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Waterinfluxmodels

Waterinfluxmodelsaremathematicalmodelsthatsimulateandpredictaquiferperformance.Mostimportantly,theypredictthecumulativewaterinfluxhistory.Whensuccessfully
integratedwithareservoirsimulator(/Reservoir_simulation),thenetresultisamodelthateffectivelysimulatesperformanceofwaterdrivereservoirs(/Water_drive_reservoirs).

Contents
1Aquifermodels
2vanEverdingenHurst(VEH)model
2.1Discretization
2.2Cumulativewaterinflux
2.3Radialmodel
2.3.1Infiniteradialaquifer
2.3.2Finiteradialaquifer
2.4Linearaquifer
2.5Calculationprocedure
3Determiningwaterinfluxmodelparameters
3.1Directmeasurement
3.2Historymatching
4Example:Historymatchingwaterinflux
5Aquiferperformance
6Nomenclature
7Subscripts
8References
9NoteworthypapersinOnePetro
10Externallinks
11Seealso

Aquifermodels
Thereareseveralpopularaquifermodels:
vanEverdingenHurst(VEH)model[1]
CarterTracymodel[2]
Fetkovichmodel[3]
Schilthuismodel[4]
Smallorpotaquifermodel[5]
Thefirstthreemodelsareunsteadystatemodelsandarethemostrealistic.Theyattempttosimulatethecomplexpressurechangesthatgraduallyoccurwithintheaquiferand
betweentheaquiferandreservoir.Aspressuredepletionproceeds,thepressuredifferencebetweenthereservoirandaquifergrowsrapidlyandthenabatesastheaquiferandreservoir
eventuallyequilibrate.Thispressureinteractioncausesthewaterinfluxratetostartatzero,growsteadily,reachamaximum,andthendissipate.Thisparticularwaterinfluxrate
historybehaviorappliestoinitiallysaturatedoilreservoirsthebehaviorforinitiallyundersaturatedoilreservoirsisoftenslightlybutdistinctlydifferent.Theeffectsof
undersaturationonthewaterinfluxperformancearediscussedbelow.Theunsteadystatemodelsarefarmoresuccessfulatcapturingtherealdynamicsthanothermodels.Incontrast,
Schilthuissteadystatemodelassumestheaquiferpressureremainsconstant.Thesmallaquifermodel,however,assumestheaquiferandreservoirpressuresareequal.
TheVEHmodelisthemostsophisticatedofallthesemodels.Itsmainadvantageisitsrealism.Originally,itsmaindisadvantagewasitscumbersomenature.Chartsortableshadto
beconsultedrepeatedlytoexecuteasinglecalculation.Toaddressthislimitation,theCarterTracyandFetkovichmodelswerealternativesthatwerefreeoftablesandcharts.These
models,however,wereonlyapproximationstoandsimplificationsoftheVEHmodel.SincetheVEHchartsandtablesweredigitized,[6][7][8]theneedforalternativeshas
diminished.
AllardandChen[9]proposedanaquifermodelspecificallyforbottomwaterdrives.Thismodelincluded2Dflow.Incomparison,theVEHmodelconsideredonly1Dflow.
Simulationpractitioners,however,havefoundthattheVEHmodelissatisfactoryinsimulatingbottomwaterdrives.[10]

vanEverdingenHurst(VEH)model
vanEverdingenandHurstconsideredtwogeometries:radialandlinearflowsystems.Theradialmodelassumesthatthereservoirisarightcylinderandthattheaquifersurrounds
thereservoir.Fig.1illustratestheradialaquifermodel,where:
ro=reservoirradius
ra=aquiferradius

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0936_Image_0001.png)
Fig.1Radialaquifermodel.

