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THEEVOLUTIONOFBRAZILIANCHORO,

SAMBAANDBOSSANOVA

SCOTTMYERS

GRADUATECOMPREHENSIVE

forPROFESSORSTEVEMASAKOWSKI

UNIVERSITYofNEWORLEANS

FALLSEMESTER2014

TracetheevolutionofBrazilianChoro,Samba,andBossaNovamusic
focusinglargelyonharmony.Identifythemajorcomposersofeachgenre,and
howtheharmonicdevicesbeingutilizedinEuropeanclassicalandAmericanJazz
musicmayhaveinfluencedthem.AlsodiscusshowBrazilianmusicinfluenced
AmericanJazz.

Introduction:

Brazilianmusichistorysharessomeinterestingparallelsandexchangeswithour
ownAmericanmusicandhistory.SimilarlytotheUnitedStates,Brazilhadalarge
nativepopulation,wascolonizedbyEuropeans(Portuguese),anddevelopedaheavy
relianceontheAfricanslavetradetofuelaplantationeconomy.AsdidtheUnited
Statesatthesameearlystages,BrazilstartedwithaveryEurocentricmusicculturethat
slowlygainedauniquenationalidentity,astheirrepressibleinfluenceoftheAfrican
rhythmsandmusictraditionstheslavesbroughtwiththemwereincorporatedinto
existingEuropeanmusicstructures.ChoroandRagtimedevelopedroughlyaroundthe
sameperiod,andbothfeatureelementsofEuropeanharmony,melodyandform,with

rhythmicsyncopationintroducedbyAfricanslavesandinterpretedbybothwhiteand
freeblackandmixedmusicians.Bothsambaandthebluesaremusicslargelycreated
bymarginalizedblacks,withlyricsoftenreflectingdaytodaytribulations.BossaNova
andJazzbothreflectasolidifiedsenseofnationalidentity,confidenceand
sophistication,aswellasalogicalmusicalprogressionintomorecomplexharmony.
Overthedecades,moremusicalandsocialinterchangebetweenthetwocountrieshas
takenplacefirstsheetmusic,thenrecords,statesponsoredperformances,moviesand
more.ThatexchangehascertainlyinfluencesbothBrazilianandAmericanmusicstyles
andmusicians.Therearecertainlysomeimportantdifferencesthatareimportantto
mention.Forexample,whilechoromusichasatraditionofimprovisation,thecultureof
theextendedimprovisedsolothatsointegraltoAmericanjazzdidnotdevelopinBrazil.
Inasimilarfashion,theweavingtogetherofthemusic,danceandcarnivalperformance
aspectsofsambaintotheBraziliansocialfabricisuniqueinthatcountry,asarethe
huge
escoladesamba
(sambaschool)percussionensembles.
Thispaperwillexaminethedevelopmentofchoro,sambaandbossanova,as
wellasparallelsandmusicalinterchangeswiththeUnitedStatesduringthat
development.

PARTI:Choro:

ThemosttechnicallydemandingoftheBraziliangenres,chorobeganits
evolutionsometimeinthelate19thcentury.Theprecisereasonwhythegenreiscalled
choro
isstillundermuchdebate,butforsanityssake,sufficetosaythattheverb
chorar
meanstocry,andearlymusicianswhoplayedinachorostylewerecalled
choroos
orcryers,lendingcredibilitytotheideathatthetermdescribesastyleofplayingwhich
evokesemotion.Aswithmanyothergenres,includingAmericanragtime,chorobegan
asastyleofinterpretation,ratherthanadistinctstrainofmusic.Aswasthecase
throughouttheworldbeforetheadventofrecordedmusic,dance,sheetmusicand
performancestyleswereintrinsicallylinked,andEuropeanstylesofmusicanddance
wereimportedenthusiasticallytotheNewWorld.Brazilianmusicianswerecalledonto
accompanydancersinavarietyofstyles,includingEuropeanformssuchasthe
polka,
scottische
(whichwouldtransformintotheBrazilian
xote
),
waltz,mazurka(Polishwaltz)
and
tango(Spanish)
.SeveralhomegrownBrazilianbornstylesalsocontributedtothe
backgroundof
choro
:
modinha
,asentimental,lyricalstylewithEuropeanrootsand
continuedinfluenceofItalianOpera,
lundu
,anAfricaninfluencedsonganddancestyle,
and
maxixe
(atermusedinterchangeablywith
BrazilianTango)
,aninstrumentalsong
anddancestylewithverystrongAfricaninfluences.

