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# KARPAGA VINAYAGA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CE 6451-FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
UNIT I
FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
PART-A
1. Why are some fluids classified as Newtonian fluid? Give examples to Newtonian fluids .
(NOV11)
2. What is specific gravity? How is it related to density? (Apr08)
3. Define the term pressure .What are its units? (Dec05)
4. State Pascals law? (Dec05 & Dec08)
5. What is meant by stagnation pressure? (Dec08)
6. What is the difference between gauge pressure and absolute pressure? (Dec07)
7. Define compressibility and viscosity of a fluid? (Apr05)
8. State the Newtons law of viscosity? (Apr13)
9. What is viscosity? What is the cause of it in liquids and in gases? (Apr04)
10. Define capillarity? (Dec12)
PART-B
1. The space between two square parallel plate is filled with oil. Each side of the plate is 75cm.
The thickness of the oil film is 10mm. The upper plate which moves at 3M/s requires a force of
100N to maintain the speed. Determine 1. Dynamic viscosity of oil, 2. Kinematic viscosity of oil.
If the specific gravity of oil is 0.9 (NOV-11)
2. If the velocity distribution of over a plate is given by u = (2/3)Y Y2 in which U is the
velocity in meter per second at a distance Y meter above the plate , determine the shear stress at
Y=0 and Y=0.15m the dynamic viscosity of fluid is 8.63 poises. (DEC-13)
3. The velocity distribution over a plate is given by U = (3/4) Y Y2 where U is the velocity in
M/S and at the depth Y in m above the plate. Determine the shear stress at a distance of 0.3m
from the top of plate. Assume dynamic viscosity of the fluid is taken as 0.95Ns/m2.(APR-05)
4.A pipe containing water at 180KN/m^2 pressure is connected by a differential gauge to another
pipe 1.6m lower than the first pipe and containing water at high pressure . If the difference in
height of 2 mercury columns of the gauge is equal to 90mm, what is the pressure is the lower
pipe?
5. An orifice meter with orifice dia 15cm is inserted in a pipe of 30cm dia the pressure on the
upstream and downstream of orifice meter is 14.7N/cm^2 and 9.81N/cm^2 respectively.
Find discharge (Take cd= 0.6) (DEC 08)
6.A 30cm x 15cm Venturimeter is provided in a provided in a vertical pipe line carrying oil of specific
gravity 0.9, the flow being upward. The difference in elevation of the throat section and entrance section
of Venturimeter is 30cm. The pressure difference in manometer is 25cm of Hg. Take Cd= 0.98. Calculate
discharge of oil and pressure difference between entrance and throat.
PREPARED BY :
J.EKANTHA MOORTHY .,M.Tech.,MBA.,
ASST PROF/MECH- KVCET

## KARPAGA VINAYAGA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CE 6451-FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
UNIT II FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUITS
PART-A
1. Write down the Hagen- Poiseuille Equation for laminar flow? (APR-10)
2. What is boundary layer? Give a sketch of boundary- layer region over a flat plate.
(APR-12)
3. Define displacement thickness? (NOV-04)
4. What are energy lines and hydraulic gradient lines?
5. Write down four examples of laminar flow? (DEC-06)
6. What is the physical significance of Reynolds number? (DEC-07)
7. Diff between laminar and turbulent flow. (DEC-11)
8. What is syphon? What is its application? (NOV-12)
9. What are the losses experienced by a fluid while passing through a pipe? (APR-05)
10. What do you mean by a flow through parallel pipes?
PART-B
1. The diameter of awater pipe is suddenly enlarged from 350mm to 700mm. The rate of flow
through it is 0.25m^3/s. Calculate the loss of head in enlargement. (NOV12).
2. . A 30cm dia pipe of length 30cm is connected in series to a 20cm dia pipe of length 20cm to
convey discharge. Determine the equivalent length of pipe of diameter 25cm, assuming that
the friction factor remains the same and the minor losses are negligible. (Apr03)
3.

