent of the study area is about 4.78 square kilometres.
The drainage system of the area is depicted in the following figure.

3. Objective of the Study


The objective of this study is to carry out a comprehensive flood risk assessment by undertaking 1D/2D
simulations and presenting the results of the simulation and a friendly GIS interface (Hazard,
Vulnerability and Risk maps). In addition appropriate mitigation measures will be proposed.

4. Methodology
The study has depended on a combined approach of physically based modelling and GIS. The urban
drainage is structured by MOUSE for the basis of two networks, one simulating the free-surface flow
over the streets and one for the sewer pipe system. The interaction between street and pipe system
is modelled in a simple way, but allows for a detailed representation of the real-life situation in which
free surface flows over the streets are significant

5. Analysis and Results


A runoff and hydrodynamic simulation of MIKE Urban network model will be run primarily, then the
MIKE Urban and MIKE 21 models will be coupled together.

5.1.

Running 1D/2D Model Simulations

A MOUSE model was prepared for the assignment with all the network data (nodes, links, basins) and
catchments defined. A rainfall data was also added as a catchment boundary condition. As the
catchments are already defined and connected to the network, the hydrological model to be used
needs to be selected and a precipitation data needs to be allocated. A Time Area method, which is a
simple surface runoff model was used for the assignment.
After defining the model data for all the catchments and setting the boundary conditions, the
simulation was executed.
In Step 1, rainfall-runoff is simulated: it was simulated for a 2hour event. The result of this rainfallrunoff model was used as an input for 1D/2D model.

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka

Analysis and Results

Figure 1: Max Node Water level and Max Node Flood obtained from MOUSE simulation

In Step 2, the results of the rainfall-runoff simulation was specified as a network boundary condition
and the hydrodynamic simulation was run.
For the 2D Overland flow simulation, a raster DEM illustrating the roads in the city of Dhaka was
prepared with a pixel size of 2.5 with catchments and corresponding rainfall-runoff models providing
inflow to the storm water drainage network. The 2D model area and resolution was also defined and
couplings between pipe flow and overland flow model was carried out.

5.2.

Hazard, vulnerabilities and risk maps based on models results and individual
set of parameters

The results of the simulation are presented in the GIS system as flood inundation, velocity, hazard,
vulnerability and risk maps. The hazard map is a combination of the Water Depth (H), Velocity X
direction and Velocity Y direction, which are all the overland results from the 2D simulation. The water
depth was computed using the roads raster file, whereas the velocities are computed by coupling the
raster file which illustrates the buildings with the pipe flow. The three raster files are then reclassified
to have all of them in the same scale.
DEPTH
HAZARD
Value (m)

VELOCITY X
Reclassified
Value

VELOCITY Y

Value (m/s)

Reclassified
Value

Value (m/s)

Reclassified
Value

LOW

0.0 - 0.15 1

0.0 - 0.15

0.0 - 0.15

MEDIUM

0.15 - 0.4 2

0.15 - 0.25

0.15 - 0.25

HIGH

0.4 - 0.6

0.25 - 0.35

0.25 - 0.35

VERY HIGH

0.6 - 0.7

0.35 - 0.50

0.35 - 0.50

EXTREME

> 0.7

> 0.50

> 0.50

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka

Analysis and Results

Figure 2: Water Depth and Flow Velocity (X Direction)

Figure 3: Flow Velocity (Y Direction)

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka

Analysis and Results

After producing independent Water Depth and


Flow velocities in X and Y direction, we need to
combine them together to produce Flood Hazard
map. This is important because it creates easilyread, rapidly accessible charts and maps which
facilitate the identification of areas at risk of
flooding and also helps prioritise mitigation and
response efforts (Bapulu & Sinha, 2005).

Vulnerability assessment is a logical next step


after hazard identification and mapping. It
involves the assessment of the degree of
vulnerability of all valuable elements within the
sphere of influence of the hazard that has been
mapped. In this assignment, social, economic
and physical vulnerabilities of the city of Dhaka
is assessed.

Figure 4: Hazard Map

Figure 5: Social and Building Vulnerability Map

Vulnerability map is then produced by combining building vulnerability, economic vulnerability and
social vulnerability using the corresponding weights assigned (0.7 for Building type, 0.2 for building
condition, and 0.1 for population income). Important data include building condition with regards to

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka

Analysis and Results

structural integrity, income of the city dwellers, important variable to assess economic variability and
land use types which is used to assess social vulnerability.