Littlebylittle,asmusiciansanddancerswithAfricanheritagecontinued
interpretingtheEuropeanbasedmusictheywereplaying,moreandmoreAfrican
rhythmicinfluencebegantoenterthemusicintheformofincreasedsyncopation.
RecognitionthatsomethingnewanduniquelyBrazilianwaspresentbegantogrow,and
composerseventuallybeganlabelingtheirworksas
choros
,orhyphenatingtheirworks,
forexample:
maxixechoro
.Theearlypractitionersandcreatorsof
choro
typicallyheld
fulltimejobs,manyincivilserviceandthepostalservice,allowingthemtopurchase
instruments,study,andmakingthebackyardreunionswheremuchof
choro
was
developedpossible.

MusicalAttributesofChoro:

Typicalinstrumentation
mandolin,flute,
cavaquino
(smallbodied,4
stringderivativeofguitar),
violo
(nylonstringedguitar),
violosete
cordas
(7stringnylonguitar,featuringlowCstring.PossiblyofRussian
origin),
pandeiro
(framedrumsimilartotambourine,withdryerjingles).
Typicallythefluteormandolincarriesthemelody,whilethecavaquinho
and6stringguitarprovidechordalaccompaniment,the7stringguitar
providescounterpointbasslines,andthepandeiroprovidespercussion.
Otherinstrumentsthatarecommonarethepianoandsaxophone.As
withmanygenresofmusic,chorocanandhasbeenpracticedwitha
varietyofinstrumentation,buttheabovedescribedismosttypical.

Form
Avarietyofformsarefound,butmostaretwotothreepartforms
composedof16barsections,oftenwith8barmelodicphrases.The
rondoformAABBACCAisbyfarthemostcommon.
HarmonicTendencies
chorocompositionstypicallymodulateforeach
section,almostalwaystoacloselyrelatedkey.ThekeysofC,F,Bband
G,aswellastheirrelativeminorkeycounterpartsaremostoftenutilized.
Forsongsstartingamajorkey,theBsectionisofteninrelativeorparallel
minor,followedbyamodulationtothesubdominantordominantkeyin
majorfortheCsection.Additionalharmonicanalysiswillfollowinthe
songanalyzations.
Improvisation:
AlthoughthereisatraditionofimprovisationinChoro,itis
veryunlikeAmericanjazz,inthatitrevolvesmorearoundinterpretingand
playingoffofthemelodyininterestingways,ratherthanusingthe
harmonyasablankslate.Thereissomemutualimprovisationinthe
harmonicaccompaniment,I.E.the7stringguitarbasslines.Inthat
sense,theimprovisationoftheaccompanistsissimilartotraditionalNew
Orleansjazz.
Technicaldifficulty
Sinceitsearliestdays,chorohashadatraditionof
technicaldifficulty.Playersoftenhavefriendlycompetitionstoshowof
theirtechnicalmerit,andthedifficultyofthecompositionsisoften
referencedinthesongtitleisoftenreflectedinthesongtitle.

ImportantChoroComposers:

ErnestoNazareth
AProlificcomposerinawidevarietyofstyles,notonlychoro,he
wasalsoaclassicallytrainedpianist.
Pixinguinha
FounderandleaderofOsOitoBatutas,thefirstBraziliangrouptotour
Europe.Importantintheevolutionofbothchoroandsambaasaprolificcomposer,
flautist,saxophonist.
ChiquinhaGonzaga
Pianist,composerandgroundbreakingfemaleartistin
maledominatedfield.Recognizedasthefirsttocomposea
marcha
,aformstyle
consideredaprecursorto
samba.
JooPernambuco
Masterguitarist,composerof
SonsdeCarrilhes
,aswellas
otherchoromasterpieces.AlsoamemberofOsOitoBatutas.
JacobDoBandolim

Masterofthebandolim(mandolin),technicallyoutstanding,
composerofmanychorostandards,championofchorotradition.

ChoroHarmonicAnalysis:
1. Sectionstypicallymodulatetocloselyrelatedkeysorparallelminor/major.
2. AsectionsoftencyclethroughshortprogressionsrevolvingaroundI,quiteoften
landingonIIorII7inbar2.Secondarydominantsleadingtotherelativeminor
areacommonpartoftheAsections.
3. SectionsinaminorkeyoftenstartontheV7chord.

4. Inversionscreatinginterestingbassmovementareanintegralpartofchoro,
creatingaddedharmonicinterestandmovement.
5. DiminishedtriadscanbefoundinpassingrolessuchasI,#Idim,II,andonmore
unusualscaledegrees.
6. Secondarydominantsandcyclicaldominantprogressionsarecommon,notably
V7/II,V7/V.
7. Last34barsofeachsectionareoftenacyclicalturnaround,withtheIV,IV,
I/V(orIII),II,V7,Iprogressionbeingextremelycommon.