Flowbetweentheaquiferandreservoirisstrictlyradial.Thismodelisespeciallyeffectiveinsimulatingperipheralandedgewaterdrivesbutalsohasbeensuccessfulinsimulating
bottomwaterdrives.[9]
Incontrast,thelinearmodelassumesthereservoirandaquiferarejuxtaposedrectangularparallelepipeds.Fig.2showsexamples.Flowbetweentheaquiferandreservoirisstrictly
linear.Thismodelisintendedtosimulateedgewaterandbottomwaterdrives.Themodeldefinitiondependsontheapplication.Foredgewaterdrives,thethicknessesofthereservoir
andaquiferareidenticalthewidthsofthereservoirandaquiferarealsothesame,andtheaquiferandreservoirlengthsareLaandLr,respectively(Fig.2a).Forbottomwaterdrives,
thewidthofthereservoirandaquiferareidenticalthelength(L)ofthereservoirandaquiferarealsothesametheaquiferdepthisLa,andthereservoirthicknessish(Fig.2b).

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0937_Image_0001.png)

Fig.2Linearaquifermodelfor(a)an
edgewaterdriveand(b)abottomwaterdrive.

vanEverdingenandHurstsolvedtheapplicabledifferentialequationsanalyticallytodeterminethewaterinfluxhistoryforthecaseofaconstantpressuredifferentialatthe
aquifer/reservoirboundary.Thiscaseassumesthereservoirpressureisconstant.Theycalledthiscasethe"constantterminalpressure"andreportedtheirresultsintermsoftablesand
charts.Thissolutionisnotimmediatelyapplicabletoactualreservoirsbecauseitdoesnotconsideradecliningreservoirpressure.Toaddressthislimitation,vanEverdingenand
Hurstappliedthesuperpositiontheoremtoaspecificreservoirpressurehistory.Thisadaptationusuallyrequiresthatthereservoirspressurehistorybeknown.Thefirststepin
applyingtheirmodelistodiscretizethetimeandpressuredomains.

Discretization
Thetimedomainisdiscretizedinto(n+1)points(t0,t1,t2,....,tn),wheret0<t1<t2<....<tnandt0correspondstot=0.Theaveragereservoirpressuredomainalsoisdiscretized
into(n+1)points

(/File%3AVol5_page_0937_inline_001.png),where

(/File%3AVol5_page_0937_inline_002.png)istheinitialpressurepi.Thetime

averagedpressurebetweenlevelsjandj1is
(/File%3AVol5_page_0937_eq_001.png)...............(1)
Thetimeaveragedpressureatlevelj=0isdefinedastheinitialpressurepi.Table1showsdiscretizationoft, (/File%3AVol5_page_0937_inline_003.png),and
(/File%3AVol5_page_0937_inline_004.png).Thetimeaveragedpressuredecrementbetweenlevelsjandj1is
(/File%3AVol5_page_0937_eq_002.png)...............(2)
Novalueisdefinedforj=0.Table1showsthecompletediscretizationoft, (/File%3AVol5_page_0937_inline_003.png), (/File%3AVol5_page_0937_inline_004.png),andp.

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0937_Image_0002.png)

Table1Timeandpressuredomaindiscretization
forvanEverdingenHurstmodel.

Cumulativewaterinflux
Thecumulativewaterinfluxatkthlevelis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0938_eq_001.png)................(3)

whereUistheaquiferconstantandWDisthedimensionlesscumulativewaterinflux.Thisequationisbasedonthesuperpositiontheorem.ThetermWD(tDktDj)isnotaproduct
butreferstotheevaluationofWDatadimensionlesstimedifferenceof(tDktDj).IfweapplyEq.3fork=1,2,and3,weobtain

(/File%3AVol5_page_0938_eq_002.png)

Thelengthoftheequationgrowswiththetime.Theaquiferconstant,U,andthedimensionlesscumulativewaterinflux,WD(tD),dependonwhethertheradialorlinearmodelis
applied.

Radialmodel
Theradialmodelisbasedonthefollowingequations.TheeffectivereservoirradiusisafunctionofthereservoirPVandis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0938_eq_003.png)......................(4)

where:
roisexpressedinft
VpristhereservoirPVexpressedinRB
risthereservoirporosity(fraction)
histhepaythicknessinft
Theconstantfis/360,whereistheanglethatdefinestheportionoftherightcylinder.Fig.3illustratesthedefinitionofforaradialaquifermodel.Thedimensionlesstimeis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0939_eq_001.png).....................(5)
where:
ka=aquiferpermeability(md)
w=waterviscosity(cp)
ct=totalaquifercompressibility(psi1)
a=aquiferporosity(fraction)
tisexpressedinyears
(/File%3AVol5_page_0939_eq_002.png)......................(6)
whereUisinunitsofRB/psiifhisinft,roisinft,andctisinpsi1.