Figure 6: Economic Vulnerability and Vulnerability Map

Having produced the vulnerability map, the Risk map was ready to be defined by multiplying the
hazard and vulnerability maps using the Map Algebra tool in ArcMAP.

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka

Analysis and Results

Moving on with the flood risk assessment, the cost


damage of the city of Dhaka was computed. For this
computation, the water depth which is at the centroid
of every building was defined. By using the depthdamage curve, the cost incurred per building was
computed.

Figure 7: Risk Map

Damage Cost (EUR/Building)


20000
15000
10000
5000
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Depth (m)
Figure 8: Depth-Damage curve and Direct Damage Cost

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka

Recommendations

Figure 9:Illustration of Total damage

It can be seen that the total damage was 232,265,687.

6. Recommendations
6.1.

Would you need any other information to complete the overall risk
assessment work? If yes, please discuss what additional information would
you need.

For a comprehensive flood risk assessment, a multitude of factors need to be taken into account. For
instance in addition to the 1D/2D model results obtained from the simulation, qualitative flood risk
assessment can be carried out with signs, drawings, personal experiences, interviews and historical
flood database could be crucial to get a comprehensive insight of the flood risk assessment.
a. In order to understand the drainage system, few more data could help such as the design
capacity or design storm for the drainage system, measured data at different location, future
development plan etc.
b. The Depth-damage curve could be supplemented with additional data like operation and
maintenance cost, values of land and properties in order to understand the benefits of the
existing system.

6.2.

Describe at least three additional scenarios that you will need to complete
the overall risk assessment work.

a. Climatic change: climatic projections of atmospheric variables need to be considered to


estimate the future streamflow extremes through suitable hydrological models and extreme
value statistical analysis.
b. Simulated Rainfall Event: We only simulated the rainfall-runoff model for a 2hr rainfall event,
but we should also consider the total event which spans for 9hrs.
c. Future developments: The land use in the city of Dhaka will inevitably change with regards to
urbanisation which will affect all sorts of hydrological processes. This should also be
considered.
d. Population Growth: The population growth which will impact the per capita water
consumption should also be considered to correctly anticipate future risk levels.

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka

References

6.3.

What are the risk mitigation measures that you would recommend to the
flood mitigation authority in Dhaka?

Induce Infiltration: Since the availability of space is highly limited in cities, less extensive measures
that enable effective in-town infiltration can also be used. Among them are:
-

Infiltration trenches;
Soak-aways; and
Measures that increase the permeability of larger surfaces.
Introducing SUDs

Real-Time Control: If process data such as water level or discharge are available, real time control
system can be applied to reduce flooding in the city of Dhaka. This helps to utilize the existing capacity
of the drainage system efficiently. When flood occurs at problem area, the pump will be operated to
provide downstream storage capacity.
Rainwater-Harvesting: is another retention strategy to store storm water as a source of water-supply
in a way preventing flood in the city. This not only reduces flood risk but also tackles the water stress
problem in the city of Dhaka.
Routine Maintenance of drainage facilities: by preventing clogging of drainage facilities using cleaning
and maintenance, proper drainage system can be maintained.

6.4.

How should they approach the decision making process?

The process of selecting a mitigation measure for flood risk management is not just a process of
running hydrological models and coming up with engineering, structural solutions. The whole process
of preparing a flood management plan should involve stakeholders from every sector in order to
maintain social justice. Application of bottom-up process is crucial in order to select the right
mitigation measure which involves everyone who is related with the flooding problem. In addition the
selection of measures should be made known to the society.

7. References
1. http://www.climatetechwiki.org/content/flood-hazard-mapping
2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293043578_Scenariobased_community_flood_risk_assessment_a_case_study_of_Taining_county_town_
Fujian_province_China
3. http://www.apfm.info/publications/tools/Tool_06_Urban_Flood_Risk_Management.pd
f

4. http://www.dhigroup.com/upload/publications/mouse/Apirumanekul_Modelling_of_Ur
ban.pdf

The Case Study Of The City Of Dhaka