IndividualSongAnalysis:
AtraenteChiquinhaGonzaga,1877
:
Composedin1877,andlabeledasapolka.
ChiquinhaGonzaga
wasatrailblazing
pioneer,oneofthefirstwomencomposersandpianists.
ASection:Fmajor
.StartsonV7,acommontheme.Last4barshavevery
stereotypicalIV,IV,I,VI,II7(secondarydominant),V7,I.
BSection:Dminor(RelativeMinor
)AgainstartsonV7.V7ofVinFmakesitseem
likeitwillreturntooriginalI,butinsteaditgoesbacktoV7ofDm.
CSectionBbMajor(Subdominant)
Asusual,barsprecedingtheendofthesection
havea1beatperchordturnaround.TheCm,Ebm/Gb,Bb,F7portionisinteresting
theEbm/Gbisaweakdominantsound.Verytradjazzlike.

Cochichando

Pixinguinha
,JoodeVarroeAlbertoRibeiroDavinha

Asection:Dm
.TypicalV7/Vinbar7.Second8barphrasegoestoIVfor
Turnaround
BSection:FMajor(RelativeMajor)
Includesafewsurprisesecondarydominants,
creatingchromaticmovementinbass.IV,IV,I,VI7,II,V7,Iturnaroundatend.
CSection:DMajor(Parallel)
CycleofdominantsfromIIIclosefirst8,same
turnaroundcloseslast8,butwithchromaticbassfromBallthewaytoG.

Beliscando

PaulinhoDaViola,
1976
AlmostacontrafactonCochichando,infact
titlemayreferenceCochichando.
Asection:Dm.
Secondarydominantsandinversionsmakeinterestingbass
movement.bVIpreparedbysecondarydominantmakesaminimodulation.
BSection:FMajor(RelativeMajor)
.I,IV.Aswithmanychoros,referencesthe
originalkeybeforereturningtoF(bars58).Bars79ofBvirtuallyidenticalto56ofA.
SecondhalfofBisextendedIV,IVturnaround.
CSection:DMajor(Parallel)
.Asusual,bar5ofDsetsupaslightmodulationwhich
thenreturnstoD.Unlikeothersections,not16bars,notcomposedoftwosimilar8bar
sections.Bars11and12containtwounpreparedandnondiatonicchords,Bb7and
Eb.Notunusualinchoro.I,I7,IV7,thenextendedturnaround.

ConversaDeBotequim
,
NoelRosa
andVadico,1935
Labeledaschorosamba,hasmelodicandharmoniccharacteristicsofchoro,but
lyricsandshorterformofsamba.Melodymoredifficulttosingthanmostsambas.


ASection:DMAJOR
:inaverycommonchoromove,first4barsarecyclical,withI7
pointingtoIVinbar4.AfterIVinbar5,F#7,V7ofBmcreateschromaticsoundand
minimodulationtorelativeminor.First8barsendonV7,creatingexpectationofI,but
insteadgoingbacktoV7/V.Sameprogressionforsecond8bars,butresolves,then
modulatestosubdominantforB.
BSection:GMAJOR(Dominant)
quicklyslidesintocycleofdominantsonfirst8.

PleaseseeAddendumatlastpage,foradditionalharmonicanalysisof
compositionsbyPixinguinha.

PARTIISAMBA

Aswith
choro
,thereisstillactivedebateontheoriginsoftheterm
samba
.Not
onlyistheredebateontheetymologyoftheactualword
samba
,thereisdebate
regardingwherethestyleoriginated,withsomehistoriansarguingthatitdevelopedasa
distinctstyleinthestateofBahia,whileothersmaintainingthatsambadidnotdevelop
distinctlyuntiltheAfroBrazilianinfluenceofBahianmusiciansencounteredandmixed
withexistingurbangenresinRioDeJaneirointheearly1900s.Whatappearstobe
beyonddebateisthattherhythmicDNAofthestylecomesfromAfricanmusicand

dancetraditionspracticedbyslavesandfreeAfroBraziliansinthestateofBahia.The
Africanculturalpracticeofcircledances,practicedbyAfroBraziliansinBahiaand
accompaniedbyvoice,clappingandpercussion,isrecognizedasaprecursorand
rhythmicancestorofwhatwastobecome
samba
.1

Thecircledancesoftenincludedthe
touchingofthenavelsasaninvitationtodance,theAngolanwordforwhichis
semba,

onestrongpossibilityfortheetymologicalbackgroundoftheword
samba2
.Asthecity

ofRioDeJaneirogrewinsizeandeconomicpower,immigrantsfrompoorerormore
ruralareasofBrazilfloodedintotheurbancenter,includingmanyAfroBraziliansfrom
thestateofBahia.OncesettledinRio,theycontinuedmanyoftheirAfroBrazilian
culturalandreligiouspractices,oftengatheringatthehouseofaninfluential
tia
,which
meansaunt,anddenotesareveredfemaleworshipleaderintheAfroBrazilian
religioustraditions.Itwasatthehouseofonesuch
tia
,TiaCiata,inthe
PrazaOnze
neighborhoodofRioDeJaneiro,thatmanyofthefoundingfathers(andmothers)of
sambagatheredtojam.Amongstthemwerewhatwouldbecomeveryimportantnames
2
inBrazilianmusichistory:Pixinguinha,Sinh,Donga,HeitorDePrazeiresandothers.