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0938_Image_0001.png)
Fig.3Definitionofangle,,forradialaquifer
model.

Thedimensionlessaquiferradiusis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0939_eq_003.png).......................(7)
Thedimensionlesswaterinflux,WD,isafunctionoftDandreDanddependsonwhethertheaquiferisinfiniteactingorfinite.
Infiniteradialaquifer
Theaquiferisinfiniteactingifreapproachesinfinityorifthepressuredisturbancewithintheaquiferneverreachestheaquifersexternalboundary.Ifeitheroftheseconditionsis
met,thenWDis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0939_eq_004.png)........................(8)

(/File%3AVol5_page_0939_eq_005.png)........................(9)
wherea7=4.85341012,a6=1.8436109,a5=2.8354107,a4=2.2740105,a3=1.0284103,a2=2.7455102,a1=8.5373101,a0=8.1638101,or
(/File%3AVol5_page_0939_eq_006.png)........................(10)
Marsal[7]presentedEqs.8and10.Walsh[11][8]presentedEq.9.
Finiteradialaquifer
Forfiniteaquifers,Eqs.8through10applyiftD<tD*,where
(/File%3AVol5_page_0939_eq_007.png).....................(11)

and

(/File%3AVol5_page_0939_eq_008.png).................(7)

IftD>tD*,then
(/File%3AVol5_page_0940_eq_001.png).....................(12)

where

(/File%3AVol5_page_0940_eq_002.png)...............(13)

Marsal[7]gaveEqs.11through13.TheseequationsareeffectiveinapproximatingthechartsandtablesbyvanEverdingenandHurst.Minordiscontinuitiesexistatsomeofthe
equationboundaries.AslightlymoreaccuratebutmuchmorelengthysetofequationshasbeenofferedbyKlinsetal.[6]Fig.4showsWDasafunctionoftDforreD=5,7.5,10,20,
and.TheseequationssimplifytheapplicationoftheVEHmodelenormously.

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0940_Image_0001.png)
Fig.4WDvs.tDforaradialaquifermodel.

Afiniteaquifercanbetreatedeffectivelyasaninfiniteaquiferif
(/File%3AVol5_page_0940_eq_003.png)...............(14)

(/File%3AVol5_page_0940_eq_004.png)...............(15)
wheretDmaxisthemaximumvalueoftD.TheseequationsfollowfromEq.11.Forexample,iftDmaxis540andcorrespondstoatimeof8years,thenEq.15yieldsreD=38.
Therefore,iftheaquiferhasadimensionlessradiusgreaterthan38,thentheaquiferactsindistinguishablyfromandequivalenttoaninfiniteaquiferatalltimeslessthan8years.

Linearaquifer
Theaquifersizeinthelinearmodelisgivenintermsoftheaquifer/reservoirporevolumeratio,Vpa/Vpr.
(/File%3AVol5_page_0941_eq_001.png)...............(16)

Theaquiferconstantis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0941_eq_002.png)...............(17)
Foredgewaterdrives,theaquiferlengthis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0941_eq_003.png)...............(18)
whereLaandLraredefinedinFig.2a.Forbottomwaterdrives,theaquiferdepthis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0941_eq_004.png)...............(19)
whereLaisdefinedinFig.2b.Thedimensionlesstimeis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0941_eq_005.png)...............(20)
Eqs.20and5usethesameunitsexceptLaisgiveninft.OnedifferencebetweenthelinearandradialmodelsisthattDisafunctionoftheaquifersizeforthelinearmodel,whereas
tDisindependentoftheaquifersizefortheradialmodel.ThisdifferenceforcesarecalculationoftDinthelinearmodeliftheaquifersizeischanged.Thedimensionlesscumulative
waterinfluxis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0941_eq_006.png)...............(21)

and

(/File%3AVol5_page_0941_eq_007.png)...............(22)