A pipe line carrying oil of specific gravity 0.85 changes in dia from 350mm at position 1 to
550mm dia to a piston 2 which is at 6m at a higher level If the pressure at position 1 and 2
are taken as 20N/cm^2 and 15N/cm^2 respectively and the discharge through the pipe is o.2
m^3/s. Determine the loss of head and determine the flow.

4.. The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 0.3m3/s. The dia of the pipe is suddenly
enlarged from 25cm to 50cm. The pressure intensity in the smaller pipe is 14N/m2.Determine the
i) loss of head due to sudden enlargement ii) Pressure intensity in the large pipe iii) Power lost
due to enlargement. (NOV13)
5.Water is flowing through a tapering pipe of length 200m having dia 500m at the upper end
and 250mm at the lower end the pipe has a slope of 1 in 40. The rate of flow through thepipe is
250lit/s. The pressure at the lower end and the upper end are 20N/cm2 and 10N/cm2. Find the loss
of head and direction of flow (NOV14)

PREPARED BY :
J.EKANTHA MOORTHY .,M.Tech.,MBA.,
ASST PROF/MECH- KVCET

## KARPAGA VINAYAGA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CE 6451-FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
UNIT III -DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
PART-A
1. What is a dimensionally homogenous equation? Give example (NOV-04)
2. Give the dimensions for physical quantities: Pressure, Surface tension, Dynamic
viscosity, Kinematic viscosity? (APR-13)
3. State the Buckinghams theorem. (APR-04)
4. What are the similarities between models and prototype? (NOV-04)
5. Submarine is tested in the air tunnel .Identify the model law applicable? (NOV-11)
6. What are the condition for hydraulic similitude?
7. Explain the significance of Froude Model law (APR-12)
8. Explain the terms: Model and Prototype
9. List advantages of Dimensional Analysis.(NOV-13)
10. Explain Model analysis.
PART-B
1. Consider force F acting on the propeller of an air craft which depends upon variable
u,.,d and N .Derive the non- dimensional function from F / u2 D2 = f[ UD / ] x
[ND / U] (APR 13).
2. The frictional torque T of disc diameter D rotating at a speed N in fluid of viscosity and
density in a turbulent flow is given by T= D^5 N^2 [ / D^2 N P ] . Prove it by
Buckinghams theorem.
3.A model of a hydro electric power station tail race is proposed to built by selecting vertical
scale 1 in 50 and horizontal scale 1 in 100 if the design pipe has flow rate of 600m^3/s and the
allowable discharge of 800m^3/s . Calculate the corresponding flow rate for the model testing.
(APR 04)
4.A 7.2m high and 15m long spillway discharge 94m^3/s under a head of 2m. If a 1:9
Scale model of this spillway is to be constructed determine the model law to be used model
dimensions , head at spillway and discharge in the model if model experiences a Force of 764N,
Determine force on prototype. (NOV-14)
5. It is desired to obtain the dynamic similarity between a 30cm dia pipe carrying linseed oil
at 0.5m^3/s and a 5m dia pipe carrying water. What should be the rate of flow of water in LPS?
If the pressure loss in the model is 196N/m^2. What is the pressure loss in the proto type pipe?
Kinematic viscosities of linseed oil and water are 0.47 and 0.0113 stroke respectively. Specific
gravity of linseed oil =0.82 (APR-10)

PREPARED BY :
J.EKANTHA MOORTHY .,M.Tech.,MBA.,
ASST PROF/MECH- KVCET

## KARPAGA VINAYAGA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CE 6451-FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
UNIT IV PUMPS
PART-A
1. Mention the main components of reciprocating pump? (NOV-02)
2. Define Slip of reciprocating pump. When the negative slip does occur? (DEC-08)
3. When will you select a reciprocating pump? (DEC-05)
4. What are rotary pumps? Give examples (Apr-03)
5. Write short notes on types of rotary pumps? (NOV-02)
6. Define cavitation in a pump. (NOV-13)
7. What is meant by priming of pumps? Why is priming necessary in centrifugal pumps?
8. Differentiate between the turbines and pumps
9. A pump is to discharge 0.82 m3/s at a head of 42 m when running at 300 rpm. What type of
pump will be required?( NOV-11)
10. Mention the importance of Euler equation (APR-13)
PART-B

1. (a.) The diameter and stroke of a single acting reciprocating pump are 120 mm and 300 mm
respectively. The water is lifted by a pump through a total head of 25 m. The diameter and
length of delivery pipe are 100 mm and 20 m respectively. Find out: i) Theoretical discharge and
theoretical power required to run the pump if its speed is 60 rpm, (ii) Percentage slip, if the
actual discharge is 2.95 l/s and (iii) The acceleration head at the beginning and middle of the
delivery stroke.
2.