ThefirstcompositiontobetitledandofficiallyregisteredasasambawasPelo
Telefone,claimedbyDongain1916,causingquiteabitofdistressamongsthisfellow
musicians,asitwasknownasacommunalcreationofthevariousparticipantsofthe
jamsessionsatTiaCiatashouse.Assambagainedrecognitionandpopularity,itsoon
begantoappearinRioscarnivalcelebrationscompetingwithandcoexistingwith
marcha
,alesssyncopatedBraziliangenre.Onceitbecameestablishedasadistinct,
homegrowngenre,Sambaflourished,becomingBrazilsmostpopularnationalstyle,

andsubgenresflourished,suchas
sambacanco
(moreharmonicallyadvanced,
gentlersambatypicallyaccompaniedbyromanticlyrics),
sambaenredo
(practicedby
the
escolasdesamba
,whichareenormousgroupsofpercussionplayersanddancers
thatparadeduringcarnival)
,
andmoregenresbeyondthescopeofthispaper.

MusicalattributesofSamba
Sambaisfeltinastrongduplemeter,typicallynotatedin2/4.AsJovinoSantos
Netodescribesit,sambaandmanyotherBrazilianfeelsarerhythmicallyevolved
fromtheAfricancircledances,inwhichparticipantsinthecirclewouldstepfrom
sidetoside.Asaresult,mostBrazilianmusicimpliesaverystrongbilateralor
1
sidetosidemotion,sambabeingonestrongexample.

Lyricallyorientedsambawrittenasinstrumentalmusicdoesnotreallyexist.A
largeportionofthesambaspectrumcontainsrefrainsthataresunginunison
betweenverses.
Sincesambaevolvedforthemostpartfromthesameharmonicrootsaschoro,it
exhibitsmanyofthesameharmoniccharacteristicsdescribed,suchascyclical
48barpassagesrevolvingaroundthetonic,nonalteredsecondarydominant
chords,diminishedpassingchords,sectionsbeginningontheV7.
Notabledifferencesfromchoro:instrumentationtypicallyutilizesmuchmore
percussion,formsaresimpler,modulationsmuchlessfrequent,harmonymoves
sloweranddoesnothavethefocusoninversionscreatingmovingbasslines.

Maycontainoccasionalharmonicsurprises,butnottheunpreparedmajortriads
foundinchoro.
Awiderangeofstylesandinstrumentationfallundertheumbrellaterm
samba
,
fromharmonicallysimplebutrhythmicallyrich
sambaderaiz
or
sambadomorro
,
toharmonicallyrich
sambacano
,to
sambaenredo
practicedby
escolasde
samba
with100ormorepercussionplayers,to
partidoalto
or
pagode
,whichare
sometimesinterchangeablyusedtermstodenotepopsambaorsambathat
featuresimprovisedlyricverses.

SelectedImportantSambaComposers:
Donga
Sinh
TurmadeEstciodeSa
Pixinguinha
AryBarros
Cartola
PaulinhoDaViola

SambaSongAnalyzes:
ComQueRoupa:NoelRosa,1929
.
Chart
StartsonI,V7,I.#IdimtoII.Includes
IV,#IV,I/V,VI,II,V7,I,turnaround.

Jura:Sinh,1929
.
Chart
|I|I|V7|V7|V7|V7|I|I|,commonprogression.
NonalteredsecondarydominantsofIIandV.SecondhalfofAsectioncontainsIV,
#IV,I/V,V7/II,V7/V,V7,I,turnaround.BsectionorbridgestartsonV7,melodynoteis
b7.
ARitaChicoBuarque,1966

Chart
1966waswellafterBossaNovahadtakenoff.
Thisrecordingissomewhatofamiddleground,percussionanddrumsmoresamba,
singingmorebossa.Bars910havesequentialIIV7movements,Bars1316contain
aninterestingprogression:B13|B7b13|Bm|Bbdim7|ThenextsectionstartsonBm7.
TheharmonydefinitelyseemsalittlemoreIIV7,orJazz/Bossaoriented.
Argumento:PaulinhoDaViola,1976
.
CHART
Completelydiatonic,exceptfortwo
passingdiminshedchords,aV7/II,andaIV/IV,V7/V.Alsocontainsthesame|IV|
#IVdim|I/V|V7/II|II|V7|I|turnaround.Very,veryclosetoComQueRoupa.The
lyricstalkaboutdefendingtheideaofclassicsamba,soitishighlylikelythatthercould
beaconnectionbetweenthetwotunes.