Eq.21isbyMarsal,[7]andEq.22isbyWalsh.[11][8]Fig.5showsWDasafunctionoftD.Theaquifercanbetreatedasinfiniteiftheaquiferlengthisgreaterthanthecritical
length.
(/File%3AVol5_page_0941_eq_008.png)...............(23)

wheretmaxisthemaximumtimeexpressedinyearsandLacisinunitsofft.Eqs.20and23usethesameunits.Alternatively,theaquiferisinfiniteactingiftD0.50.Ifinfinite
actingandanedgewaterdrive,WecanbeevaluateddirectlywithoutcomputingWDandis
(/File%3AVol5_page_0942_eq_001.png)...............(24)
wheretheunitsinEq.5apply,andWeisinunitsofRBandhandwareinunitsofft.

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0942_Image_0001.png)
Fig.5WDvs.tDforlinearaquifermodel.

Calculationprocedure
1. Discretizethetimeandaveragereservoirpressuredomainsanddefinetjand

(/File%3AVol5_page_0942_inline_001.png)for(j=0,1,...,n)accordingtoTable1.

2. Computethetimeaveragedreservoirpressure (/File%3AVol5_page_0942_inline_002.png)for(j=1,2,...,n)withEq.1.Notethat
(/File%3AVol5_page_0942_inline_003.png)=pi.
3. Computethetimeaveragedincrementalpressuredifferentialpjfor(j=1,2,....,n)withEq.2.
4. ComputetDjfor(j=0,1,...,n)withEq.5forradialaquifersorwithEq.20forlinearaquifers.
5. Steps5through9createacomputationalloopthatisrepeatedntimes.Theloopindexisk,wherek=1,...,n.Forthekthtimelevel,compute(tDktDj)for(j=0,...,k1).
6. Forthekthtimelevel,computeWD(tDktDj)for(j=0,...,k1).
7. Forthekthtimelevel,computepj+1WD(tDktDj)for(j=0,...,k1).
8. Forthekthtimelevel,computeWekwithEq.3.
9. Incrementthetimefromlevelktok+1,andreturntoStep5untilk>n.

Thisprocedureishighlyrepetitiveandwellsuitedforspreadsheetcalculation.Theexamplebelowillustratestheprocedure.

Determiningwaterinfluxmodelparameters
Theminimumparametersthatneedtobespecifiedintheradialmodelaretheaquiferconstant,U,thetimeconstant,kt,andthedimensionlessaquiferradius,reD.Thetimeconstant
combinesanumberofconstants,istheproportionalityconstantbetweenthedimensionlessandrealtime,andisdefinedby
(/File%3AVol5_page_0943_eq_001.png)...............(25)
Physically,thetimeconstantrepresentstheaquiferconductivity.Insummary,Uandktaredefinedas
(/File%3AVol5_page_0943_eq_002.png)...............(26)

(/File%3AVol5_page_0943_eq_003.png)...............(27)

and

(/File%3AVol5_page_0943_eq_004.png)............(28)

Eq.26assumesthesameunitsasEq.6,andVprisgiveninresbbl.Eq.27assumesthesameunitsasEq.5.
Theminimumparametersthatneedtobespecifiedinthelinearmodelaretheaquiferconstant,timeconstant,andaquifer/reservoirPVratio(Vpa/Vpr).Theaquiferconstantandtime
constantare
(/File%3AVol5_page_0943_eq_005.png)...............(28)

and

(/File%3AVol5_page_0943_eq_006.png)............(29)

Eq.29assumesthesameunitsasEq.5.
Therearethreecommonmethodstoestimatemodelparameters:

Directmeasurement
Historymatching
Materialbalance(/Material_balance_in_oil_reservoirs)
Thefirsttwomethodsaredescribedinthefollowingsections.ThematerialbalancemethodthroughtheMcEwenmethod,[12]isdescribedonthematerialbalanceinwaterdrive
reservoirs(/Material_balance_in_water_drive_reservoirs#Water_influx_unknown.2C_OOIP_unknown)page.