Explain the working of the following pumps with the help of neat sketches and mention two
applications of each. (i) External gear pump (ii) Lobe pump (iii) Vane pump (iv) Screw pump.
(NOV 11)

3. (i) Calculate the rate of flow in and out of the air vessel on the delivery side in a single acting
reciprocating pump of 220 mm bore and 330 mm stroke running at 50 rpm. Also find the angle
of crank rotation at which there is no flow into or out of the air vessel.
(ii) Discuss in detail about rotary positive displacement pumps. ( MAY 10)
4. (i) With a neat sketch explain the working of double acting reciprocating pump with its
performance characteristics. ( APR 13)
(ii) In a single acting reciprocating pump the bore and stroke are 100 and 150 mm. respectively.
The static head requirements are 4 m suction and 18 m delivery. If the pressure at the end
of delivery is atmospheric calculate the operating speed. The diameter of the delivery pipe is 75
mm and the length of the delivery pipe is 24 m. Determine the acceleration head at ? =33 from
the start of delivery. ( APR 13)
A centrifugal pump has the corresponding dimensions at the outlet are 700mm and 85mm
respectively. The blades are curved backward at 300to the tangent at the exit. Assume radial
entery. Calculate Theoretical head developed Manometer efficiency, Pressure rise across the
impeller ,The vane angle at inlet andvers 0.4m3/s water to a height of 130m. the impeller rotates
at 1100rpm and has a diameter 350mm and width 170mm at inlet Power required to drive the
pump assuming an overall efficiency of 75%.
PREPARED BY :
J.EKANTHA MOORTHY .,M.Tech.,MBA.,
ASST PROF/MECH- KVCET

## KARPAGA VINAYAGA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
CE 6451-FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY
UNIT V TURBINES
PART-A
1. How are Hydraulic turbines classified?(APR 13)
2. What are high head turbines? Give examples(MAY 08)
3. Give the comparison between impulse and reaction turbine.
4. Write a note on performance curves of turbine. (NOV 1O)
5. What are the functions of a draft tube?
6. What are the different types of draft tubes? (APR 10)
7. What do you mean by Net Positive Suction Head
8. What is meant by specific speed of a turbine? (NOV 11)
9. Distinguish between reaction turbine & impulse turbine.
10. Define hydraulic efficiency and axial thrust of a roto-dynamic machine.(APR 02)
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

PART-B
A turbine is to operate under a head of 25m at 200rpm, the available discharge is 9m 3/s.
assuming an efficiency of 90%, determine the performance of turbine under a head of
20m. (Oct-02)
A reaction turbine works at 450rpm, under a head of 120m. its diameter at the inlet is
1.2m and the flow area is 0.4m 2. the angles made by absolute and relative velocities at
inlet are 20o and 60o respectively with the tangential velocity. Determine (i) the volume
rete of the flow (ii) the power developed (iii) the hydraulic efficiency.( APR-03)
A Kaplan turbine working under a head of 20 m develops 15 MW brake power. The hub
diameter and runner diameter of the turbine are 1.5 m and 4 m respectively. The guide
blade angle at the inlet is 30. = 0.9 n ? and 0.8 0 ? = . The discharge is radial. Find the
runner vane angles and turbine speed.( MAY 2010)
In an inward radial flow turbine, water enters at an angle of 22 to the wheel tangent to
the outer rim and leaves at 3 m/s. The flow velocity is constant through the runner. The
inner and outer diameters are 300 mm and 600 mm respectively. The speed of the runner
is 300 rpm .The discharge through the runner is radial. Find the