SambaListeningExamples:

1. PELOTELEPHONE
Donga,1916.
2. COMQUEROUPA
NoelRosa,1929
3. JURA
Sinh,1929
4. SEVOCEJURAR
IsmaelSilva,1931
5. ARita
,ChicoBuarque,1966

6. ARGUMENTO
PaulinhoDaViola,1976

PARTIIIBOSSANOVAANDJAZZ

Thelate1950sand1960ssawthebirthofoneofthemostinfluentialBrazilian
musicmovementsofalltime,
bossanova.
Duringthe1950s,Brazilwasinthemidstof
anexcitingperiodofgrowth,optimismandmodernism.Therecentlyreelected
president
JuscelinoKubitschekhadrunonaplatformpromising50yearsprogressin5
years,andabrandnewcapitalcity,Brasiliawasbeingdesignedandbuiltbyrenowned
3
architectOscarNeimeyer.
Itwasinthisatmosphereofoptimismandmodernismthat

thebossanovawasborn.Manyoftheinnovatorsofthegenre,includingAntonio
CarlosJobim,JooGilberto,andViniciusDeMoreaswerecollegeeducatedandraised
inamiddletoupperclasslifestyle.Theirsocialstatusandeducationfactoredheavilyin
thisnewgenreinthepoeticoptimismandsophisticationthatisahallmarkinthelyrics
andharmonyofthegenre.TheBossaNovamovementwouldseektorepresent

sophistication,class,modernismandoptimismwhileatthesametimeretainingits
uniqueBraziliansoul.
Americanmusic,filmandpopularculturehadbeenpopularinBrazilformany
years,sothereislittledoubtthattheBrazilianmusiciansinvolvedinthedevelopmentof
bossanovadidnotpickupsomeinfluencefromAmericanmusic,butquiteabitof
culturalinterchangehadalreadytakenplacebythetimebossanovacameontothe
scene.CarmenMirandaandhercartoonishversionofsambawasalreadywellknown
intheUnitedStatesviaHollywood.ThecrooningtraditionofFrankSinatrawaspopular
inbothcountriesaBraziliansingerinthesameveinnamedDickFarneyspentsome
successfulyearsintheUnitedStatesbeforereturningtoBrazilawellknownicon.
BrazilianguitaristLaurindoAlmeidaleftBrazilin1947andsoonbeganperformingwith
StanKentons,longbeforebossanovasbirth.Meanwhile,sambacano,aromantic,
slowersambasubgenre,alreadycontainedahighdegreeofharmoniccomplexity.In
otherwords,whileBrazilianmusicianswereundoubtedlyinfluencedtoadegreeby
Americanjazz(aswereAmericanmusiciansbyBraziliangenres),theingredientsfor
bossanovahadexistedinBrazilformanyyearsinBrazil,andthegenrewasnota
BrazilianattempttocopythesuccessoftheWestCoastcooljazzsound,asis
sometimesbelieved.

Severaleventsfactoredintothebossanovadevelopment:

1. ThebeginningofAntonioCarlosJobimandViniciusDeMoraessongwriting
partnership,withthestageplay
OrfeudeConceo(
1956)
,whichwouldbe
madeintothefilm
OrfeuNegro(1959)
byFrenchfilmmakersandintroduce
scoresofforeignerstoBrazilianmusic,JobimandLuizBonf.Thepartnership
betweenJobimandDeMoraesisoneofthemostfruitfulandimportantinthe
historyofBrazilianmusic.Fromthemusicforthestageplay,

SeTodos
FossemIgualVoce
,
releasedin1956isagoodexampleofthestyleofsinging
thatwascommonatthetimefarmoreoperaticthanwhatisrecognizedas
bossanova.
2. JooGilbertosrevolutionaryguitarandvocaltechnique,whichessentially
subtractedeverythingandanythingnotabsolutelyessential,whilekeepingthe
swingofsambapresentintheunderpinningsofhisplaying.Previoussinging
approachesinBrazilianmusicweremoreoperatic,louderandfeaturedvibrato.
Gilbertoessentiallywent180degreesoppositewithhisapproach,singingas
quietlyaspossible,andwithnovibrato.Thecalm,almostspeakingqualityofhis
singing,andhisbarebutessentialcompingcametorepresenttheessential
underpinningsofbossanova.
3. PopularityintheUnitedStates.AfterastatedepartmenttourofBrazilin1961,