Directmeasurement
Thismethodestimatesmodelparametersfromdirectmeasurementoftheindependentconstants.Thoughideallypreferred,thismethodisrarelypossiblebecauseoftheuncertaintyof
someoftheconstants.
Fortheradialmodel,themodelparameters(U,kt,andreD)areafunctionofthefollowingconstants:
re
ro
ka
h,f
a
ct
w
TheseconstantsfollowfrominspectionofEqs.6,7,and27.Theuncertaintyamongtheseconstantsvaries.Oftheseconstants,re,ro,andkaareperhapsthemostuncertain.
Qualitatively,theseconstantsarerelatedtotheaquifersize,reservoirsize,andaquiferconductivity(i.e.,Vpa,Vpr,andkt).
Forthelinearmodel,themodelparameters(U,kt,andVpa/Vpr)areafunctionofthefollowingconstants:
Vpa
Vpr
ka
a
ct
w
La
ThislistfollowsfrominspectionofEqs.17and29.Oftheseconstants,Vpa,Vpr,La,andkaarethemostuncertain.Ifhisapproximatelyknown,thenVpaandLaarenotindependent
butrelatedthroughEqs.18or19.Thus,Vpa,Vpr,andkaarethemostuncertainindependentconstants.Qualitatively,theseconstantsarerelatedtotheaquifersize,reservoirsize,and
aquiferconductivity(i.e.,Vpa,Vpr,andkt,respectively).Notethesimilaritybetweentheradialandlinearmodels.
Insummary,becauseoftheuncertaintyoftheaquifersizeandconductivityandreservoirsize,itisdifficulttoestimatereliablythewaterinfluxmodelparameters.Nevertheless,
everyattemptshouldbemadetoestimatethemedian,variance,andrangeofeachconstantandthemodelparameters.Thisinformationishelpfulinthehistorymatchingmethod.

Historymatching
Ifthewaterinfluxhistorycanbeestimated,thenmodelparameterscanbeestimatedfromhistorymatching.Whenhistorymatchingisused,onlythemostuncertainconstantsshould
betreatedasadjustableparameters:preferablyonly:
re,ro,andkafortheradialmodel
or
Vpa,Vpr,andkaforthelinearmodel
Unlessonlyoneadjustableparameterexists,historymatchingisusuallycomplicatedbynonuniqueness.[13][12][14][15][16]Nonuniqueness,however,canbeminimizedbylimitingthe
rangeofparameteradjustmenttorealisticranges.Theexamplebelowillustratesthehistorymatchingprocedure.

Example:Historymatchingwaterinflux
Table2summarizesthecumulativewaterinfluxandaveragereservoirpressureasafunctionoftimeforaninitiallysaturated,blackoilreservoir.Areally,thereservoiris
approximatelysemicircular,boundedononesidebyasealingfaultandtheothersidebyanaquifer.Fig.6ashowsaschematicrepresentationofthereservoir.Assumethereservoir
andaquiferpropertiesinTable3apply.

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0944_Image_0001.png)
(/File%3AVol5_Page_0946_Image_0001.png)
(/File%3AVol5_Page_0945_Image_0001.png)
Table2Reservoirperformancedata
forexample.

Table3Reservoirandfluidproperties
forexample.

Fig.6Arealschematicofareservoir
partiallysurroundedbyaradialaquifer
(b)interpretationofreservoirgeometry
whenlinearaquifermodelisapplied.

Assumearadialflowaquiferwithf=0.50.Findtheoptimalaquifersize(VpaandreD)thatbestsimulatesthewaterinfluxperformance.Plotandcomparetheactualandpredicted
waterinfluxhistories.
Findtheoptimalaquifersize(Vpa/VprandLa)thatbestmatchesthewaterinfluxperformanceassumingalinearflowaquifer.Assumethereservoirwidthisw=2roandlengthisLr
=ro/4,whereroisgivenbyEq.4.Fig.6bschematicallyshowsthearealinterpretation.Plotandcomparetheactualandpredictedwaterinfluxhistories.Whichmodel(linearor
radial)bestmatchesthedata?
Solution.Computetheeffectivereservoirradiusfrom
(/File%3AVol5_page_0944_eq_001.png)...............(30)

wheref=0.50.Thetotalcompressibilityisthesumoftherockandwatercompressibilitiesorct=5.88106psi1.Thetimeconstant,kt,isgivenbyEq.27andiskt=0.8682
years1.UisgivenbyEq.26andis3,955RB/psi.Table4tabulatestD, (/File%3AVol5_page_0944_inline_001.png),andp.

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0947_Image_0001.png)

Table4Predictedwaterinfluxhistoryforradial
aquiferifreD=5.0.

ThesolutionprocedurevariesreDuntilthebestmatchisobtained.Tables5through7givethedetailsofthecalculationforreD=5.0.Table5tabulates(tDktDj)forkandj=0,1,
...,7.Table6tabulatesWD(tDktDj)forkandj=0,1,...,7.Table7tabulatespj+1WD(tDktDj)forkandj=0,1,...,7.Table4tabulatespj+1WD(tDktDj)fork=1,2,...,7
forreD=5andWejforj=0,1,...,7forreD=5.Fig.7plotsWevs.tandcomparesmodelandactualresultsexcellentagreementisnoted.Thesecalculationswererepeatedforother
valuesofreDbutreD=5.0wasfoundtogivethebestfitoftheactualandmodelwaterinfluxhistories.Noticehowwelltheradialmodelmatchesthehistory.Adimensionless
aquiferradiusofreD=5.0correspondstoVpa/Vpr=20.8.Thismeansthattheaquiferis20.8timeslargerthanthereservoir.

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0948_Image_0002.png)
(/File%3AVol5_Page_0947_Image_0002.png)
(/File%3AVol5_Page_0948_Image_0001.png)
(/File%3AVol5_Page_0949_Image_0001.png)
Table5Summaryof(tDktDj)

Table6SummaryofWD(tDk

Table7Summaryofp j+1WD(tDk

calculationsforradialaquifer.

tDj)calculationsforradialaquifer.

tDj)calculationsforradialaquifer.

Fig.7Comparisonofactualand
predictedwaterinfluxhistoriesfor
Example1.

Todeterminewhetherthisaquifercanbetreatedasinfiniteacting,weevaluateEq.15withtDmax=26.08.ThiscalculationyieldsreD=8.1.BecausethisvalueofreDisgreaterthan
thehistorymatchedvalueofreD=5.0,thisaquifercannotbetreatedasinfinite.
Forthelinearaquifermodel,thegeometrydictatesthatLr=11,696ftifLr=ro/4=(14,892)/4.Withthesametrialanderrorprocedureasusedfortheradialaquifer,thelinear
aquiferyieldsVpa/Vpr=12forthebestmatchbetweentheactualandpredictedwaterinfluxdata.ThisvalueofVpa/VpryieldsLa=161,145ft,U=27,271RB/psi,andkt=0.0074
years1.Fig.7comparesthepredictedandactualdataandshowsthatthematchispoor.Thiscomparisonrevealsthatthelinearmodelisnotpreferabletosimulatewaterinfluxfor
thisreservoir.

Aquiferperformance
Theaquiferperformanceisdescribedintermsofthe:
Deliveryrate
Averageaquiferpressure
Cumulativewaterinfluxvolumeasafunctionoftime
Theaquiferpressurecharacteristicallylagsbehindthereservoirpressureandisestimatedby
(/File%3AVol5_page_0945_eq_001.png).....................(31)
Theaquiferdeliveryrateisqw=We(t)/t,whichisdeterminedfromtheslopeoftheWevs.tcurve.
Fig.8showstheaquiferpressureanddeliveryratehistoryforthedataintheexampleabove.Thisfigureincludesthereservoirpressurehistoryforcomparison.Thequalitativeresults
inFig.8arerepresentativeofmanyaquifers.Thewaterdeliveryrateisinitiallyzeroandincreasesrapidly.Itpeaksafterapproximately12to14yearsandthenslowlydecreases.The
aquiferandreservoirpressuresstartatequivalentvalues.Thereservoirpressuredeclinesmorequicklythantheaquiferpressure.Thepressuredifferentialbetweentheaquiferand
reservoirgrowsandisapproximately250,350,and500psia,respectively,after2,5,and10years.Thepressuredifferentialpeaksafter12to14yearsandthenbeginstodissipate.
Thepressuredifferentialanddeliveryratedeclinetogether.