CharlieByrdwasinspiredtocreateanalbuminthestylehehadheardinBrazil,
and
JazzSamba,
withStanGetzwasrecordedandreleasedin1962,with
surprisingsuccess,includingaGrammyaward.Thesuccessofbossanovain
theUnitedStateswascertainlynotresponsibleforthecreationofthegenre,but

didimbibemomentumandenergyintothemovement,aswellasbolsteringthe
careersofmanyofthemusicians,mostnotablyJobim.Jobimwouldspend
substantialtimeinNYC,recordingalbumswithamixtureofBrazilianand
Americanmusicians,andsomeofhislatercompositions,createdafterspending
considerabletimeintheU.S.,showaheavierjazzinfluence.

MusicalCharacteristicsofBossaNova:
Comparedtosamba,verylittleauxiliarypercussiontypicallyjustdrumsetand
optionally,shaker.Guitartakesamorecentralroleasmain
timekeeper/percussioninstrument.
Extremelyintimateperformancestyle,withthevocalistoftensingingquitequietly
andwithoutextremedynamicrangeorvibrato.Vocalsaretypicallylimitedtoone
personoraduet,eschewingtheverse/refrainstructureofsambawhere
everyonewouldsingtherefrain.
Lyricscanbemoreimpressionistic,optimisticandpoetic.Stillladenwith
emotionalcontent,justnotasdirectandmelodramatic.
InstrumentationmorecloselyreflectsthatofanAmericanjazzcombo,typically
acousticguitarand/orpiano,acousticbass,drumsetandsingers.Somealbums
featurestringarrangements,oftenrecordedintheU.S.
Drumsetplayersoftenusedbrushes,oronebrushandonestick(used
crosswiseonsnare),unusualforthetime.

Harmonic/melodicdivergencesfromsambamoreextendedharmony,alotof
tritonesubstitutionandhalfstepresolutions,slowerharmonicmovement(often4
beatsperchord),inclusionofunusualnotesinthemelody(alaDesafinado).
LessfocusonrevolvingaroundI.

PossibleHarmonicConnectionswithJazz
JobimsOneNoteSambahasbeencomparedwiththeintroductionofandparts
ofColePortersNightandDay,inthatchordsaremovedunderastationary
melodynote.Jobimhimselfpointedoutthatthisisacommondeviceemployed
byclassicalcomposers.ItiswellknownthatJobimadmiredandstudied
classicalcomposers,andhiscompositionInsensatezisbasedonChopins
PreludeNo4.
JobimsGirlFromIpanema,SoDanoSambaandBillyStrayhornsTaketheA
TrainareverysimilarintheirAsections.WatchWhatHappensalsoshares
virtuallythesameharmonicmovement.Strayhornscompositionistheearliest,
anditislikelythatJobimwouldhaveplayeditduringhisyearsplayinginnight
clubs,butatthesametime,itisaverycommonchordprogressiontheII
dominantisverycommoninsambaaswell.
AsBossaNovaprogresses,itiiVprogressionsbecomeacommondevice,used
instepsorchromatically.Wave,TristeandOneNoteSambaallcontain
sectionsofiiV7Iprogressionsthatresolvedowninsteps.SequentialiiV

progressions,andnonresolvingiiVprogressionsseemtobeastronglinkto
jazzharmony.

SelectedBossaNovaComposersandPerformers:
AntonioCarlosJobim

BossaNovasmostprolificcomposer,heandJooGilberto
werethedrivingforceforthenewstyle.Extremelywellstudiedandknowledgable
aboutclassicalaswellasmanytypesofpopularmusic.
LuisBonf

ComposerofManhadeCarnaval,oneofthemostpopularBossaNova
compositionsamongstJazzmusicians,whichbecamefamousviatheFrenchfilm
BlackOrpheus.Anaccomplishedsologuitarist.
RobertoMenescal

ComposerofOBarquinho
CharlieByrd
AlongwithStanGetz,CharlieByrdintroducedBossaNovatothe
AmericanaudiencewiththealbumJazzSamba.
JooGilberto
AlongwithJobim,Gilbertoiswidelyrecognizedashavingcreatedthe
signatureBossaNovasoundthroughacombinationofhisreductiveguitarstyleand
intimate,vibratolesssingingstyle.
ViniciusDeMoraes
OneofthemostwellregardedpoetsinBrazil,aswellasaliteral
diplomat.HispartnershipwithJobimboresomeofthemostfruitfulworksoftheBoss
era.