(/File%3AVol5_Page_0950_Image_0001.png)
Fig.8Predictedaquiferpressureandwater
influxratehistoriesforexample.

TheaquiferperformancenotedinFig.8isnotwithoutexception.ThequalitativeperformanceinFig.8ischaracteristicofaninitiallysaturatedreservoir.Aquifersfeedinginitially
undersaturatedreservoirsmaybehavequitedifferently.Thedifferencestemsfromthedifferenceinthereservoirpressurehistories.Thereservoirpressureininitiallyundersaturated
oilreservoirsinitiallydeclinesmuchmorequicklythanininitiallysaturatedreservoirs.Consequently,initiallyundersaturatedreservoirscreateasubstantialpressuredifferential
betweenthereservoirandaquifermuchsoonerthaninitiallysaturatedreservoirs.Ofcourse,thisdistinctiondependsonthedegreeofundersaturation.Ifthereservoirissignificantly
undersaturated,alargepressuredifferentialbetweenthereservoirandaquiferisquicklyestablished.Thislargepressuredifferential,inturn,promoteswaterinfluxconsequently,the
waterinfluxrateincreasesmorerapidlyininitiallyundersaturatedreservoirsthaninitiallysaturatedreservoirs.Oncethebubblepointisreached,thepressuredifferentialbetweenthe
aquiferandreservoirmaydeclinetemporarily.Later,thepressuredifferentialmayincrease,reminiscentofaninitiallysaturatedreservoir,asinFig.8.Theneteffectisthatwater
rechargeratemayoscillateinaninitiallyundersaturatedoilreservoir.

Nomenclature

cf
ct

= rockcompressibility,Lt2/m,1/psi
= totalaquifercompressibility,Lt2/m,1/psi

f
h
J*
k

=
=
=
=

ka

= aquiferpermeability,L2,md

kH

= horizontalpermeability,L2,md

kt

= timeconstant,1/t,1/years

kv

= verticalpermeability,L2,md
= gas/oilequilibriumratioorconstant

K
La

reservoirangle
paythickness,L,ft
constant
permeability,L2,md

= aquiferlength,L,ft

Lg

= perforationgapbetweenuppermostperforationandGOC,L,ft

Lr

= reservoirlength,L,ft

Lw

= perforationgapbetweenlowermostperforationandWOC,ft,L

= pressure,m/Lt2,psi
(/File%3AVol5_page_0974_inline_001.png) = timeaveragedpressure,m/Lt2,psi
(/File%3AVol5_page_0974_inline_002.png) = averagereservoirpressure,m/Lt2,psi
(/File%3AVol5_page_0974_inline_003.png) = averageaquiferpressure,m/Lt2,psi