INFLUENCEOFBOSSANOVAONJAZZ

Lastsophisticatedmusictograspgeneralpublicsattentionbeforerock/pop
tookover.Mostwellknownjazzartistsmadeatleastonebossaalbum,asthe
recognizeditasawaytoridethewaveofpopularity.
ManyJobimtunesandafewothersbecamestandards,GirlFromIpanema2nd
mostrecordedsonginhistory.
Contributedtotherhythmicdiversificationofmodernjazz,leadingthewayaway
fromswing,tothestraighter,morevariedfeelsnowcommon.
Mostjazzcomposershavewritteninthebossanovastyle,andanyprofessional
musiciancaninterpretastandardinthefeel.Notnecessarilytrueforotherworld
musicfeels.

Conclusion:
Fascinatingtoresearch,thedevelopmentofthegenresofchoro,sambaand
bossanovabearsnterestingparallelsanddivergencesfromtheevolutionofAmerican
music.SimilarsocialconditionandsimilarEuropeanandAfricanmusicinfluencesare
responsibleforthesimilarities,whilelanguage(itisimpossibletoimaginethatthe
sonorityofPortuguesehasnotaffectedBrazilianmusic),dance,climateandother
factorsdifferentiatethemusicofthetwocountries.Fromanearlyinthe20thcentury,
Americanmusic,filmandculturewasapopularimportinBrazil,andbigbandswing,
bebop,andcooljazzcertainlyworkedtheirwayintothecollectiveconsciousnessof
Brazilianmusicians.BossaNovalikelyoweselementsofitscool,sophisticatedfeel,

instrumentationandharmoniclanguagetojazz,whilethereportoireofAmericanjazz
musiciansisforeverimprovedbytheadditionofAntonioCarlosJobimandothers
compositions.Accomplishedmusiciansonbothcontinentscanplayapassableswing
orbossanovafeel,furtherstrengtheningthemusicalconnectionbetweenthecountries
andopeningtheopportunitiesformusicalexpressionandinteraction.Brazilianmusic
hasinfluencedAmericanmusicians,andviceversapinningdownexactlywhatwas
exchangedharmonicallyisperhapsfutile,giventhatJobim,Ellington,Gershwinand
manyothercomposersfrombothcountriesstudiedEuropeanclassicalmusicintently.
Ontheotherhand,someinterchangesareeasilyidentifiedjazzdonatedtoBrazilits
uniquetraditionofextendedsoloimprovisation,thejazzbandinstrumentation,the
electricguitar,andtheusageofbrushesondrumsset,whileBrazilprovidedahuge
paletteofnewrhythmstoAmericanmusiciansaswellasmanybeautifulcompositions
thatarenowapartofstandardjazzrepertoire.Indeed,thebossanovainfluxcameata
timewhenAmericanjazzwasatsomewhatofastandstill,andinfusednewenergyand
ideasintothemusic.Choroandsambaarenotaswellknownandunderstoodinthe
UnitedStates,asarebebopandragtimeortraditionaljazzinBrazil,butvirtuallyany
professionalmusicianineithercountrycansitdownandplaywitheachotherinthe
swingandbossafeels,atestamenttothestrengthandinterchangebetweenthetwo
countries.

Endnotes

1. SantosNeto,Jovino."GingaABrazilianWayToGroove."
JovinoSantosNeto
EducationalMaterials
.JovinoSantosNeto.Web.13Nov.2014.
<
http://www.jovisan.net/uploads/1/0/7/1/10715323/ginga.pdf
>.
2. McGowan,Chris,andRicardoPessanha.
TheBrazilianSound:Samba,Bossa
Nova,andthePopularMusicofBrazil
.Rev.andExpandeded.Philadelphia:
TempleUP,2009.Print.
3. Castro,Ruy.
BossaNova:TheStoryoftheBrazilianMusicThatSeducedthe
World
.Chicago,IL:Cappella,2000.Print.

Bibliography
Web
1. "TransferofthePortugueseCourttoBrazil."
Wikipedia
.WikimediaFoundation,
24Oct.2014.Web.13Nov.2014.
<
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_of_the_Portuguese_Court_to_Brazil
>.
2. "OQueEOChoro."Choromusic.com.Web.13Nov.2014.
<
http://www.choromusic.com/oqueeochoro/oquee.html#.VGUljSldUYF
>.
3. Korman,Clifford."AIMPORTNCIADEIMPROVISAONAHISTRIADO
CHORO."Web.13Nov.2014.
4. <
http://www.iaspmal.net/wpcontent/uploads/2011/12/CliffKorman.pdf
>."Laurindo
Almeida."
Wikipedia
.WikimediaFoundation,11Dec.2014.Web.13Nov.2014.
<
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurindo_Almeida
>.
5. "JovinoSantosNetoTheRhythmicLanguageofBrazilianMusic."
YouTube
.
YouTube.Web.13Nov.2014.
<
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1HP1oz7NPg
>.

6. SantosNeto,Jovino."GingaABrazilianWayToGroove."
JovinoSantosNeto
EducationalMaterials
.JovinoSantosNeto.Web.13Nov.2014.
<
http://www.jovisan.net/uploads/1/0/7/1/10715323/ginga.pdf
>.

Print
1. Adolfo,Antonio.
BrazilianMusicWorkshop
.AdvanceMusic,1993.Print.
2. Castro,Ruy.
BossaNova:TheStoryoftheBrazilianMusicThatSeducedthe
World
.Chicago,IL:Cappella,2000.Print.
3. Chediak,Almir,MrioSve,RogerioSouzaandDininho.
Choro1
.Irmoes
VitaleS/AIndstriaeComrcio,SoPaulo,Brazil.2009.Songbook
4. Faria,Nelson,andCliffKorman.
InsidetheBrazilianRhythmSection
.Petaluma,
Calif:SherMusic,2003.Print.
5. Jobim,Helena.
AntonioCarlosJobim:AnIlluminatedMan
.Montclair,NJ:Hal
Leonard,2011.Print.
6. LivingstonIsenhour,TamaraElenaandGarcia,ThomasGeorgeCaracas.
Choro:ASocialHistoryofaBrazilianPopularMusic
.IndianaUniversityPress,
2005.

7. McGowan,Chris,andRicardoPessanha.
TheBrazilianSound:Samba,Bossa
Nova,andthePopularMusicofBrazil
.Rev.andExpandeded.Philadelphia:
TempleUP,2009.Print.
8. Sve,MrioandDavidGanc.
Pixinguinha&BeneditoLacerda:ChoroDuetos
Vol1
.IrmoesVitaleS/AIndstriaeComrcio,SoPaulo,Brazil.2010.
Songbook

Addendum:HarmonicAnalysisofaselectionofcompositionsbyPixinguinha:
HarmonicTendencies
:
AABBACCAForm
Typicallymovementsfromsectiontosectionaretoacloselyrelatedkey,either
parallelorrelativemajor/minorortotheV,I.E.fromCmajortoGmajor.
Inmostcases,whenthesectionstartsonminor,firstchordisV7
Inmostcases,whentheAorBsectionstartsonMajor,secondchordisIIof
someflavor.CSectionisusuallymajor,butusuallydoesnot
Last34barsareusuallyaturnaround,oftenIV,IVetc.

Someunpreparedmajortriadsareusedasaharmonicsurprise.
SectionCoftenstartswith3barsofMajorI.UmAZero,SeuLourenoNo
Vinho,SeguraEle,DescendoaSerra
Diminishedtriadsarecommon,eitheraspassingtonestoIIorV,orinmore
unusualscaledegrees.
AcertaOPasso
:AABBACCA
A:CMajor.Bar2ii
B:Am
C:Fmaj

AindaMeRecordo
:A(31)B(20)C(15)
A:Fmaj.bar2ii
B:Fm
CAbmaj

DescendoASerra
:
AABBACCA
A:CMajor
B:GMajorBar2II7.HasEbmajtriadassideslipbar13ofB
C:FMajorHasDbmajtriadwheretypicallyBbmwouldbefound.
NaqueleTempo:
AABBACC
A:Dm(startingonV7)
B:FMajor

C:DMajor

OsOitoBatutas:
AABBACCA
A:GMajor
B:DMajor(StartsonV7)
C:CMajor

ProezasDeSolon:
AABBACC
A:FMajor
B:Dminor(StartsonV7)
C:BbMajor

Sedutor:
AABBACC
A:Dminor(startsonIVm)
B:FMajor
C:DMajor

SeguraEle:
AABBACC
A:CMajor
B:AMinor/C(startsonV7)
C:FMajor

SeuLourenoNoVinho:
AABBACC
A:CMajor(startsonV7).ModifiedIVturnaroundlast4
B:Am(StartsonV7)
C:Fmajor.modifiedIVturnaroundlast4

SofresPorqueQueres:
A(24)B(32)C(32)
A:CMajorTurnaroundV7/II,V7/V,V7,I
B:GMajor/Gminor
C:FMajor.IV,#IVdim,I/V,VI7,II7,V7,I

VouVivendo:
AABBACC
A:FMajor/Fminor(8,8)
B:DminorTurnaroundIV,IIm7b5,I,IIm7b5,V7,I
C:BbMajorTurnaroundI,V7/II,II,V7,I