pe

= pressureatdrainageradius,m/Lt2,psi

pw

= wellborepressure,m/Lt2,psi

ra

= aquiferradius,L,ft

rDe

= dimensionlessradiusincludingverticalpermeability

re

= reservoirdrainageradius

reD

= ratioofreservoirtoaquiferradii

ro

= effectivereservoirradius,L,ft

rw

= wellboreradius,L,ft

t
tmax

= time,t,years

tD

= dimensionlesstime

tD*

= dimensionlesstimeboundarybetweeninfiniteactingandfiniteaquifers

tDmax

= maximumdimensionlesstime

= aquiferconstant,L4t2/m,RB/psi

Vp

= reservoirPV,L3,RB

Vpa

= aquiferPV,L3,RB

Vpi

= initialreservoirPV,L3,RB

Vpr

= reservoirPV,L3,RB
= reservoirwidth,L,ft

= maximumtime,t,years

W
WD

= initialwaterinplace,L3,STB

We

= cumulativewaterinflux,L3,RB
= cumulativeinjectedwater,L3,STB

WI
Wp

= dimensionlesscumulativewaterinflux

= cumulativeproducedwater,L3,STB
= differenceoftimeaveragedpressure,m/Lt2,psi

= aquiferporosity,fraction

= reservoirporosity,fraction

= angle
= gasviscosity,m/Lt,cp

= oilviscosity,m/Lt,cp

= waterviscosity,m/Lt,cp

Subscripts
i = initialcondition
j = index
k = index

References
1. vanEverdingen,A.F.andHurst,W.1949.TheApplicationoftheLaplaceTransformationtoFlowProblemsinReservoirs.Trans.,AIME186,305.
2. Carter,R.D.andTracy,G.W.1960.AnImprovedMethodforCalculatingWaterInflux.Trans.,AIME219:415.
3. Fetkovich,M.J.1971.ASimplifiedApproachtoWaterInfluxCalculationsFiniteAquiferSystems.JPetTechnol23(7):81428.SPE2603PA.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2603PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2603PA)
4. Schilthuis,R.J.1936.ActiveOilandReservoirEnergy.Trans.,AIME118:33.
5. Coats,K.H.1970.MathematicalMethodsforReservoirSimulation.PresentedbytheCollegeofEngineering,UniversityofTexasatAustin,812June1970.
6. 6.06.1Klins,M.A.,Bouchard,A.J.,andCable,C.L.1988.APolynomialApproachtothevanEverdingenHurstDimensionlessVariablesforWaterEncroachment.SPERes
Eng3(1):320326.SPE15433PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15433PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15433PA)
7. 7.07.17.27.3Marsal,D.1982.TopicsofReservoirEngineering.CourseNotes,DelftU.ofTechnology.
8. 8.08.18.2Walsh,M.P.1996.AGeneralizedApproachtoPetroleumReservoirEngineering.Austin,Texas:PetroleumRecoveryResearchInst.
9. 9.09.1Allard,D.R.andChen,S.M.1988.CalculationofWaterInfluxforBottomwaterDriveReservoirs.SPEResEng3(2):369379.SPE13170PA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13170PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13170PA)
10. Field,M.B.,Givens,J.W.,andPaxman,D.S.1970.KaybobSouthReservoirSimulationofaGasCyclingProjectwithBottomWaterDrive.JPetTechnol22(4):481492.
SPE2640PA.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2640PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2640PA)
11. 11.011.1Walsh,M.P.andLake,L.W.2003.AGeneralizedApproachtoPrimaryHydrocarbonRecovery.Amsterdam:Elsevier.
12. 12.012.1McEwen,C.R.1962.MaterialBalanceCalculationsWithWaterInfluxinthePresenceofUncertaintyinPressures.SPEJ.2(2):120128.SPE225PA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/225PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/225PA)
13. Tehrani,D.H.1985.AnAnalysisofaVolumetricBalanceEquationforCalculationofOilinPlaceandWaterInflux.JPetTechnol37(9):16641670.SPE12894PA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12894PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12894PA)
14. Woods,R.W.andMuskat,M.M.1945.AnAnalysisofMaterialBalanceCalculations.Trans.,AIME160:124.
15. Chierici,G.L.andCiucci,G.M.1967.WaterDriveGasReservoirs:UncertaintyinReservesEvaluationFromPastHistory.JPetTechnol19(2):237244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1480PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1480PA)
16. Sills,S.R.1996.ImprovedMaterialBalanceRegressionAnalysisforWaterdriveOilandGasReservoirs.SPEResEval&Eng11(2):127134.SPE28630PA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28630PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28630PA)

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Seealso
Waterdrivereservoirs(/Water_drive_reservoirs)
Materialbalanceinwaterdrivereservoirs(/Material_balance_in_water_drive_reservoirs)
Oilfluidcharacteristics(/Oil_fluid_characteristics)
Oilfluidproperties(/Oil_fluid_properties)
PEH:Oil_Reservoir_Primary_Drive_Mechanisms(/PEH%3AOil_Reservoir_Primary_Drive_Mechanisms)
Category(/Special%3ACategories): 5.5Reservoirsimulation(/Category%3A5.5_Reservoir_simulation)

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